Energy Dissipated in Viscous Damping

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Energy Dissipated in Viscous Damping

© All Rights Reserved

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99

it moves. Such an instrument is unwieldy because of the heavy mass and soft spring, and

because it must accommodate the anticipated support displacement, which may be as large

as 36 in. during earthquakes.

To examine the basic concept further, consider harmonic support displacement

u g (t) = u go sin t

(3.7.2)

With the forcing function peff (t) = m u g (t) = m2 u go sin t, Eq. (1.7.4) governs the

relative displacement of the mass; this governing equation is the same as Eq. (3.2.1) for

applied harmonic force with po replaced by m2 u go . Making this substitution in

Eq. (3.2.10) and using Eqs. (3.1.9) and (3.2.20) gives

u(t) = Ra u go sin(t )

(3.7.3)

For excitation frequencies much higher than the natural frequency n , Ra is close to

unity (Fig. 3.2.7c) and is close to 180 , and Eq. (3.7.3) becomes

u(t) = u go sin t

(3.7.4)

This recorded displacement is the same as the support displacement [Eq. (3.7.2)] except

for the negative sign, which is usually inconsequential. Damping of the instrument is not

a critical parameter because it has little effect on the recorded motion if /n is very

large.

Consider the steady-state motion of an SDF system due to p(t) = po sin t. The energy

dissipated by viscous damping in one cycle of harmonic vibration is

ED =

f D du =

2/

2/

=c

0

2/

(cu)

u dt =

cu 2 dt

[u o cos(t )]2 dt = cu 2o = 2

2

ku

n o

(3.8.1)

is not a constant value for any given amount of damping and amplitude since the energy

dissipated increases linearly with excitation frequency.

In steady-state vibration, the energy input to the system due to the applied force is

dissipated in viscous damping. The external force p(t) inputs energy to the system, which

for each cycle of vibration is

2/

EI =

p(t) du =

p(t)u dt

=

0

0

2/

(3.8.2)

100

Chap. 3

Utilizing Eq. (3.2.12) for phase angle, this equation can be rewritten as (see Derivation 3.6)

(3.8.3)

E I = 2 ku 2o

n

Equations (3.8.1) and (3.8.3) indicate that E I = E D .

What about the potential energy and kinetic energy? Over each cycle of harmonic

vibration the changes in potential energy (equal to the strain energy of the spring) and

kinetic energy are zero. This can be confirmed as follows:

2/

f S du =

(ku)u dt

ES =

=

0

2/

EK =

f I du =

=

2/

(m u)

u dt

0

2/

The preceding energy concepts help explain the growth of the displacement amplitude caused by harmonic force with = n until steady state is attained (Fig. 3.2.2). For

= n , = 90 and Eq. (3.8.2) gives

E I = po u o

(3.8.4)

The input energy varies linearly with the displacement amplitude (Fig. 3.8.1). In contrast,

the dissipated energy varies quadratically with the displacement amplitude (Eq. 3.8.1). As

shown in Fig. 3.8.1, before steady state is reached, the input energy per cycle exceeds

the energy dissipated during the cycle by damping, leading to a larger amplitude of displacement in the next cycle. With growing displacement amplitude, the dissipated energy

increases more rapidly than does the input energy. Eventually, the input and dissipated

energies will match at the steady-state displacement amplitude u o , which will be bounded

no matter how small the damping. This energy balance provides an alternative means of

ED

EI

Energy

EI = ED

uo

Amplitude

dissipated E D in viscous damping.

Sec. 3.8

101

finding u o due to harmonic force with = n ; equating Eqs. (3.8.1) and (3.8.4) gives

po u o = cn u 2o

(3.8.5)

uo =

po

cn

(3.8.6)

This result agrees with Eq. (3.2.7), obtained by solving the equation of motion.

We will now present a graphical interpretation for the energy dissipated in viscous

damping. For this purpose we first derive an equation relating the damping force f D to the

displacement u:

= cu o cos(t )

f D = cu(t)

= c u 2o u 2o sin2 (t )

= c u 2o [u(t)]2

This can be rewritten as

u

uo

+

fD

cu o

2

=1

(3.8.7)

which is the equation of the ellipse shown in Fig. 3.8.2a. Observe that the f D u curve

is not a single-valued function but a loop known as a hysteresis loop. The area enclosed

by the ellipse is (u o )(cu o ) = cu 2o , which is the same as Eq. (3.8.1). Thus the area

within the hysteresis loop gives the dissipated energy.

fD + fS

fS = ku

kuo

u > 0

fD

cuo

cuo

Loading, u > 0

uo

uo

u < 0

(a)

Unloading, u < 0

(b)

Figure 3.8.2 Hysteresis loops for (a) viscous damper; (b) spring and viscous damper in parallel.

102

Chap. 3

It is of interest to examine the total (elastic plus damping) resisting force because

this is the force that is measured in an experiment:

f S + f D = ku(t) + cu(t)

= ku + c u 2o u 2

(3.8.8)

A plot of f S + f D against u is the ellipse of Fig. 3.8.2a rotated as shown in Fig. 3.8.2b

because of the ku term in Eq. (3.8.8). The energy dissipated by damping is still the area enclosed by the ellipse because the area enclosed by the single-valued elastic force, f S = ku,

is zero.

The hysteresis loop associated with viscous damping is the result of dynamic hysteresis since it is related to the dynamic nature of the loading. The loop area is proportional

to excitation frequency; this implies that the forcedeformation curve becomes a singlevalued curve (no hysteresis loop) if the cyclic load is applied slowly enough ( = 0). A

distinguishing characteristic of dynamic hysteresis is that the hysteresis loops tend to be

elliptical in shape rather than pointed, as in Fig. 1.3.1c, if they are associated with plastic

deformations. In the latter case, the hysteresis loops develop even under static cyclic loads;

this phenomenon is therefore known as static hysteresis because the forcedeformation

curve is insensitive to deformation rate.

In passing, we mention two measures of damping: specific damping capacity and

the specific damping factor. The specific damping capacity, E D /E So , is that fractional part

of the strain energy, E So = ku 2o /2, which is dissipated during each cycle of motion; both

E D and E So are shown in Fig. 3.8.3. The specific damping factor, also known as the loss

factor, is defined as

=

1 ED

2 E So

(3.8.9)

Resisting force

If the energy could be removed at a uniform rate during a cycle of simple harmonic motion

(such a mechanism is not realistic), could be interpreted as the energy loss per radian

ESo

ED

Deformation

E D in a cycle of harmonic vibration and

maximum strain energy E So .

Sec. 3.9

103

divided by the strain energy, E So . These two measures of damping are not often used in

structural vibration since they are most useful for very light damping (e.g., they are useful

in comparing the damping capacity of materials).

Derivation 3.6

Equation (3.8.2) gives the input energy per cycle where the phase angle, defined by Eq. (3.2.12),

can be expressed as

sin =

Rd =

uo

po /k

As introduced in Section 1.4, damping in actual structures is usually represented by equivalent viscous damping. It is the simplest form of damping to use since the governing

differential equation of motion is linear and hence amenable to analytical solution, as seen

in earlier sections of this chapter and in Chapter 2. The advantage of using a linear equation

of motion usually outweighs whatever compromises are necessary in the viscous damping

approximation. In this section we determine the damping coefficient for viscous damping

so that it is equivalent in some sense to the combined effect of all damping mechanisms

present in the actual structure; these were mentioned in Section 1.4.

The simplest definition of equivalent viscous damping is based on the measured response of a system to harmonic force at exciting frequency equal to the natural frequency

n of the system. The damping ratio eq is calculated from Eq. (3.4.1) using measured values of u o and (u st )o . This is the equivalent viscous damping since it accounts for all the

energy-dissipating mechanisms that existed in the experiments.

Another definition of equivalent viscous damping is that it is the amount of damping

that provides the same bandwidth in the frequency-response curve as obtained experimentally for an actual system. The damping ratio eq is calculated from Eq. (3.2.24) using the

excitation frequencies f a , f b , and f n (Fig. 3.4.1) obtained from an experimentally determined frequency-response curve.

The most common method for defining equivalent viscous damping is to equate the

energy dissipated in a vibration cycle of the actual structure and an equivalent viscous system. For an actual structure the force-displacement relation is obtained from an experiment

under cyclic loading with displacement amplitude u o ; such a relation of arbitrary shape is

shown schematically in Fig. 3.9.1. The energy dissipated in the actual structure is given

by the area E D enclosed by the hysteresis loop. Equating this to the energy dissipated in

viscous damping given by Eq. (3.8.1) leads to

4 eq

E So = E D

n

or

eq =

1 1 ED

4 /n E So

(3.9.1)

Chap. 3

Resisting force

104

ESo

ED

uo

Deformation

cycle of harmonic vibration determined from

experiment.

where the strain energy, E So = ku 2o /2, is calculated from the stiffness k determined by

experimentation.

The experiment leading to the forcedeformation curve of Fig. 3.9.1 and hence E D

should be conducted at = n , where the response of the system is most sensitive to

damping. Thus Eq. (3.9.1) specializes to

eq =

1 ED

4 E So

(3.9.2)

The damping ratio eq determined from a test at = n would not be correct at any other

exciting frequency, but it would be a satisfactory approximation (Section 3.10.2).

It is widely accepted that this procedure can be extended to model the damping in

systems with many degrees of freedom. An equivalent viscous damping ratio is assigned

to each natural vibration mode of the system (defined in Chapter 10) in such a way that the

energy dissipated in viscous damping matches the actual energy dissipated in the system

when the system vibrates in that mode at its natural frequency.

In this book the concept of equivalent viscous damping is restricted to systems vibrating at amplitudes within the linearly elastic limit of the overall structure. The energy

dissipated in inelastic deformations of the structure has also been modeled as equivalent

viscous damping in some research studies. This idealization is generally not satisfactory,

however, for the large inelastic deformations of structures expected during strong earthquakes. We shall account for these inelastic deformations and the associated energy dissipation by nonlinear forcedeformation relations, such as those shown in Fig. 1.3.4 (see

Chapters 5 and 7).

Example 3.6

A body moving through a fluid experiences a resisting force that is proportional to the square

of the speed, f D = a u 2 , where the positive sign applies to positive u and the negative sign

to negative u.

Determine the equivalent viscous damping coefficient ceq for such forces acting

on an oscillatory system undergoing harmonic motion of amplitude u o and frequency . Also

find its displacement amplitude at = n .

Sec. 3.10

105

Solution If time is measured from the position of largest negative displacement, the harmonic motion is

u(t) = u o cos t

The energy dissipated in one cycle of motion is

ED =

f D u dt = 2

0

=2

2/

f D du =

(a u 2 )u dt = 2a3 u 3o

f D u dt

sin3 t dt = 83 a2 u 3o

Equating this to the energy dissipated in viscous damping [Eq. (3.8.1)] gives

8 2 3

8

a u o or ceq =

au o

3

3

Substituting = n in Eq. (a) and the ceq for c in Eq. (3.2.15) gives

ceq u 2o =

uo =

3 po

8a n2

(a)

1/2

(b)

3.10 HARMONIC VIBRATION WITH RATE-INDEPENDENT DAMPING

3.10.1 Rate-Independent Damping

Experiments on structural metals indicate that the energy dissipated internally in cyclic

straining of the material is essentially independent of the cyclic frequency. Similarly,

forced vibration tests on structures indicate that the equivalent viscous damping ratio is

roughly the same for all natural modes and frequencies. Thus we refer to this type of

damping as rate-independent linear damping. Other terms used for this mechanism of internal damping are structural damping, solid damping, and hysteretic damping. We prefer

not to use these terms because the first two are not especially meaningful, and the third is

ambiguous because hysteresis is a characteristic of all materials or structural systems that

dissipate energy.

Rate-independent damping is associated with static hysteresis due to plastic strain,

localized plastic deformation, crystal plasticity, and plastic flow in a range of stresses

within the apparent elastic limit. On the microscopic scale the inhomogeneity of stress distribution within crystals and stress concentration at crystal boundary intersections

produce local stress high enough to cause local plastic strain even though the average

(macroscopic) stress may be well below the elastic limit. This damping mechanism does

not include the energy dissipation in macroscopic plastic deformations, which as mentioned earlier, is handled by a nonlinear relationship between force f S and deformation u.

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