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MUSCLE

Platysma

ORIGIN
Cervical mid-dorsal fascia

CUTANEOUS MUSCLES
INSERTION
ACTION
skin of ears, eyelids, lips, etc. Moves/shakes the skin of the neck
and face

Panniculus carnosus
(cutaneous maximus)

Outer surface of the


latissimus dorsi; Linea alba;
Axilla of cat;
Various points of the ventral
thorax

MUSCLE
External oblique

ORIGIN
Lumbo-dorsal fascia;

Internal oblique

2nd sheet of lumbo-dorsal


fascia
Border of the pelvic girdle

Posterior ribs by several slips

skin

Moves/shakes the skin of the


trunk

ABDOMINAL MUSCLES (HYPAXIAL MUSCLES)


INSERTION
ACTION
Linea alba, pubis
Constricts the abdomen
Linea alba
Compresses the abdomen

Transverse Oblique

NOTES
In man, the platysma are the muscles of
facial expression
Outgrowth of the branchial muscles,
derived specifically the 2nd hyoid arch
(source is the hyoid constrictor)
Innervated by the 7th cranial nerve
Germ layer origin is hypomere
Thicker anteriorly
Outgrowth of the latissimus dorsi
Innervated by spinal nerves
Germ layer origin is epimere (myotomes)
Degenerate in man
Covers entire lateral surface of thorax &
abdomen

NOTES
outermost layer; fibers downward and
backward
fibers downward and forward
S: Transversus oblique, Rectus abdominis
A: Multifidus spinae
fibers ventrally and posteriorly
S: Internal oblique; Rectus abdominis
A: Multifidus Spinae

Rectus abdominis

Anterior end of the pubic


symphysis

MUSCLE
Multifidus spinae

ORIGIN
lumbar pleurapophyses

Semispinalis

Last 4 thoracic vertebrae

Longissimus

Sacral and caudal vertebrae

Iliocostalis

Separate muscle bundles of


the lower thoracic ribs

MUSCLE
Pectoantibrachialis

ORIGIN
Manubrium

Pectoralis minor
Pectoralis major
Xiphihumeralis

Sternum & midventral raphe


Sternum & midventral raphe
Xiphoid process of sternum

Sternum, costal cartilage

Compresses the abdomen


Retracts ribs and sternum

EPAXIAL MUSCLES (covered by shining fascia)


INSERTION
ACTION
Neural spine of the vertebra
singly: flexes vertebral
craniad to the origin
column/back laterally; together:
extends vertebral column/back
Sacrospinalis
Thoraco-cervical vertebrae;
Extends the vertebral column
supernuchal line
Transverse process of
Extends the vertebral column
Thoraco-cervical vertebrae
3 ribs craniad to the origin of
Draws ribs together
the bundle/lateral surface of
anterior ribs
PECTORAL MUSCLES
INSERTION
ACTION
Flat tendon on the fascia of
the forearm
draws arm toward chest
Humerus
(adductors)

S: internal intercostals (retracts ribs);


internal oblique & transversus oblique
A: multifidus spinae, sacrospinalis, iliocostalis
which draws the ribs together
ribs together (adductor)
- internal to it: coelom
NOTES
Represents the transversospinalis system
of reptiles

A: rectus abdominis

NOTES

All are synergists


MUSCLE
Sternomastoid

ORIGIN
Manubrium; Median raphe

MUSCLES OF THE NECK AND THROAT


INSERTION
ACTION
Mastoid process
Singly, turns the head
Together, lowers the head onto the
neck

NOTES
Passed by the external jugular vein
Passes into the submaxillary salivary gland (large
bag-like glands), parotid gland
Homologous to the cucullaris of the shark
S: Cleidomastoid
A: Splenius (raises head)
A: Geniohyoid
All homologous to:
- Coracohyoid in sharks
- Rectus cervicis of lower
A: Sternothyroid
tetrapods
A: Thyrohyoid
A: Sternohyoid

Sternohyoid

1st costal cartilage

Body of hyoid

Thyrohyoid
Sternothyroid
Geniohyoid

Thyroid cartilage
1st costal rib of sternum
Mandible

Posterior horn of hyoid


Thyroid cartilage
Body of hyoid

Mylohyoid

Mandible

Median raphe

Digastric

Jugular process &


Mastoid process

Mandible

Masseter

Zygomatic arch

Posterior half of the lateral


surface of the mandible

Elevator of Lower Jaw

Homologous to the adductor mandibulae of shark


S: Temporalis
A: Digastric

Temporalis

zygomatic proces of the


frontal bone; zygomatic arch

Coronoid process of
mandible

Elevator of Lower Jaw

Homologous to the adductor mandibulae of shark

Cleidomastoid

Clavotrapezius
Clavodeltoid/
Clavobrachial

Mastoid process (or clavicle)

Superior nuchal line


Clavicle,
Fibers of the clavotrapezius

Clavicle (or Mastoid process)

Clavicle
Ulna

Draws the hyoid posteriorly


(depressor)
Raises larynx (levator)
Pulls larynx posteriorly (depressor)
Pulls hyoid anteriorly (levator);
Draws hyoid forward
Raises floor of mouth
Brings hyoid forward
Depresses the lower jaw
(depressor)

Singly, pulls clavicle craniad and


turns the head
Together, lowers head onto the
neck
Draws clavicle dorsad and crania
Flexes the forearm

Homologous to the intermandibularis of shark


S: Geniohyoid
anterior part is innervated by 5th nerve, homologous
to intermandibularis; posterior belly is innervated
by 7th nerve, homologous to interhyoideus
A: Masseter, temporalis

S: Masseter
A: Digastric
Origin and insertion are interchangeable
S: Sternomastoid
A: Splenius (raises head)
with clavodeltoid called cephalobrachial
S: Biceps brachii
A: Triceps brachii, epitrochlearis


MUSCLE

ORIGIN

Clavotrapezius

Superior nuchal line; median dorsal line of


neck

Acromiotrapezius

Neural spines of cervical vertebrae and 1st


thoracic vertebra

Spinotrapezius

Neural spines of thoracic vertebrae

MUSCLES OF THE UPPER BACK AND NECK


INSERTION
ACTION
Trapezius muscles
Inside surface of Clavicle
Draws clavicle dorsad and
craniad
Metacromion process
Spine of scapula
Fascia of spinotrapezius
Fascia of scapula

Draws scapula dorsad


Holds scapulae together
Draws scapula dorsad and
caudad

NOTES
S: Cleidomastoid (pulls clavicle craniad)

derived from cucullaris of lower tetrapods

MUSCLE
Clavodeltoid

ORIGIN

MUSCLES OF THE UPPER BACK AND NECK


INSERTION
ACTION
Deltoid muscles
Ulna
Flexes the forearm

Acromiodeltoid

Clavicle
Fibers of the clavotrapezius
Acromion process

Spinodeltoid

Spine of scapula

Levator scapulae
ventralis
Rhomboideus

Metacromion process; neighboring


fascia
Vertebral border of the scapula

Rhomboideus capitis

Transverse process of the atlas


Occipital bone of the skull
Neural spine of vertebrae; adjacent
ligaments
Superior nuchal line

Splenius

Middorsal line and fascia

Superior nuchal line

Supraspinatus
Infraspinatus
Teres major

Supraspinous fossa
Infraspinous fossa
Axillary border of the scapula; fascia of
neighboring muscles

Teres minor

Spinodeltoid; surface of shoulder


muscles
Deltoid ridge of humerus

Scapula

Greater tuberosity of humerus


Medial surface of the humerus

axillary border of scapula

Greater tuberosity of humerus

Subscapularis

Subscapular fossa

Lesser tuberosity of humerus

Serratus dorsalis

Slips of the last 4 thoracic ribs

Neural spines of lumbar vertebrae;


median dorsal line by aponeurosis

Serratus ventralis

Slips of the first 9 or 10 thoracic ribs;


transverse process of the last 5 cervical
vertebrae
Posterior margin of rib

Vertebral border of the scapula

External intercostals

Anterior margin of adjacent rib

Raises and rotates the


humerus
Raises and rotates the
humerus
Draws the scapula craniad

NOTES

Draws scapula dorsad

Like the cucullaris, it also elevates the


scapular process
A: Levator Scapulae Ventralis

Draws scapula craniad


Rotates the scapula
Raises or turns the head

S: Sternomastoid, cleidomastoid

Extends the humerus


Rotates the humerus
Rotates the humerus and
lowers it
assists infraspinatus
(rotates humerus)
Draws humerus medially
(adductor)
Draws ribs forward
Draws the scapula craniad,
ventrad, and against the
thoracic wall
Protracts ribs (draws ribs
together)

no homologue in reptiles
Probable common origin
supracoracoideus of reptiles

scaphohumeralis group in reptiles

S: Scalenes, external intercostals


A: Internal intercostals, rectus abdominis
A: Rhomboideus, acromiotrapezius,
spinotrapezius
S: Iliocostalis, serratus dorsalis, scalenes
A: Internal intercostals, rectus abdominis
Fibers run obliquely downward and backward

Internal intercostals

Anterior margin of rib

Posterior margin of adjacent rib

Longissimus dorsi

Sacral and caudal vertebrae

Sacrospinalis
Thoraco-cervical vertebrae

Iliocostalis

Separate muscle bundles on the lower


thoracic ribs

3 ribs craniad to the origin of the


muscle bundle

Semispinalis dorsi

Last 4 thoracic ribs

Thoraco-cervical vertebrae

Latissimus dorsi

Neural spines of the last thoracic and most


of the lumbar vertebrae; lumbodorsal fascia
Ribs

Tendon on the medial surface of the


humerus
Cervical vertebrae pleurapophyses

Scalenes

Retracts ribs (draws ribs


apart)

Extends the vertebral


column
Draws the ribs together

Extends the vertebral


column
Abducts the forelimb
dorsally and posteriorly
Flexes/bends neck
Draws ribs together

S: Rectus abdominis
A: Iliocostalis, serratus dorsalis, scalenes
Fibers run obliquely downward and forward

S: Splenius, external intercostals, serratus


dorsalis
A: Rectus cervicis, internal intercostals
Semispinalis cervicis et capitis: Biventer
head and complexus head
A: Pectoralis major, pectorails minor,
xiphumeralis, pectoantibrachialis


MUSCLE

ORIGIN

MUSCLES OF THE UPPER ARM


INSERTION

ACTION

NOTES

Triceps brachii
Long head
Lateral head
Medial head
Anconeus

Axillary border of the scapula


Greater tuberosity of the humerus
Dorsal surface of Humerus
Distal end of humerus

Epitrochlearis
Biceps brachii

Latissimus dorsi
Glenoid fossa

Brachialis

Lateral surface of the humerus

Extensor carpi ulnaris

Semilunar notch of ulna


Lateral epicondyle of humerus

Extensor digitorum
lateralis
Extensor digitorum
communis
Extensor carpi radialis
longus
Extensor carpi radialis
brevis
Pronator teres

Lateral supracondyloid ridge of humerus


above lateral epicondyle
Lateral supracondyloid ridge of humerus
(near other extensors)
Lateral epicondyle of humerus (near other
extensors)
Medial epicondyle of the humerus

Olecranon

Extends forearm

Lateral surface of ulna

Strengthens the elbow joint;


rotates ulna
Rotates the ulna
Flexes forearm

Olecranon
Radius
Ulna
MUSCLES OF THE FOREARM
Proximal end of 5th
metacarpal
Tendons of 3 to 4 digits

2nd or 3rd metacarpal

Extends the hand

Radius

Rotates the hand to a prone


position
Flexes the 2nd and 3rd
metacarpals
Flexes the digits

Medial epicondyle of humerus

2nd and 3rd metacarpals

Palmaris longus
Flexor carpi ulnaris ulnar
head
Flexor carpi ulnaris
humeral head
Flexor profundus
digitorum
Supinator longus/
Brachioradialis

Medial epicondyle of humerus


Olecranon process of the ulna

Pads of palm; phalanges

Extends the 5th digit & ulnar


side of the wrist
Extends 3 or 4 digits

Misnomer because it does not


really have two heads
S: Clavodeltoid
A: Flexor carpi ulnaris (humeral
and ulnar head)

Tendons internal to wrist


ligaments

Flexor carpi radialis

Flexes forearm

The three heads of the triceps


brachii

A: Supinator longus

S: Flexor profundus digitorum

Pisiform

Flexes the ulnar side fo the


wrist

Humerus, ulna

Basal phalanges

General flexor of the digits

S: Palmaris longus

Medial surface of the humerus

Lower end of radius and


adjacent ligaments

Rotates the hand to supine


position

A: Pronator teres

Medial epicondyle of the humerus

MUSCLE
Gluteus medius

MUSCLES OF THE THIGH


INSERTION

ORIGIN

ACTION
Abducts the thigh

Adjacent fascia
Transverse process of first caudal and
last sacral vertebrae
Crest and lateral surface of ilium
Transverse process of last sacral and
first caudal vertebrae; fascia
Transverse process of 2nd and 3rd
caudal vertebrae

Fascia
Greater trochanter of femur

Greater trochanter of femur; fascia


lata
Patella

Abducts the thigh

Tensor fascia latae

Ilium; neighboring fascia

Fascia lata

Biceps femoris

Ischiac tuberosity

Tenuissimus

Transverse process of 2nd caudal


vertebrae

Fascia of shank
Patella and tibia by a tendon
Fascia of shank

Tightens the fascia


lata
Flexes the shank
Abducts the thigh
Flexes the shank

Gluteus maximus
Caudofemoralis

Sartorius

Gracilis
Adductor longus
Adductor femoris
Semitendinosus
Semimembranosus

Rectus femoris
Vastus lateralis
Vastus intermedius
Vastus medialis
MUSCLE
Gastrocnemius

Tibialis posterior
Flexor digitorum
longus
Tibialis anterior
Extensor digitorum
longus
Soleus
Plantaris
Peroneus

Crest and vertebral border of ilium

Pubic and ischial symphysis

derivative of iliofemoralis

proximal end of tibia; patella; fascia


and ligaments between

Tibia

Abducts the thigh


Extends the shank

Rotates thigh
Adducts thigh
Extends the shank

Extends the shank;


Adducts the leg

Pubis

Femur

Ischial tuberosity
Ischium

Tibia
Flexes the shank
Proximal end of tibia
Extends the thigh
Medial epicondyle of femur
Quadriceps femoris (same as with reptiles)

Ilium, near the acetabulum


Greater trochanter of femur
Surface of femur
Surface of femur
Femur

Tibia
Fibula
Proximal part of the tibia and fibula
Lateral epicondyle of femur
Fibula
Patella
Femur
Fibula

Adducts the thigh

S: Gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, biceps


femoris
A: Sartorius, gracilis, biceps femoris, adductor
longus, adductor femoris
derivative of iliofemoralis
homologous to iliofibularis
S: Biceps femoris; semitendinosus
A: Gracilis, sartorius, quadriceps femoris
Homologous to iliofibularis of reptiles
S: Gracilis, adductor longus, adductor femoris,
quadriceps femoris, caudofemoralis
A: Caudofemoralis, biceps femoris, gluteus
maximus, gluteus medius
Derived rom ambiens of reptiles
Longest muscle in the body
S: Gracilis, sartorius, quadriceps femoris
A: Biceps femoris, semitendinosus, tenuissimus
homologous to adductor magnus and brevis of
other mammals
Most caudal of thigh muscles
corresponds to adductor magnus and brevis in
mammals
derived from extensor iliotibialis of reptiles

Patella; adjacent ligaments

MUSCLES OF THE SHANK


INSERTION

ORIGIN
Surface fascia
Tendon and fascia of the plantaris
Femur
Tibia; Fibula; fascia

NOTES

Calcaneus

Extends the shank

ACTION
Extends the foot

Homologous to femorotibialis of reptiles

NOTES
lateral head is divisible into 4 heads
S: Soleus, tibialis posterior

Scaphoid and medial cuneiform of the


ankle
Digits

Extends the foot

S: Gastrocnemius, soleus

Flexes digits

S: Plantaris
Corresponds to the flexor hallucis longus in man

1st metatarsal
four tendons inserted on each digit

Flexes the foot


Extends digits

Calcaneus
Digits

Extends the foot


Flexes digits

S: Gastrocnemius, tibialis posterior


S: Flexor digitorum longus

Metatarsals and digits

Extends & flexes the


foot

Antagonist & synergist of all muscles in the shank

SUMMARY OF SYNERGISTS & ANTAGONISTS



Action

Muscles

Compresses
abdomen

External oblique
Internal oblique
Transversus
abdominis
Rectus abdominis
Multifidus spinae
(together)
Semispinalis dorsi
Semispinalis cervicis
et capitis
Longissimus dorsi
Pectoantibrachialis
Pectoralis major
Pectoralis minor
Xiphihumeralis
Sternomastoid
(together)
Cleidomastoid
(together)
Sternomastoid
(singly)
Cleidomastoid
(singly)
Splenius
Sternohyoid

Extends
vertebral
column

Adducts arm
toward chest

Depresses head
on neck

Turns head

Draws hyoid
posteriorly
Draws clavicle
craniad
Elevates lower
jaw
Draws scapula
dorsad
Draws scapula
craniad

Raises humerus
Rotates
humerus

Draws ribs
together
Draws ribs
forward
Flexes forearm

Cleidomastoid
Clavotrapezius
Masseter
Temporalis
Spinotrapezius
Acromiotrapezius
Rhomboideus
Levator scapulae
ventralis
Rhomoideus capitis
Serratus ventralis
Acromiodeltoid
Spinodeltoid
Acromiodeltoid
Spinodeltoid
Infraspinatus
Teres major
Teres minor
Rectus abdominis
Iliocostalis
Serratus dorsalis
Scalenes
External intercostals
Clavobrachialis
Biceps brachii
Brachialis

Antagonistic
action
-

Muscles

Action

Muscles

Rotates ulna

Triceps brachii
Epitrochlearis
Extensor digitorum
lateralis
Extensor digitorum
communis
Extensor carpi radialis

Extends digits of
hand
Flexes vertebral
column
(laterally)

Multifidus spinae
(singly)

Extends ulnar
side of wrist
Abducts thigh

Latissimus dorsi
Extends shank

Raises head

Splenius

Brings hyoid
forward
-

Mylohyoid
Geniohyoid
-

Depresses lower
jaw
Draws scapula
ventrad

Digastric

Draws scapula
caudad

Spinotrapezius

Serratus ventralis

Extends foot

Extends digits of
foot

Lowers humerus

Teres major

Draws ribs
backward

Internal intercostals

Biceps femoris
Caudofemoralis
Gluteus maximus
Gluteus medius
Tenuissimus
Caudofemoralis
Sartorius
Vastus lateralis
Rectus femoris
Vastus medialis
Vastus intermedius
Peroneus
Gastrocnemius
Soleus
Tibialis posterior
Extensor digitorum
longus

Antagonistic
action
-

Muscles

Flexes digits

Palmaris longus
Flexor profundus
digitorum

Flexes ulnar
side of wrist
Adducts thigh

Flexor carpi ulnaris

Flexes shank

Biceps femoris
Semitendinosus
Tenuissimus

Flexes foot

Peroneus
Tibialis anterior

Flexes digits

Plantaris
Flexor digitorum
longus

Sartorius
Adductor longus
Adductor femoris