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Chapter Seven: Launching the New Republic, 1788-1800

First Government
George Washington/John Adams became the President/Vice President. Congress began in New York and chose the Cabinet.
The Federal Judiciary and the Bill of Rights
The Judiciary Act of 1789 allowed congress to establish a federal court in each state that operated according to local procedures
to calm peoples fears that the federal courts would overwhelm their local courts customs. The Constitution protected some
individual rights (no ex post facto laws or bills of attainder). Federalists promised a Bill of Rights, which got passed in 1791.
Alexander Hamilton
Secretary of Treasury feared another war with Britain, Spain, or both. The Republic couldnt afford a war. He was also afraid that
the Union would collapse due to local/state/private interests. He was afraid of the states asserting their power, and trade
discrimination, aggression, even civil war between the states. The Federal government could survive only if the government
created politically influential citizens by appealing to their financial interests.
Reports on the Public Credit
They showed Americas debts; most money was owed to Americans, and some was owed to Europe. The individual states also
had debtsthe government would pay only some of these. Hamilton recommended that people could choose several combos of
federal stock and western lands to raise money. He also said that the government should pay off states debts from the
Revolution. The second report said that the debt owed to Europe should be paid immediately by collecting customs duties on
imports, and by enacting an excise tax (on domestic products transported in America) on whiskey. These things allowed the
government to keep its debt while upholding the national credit.
It would reward the rich while ignoring the common people.
The South paid off most its debt, and didnt think the federal government should make everyone pay.
Moved the capital to the Potomac to get his bill passed.
National Bank
Hamilton wrote the Report on a National Bank in order to diversify Americas economy. It would sell public stock for government
bonds. Critics were worried that the shareholders/bankers would corrupt Congress; Madison argued its unconstitutionality.
Hamilton defended it with the necessary and proper clause. It got passed and would be allowed to operate for twenty years.
People living in the Northeast supported Hamilton; people in the South/West, who had little to gain from his plans, did not.
People for Madison didnt think the Constitution should be interpreted like that called themselves Republicans.
The Whiskey Rebellion
Hamiltons plan (excise tax on domestically produced whiskey) was made to make money and discourage drinking. It took 25%
of the value and made evasion trials go on in federal courts. This angered people in western Pennsylvania, who had to go to
New York for trials and lost even more money. Men attacked a US Marshal who was giving taxpayers summonses. People then
burned buildings and assaulted tax officers. A militia had to be sent out, and court cases were then allowed in Pennsylvania.
Spain in Western North America
Spain built up presidios to protect its colonists from raids and to force natives to submit to Spanish authority.
Russia moved into Siberiakilled natives and took otter pelts. Seeing this as a threat, Spain established Alta California.
California was occupied mainly by missionaries who tried to convert natives to Catholicism/Western customs.
Fighting for LandNatives vs. Americans vs. Britons vs. Spaniards
America stayed diplomatic and avoided conflict. Traitors in American government helped Britain and Spain. America tried to
neutralize Spains ally, the Creeks, with the Treaty of New York. It preserved Creek territory against American expansion.
Knox/Washington launched two campaigns in the Northwest Territory to keep land, but they failed. Spain persuaded the Creeks
to renounce the treaty and continue hostilities.
America and the French Revolution
Americans were divided on their support of the French Rev. Republicans supported it and Federalists called it a mobocracy.
Southern slaveholders supported France. Slaves in St. Domingue rebelled against the Frenchies. Northerners thought it was an
abomination. Northerners were sailors and merchants, and most foreign trade was with Britain. Southerners were scared of
relying on the British. Republicans called for a tariff against British goods, but Hamilton thought it would lead to war.
France sent Citizen Edmond Genet to get American soldiers, but Washington sent out a proclamation of neutrality.
Genet found lots of willing soldiers in the South, but didnt have the money to pay them. American French supporting privateers
stole British goods.

Americas fights with Natives, Britain, AND Spain!

Ohio Indians agreed with Canadas
Continued to encroach on land near
Governor in denying American land
Claims above the Ohio River.
Gen. Anthony Wayne sent for treaty
Thomas Pinckney sent for treaty
Fought/won at Battle of Fallen Timbers.
Britain betrayed them there, and Natives
Lost again at a new fort named Ft. Defiance
Signed Treaty of Greenvillegave America Signed the Treaty of San Lorenzo
Ohio/Indiana and ended hostilities.
Won westerners unlimited trade on
Mississippi River, made 31st parallel
The southern border. Made Spain
Dismantle its forts on American soil,
And discourage Native American
Attacks. Made the Mississippi
River the Western border

Confiscated any ships trading with
The French Indies. Forced British
Sailors in America to work for them.
Chief Justice John Jay sent for treaty

Signed Jays Treatywithdraw British

Troops. Allowed small American ships
To gain access to West Indies in exchange
For not being allowed to trade certain
Things with France during wartime.

Clash of Ideas
The federalists thought true democracy was mob rule; government in the hands of the uneducated multitude.
Republicans thought that a government led by as powerful few was wrong, and power should stay with white male landowners.
While Republicans emphasized liberty and equality, they thought those rights were intended for white men, not slaves.
Jefferson was tired from being overruled by Washington/Hamilton, and quit.
The Republican Party
The Republicans said the Federalists were Britain-lovers, and won a majority in the House. Both parties used the media along
with fear-mongering to gain supporters. Said Federalists favored a hereditary aristocracy; Republicans conspired against
America with France, trying to plot a reign of terror. Washington retired after two terms; his Farewell Address condemned political
The Election of 1796
Republicans targeted recent immigrants. Election was Adams (Federalist) vs. Jefferson (Republican). Republicans depended on
the South while Federalists needed New England, New Jersey, and South Carolina. Jefferson lost the presidency by few votes
and became Vice President. The Federalists controlled the House and the Senate.
Crisis with the Frenchie French
The French thought Jays treaty was designed so America could help Britain fight them. France began seizing American ships
going to British ports, and capturing/hanging Americans on British ships. Adams sent a peace commission to France, and
Charles de Talleyrand promised through three agents, X, Y, and Z that peace talks would begin if he personally and France
were given money. Republicans stood by the French, Federalists went against them. The Federalists won in the next election.
Congress armed ships to protect America and declared a war between America & France, called the Quasi-War. US ships won,
seizing French ships while being protected by Britain. Meanwhile, Congress drastically increased the national army.
Alien and Sedition Acts
Alien Enemies Act
Outlined whether aliens from
a hostile country posed a treat to
America. if they did, they would
be deported/jailed. Only
operated while America was at

Alien Friends Act

Let the president expel any
foreign residents that he
considered dangerous.

Naturalization Act
Increased American
residency time
needed to become a
citizen to fourteen

Sedition Act
Made to decide the
difference between
freedom of speech
and trying to overthrow the
federal government/violating
laws. Blurred the line between
sedition and true political
The target of these was the oppositions (Republicans) pressto silence journalists/candidates during the election.
Republicans martyr-ized themselves, and army units signed petitions against the acts.
Madison/Jefferson wrote the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions, which said that states could invalidate any federal law that
was unconstitutional. States had an authority called interposition, which allowed them to protect their citizens rights.
The Election of 1800
Adams and Jefferson both tried to stay moderate. Adams proposed a diplomatic mission for peace with France.
More Republicans were emerginghigher taxes to support a useless army, didnt stand up to France, and increased debt.
More people became interested in politics. The Republicans won Philadelphia and New York. Adams lost by a very narrow
margin. Jefferson/Burr were deadlocked in the Electoral College. The House had to vote, and chose Jefferson.

Producing for Markets

People worked at home, which was usually a small farm with a single family. Farmers grew more hay/build barns for better milk
production. New England farm families had to do other things for money, like make shoes, cloth, and nails for market.
Private banks in Philly, Boston, and New York were created, along with the Penn. Society for the Encouragement of
Manufacturers and the Useful Arts and the beginnings of the stock market. The PSFTEOMATUA promoted the immigration of
inventors with new industrial ideas. Hamilton believed in industry and capital; Jefferson believed in white land owners!
White Women in Americaaa!
More women were choosing to start and end their marriages, as opposed to asking their fathers permission.
Pregnancy=Marriage=Economic support. Women were having fewer children due to urbanization and declining farm sizes.
Women were beginning to question their inferiority to men, and thought extramarital affairs were unfair.
Many supported Republican Motherhood, in which women would learn the importance of liberty/independence and teach their
children to be virtuous citizens.
More women were demanding educations. Some private girls schools were opened, but most didnt attend school.
Massachusetts allowed girls in their elementary schools.
Native Americans
Native Americans were dealt significant losses in people and land. Settlers, liquor dealers, & criminals trespassed on their land.
Indians who traded/sold land to whites were given money, and they couldnt spend it on much in their communities.
Congress passed the Indian Trade and Intercourse Acts so they could regulate relations between Indians and non-Indians.
It prohibited the sale of tribal lands to outsiders without the approval of Congress or a formal treaty. It also required that traders
had to be licensed by the government, and initiated programs that would westernize the Natives. The Seneca Iroquois were hit
hardmoved to Canada, defrauded, pressured to selland resorted to heavy drinking. Handsome Lake had a series of
visions that told him to recover his people, welcome white ways, and shift gender roles. He formed his own Seneca religion.
African Americans
Most states gave more equality in trials to slaves, and most outlawed the Atlantic slave trade by 1794.
Most states dropped restrictions on freedom of movement/property. 13/16 states allowed free blacks to vote (or didnt exclude
them). The Naturalization Act limited citizenship to free whites. In most states, free blacks couldnt join the military.
Free Blacks turned to one another for supportFree African Society of Philadelphia, Separate religious congregations, etc.
Congress passed the Fugitive Slave Law, which required courts to return escaped slaves if the master requested it. Accused
runaways didnt receive a jury trial. Free blacks were denied the protections in the Bill of Rights. Gabriels Rebellion happened
during the political splitting of whites (Federalists vs. Republicans). The plan was that armed slaves would march, but the plan
was leaked, and authorities executed the perpetrators. The development of the cotton gin strengthened slavery.