You are on page 1of 67

GUIDE

Document Classification: Controlled Disclosure


Title:

Distribution Guide Part 1:

Unique Identifier:

34-617

NETWORK PLANNING
GUIDELINE FOR
TRANSFORMERS

Document Type:

DGL

Revision:

Published date:

NOVEMBER 2010

Total pages:

67

Review date:

NOVEMBER 2015

COMPILED BY

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

APPROVED BY

FUNCTIONAL RESP

AUTHORISED BY

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

NL MEYER

CG CARTER-BROWN

V SINGH

MN BAILEY

Network
Development
Planning Specialist

Planning SC Chair

for TESCOD

CMDT for MD (Dx)

DATE:

DATE:

DATE:

DATE:

Content
Page
Foreword........................................................................................................................................................ 3
1
Scope .................................................................................................................................................. 4
2
Normative references .......................................................................................................................... 4
3
Definitions and abbreviations .............................................................................................................. 5
3.1 Definitions .................................................................................................................................... 5
3.2 Abbreviations ............................................................................................................................... 6
4
Theory ................................................................................................................................................. 7
4.1 Transformer fundamentals .......................................................................................................... 7
4.2 Impedance ................................................................................................................................... 8
4.3 Vector group .............................................................................................................................. 10
4.4 Tap changer...............................................................................................................................11
4.5 Transformer earthing ................................................................................................................. 12
4.6 Loading thermal limits ................................................................................................................ 15
4.7 Paralleling transformers ............................................................................................................. 20
4.8 Mobile transformers/substations................................................................................................ 21
5
Eskom power transformer specifications .......................................................................................... 23
5.1 Distribution transformers (MV/LV and SWER isolation) ............................................................ 23
5.2 Major power transformers (HV/HV, HV/MV and MV/MV) .......................................................... 25
5.3 Mobile substations (HV/MV, MV/MV and MV/LV) ..................................................................... 28
5.4 Neutral Earthing Compensators with Resistors......................................................................... 29
6
Eskom power transformer application standards and guidelines...................................................... 29
6.1 Protection ................................................................................................................................... 29
6.2 Earthing ..................................................................................................................................... 31
6.3 Loading ...................................................................................................................................... 31
7
Data required for Power System Analysis......................................................................................... 31
8
Application guideline ......................................................................................................................... 32
8.1 Distribution transformers (MV/LV and SWER isolation) ............................................................ 32
8.2 Major power transformers (HV/HV, HV/MV and MV/MV) .......................................................... 33
8.3 Costing ....................................................................................................................................... 35
9
Modelling power transformers in PSA software ................................................................................ 35
9.1 ReticMaster................................................................................................................................ 35
9.2 Element data..............................................................................................................................37
ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED
B Morrison / November 2010 / Rev 1

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

34-617
DGL
1
2 of 67

9.3 PowerFactory............................................................................................................................. 38
9.4 Two winding transformer data type library ................................................................................ 39
9.5 Two winding transformer element data ..................................................................................... 41
9.6 NECR element data ................................................................................................................... 44
9.7 General notes ............................................................................................................................ 45
10 Worked example ............................................................................................................................... 45
Annex A - Earth fault current flow with common MV grounding configurations .......................................... 48
Annex B - Major power transformer emergency overload ratings ............................................................... 51
Annex C - Parameters required for PSA ..................................................................................................... 54
Annex D - Impact assessment..................................................................................................................... 64

ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED


When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

34-617
DGL
1
3 of 67

Foreword
The location and size of power transformers is an important component of Distribution Network Planning.
Network Planners need to understand the basic theory and relevant Eskom Distribution standards and
specifications relating to power transformers. They also require guidance on the modelling of transformers
in network simulation software. Network Planners need to be able to select transformers such that minimum
requirements (thermal limits, fault level ratings and vector group compatibility) are met whilst also ensuring
the redundancy requirements are complied with.
This guideline provides the Eskom Distribution Network Planner with a basic understanding of the theory
and practical application, such that power transformers (HV/HV, HV/MV, MV/MV and MV/LV) can be
modelled in power system analysis software (specifically ReticMaster and PowerFactory) and new
transformers sizes can be selected based on minimum requirements and redundancy criteria.

Revision history
This revision cancels and replaces revision no 0 of document no. DGL_34-617.
Date
Nov 2010
Sept 2010

Rev.
1
Draft 0A

Clause

Oct 2007

Remarks
Document published
Compiled By: NL Meyer
Replaced Reticulation with Distribution
Section 2 Updated all the normative references.
Section 4.6. Added Polytransformers.
Section 9. Updated PSA screen dumps and tables for ReticMaster
version 11 and Powerfactory version 14.
Section 10. PowerFactory file updated to V14
Compiled By: CG Carter-Brown
Original issue

Authorisation
This document has been seen and accepted by:
Name
Designation
Rob Stephen

General Manager Distribution Capital Program

Kurt Dedikend

Network Services Manager Eastern Region (NSM Planning custodian)

Riaan Smit

Network Planning Manager Western Region

Simphiwe Hashe

Network Planning Manager Southern Region

Mike Pallett

Network Planning Manager Eastern Region

Kobus Barnard

Network Planning Manager North West Region

Paul Segwe

Network Planning Manager Central Region

Sithembele Mzimkulu Network Planning Manager Northern Region


Faans van Zyl

Network Planning Manager North East Region

This guide shall apply throughout Eskom Holdings Limited, its divisions, subsidiaries and entities wherein
Eskom has a controlling interest.

ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED


When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

34-617
DGL
1
4 of 67

Development team
This revision was compiled with input from:
Sonny Ramadiba

Asante Phiri

Mobolaji Bello

Clinton Carter-Brown

Keywords
Network planning, network design, transformer, load-flow

Bibliography
DGL 34-539 Network Planning Guideline for MV Step-voltage Regulators.
Power Transformer Maintenance and Application Guide, EPRI, 2002.
DIgSILENT Technical Documentation; Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase), 2007.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transformer

Scope

This guideline covers the theory, standards, software modelling and sizing of HV/HV, HV/MV, MV/MV and
MV/LV power transformers for Eskom Distribution Network Planning. Detailed power transformer design
and substation layout is not the focus of this guideline.
The application of this guideline should ensure that Network Planning correctly analyse existing power
transformers, and appropriately size future power transformers. The scope of work required from the
Network Planner (as an input to Project Engineering design work) is defined.
Voltage regulator theory, modelling and application is addressed in DGL 34-539 (Network Planning
guideline for MV step-voltage regulators), and is not repeated in this guideline.
For a summary of the key information jump to the Application Guideline on page 32.

Normative references

Parties using this guideline shall apply the most recent edition of the documents listed below:
DGL 34-450 Network Planning Reliability Guideline
DST 34-542 Distribution voltage regulation and apportionment limits
DSP 34-1690 Specification for combined three-phase neutral electromagnetic couplers (NECs) with neutral
earthing resistors (NERs) and auxiliary power transformers
DSP 34-346 Specification for oil-immersed power transformers up to 500kVA and 33 kV
DSP 34-342 Specification for phase to phase (11, 22 & 33kV) connected transformers with centre tapped
low voltage winding
ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED
When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

34-617
DGL
1
5 of 67

DSP 34-344 Specification for MV isolation transformers for single wire earth return systems
DSP 34-345 Specification for phase to neutral (19kV SWER) connected transformers with single-phase low
voltage winding
DSP 34-343 Specification for phase to neutral (19 kV SWER) connected transformers with centre-tapped
low voltage winding
DSP 34-1002 Specification for large power transformers up to 132 kV in the rating range of 1,25 MVA to
160 MVA
DSP 34-1695 Specification for 20MVA, multi-ratio, mobile substations
DSP 34-1696 Specification for 5 MVA single and dual-ratio satellite mobile substations.
DSP 34-1621 Medium-voltage, metal-enclosed RMU for 11kV and 22kV miniature substations.
DSP 34-1627 Ground-mounted oil-immersed power transformers up to 2MVA and 33 kV with MV and LV
cable boxes
DSP 34-1703 Specification for combined three-phase neutral electro-magnetic couplers (NECs) with neutral
earthing resistors (NERs) and auxiliary transformers for 33kV SWER Systems
DSP 34-1652 Specification for 100kVA to 500kVA 11kV or 22kV/415V mobile reticulation transformer.
DGL 34- 670 Transformer protection philosophy
DST 34-906 Medium voltage system earthing practice
DGL 34-649 Transformer loading guidelines
RES/RR/03/20960 Transformer loading lookup table
Include IARC bulletin replacing Reticulation with Distribution

Definitions and abbreviations

3.1

Definitions

Distribution transformer: MV/LV and MV SWER isolating transformers. These transformers are usually
pole mounted in rural areas (MV overhead), and ground mounted (mini-substations) in urban areas (MV
cable). Ratings typically range from 16kVA to 1000kVA.
Major power transformer: HV/HV, HV/MV and MV/MV power transformers. These transformers are
ground mounted in substations. Ratings range from 1.25MVA to 160MVA.
Single phase: Single phase network technology consists of a phase conductor and a neutral conductor. In
Eskom single phase is only used in LV networks.
Dual phase: Dual phase network technology consists of two phase conductors and a neutral conductor.
The two phases are 180degress phase shifted. This technology is also referred to a bi-phase. In Eskom
dual phase is only used in LV networks.

ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED


When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

34-617
DGL
1
6 of 67

Phase to phase: Two phases of a three phase delta system. Also commonly referred to as single phase
MV, but this is misleading as there is no neutral conductor. In Eskom phase to phase is only used in MV
networks.
Three phase: Three phase network technology. Delta systems have no neutral conductor. Star systems
have a neutral conductor. In Eskom three phase Delta is used in MV networks and three phase Star is used
in LV networks.
SWER: Single Wire Earth Return. Single phase conductor with no neutral conductor. The earth is used as
the return path for load current. In Eskom SWER is only used in MV networks.
Neutral Electromagnetic Coupler (NEC): A ZN connected winding, used to provide an artificial neutral
point in a delta-connected system, capable of passing a specified earth-fault current for a specified time.
Earthed system: A system in which the neutral point of the supply transformer, or that of the NEC, is
intentionally connected to earth either directly or through a current limiting device.
Effectively earthed system: An earthed system in which the phase-to-earth voltages on the unfaulted
phases under earth-fault conditions are limited to 80% of the normal phase-to-phase voltage.
Resistively earthed system: A system in which the neutral is connected to earth through a resistance.
Reactively earthed system: A system in which the neutral is connected to earth via an impedance of
which the principal component is reactance of a magnitude such that the ratio X0/X1 for the system is
greater than 3. A reactively earthed system is, by definition, Non-effectively earthed.Abbreviations

3.2

Abbreviations

EHV: Extra High Voltage (>132kV).


HV: High Voltage (>33kV & 132kV).
MV: Medium Voltage (>1kV & 33kV).
LV: Low Voltage (1kV).
MTL: Master Type Library.
PSA: Power System Analysis.
SWER: Single Wire Earth Return.
OLTC: On Load Tap Changer.
OCTS: Off Circuit Tap Switch.
EDI: Electricity Distribution Industry.

ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED


When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

Theory

4.1

Transformer fundamentals

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

34-617
DGL
1
7 of 67

This section is based on an EPRI report titled Power Transformer Maintenance and Application Guide,
which should be consulted for additional information.
Typical power transformers are oil filled. Figure 1 is a cutaway view of a typical three-phase oil filled major
power transformer, showing the tank, internal connections, typical windings, and the installed bushings.

Figure 1: Cutaway view of a typical oil filled major power transformer [Source: EPRI Power
Transformer Maintenance and Application Guide]
The operation of the transformer is based on electromagnetic theory proposed by Lenz and further
developed by Maxwell. When a current flows through a conductor, a magnetic field is produced. By placing
another conductor within that magnetic field, a voltage is induced in that conductor. This principle provides
the basis for transformer action. The transformer transfers power by electromagnetic induction between
circuits at the same frequency, but at different voltage and current.
Transformers consist of two or more windings linked by a mutual magnetic field. When one of the windings
(primary) is connected to an alternating voltage source, an alternating flux is produced. The amplitude of
the flux depends on the primary voltage and number of turns in the windings. The mutual flux links the other
winding (secondary) and induces voltage in that winding. The value of the induced voltage depends on the
number of secondary turns.
The transformer is unique because, except for equipment that cools the oil, it has no continuously moving
mechanical parts. The generation of electricity requires relative motion between a magnetic field and a
group of conductors. In generation plants, the turbine supplies the motion that drives the rotor magnetic
field through the stator winding of the generator. In the transformer, this mechanical motion is replaced with
a magnetic field that oscillates back and forth (magnetic flux) when the wires are connected to an
alternating current voltage. Alternating current is required in order to produce a changing magnetic field that
will in turn induce a voltage.
The transformer consists of two circuits, the electrical circuit and the magnetic circuit. The electrical circuit is
the current flow through the primary winding and the secondary winding to the load. The primary winding is
considered to be that which has the current applied to the transformer. The secondary winding is that
winding that takes current away from the transformer. The magnetic circuit in a transformer provides a path
for the flow of the magnetic flux produced by the primary windings to the secondary windings.

ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED


When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

34-617
DGL
1
8 of 67

Figure 2: Basic transformer configuration


The transformer primary and secondary coils are wound around an iron core. Once an alternating voltage
E1 is applied to the primary winding, a current I1 called the exciting current, will flow in the primary winding
and a voltage E2 will be induced in the secondary winding. As the current flows through the winding, it will
produce an alternating magnetic field with a flux of magnetic lines of force through the core. Magnetic flux
in the iron core will always flow over the path of least resistance.
The voltage induced by the rate of change of flux in each turn of the transformer will be the same.
Therefore, the voltage ratio between the two windings will be the same as the ratio of the number of turns
(N):

E1 E 2
or
=
N1 N 2

E1 N 1
=
E2 N 2

(1)

Thus, the fundamental relationship is established as the ratio of the primary and secondary voltage is equal
to the ratio of the primary and secondary winding turns. Since power is the phaser product of voltage and
current and the primary power is equal to the secondary, that is P1 = P2 or E1I1 = E2I2

E1 I 1 = E 2 I 2

or

E1 I 2
=
E 2 I1

( 2)

Therefore,

N1 I 2
=
N 2 I1

(3)

Hence, the primary to secondary voltage ratio is inversely proportional to the current ratio.

4.2

Impedance

Referring to figure 3, the electrical and magnetic circuits result in series and shunt impedances. The shunt
impedance arises due to the core magnetisation. The series impedance arises due to the winding
resistance and leakage flux inductance.

ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED


When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

34-617
DGL
1
9 of 67

Figure 3: Transformer series and shunt impedances


The shunt impedance is usually practically expressed in terms of no-load loss in kW and no-load current as
a percentage of rated current. The no-load loss in kW represents the core active power consumption. The
no-load current represents the core apparent power consumption. Power system analysis software converts
these parameters into shunt resistance and reactance, with suitable voltage dependency (constant
impedance). As the core is essentially a shunt connected reactor, the core consumes significantly more
reactive power than active power.
The series impedance is usually expressed as a percentage of the transformers base impedance. The
series impedance is largely inductive. The resistive component of the series impedance is usually specified
via either an X/R ratio or the rated active load power loss in kW at rated current. Power system analysis
software converts these parameters into series resistance and reactance.
Current flow through the series impedance results in an internal voltage drop across the transformer. The
magnitude of this voltage drop is dependent on the series impedance, and magnitude and power factor of
the load current supplied by the transformer. Poor load power factors result in increased internal voltage
drop as the series impedance is largely reactive. Figure 4 illustrates the effect of load magnitude and power
factor on internal voltage drop for a typical 10MVA major power transformer with an impedance of 11% and
X/R ratio of 25.

Transformer internal voltage drop


Internal voltage drop [%]

5%
4%
PF = 1

3%

PF = 0.95
2%

PF = 0.9
PF = 0.8

1%
0%
1

10

11

12

13

Loading [MVA]

Figure 4: Typical 10MVA major power transformer internal voltage drop (Z=11%, X/R=25)

ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED


When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

34-617
DGL
1
10 of 67

The series impedance of MV/LV transformers up to 1000kVA is typically in the range of 3% to 7%. The
impedance of standard HV/HV and HV/MV major power transformers between 1.25MVA and 160MVA
typically varies between 6% and 12%. High impedance major power transformers are utilised where the
fault levels associated with standard impedance transformers are too high. The impedance of high
impedance major power transformers typically varies between 17% and 23%.

4.3

Vector group

A Vector group is used to categorise the primary and secondary winding configurations of three phase
transformers. The vector group indicates the windings configurations and the difference in phase angle
between windings.
The phase windings of a three phase transformer can be connected together internally in different
configurations, depending on what characteristics are needed from the transformer. For example, in a three
phase power system, it may be necessary to connect a three-wire (Delta) system to a four-wire (Star)
system, or vice versa. Because of this, transformers are manufactured with a variety of winding
configurations to meet these requirements.
Different combinations of winding connections will result in different phase angles between the voltages on
the windings. This limits the types of transformers that can be connected between two systems, because
mismatching phase angles can result in circulating current and other system disturbances.
The vector group provides a simple way of indicating how the internal connections of a particular
transformer are arranged. The vector group is indicated by a code typically consisting of two or three letters,
followed by one or two digits. The letters indicate the winding configuration as follows:

D (Delta winding): Each phase terminal connects to two windings, so the windings form a
triangular configuration with the terminals on the points of the triangle. Delta windings do not pass
zero sequence currents and triplen (3rd, 9th, 12th etc) harmonic order currents. Delta windings are
hence used to isolated primary systems from zero sequence and triplen harmonic currents in the
secondary system.

Y (Star winding): Also called a Wye winding. Each phase terminal connects to one end of a
winding, and the other end of each winding connects to the other two at a central point, so that the
configuration resembles a capital letter Y. The central/neutral point may or may not be connected
outside of the transformer. This is usually indicated via the character n.

Z (Zigzag winding): Also called an interconnected star winding. Basically similar to a star winding,
but the windings are arranged so that the three legs are "bent" when the phase diagram is drawn.
Zigzag wound transformers have special characteristics and are not commonly used where these
characteristics are not needed.

III (Independent windings): The three windings are not interconnected inside the transformer at all,
and must be connected externally.

In the IEC vector group code, each letter stands for one set of windings. The primary (input) winding is
designated with a capital letter, while the other winding or windings are designated with a lowercase letter.
The digits following the letter codes indicate the difference in phase angle between the windings, in units of
30 degrees. For example, a transformer with a vector group of Dy1 has a Delta-connected primary winding
and a Star-connected secondary winding. The phase angle of the secondary lags the primary by 30
degrees.
Utilities standardise on the vector groups used in particular applications. As such the Network Planner will
usually have little or no option as to which vector group should be applied. The vector group that needs to
be used in a particular application is dictated by the following:

ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED


When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

34-617
DGL
1
11 of 67

Technology of connecting systems:


o

Three phase Delta systems have no neutral and can be connected to Delta or Star
windings. In the case of Star windings the transformer neutral point floats or is connected
to ground (possibly via an earthing impedance). As Eskom Distributions three phase HV
and MV systems are Delta connected, the possible vector groups (ignoring phase angle
options) for application with HV/HV, HV/MV and MV/MV three phase power transformers
are Yy, Dd, Yd and Dy. Refer to table 6 for the standard Eskom Distribution major power
transformers vector groups.

Three phase Star systems have a neutral and can only be connected to Star windings. As
Eskom Distributions three phase MV and LV systems are Delta and Star connected
respectively, the possible vector groups (ignoring phase angle options) for application with
MV/LV three phase power transformers are Yy and Dy. Referring to section 5.1, the
standard MV/LV three phase transformer vector group in Eskom Distribution is Dyn11.

Isolation between primary and secondary systems: Delta windings isolate the primary system
from zero sequence and triplen harmonic order currents circulating in the secondary system.
Delta windings are more expensive to manufacture as compared to Star windings. Delta windings
are hence used where the benefits of the associated isolation warrant the increased cost.

Phase shift: Phase shift is important when paralleling sources. The phase-shifts of the sources
should be the same. Transformers operated in parallel must have the same vector group.

4.4

Tap changer

Power transformers are usually fitted with a tap changer. One of the windings has multiple tapping leads,
each one providing a different turns ratio between the primary and secondary windings. The tap changer is
used to select one of these tapping leads. Each tap changer position selects a different tapping lead and
hence different turns ratio. The voltage on the secondary of the transformer can be varied by changing the
tap position. The tap changer can hence be used to compensate for the voltage drops in the primary
system and across the transformer itself. In interconnected systems tap changer settings will also influence
reactive power flow.
There are two main types of tap changer:

Off Circuit Tap Switch (OCTS): An OCTS is a manual tap selector switch (see figure 5). The
transformer must be de-energised in order to change the tap position. The tap position can not be
changed automatically or via remote control. The tap switch is a simple mechanical switch with no
motor or diverter, and the tap position can usually be locked in place via a padlock. In some cases
the tapings are connected to individual bushings on the exterior of the transformer, and the
appropriate tap ratio is selected via the connection of jumpers to the appropriate bushings. OCTS
tap changers are usually installed on MV/LV distribution transformers, where the additional cost
and maintenance of an OLTC tap changer can not be justified. In Eskom Distribution OCTS tap
changers usually have a 2.5% or 3% step size and 5 tap positions providing a buck and boost
range of 5% or 6%. An OCTS is also commonly referred to as a De-Energised Tap Switch
(DETS).

On Load Tap Changer (OLTC): An OLTC tap changer is a motorised tap changer fitted with a
diverter such that the tap position can be changed with the transformer energised and supplying
load. An OLTC tap changer is usually fitted with automatic voltage regulation relay whereby the
secondary voltage is sampled and the tap position adjusted to keep the secondary voltage within
specified limits. Alternatively the tap position can be changed via a remote control signal from a
control centre. OLTC tap changers improve the voltage regulation and power flow control of the
network, but are more costly as compared to OCTS tap changers. OLTC tap changers also
require maintenance (maintenance intervals are dependant on the insulation medium used in the
diverter (oil or vacuum) and frequency of tap changer operation). OLTC tap changers are usually
only installed on major power transformers 5MVA. In Eskom Distribution OLTC tap changers
usually have a 1.25% step size and 17 tap positions providing a 5% buck and 15% boost range.
Refer to figure 14 for a picture of a HV/MV major power transformer fitted with an OLTC.
ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED
When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

34-617
DGL
1
12 of 67

Figure 5: OCTS tap selector switch


OCTS or OLTC tap changers can be fitted to either the primary or secondary windings of power
transformers. The location varies, but in general the tap changer tapings are located on the higher voltage
winding where the load current is lower.

4.5

Transformer earthing

4.5.1

Earthing practices

This section is based on DST 34-906 (Medium voltage system earthing practice) which should be consulted
for additional information.
Power Systems were initially commonly operated unearthed under the assumption that a lower rate of
supply interruptions due to earth faults would occur. However it has long since been recognised that such
systems are inherently earthed through the system capacitance to earth. Unearthed systems were
susceptible to high transient overvoltages during earth faults and switching operations which in turn resulted
in a high insulation failure rate on such systems. This led to the practice of intentionally earthing system
neutrals with the following principal objectives in mind:

To stabilise the phase-to-earth voltages under earth fault conditions.

To limit transient over voltages.

To reduce arcing damage at the fault point.

To make possible the operation of protection equipment by allowing sufficient earth fault current to
flow to the point of intentional earthing.

The following system earthing methods are currently adopted (see DST 34-906 for additional information):

Effectively earthed: The term effectively earthed is used to define a system, or a point within a
system, at which the steady state phase-to-earth voltages will be limited to 1.4 per unit
(approximately 80% of normal phase-to phase voltage) during an earth fault. By ensuring that
system phase-to-earth voltages do not exceed 1.4 per unit, 80% surge arresters can be applied
and correspondingly reduced insulation levels specified. Solidly earthed transformer star points
will usually (but not always) result in an effectively earthed system.
Non-effectively earthed: Non-effectively earthed describes a system, or a point within a system,
at which the steady-state phase-to-earth voltages may rise above 1.4 per unit during an earth
fault. In such systems it is necessary to apply surge arresters with a correspondingly higher
voltage rating. It follows that the protective level will then be raised, requiring a higher Basic
Insulation Level for system plant in order to maintain an adequate protective margin. The normal
practice is to apply 100% arresters (i.e. rated to withstand overvoltages up to 1.73 UM for the
duration of a fault) on non-effectively earthed systems. By installing an earthing impedance of
sufficient magnitude the earth fault current is reduced and the system is non-effectively earthed.
ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED
When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

34-617
DGL
1
13 of 67

Reactively earthed: In many cases, the source transformer secondary winding is deltaconnected and an NEC is necessary to provide a neutral point for earthing. Almost invariably,
NECs have high values of X0 relative to X1 of the source, resulting in a ratio of X0/X1 in excess
of 3 for the system, which is thus reactively earthed if an NER is not provided as well. As
compared to resistively earthed systems, reactively earthed systems are more prone to transient
over voltages following network switching and earth faults.
Resistively earthed: Resistively earthed systems are usually non-effectively earthed as the
resistance is inserted to reduce earth fault current magnitude. Resistance earthing can be
effected by inserting a resistor in the earth connection to the MV neutral of each source
transformer. Alternatively, when the source transformer MV winding does not have an earthed
neutral, the resistor can be inserted in the neutral of a NEC. Resistively earthed systems have
lower transient over voltages as compared to reactively earthed systems with similar maximum
earth fault current levels.

Figure 6: NECR used to earth a Delta network


High Voltage and Extremely High Voltage systems are required to be effectively earthed to achieve
acceptable limits of system-generated transient over voltages during earth faults. A primary consideration is
the avoidance of the high additional insulation costs which would be necessary under conditions of higher
phase-to-earth over voltages. The neutral terminals of star-connected transformer EHV and HV windings
must be solidly connected to earth in order to provide an effectively earthed system, and also because, in
most cases, such windings have fully graded insulation (there are exceptions to this requirement in respect
of most 66 and 88 kV windings, which usually have partially graded insulation).
On medium-voltage systems, the emphasis is placed more on reducing earth-fault-current magnitude for
the safety of plant and personnel (rather than on the cost of insulation). This is achieved by the
implementation of neutral earthing resistors (NERs) on star-connected systems and of NEC/NER
combinations on delta connected systems. The MV system is thereby non-effectively and resistively
earthed. Appendix A illustrates the flow of earth fault currents for star, NEC and NEC/R earthing
configurations.
The application of resistance earthing rather than reactance earthing (NEC only on delta connected
systems) avoids the generation of excessive over voltages as well as preventing high fault-current
magnitudes.

ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED


When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

34-617
DGL
1
14 of 67

Table 1: Effectively vs Resistively (non-effectively) earthed MV networks

4.5.2

Effectively earthed

Resistively (non-effectively) earthed

MV source star points solidly earthed, or earthed


via NEC

MV source star point earthed via Resistor, or


earthed via NECR

Rated voltage not to exceed 0.8Um

Rated voltage of 1.0Um

Single phase fault level between 2kA and 10kA

Single phase fault level between 300A and 900A

High degree of earth fault damage

Lesser degree

High earth fault step & touch potential

Reduced

High probability of inductive interference

Lower

Lower initial cost & higher life cycle cost

Higher initial cost & lower life cycle cost

Transformer zero sequence impedances

The zero sequence impedance of a transformer installation is dependent on:

The transformer zero sequence impedance Z0.

Transformer star point earthing and NEC, NECR earthing.

Earthing impedances.

In modern PSST software each of the above elements is modelled explicitly. By specifying the transformer
zero sequence impedance and its earthing (with any associated impedances) the total zero sequence
model of the entire transformer installation is simulated in the PSST.
In cases where test sheet data is not available, the assumptions below are commonly applied for
transformer zero sequence impedance (these are zero sequence values for the transformers. Any
grounding impedance must also be modelled in the PSST, and is entered separately):

Star/Delta and Delta Star: Z0 = 0.9Z1.

Star/Zig-zag: Z0 = 0.091Z1.

Star/Star with both star points earthed: Z0 = 0.85Z1.

Star/Star with only one star point earthed: Z0 = 10Z1. This is the tank delta effect whereby the
transformer tank provides a delta winding effect.

It is important to note that with Star/Star transformers the transformer zero sequence impedance is
dependent on the star point earthing. In all other cases the transformer zero sequence impedance is not
dependent on transformer earthing.

4.5.3

Types of transformers

The main types of power transformer can be summarised as follows:

Auto-transformers: This type of winding is often used when the turns ratio is 3. An autotransformer is essentially a Star-Star transformer with a common star point. In an autotransformer a portion of the same winding effectively acts as part of both the primary and
secondary winding. Because it requires both fewer windings and a smaller core, an
autotransformer for power applications is typically lighter and less costly than a two-winding
transformer, up to a voltage ratio of about 3:1 - beyond that range a two-winding transformer is
usually more economical. In three phase power transmission applications, autotransformers have
the limitations of not suppressing harmonic currents and as acting as another source of ground
fault currents. A large three-phase autotransformer may have a tertiary delta winding to absorb
some harmonic currents (see three-winding transformers).
ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED
When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

34-617
DGL
1
15 of 67

Two-winding transformers: A two-winding transformer consists of two separate, but magnetically


coupled, windings. Each winding can have a different vector group. In Eskom Distribution HV/MV
and MV/LV power transformers are two winding transformers (YNd1, Dyn11 or YNyn0).

Three-winding transformers: A three-winding transformer usually consists of a primary to


secondary auto-transformer winding, and a delta tertiary winding. Eskoms EHV/HV transformers
are three-winding auto-transformers (YnA0d1).

Voltage regulators: Voltage regulators have the same primary and secondary voltage ratings, are
used to regulate the load side voltage and are usually auto-transformers without a tertiary
winding. See DGL 34-539 Network Planning guideline for MV step-voltage regulators for
additional information on voltage regulators.

Phase shifting transformers: A phase shifting transformer has an OLTC tap changer that mixes
phases in specific quantities such that the primary and secondary voltages are vector shifted. The
magnitude of the vector shift is dependent on the tap position. Phasing shifting transformers are
utilised to control power flow in interconnected systems. A phasing shifting transformer can also
transform between voltage levels and provide both voltage and phase angle control. Referring to
figure 7, phasing shifting is achieved via the mixing of voltages from different phases. Note that
Eskom does not yet have phasing shifting transformers.

Polytransformers (Multi-ratio Transformers): A polytransformer is a multi-ratio multi-voltage


transformer. The transformer is designed with internal taps on either the HV and/or MV winding
that allow it to operate with multiple voltage ratings on the HV and/or MV side. The configuration
of the internal taps determines the operational voltage and turns ratio of the transformer. This
versatility makes the polytransformer an ideal option for strategic spares i.e a 132-88/22kV
transformer can be operated as 132/22kV ( ratio 6) or 88/22kV (ratio 4).

Figure 7: Phasing shifting transformer principle of operation

4.6

Loading thermal limits

4.6.1

Effect of over loading

Power transformers operating at full load or near full load transform a large amount of electric power that
generates large amounts of heat. Power transformers require some type of cooling to mitigate the
consequences of excessive heat. A fluid such as oil is used as a cooling medium to remove excess heat
from the transformer core and windings. The transformer cores and windings are designed to permit the
flow of the oil around and through all coils. This provides a method to remove heat generated internally. The
oil is then typically circulated through air-cooled radiators. To increase radiator cooling capacity, fans may
be used to increase air flow across the radiator.

ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED


When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

34-617
DGL
1
16 of 67

There are two main sources of heating in power transformers:

Current flow through the windings results in I2R load losses. Increased current results in
increased load losses, proportional to the load current squared.

Hysteresis and eddy current no-load losses due to core magnetization. Increased applied voltage
results in increased no-load losses, proportional to the applied voltage squared.

The heating increases the temperature of the windings and insulating oil. The maximum temperature occurs
within the windings and is referred to as the hot spot temperature. The oil temperature within the tank is a
maximum at the top of the tank, and is referred to as the top oil temperature.
Thermal equilibrium occurs when the rate of energy dissipation within the transformer is equal to the rate of
energy dissipation to the external environment. The maximum hotspot and top oil temperatures are hence
dependent on the ambient temperature and effectiveness of the heat transfer to the local environment.
The following risks are associated with transformer overload:

Pressure build up as the top oil temperature increases beyond the design level, which leads to oil
leakage and eventually failure if the transformer does not have a pressure release valve.

Damage to the accessories such as the tap changer and bushings, which are not designed for
operation beyond certain current levels (typically 150% of rated current).

Paper degradation (paper is used to insulate each turn within the windings), due to continued
operation at hot spot temperatures in excess of 98C. Transformer paper life and hence
transformer life is halved for every 6 degrees the transformer hot spot temperature exceeds 98C.
As the insulation paper ages its mechanical strength reduces. Failure occurs when the paper can
no longer provide adequate insulation. This may occur following a through fault which
mechanically stresses the windings, causing them to collapse resulting in inter-turn faults.

4.6.2

Cooling methods

As the maximum loading limit of a transformer is dependent in part on the top oil and hot spot temperatures,
the maximum loading limit is also dependent on the type and effectiveness of cooling. Improved cooling
increases the maximum loading level.
Power transformers have a four letter code describing the type of insulation liquid and cooling.
First letter: Internal cooling medium in contact with the windings:
O

Mineral oil or synthetic insulating liquid with fire point 300C;

Insulating liquid with fire point > 300C;

Insulating liquid with no measurable fire point.

Second letter: Circulation mechanism for internal cooling medium:


N

Natural thermosiphon flow through cooling equipment and in windings;

Forced circulation through cooling equipment, thermosiphon flow in windings;

Forced circulation through cooling equipment, directed from the cooling equipment into at least
the main windings;

ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED


When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

34-617
DGL
1
17 of 67

Third letter: External cooling medium:


A

Air;

Water.

Fourth letter: Circulation mechanism for external cooling medium:


N

Natural convection;

Forced circulation (fans, pumps).

Example: ONAN refers to a transformer where the internal and external cooling mediums are oil and air
respectively. In both cases the circulation of the cooling medium is by natural convection. If fans are fitted to
the external cooling fins this transformer would be ONAF.

4.6.3

Ambient temperature and load profiles

A standard transformer is designed to withstand continuously rated load at rated ambient temperature for a
period of 35 years. In reality transformers are often subjected to cyclic loads and temperatures.
Major power transformers up to 132kV in the rating range of 2.5 to 80MVA are governed by the
specification DST 34-1695. This specification requires that all major power transformers have overload
capabilities in accordance with IEC60354. IEC60354 recognises that thermal loading on transformers is
cyclic, whether due to cyclic variations in the load or hourly variations in the ambient temperature. The
result is a temperature profile, which operates below the transformer rated temperature during off peak
conditions and close to or above rated temperatures during peak conditions. IEC60354 provides guidelines
for capitalising on periods of low load to allow the transformer to be overloaded during periods of high
demand, without affecting the overall lifespan of the transformer insulation.
Consider the following simple example of a 10MVA transformer subjected to a residential load on a typical
winters day (figure 8).
Typical w inter load and ambient temperature for Johannesburg
25

1.2
1

PU

0.8

15

0.6
10

0.4

Deg.C

20

Load
Temperature

0.2

0
22:00

20:00

18:00

16:00

14:00

12:00

10:00

08:00

06:00

04:00

02:00

00:00

Time of day

Figure 8: Load profile and ambient temperature


ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED
When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

34-617
DGL
1
18 of 67

The hot spot temperature, top oil temperature and cumulative loss of life for the above loading are shown in
figures 9 and 10 respectively.

Figure 9: Top oil and winding temperatures

Figure 10: Cumulative loss of life


Considering that the maximum allowable loss of life per day is 0.0079% (this results in a 35 year lifespan),
one can see that this transformer is under loaded. Increasing the loading until either the hot spot, top oil or
loss of life limit is reached one obtains a maximum loading of 146%. This means that the transformer could
be loaded to a maximum of 146% of the nameplate rating, and the insulation would still last for 35 years.
The maximum loading is dependent on the load profile, ambient temperatures and target lifespan. Peaky
loads result in increased loading limits as the transformer oil and winding temperature time constants are
such that the oil and winding temperatures lag the loading, and the steady state oil and winding
temperatures are not reached (the load drops off before the steady state oil and winding temperatures are
reached).
The overload limits can be calculated with software such as PTLoad. Despite the above theory, it should be
noted that Network Planners must not plan to load major power transformers above nameplate rating for
normal network configuration.

ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED


When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

4.6.4

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

34-617
DGL
1
19 of 67

Increased ratings

The maximum loading limit of a power transformer can be increased through one or a combination of the
following:

Allowances for ambient temperature and load profile: As discussed in the previous section, actual
ambient temperatures and load profiles for a specific installation may result in increased loading
levels for the design lifespan. These allowances typically result in a 10% to 30% increase in
maximum loading.

Reduced expected lifespan: Reducing the expected lifespan (to below the design value) increases
maximum loading levels. This may be acceptable during contingencies when this increased rate
of aging during the contingency may not be significant if the duration of the contingency is
relatively small. As a result utilities generally allow additional overloading during contingencies.

Improved cooling: The installation of fans and/or oil pumps improves cooling resulting in increased
ratings for the same rate of aging.

It should be noted that transformer losses, and hence loading limits, are also dependent on tap changer
position, applied voltage magnitude and voltage and current harmonic distortion levels.
Transformer loading is usually assessed as a percentage of rated nameplate current. This implies that if the
primary voltage is less than the nominal primary voltage, the primary current will be greater than rated
primary current in order to supply rated apparent power. Planners need to be aware of this as a transformer
may start to exceed rated primary current even if the apparent power is less than rated apparent power. As
load current causes the majority of the losses, overload reporting and assessment should be based on
current and not apparent power.

4.6.5

Thermal stickers (distribution transformers)

Distribution transformers are not specifically protected against overloading resulting in these units failing
before the overload is detected. The application of disposable thermal stickers can be used to detect
overloading of transformers up to 2.5 MVA.
Disposable thermal stickers consist of temperature sensitive cells calibrated to change colour at distinct
temperatures. The temperature sensitive cells are protected in plastic and fixed on a magnetic strip. An
attachment device is provided to allow installation onto a transformer with the aid of an operating stick. The
bare side of the magnetic strip can attach to a transformers main tank.
The sticker is installed near the top of the tank (see figure 11) and changes colour if the top oil temperature
exceeds the temperature change colour of the sticker (selected based on the recommended maximum top
oil temperature, which is related to the hotspot temperature for a specific load profile). Via a visual
inspection of transformers operating staff can identify overloaded units.

ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED


When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

34-617
DGL
1
20 of 67

Figure 11: Thermal loading stickers

4.7

Paralleling transformers

When paralleling transformers the following needs to be considered:

Voltages and vector group: The transformer vector group and winding voltages (turns ratio) need
to be the same. As discussed later in this section, small differences in turns ratio can be tolerated
with modern OLTC tap change control schemes.

Impedance: Transformer internal voltage drop magnitude is dependent on the transformer series
impedance. Differences in per-unit impedance (expressed on the transformer rated power)
between paralleled transformers results in a voltage differential between transformers when
supplying load current, which in turn drives a circulating current between the paralleled
transformers. This circulating current increases the loading (and hence also load losses) of the
paralleled transformers, and can result in overloading. The magnitude of the circulating current is
dependent on the magnitude of the load current supplied by the paralleled transformers.

Tap ratios: Differences in tap ratio in the various tap positions results in a voltage differential
between paralleled transformers. As with differences in impedance, this voltage differential results
in a circulating current which increases losses and can result in overloading. The magnitude of the
circulating current is not load dependent (unlike circulating current due to impedance imbalance).

Power rating: Transformers of different power ratings can be paralleled. Load sharing between
transformers is dependent on transformer impedance and tap ratio matching. In cases where perunit impedances and tap ratios are not the same, the per-unit loadings will differ e.g. if a 10MVA
and 20MVA transformer are paralleled and have different impedances and/or tap ratios, load will
not be proportionally shared based on their power ratings and one transformer may overload well
before the other e.g. if the total load supplied is 30MVA, the 10MVA and 20MVA transformers
could, for the purposes of this example, supply 12MVA and 18MVA respectively.

Before the advent of modern circulating current OLTC tap change controllers, major power transformers
operated in parallel utilised a Master-Follower tap change control scheme. Essentially all paralleled
transformer OLTC tap changers were synchronised so that all transformers were in the same tap position.
Any differences in transformer impedance and tapping ratios resulted in a voltage differential between
transformers, and hence a circulating current would flow. As such only transformers with closely matched
impedances and tapping ratios could be operated in parallel.

ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED


When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

34-617
DGL
1
21 of 67

Modern tap change control schemes incorporate circulating current control whereby the tap position of each
transformer is adjusted such that control objectives (e.g. a certain secondary voltage) are achieved whilst
also minimising circulating current flow. As a result transformers with different impedances and tapping
ratios (within reason) can be paralleled (note that load sharing may not be optimal and the effective
capacity of the installation may be significantly less than the sum of the ratings of individual transformers).
These modern control schemes also allow transformers in different substations to be paralleled via their
primary and secondary networks i.e. the paralleled transformers can be geographically separated.

4.7.1

Fault levels and through faults

Distribution power transformers are generally utilised to step-down voltage. Although the impedance of the
transformer reduces the MVA fault level, the fault level current (usually expressed in kA) increases
proportional to the turns ratio. The fault level current on the secondary of a transformer is dependent on the
primary fault level, transformer turns ratio, rating and impedance.
Switchgear is rated for a maximum fault current breaking capacity. Lines and cables have a maximum fault
current rating, which is the current they can conduct before the associated increase in temperature results
in permanent damage.
Fault levels require careful consideration when sizing transformer installations:

The fault level ratings of equipment connected to the transformers should not be exceeded.

Transformers conduct through fault current for faults in the network connected to the
transformer. Through faults place mechanical stress on the transformer winding. An excessive
number of through faults of sufficient magnitude will result in premature transformer failure.
Networks should be planned to minimise the number of high current through faults (faults typically
within a few kms from the substation) experienced by transformers.

See section 4.11 for information on how the numbers and ratings of transformers affects fault levels and
through fault exposure.

4.8

Mobile transformers/substations

Figure 12: Mobile HV/MV transformer


A mobile substation (figure 12) consists of a transformer and associated protection and switchgear mounted
on a trailer. A mobile substation will typically be used for the following applications:

ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED


When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

34-617
DGL
1
22 of 67

As an emergency spare in the event of a transformer faulting.

For routine maintenance of single-transformer substations.

Urgent customer supply (i.e. ahead of Eskoms construction schedule if applicable).

During refurbishment/upgrading of a substation, when the entire substation or a part of it must be


taken out of service for a period of time.

During the upgrading of MV voltages e.g. changing from 11kV to 22kV.

4.8.1

Transformer rating and redundancy

Utilities standardise on a set of standard power transformer ratings. Network Planners need to specify the
number and rating of power transformers to provide adequate capacity and redundancy.
Fewer transformers of larger rating offer the following advantages and disadvantages as compared to more
transformers of smaller rating:
4.8.1.1

Advantages

Take up less space (few transformer bays are required).

Reduced maintenance costs.

Capital cost per MVA of larger transformers is less than smaller transformers.

Reduced number of transformer bays results in further cost savings due to less primary plant.

4.8.1.2

Disadvantages

While fewer larger transformers will fail less frequently (less transformers to fault), the impact of a
failure may be more significant (system versus component reliability).

In order to parallel the larger units to provide required reliability levels, high impedance units or
fault limiting reactors may be required to restrict fault levels to acceptable levels.

Due to the increased currents MV switchgear costs may increase.

Depending on the busbar configuration larger transformers may experience increased frequency
of through faults (larger network supplied as compared with smaller transformer).

ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED


When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

Eskom power transformer specifications

5.1

Distribution transformers (MV/LV and SWER isolation)

34-617
DGL
1
23 of 67

Figure 13: Pole-mounted MV/LV distribution transformer


The important distribution transformer characteristics of interest to Network Planners are as follows (DSP
34-1621, DSP 34-1627, 34-342, 34-343, 34-344, 34-345 & 34-346):

Referring to table 2, rated LV voltage is 240V single phase and 415V three phase. Rated MV
voltages are 11kV, 22kV and 33kV. The rated SWER voltage is 19kV.

MV/LV pole and platform mounted transformer power ratings range from
largest single phase rating is 16kVA. The largest dual phase rating
requiring capacity greater than the standard sizes are catered for
transformers in parallel. Transformers 100kVA can be pole mounted,
mounted.

Ground mounted three phase transformer sizes range from 100 to 1000kVA.

Mini-substation transformer sizes range from 200 to 1000kVA.

Three phase and dual phase transformers have a tapping range of -6%, -3%, 0%, +3%, +6%,
achieved by means of an off-circuit tapping switch. The relationship between tap position and
primary and secondary voltages is summarised in table 3.

Single-phase transformers have a tapping range of 0%, +3%, +6%, achieved by means of
external LV tappings. The relationship between external tapping and primary and secondary
voltages is summarised in table 4.

SWER isolation transformers have a tapping range of -5%, -2.5%, 0%, +2.5%, +5%, achieved by
means of an off-circuit tapping switch. The relationship between tap position and primary and
secondary voltages is summarised in table 5.

Insulation and cooling is ONAN.

Three phase MV/LV transformer vector group is Dyn11.

16kVA to 500kVA. The


is 64kVA. Installations
by installing standard
and >100kVA platform

ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED


When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

34-617
DGL
1
24 of 67

Table 2: Standard technologies, mounting methods, voltages, power ratings and tapping ranges
1

Technology

Mounting

Rated primary
voltage

Rated no-load
secondary
voltage

Rated power

Tapping range

Phase to phase /
Single phase

Pole

11kV, 22kV,
33kV

240V

16kVA

0%, +3%, +6%

Phase to phase /
Dual phase

Pole

11kV, 22kV,
33kV

480/240V (240V)

32 & 64kVA

-6%, -3%, 0%, +3%, +6%

Three phase /
Three phase

Pole and
platform

11kV, 22kV,
33kV

415/240V

25, 50, 100, 200,


315 & 500kVA

-6%, -3%, 0%, +3%, +6%

Three phase /
Three phase

Ground

11kV, 22kV

415/240V

100, 200, 315,


500 & 1000kVA

-6%, -3%, 0%, +3%, +6%

Three phase /
Three phase

Minisub

11kV, 22kV

415/240V

200, 315, 500 &


1000kVA

-6%, -3%, 0%, +3%, +6%

Phase to phase /
SWER

Pole and
platform

11kV, 22kV,
33kV

19kV

50, 100, 200 &


400kVA

-5%, -2.5%, 0%, +2.5%,


+3%

SWER / Single
phase

Pole

19kV

240V

16kVA

0%, +3%, +6%

SWER / Dual
phase

Pole

19kV

480/240V (240V)

32 & 64kVA

-6%, -3%, 0%, +3%, +6%

Table 3: Three phase and dual phase transformer off-circuit tapping switch voltage ratios
1

Tap position number

Primary voltage %

No-load secondary voltage %

106%

100%

103%

100%

100%

100%

97%

100%

94%

100%

Table 4: Single phase external tapping voltage ratios


1

External tapping

Primary voltage %

No-load secondary voltage %

A1-A2

100%

100%

A1-A3

97%

100%

A1-A4

94%

100%

Table 5: SWER isolation transformer off-circuit tapping switch voltage ratios


1

Tap position number

Primary voltage %

No-load secondary voltage %

105%

100%

102.5%

100%

100%

100%

97.5%

100%

95%

100%

ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED


When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

34-617
DGL
1
25 of 67

It is important to note that even though the standard LV service voltage is 400/230V, MV/LV transformers
are rated 415/240V. Historically rated LV voltages have varied with LV service voltage standards. As a
result MV/LV transformers with rated voltages of 380/220V, 400/230V and 420/242V can be found in
existing networks. Refer to 34-542 (Distribution Voltage Regulation and Apportionment Limits) for additional
detail. Also note that other non-standard sizes have been installed (e.g. 800, 1000, 1250kVA).
Note that in order to standardise the MV/LV transformer specification within the South African EDI, Eskom
will change to the 420/240V (with a tapping range of 5% in steps of 2.5%) specification for all new
transformers. This change is expected occur in 2011.

5.2

Major power transformers (HV/HV, HV/MV and MV/MV)

OLTC tap changer

Figure 14: HV/MV major power OLTC transformer


The following specifications from DSP 34-1002 (Specification for Large Power Transformers Up to 132kV in
the Rating Range of 1.25 MVA to 160 MVA) are applicable to this guideline:

Table 6 summarises the standard transformer voltage ratings, power ratings, impedances and
vector groups.
o

To cater for increased load densities, reduce stock holding and improve interchangeability between transformers a sub-set of the standard power ratings are preferred
ratings (ratings in bold). Network Planners may not deviate from the standard power
ratings, and should (where possible) utilise preferred power ratings.

Non-preferred standard ratings may need to be used in cases where space or access
prevents the use of the smallest preferred size.

Eskom suppliers will focus on preferred sizes. Non-preferred standard sizes can still be
ordered but lead times may be longer.
ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED

When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

34-617
DGL
1
26 of 67

Strategic stock will still need to cater for non-preferred standard sizes.

Existing non-preferred standard sizes that are replaced with larger preferred sizes can be
recycled into networks where they provide sufficient capacity.

OLTC tap changers should be installed for all ratings 5MVA.

All new transformers are specified for coastal conditions i.e. zink metal sprayed with
31mm/kV bushings.

The general operating conditions for transformer thermal rating are:


o

Out-of-doors.

At an altitude above sea level up to 1800m.

At ambient air temperatures.

Maximum 40C.

Daily average 35C.

Yearly average 25C.

Minimum -10C.

Average humidity: 30% to 90%.

Sinusoidal supply voltage wave shape at 50Hz.

Symmetrical three-phase supply voltages (negative and zero phase sequence voltages
less than 2%).

Life expectancy at rated conditions shall be at least 35 years.

The power rating is a continuous power rating (100% load factor) and applies to the entire tapping
range i.e. each tap must be able to supply rated power. Overloading capabilities shall be in
accordance with IEC 60076-7 Table 4. The default winding temperature alarm and trip settings
are: Alarm 110C Trip 120C.

Both OLTC and OCTS tap changers are supported:

On-load regulated transformers have on-load taps from +5% to -15% of the HV voltage in
16 equal steps of 1.25% each.

When an off-circuit tap switch is specified, the range is +5% to -5 % of the HV voltage in 4
steps of 2.5% each.

In order to support stock keeping and inter-changeability OLTC tap changers are usually
specified for all major power transformers 5MVA.

Cooling methods are as follows:


o

Transformers with a maximum rating of 20 MVA: ONAN cooling.

Auto-transformers with a maximum rating of 40 MVA: ONAN or ONAN/ONAF cooling.

Other transformers: ONAN/ONAF cooling.

The standard vector groups are as follows:


o

HV/HV three winding auto-transformer: YnA0d1.

HV/MV two winding: YNd1.

MV/MV two winding: YNyn0.

Note that these specifications are applicable to new major power transformers. The specifications of existing
transformers could vary significantly. Non-standard vector groups (such as Yy10 in Cape Town) should be phased
out as opportunities arise. It is understood that this may only be practical to achieve in the longer term. Also note that
Eskom used to order sub-transmission transformers with a vector group Dy11, but changed to YNd1 as HV Delta
windings are considerably more expensive than Star windings (Delta windings cant have partially graded insulation
and the tap changer must be rated for the full system voltage).

ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED


When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

34-617
DGL
1
27 of 67

Table 6: Standard major power transformer voltages, ratings, impedances and vector groups
(Ratings marked in bold are preferred ratings)
1

Nominal voltage
[kV]
Prim

Sec

Tert

132

88

22

132

66

132

10

11

12

13

14
Vector
Group

1.25

Nomina
l imp
[%]

Standard power rating [MVA]

Imp
type
160

80

40

20

10

2.5

STD

160/20

80/10

40/10

20/5

YnA0d1

22

STD

160/20

80/10

40/10

20/5

10

YnA0d1

44

22

STD

80/10

40/10

20/5

11

YnA0d1

88

44

22

STD

80/10

40/10

20/5

YnA0d1

132

11

HIG
H

22

YNd1

132

6.6

HIG
H

22

YNd1

88

11

HIG
H

22

YNd1

88

6.6

HIG
H

22

YNd1

66

6.6

HIG
H

22

YNd1

44

6.6

HIG
H

22

YNd1

132

33

STD

132

22

132

X
X
X

10-11

YNd1

STD

10-11

YNd1

11

STD

10-11

YNd1

132

6.6

STD

10-11

YNd1

88

44

STD

11

YNd1

88

33

STD

10-11

YNd1

88

22

88

STD

10-11

YNd1

11

STD

10-11

YNd1

88

6.6

STD

10-11

YNd1

66

22

STD

10-11

YNd1

66

11

STD

10-11

YNd1

66

6.6

STD

10-11

YNd1

44

22

STD

10-11

YNd1

44

11

STD

10-11

YNd1

44

6.6

STD

10

YNd1

33

22

STD

6-8

YNyn0

33

11

STD

6-8

YNyn0

33

6.6

STD

6-8

YNyn0

22

11

STD

6-8

YNyn0

22

6.6

STD

6-8

YNyn0

ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED


When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:
Mobile substations (HV/MV, MV/MV and MV/LV)

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

5.3

34-617
DGL
1
28 of 67

The specification for HV/MV mobile substations (DSP 34-1695 Specification for 20MVA, Multi-ratio, Mobile
Substations) is summarised as follows:

20MVA HV/MV multi-ratio, outdoor, mobile substation. The substation consists of a main
transformer, NEC/NER/auxiliary transformer, HV and MV circuit-breakers, HV isolator, surge
arresters, instrumentation transformers, protection, metering, DC and telecommunication
equipment (all mounted on a trailer(s)).

Three types are catered for:


o

Type A: 132 or 66kV to 22 or 11kV, 20MVA, YNd1, OLTC

Type B: 132 or 88kV to 22 or 11kV, 20MVA, YNd1, OLTC

Type C: 132 or 88kV to 33 or 22kV, 20MVA, YNd1, OLTC

In order to reduce the size and weight of the transformer it has OFAF cooling.

The HV breaker is connected to the HV busbar (could be directly off an HV line) via overhead
jumpers.

The MV breaker is connected to the MV busbar (could be directly onto a MV line or cable) via
single core cables.

The specification for MV/MV mobile substations (DSP 34-1696 Specification for 5MVA Single and MultiRatio Mobile Substations) is summarised as follows:

10MVA MV/MV multi-ratio, outdoor, mobile substation. The substation consists of a main
transformer, auxiliary transformer, primary and secondary circuit breakers, surge arresters,
instrumentation transformers, protection, metering, D.C and telecommunication equipment (all
mounted on a trailer).

Three types are catered for:


o

Type A: 33 or 22kV to 11kV, 5 MVA, YNyn0, OCTS or OLTC

Type B: 22kV to 11kV, 5MVA, YNyn0, OCTS or OLTC

Type C: 33 or 22kV to 22 or 11kV, 10MVA, YNyn0, OCTS or OLTC

Note that either OLTC or OCTS can be specified.

In order to reduce the size and weight of the transformer it has OFAF cooling.

A NER is provided to limit the single phase fault level to 300Amps (it has a variable impedance to
cater for the different voltage levels). The NER is connected to either the primary or secondary
winding star point (depending on whether the substation is being used in a step-up or step-down
application). Note that the load side star point winding must be earthed via the NER in order to
provide a zero sequence return path for earth fault current.

The MV breakers are connected to the MV busbars (could be directly onto a MV line or cable) via
three core cables.

All new single transformer HV/MV and MV/MV substations must make provision for the connection of
mobile substations.

ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED


When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

34-617
DGL
1
29 of 67

The specification for MV/LV mobile transformers (DSP 34-1652 Specification for 100kVA to 500kVA 11kV
or 22kV/415V Mobile Reticulation Transformer) is summarised as follows:

It consists of a transformer with MV and LV cable boxes, a metering kiosk and a telescopic pole
structure for connection to the MV network.

The primary MV voltage is 11kV or 22kV, selectable via a dual ratio switch.

The secondary LV voltage is 415/240V. Tapping step size and range are as for the standard
MV/LV transformer i.e. OCTS -6%, -3%, 0%, +3%, +6%.

Standard ratings are 100, 200, 315 or 500kVA.

MV and LV connections are made via cable.

5.4

Neutral Earthing Compensators with Resistors

Although an NECR is not a traditional power transformer in the sense that it is not used to supply
customers, it is a critical part of the power transformer earthing configuration, and a summary of the key
specifications is hence included in this guideline.
The following key specifications from DSP 34-1690 (Specification for Combined Three-phase Neutral
Electromagnetic Couplers (NECs) with Neutral Earthing Resistors (NERs) and Auxiliary power
Transformers) are important to note:

The NEC, neutral earthing resistor and auxiliary LV supply power transformer are all housed in
the same tank. The NECR has an auxiliary transformer (100kVA three phase), which is used for
the substation LV supply.

Nominal voltages include 6.6, 11, 22, 33 and 44kV.

Impedances have been chosen to limit the single phase fault current to 360Amps (at nominal
voltage for up to 10 seconds). The continuous current rating is 10amps.

For 11 and 22kV cable networks an 800amp current limiting NECR is also catered for.

For the earthing of 33kV networks supplying directly connected SWER, a 1000Amp (10 second
rating) NECR is provided for in DSP 34-1703. This NECR has a continual current rating of
35Amps.

The NECR is directly connected to the secondary MV winding of the power transformer (directly off the MV
winding terminals before the MV breaker) so that it is always in circuit if the power transformer MV breaker
is closed. This ensures that there is always a zero sequence path for single phase to earth fault current
such that earth faults can be detected. This is critical for both public and operator safety.

Eskom power transformer application standards and guidelines

6.1

Protection

Referring to figure 15, transformer failure can result in the insulating oil catching fire, resulting in
considerable damage to the transformer and surrounding equipment. The appropriate level of transformer
protection depends on the risk and consequence of transformer failure relative to the cost of the protection.
Certain forms of protection enable early identification of certain faults such that preventative action can be
taken before the fault develops to the extent that extensive damage is caused.

ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED


When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

34-617
DGL
1
30 of 67

Figure 15: Transformer failure resulting in fire


The major power transformer protection philosophy is documented in DGL 34-670 (Transformer Protection
Philosophy). The protection requirements are summarised as follows:

Surge arrestors installed on all windings.

Buchholz and pressure relief.

Winding and top oil temperatures. Default top oil alarm and trip temperature settings are 95C and
105C respectively. Default winding alarm and trip temperature settings are 110C and 120C
respectively.

HV and LV over current, earth fault and restricted earth fault protection. Over current is usually set
to trip at 130% of transformer nameplate rating.

HV breaker fail.

Sustained fault timer.

For ratings >10MVA there is a further requirement for biased differential protection.

With distribution transformers the cost of protection (apart from surge arresters) can not be justified, and the
distribution transformer protection philosophy is to run to failure. MV fuses are usually installed in the local
isolation links. These fuses only operate once a fault has developed to the extent that the melting
characteristic of the fuse is exceeded due to fault current. The fuses do not prevent the fault from causing
critical damage, but rather isolate the transformer from the network so that the number of transformer faults
resulting in MV feeder protection operation (and lock-out) is reduced.
Distribution transformer LV fuse and breaker ratings may offer very limited transformer overload protection,
especially where a transformer supplies several LV feeders. Furthermore no transformer LV metering or
load measurement device is usually installed. Spot load measurements may be useful in identifying
overloaded transformers, but the time of peak loading and stochastic nature of the load make such
measurements difficult. A thermal loading sticker can be used to detect distribution transformer overloads.
The thermal sticker is attached to the transformer tank, and changes colour when the tank temperature
(which is close to the oil temperature) reaches a certain limit. An operator is required to periodically inspect
the stickers.

ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED


When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

6.2

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

34-617
DGL
1
31 of 67

Earthing

Sub-transmission systems are effectively earthed by solidly earthing transformer HV winding star points and
auto-transformer star points. If a HV/MV Star/Delta transformer HV winding has partially graded insulation
then the HV star point can be earthed via a surge arrestor to reduce the HV earth fault level and simplify
earth fault protection coordination. Transformers with fully graded HV windings must have their HV windings
solidly earthed.
As per DST 34-906 (Medium Voltage System Earthing Practice), MV networks should be resistively
earthed:

Transformers with MV vector group Star should be earthed via an NER (installed in the star point)
or NEC/R. A NEC/R may be installed if an auxiliary supply is required.

Transformers with MV vector group Delta should be earthed via an NEC/R.

The NER or NEC/R impedance (and hence maximum earth fault current) is dependent on the
type of MV network:
o

Rural: Maximum earth fault current 300/360amps.

Urban: Maximum earth fault current 800/970amps.

Note that Star/Star transformers (e.g. 33/11kV and 22/11kV) can be earthed on their secondary winding Star points
(preferably via an NER). The HV winding star point is unearthed so that secondary earth faults do not result in earth
fault current flow in the primary system. The tank-delta effect provides a zero sequence path for secondary earth fault
current. This form of earthing is usually only performed for satellite type substations (especially 22/11kV
substations). For 33/11kV transformers, and 22/11kV transformers >5MVA, earthing should preferably be performed
via a NEC/R.

Distribution MV/LV transformer LV neutral points are solidly earthed. Primary MV delta and phase to phase
windings are unearthed. SWER transformers have their 19kV SWER winding solidly earthed.

6.3

Loading

The procedure to be followed by Network Planners for the operation of major power transformers above
nameplate rating is specified in DGL 34-649 (Transformer Loading Guidelines). This procedure is
applicable for the planned operation of major power transformers above nameplate rating for normal
network configuration i.e. the Network Planner is planning to operate the major power transformer at above
its nameplate rating for the normal (non-contingency) network configuration.
Network Planners must not plan to load major power transformers above nameplate rating for normal
network configuration. The application of DGL 34-649 is hence only supported in extreme cases where
project lead times can not be met.
Emergency overload ratings (with allowance for ambient temperature and load profile) are provided in
annex B (table B.1). These overload ratings should be utilised as emergency ratings for application with
contingency studies.

Data required for Power System Analysis

Transformers are manufactured according to international and utility specifications. Transformers


manufactured to the same specifications have similar impedances, losses etc. As such standard type data
can be utilised for power transformer modelling. By specifying a set of key parameters that adequately
describe the transformer, a type library linkage can be made such that standard values for other (non-key)
parameters can be obtained.
ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED
When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

34-617
DGL
1
32 of 67

Where actual values (for a particular transformer) differ from the standard values, actual values can be
specified. The specification of actual values is usually only required for certain attributes for major power
transformers, and specifically positive and zero sequence impedances.
Eskom Distribution has established a Master Type Library (MTL). The MTL contains standard transformer
parameters for the vast majority of transformers utilised in Eskom Distribution. The MTL provides a
standardised set of transformer parameters for all subscribing systems such as ReticMaster and
PowerFactory. The data libraries in ReticMaster and PowerFactory should be referenced to view typical
values.
The following should be noted:

The MTL values are typical values. Actual values may vary slightly from standard values.
Standard values are acceptable for most power system studies. Standard values must be applied
for future equipment where actual value information is not yet available.

The MTL only contains standard values for equipment. There are additional installation
parameters (e.g. earthing configurations, voltage control settings etc) that vary between
installations of the same type of equipment. These parameters are not specified by the MTL and
need to be defined by the Network Planner.

The MTL only contains transformer and tap changer parameters as are required for normal loadflow and fault level studies. Additional parameters may be required for specialist studies such as
Ferro resonance analysis.

Reactive impedances are specified at the system frequency of 50Hz. For harmonic studies,
packages such as PowerFactory adjust these impedances at different harmonic frequencies.

Some older simulation packages, such as PSSE, required impedances to be entered in per unit
on a system MVA base. The values stored in the MTL are physical impedances (ohms) and per
unit impedances on the transformer rated power. Conversion to other units (or system power
base) can be performed to meet the requirements of individual software packages.

As the same specification tap changer can be utilised with different power transformers, the MTL
has separate type data for tap changers and transformers.

Annex C contains details of the transformer and tap changer attribute data required for PSA, including
which parameters can have standard values applied. This data model has been applied within SmallWorld.
SmallWorld integration with ReticMaster and PowerFactory (in the near future) automatically converts this
data into the specific formats required by ReticMaster and PowerFactory.

Application guideline

8.1

Distribution transformers (MV/LV and SWER isolation)

As a general philosophy Eskom Distribution does not provide redundant MV/LV transformation.
Furthermore all LV networks are operated as radial systems with no interconnection between LV networks.
The equipment supplied by the distribution transformer must be adequately rated for the LV fault level. This
is enforced via appropriate LV design, which is the responsibility of Project Engineering.
When planning new distribution transformers (or upgrades to existing distribution transformers) the Network
Planner needs to ensure that the appropriate technology (SWER, single phase, dual phase or three phase)
is applied and that thermal loading limits are not exceeded. Network Planners should not plan to exceed
distribution transformer nameplate ratings, except for distribution transformers supply electrification
consumers. For electrification additional overloading is allowed, typically up to 130% of the nameplate
rating. These additional overloading limits are specified in Electrification Technical Bulletins (such as TB0231), and should be referenced.
ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED
When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

34-617
DGL
1
33 of 67

Table 7 contains the scope to be provided by the Network Planner for a new MV/LV or SWER isolation
transformer (or replacement of an old transformer with a new one).
Table 7: Distribution transformer data to be specified by the Network Planner
1

Transformer parameter

Description

Rated Power

Standard power rating e.g. 16, 32, 50, 100kVA etc

Nominal Primary Voltage

Primary MV system nominal voltage e.g. 11kV, 22kV or 19kV

Secondary Technology

SWER isolation (source), Single Phase, Dual Phase or Three Phase

Note:

The transformer will be included in a project, which will contain information on e.g. NDP references,
required completion dates, costs etc. The table only focuses on the distribution transformer itself.

The vector group and secondary voltage do not need to be specified as they are dictated by the
transformer Technology and transformer specifications.

Primary windings are unearthed, and secondary windings are solidly earthed.

8.2

Major power transformers (HV/HV, HV/MV and MV/MV)

When selecting a major power transformer for a specific application the following minimum requirements
must be met by the Network Planner:

Loading limits: Taking into consideration expected project lead times and optimistic load forecast
scenarios the maximum loading should not exceed normal or nameplate ratings. PT Load
software can be used to assess the capacity of a transformer, taking into account load profiles,
fans, ambient temperature etc. The use of PT Load to allow transformer loading in excess of the
nameplate rating should only be used as an emergency measure and should not be adopted as a
planning philosophy. In sizing new transformers any overload capability is not used to cater for
future forecasted load e.g. if 12MVA needs to be supplied the Network Planning must not utilise a
10MVA transformer with a 20% overload capability. Where ambient temperatures are abnormally
high or the primary voltage is less than 95% the planner must take into consideration any derating requirements. The Eskom Distribution Transformer Loading Guide DGL 34-649 should be
used to evaluate transformer loading levels where operation at loads in excess of nameplate
ratings is proposed (typically only for emergencies). Network Planners should utilise the
emergency overload limits in table B.1 for the assessment of transformer loading during
contingencies (see example below table B.1). Additional constraints on transformer loading are
specified in DGL 34-450 Network Planning Reliability Guideline.

Fault level limits: The 1 second fault level ratings of equipment (supplied by transformers) should
not be exceeded. Increased transformer capacity will increase fault levels. High impedance
transformers and/or fault limiting reactors should only be used if there is no technically acceptable
alternative that has less load losses and meets the fault level requirements.

Vector Group compatibility: Transformer vector groups must be selected such there are no
phase shift incompatibility problems between interconnected networks. Standard vector groups
are specified in table 6.

Redundancy: The transformer redundancy requirements specified in DGL 34-450 Network


Planning Reliability Guideline, must be complied with.

For existing transformers the violation of the above minimum requirements is a trigger for network
reinforcement or refurbishment.
The future loads and network configuration must be assessed to ensure compliance with these minimum
requirements for the expected load forecast and network changes.
ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED
When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

34-617
DGL
1
34 of 67

The following should be considered by the Network Planner, and included in the substation scope (as is
influenced by the power transformers):

Bus sections: Running transformer bus sections open reduces fault level and also reduces the
number and severity of through faults supplied by power transformers. If the associated
momentary interruption can be tolerated (in the event of a power transformer failure),
consideration should be given to operating bus sections open, with automated switching of bus
sections in the event of a transformer failure. This may negate the requirement for high
impedance transformers or fault limiting reactors.

Earthing and earthing transformers: Single phase fault level calculations for future transformer
installations must be based on appropriate star point and NECR earthing. NECR earthing should
be installed for all transformation with a MV capacity >5MVA. Star point earthing should be
performed to ensure acceptable single phase fault protection coordination, considering partially
graded transformer windings. See section 6.2 for additional detail. When in doubt Electricity
Delivery Network Services (Protection) should be consulted.

OLTC tap changers: Automatic OLTC control should be included as a default requirement.
Manual or remote control tapping should only be proposed after careful consideration of voltage
regulation implications. Remote control refers to remote tap change control via an operator at a
control centre (no automatic control).

Standard and preferred power ratings: Standard transformer sizes (table 6) shall be used.
Furthermore Network Planners shall, where possible, utilise preferred sizes.

Note that the assessment of technical losses is not required. Over sizing transformers to reduce load losses results
in increased no-load losses, and usually results in a net increase in technical losses.
Note that environmental considerations are taken into consideration as part of transformer and substation design.

Table 8 contains the scope to be provided by the Network Planner for a new major power transformer (or
replacement of an old transformer with a new one).
Table 8: Major power transformer data to be specified by the Network Planner
1

Transformer parameter

Description

Rated Power

Standard power rating e.g. 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 MVA

Nominal Primary Voltage

Standard nominal system voltage e.g. 11, 22, 33, 44, 66, 88 or 132kV

Nominal Secondary voltage

Standard nominal system voltage e.g. 11, 22, 33, 44, 66, 88 or 132kV

Vector Group

Vector group and phase shift

Impedance Specification

Standard or High impedance transformer. Default Standard

Automatic Tap Changing


Enabled

Options are Yes, No or Via Remote Control. Default Yes

Note:

The transformer will be included in a project, which will contain information on NDP references, required
completion dates, costs etc. The project will also include specific requirements for breakers, NECR
earthing transformers etc. The table only focuses on the power transformer itself.

Unless there are extenuating circumstances, standard transformers (as per DSP 34-1002) shall be used.

Even if the specific installation does not require an OLTC tap changer, the transformer will be ordered with
the standard OLTC tap changer.

In the case of three winding transformers, the tertiary winding voltage and rating will need to be specified
(the standard tertiary voltage rating is 22kV).

High impedance transformers are only to be utilised if there is no technically acceptable alternative that
has lower load losses.

ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED


When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

8.3

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

34-617
DGL
1
35 of 67

Costing

The latest approved costing tool should be utilised for costing new transformer installations.

Modelling power transformers in PSA software

This section describes ReticMaster and PowerFactory functionality and contains software screenshots. It is
possible that functionality and interfaces may change in future software versions. The latest software
version and user guide should be consulted.

9.1

ReticMaster

9.1.1

Data type library

The data library contains a dictionary of power transformer parameters. This library type data is used when
modelling transformers. ReticMaster only supports the modelling of two winding transformers. Three
winding transformers must be modelled in PowerFactory. ReticMaster does not support a dedicated NECR
model. Detailed modelling of NECR earthing must be modelled in PowerFactory.

Figure 16: Transformer data library editor


The ReticMaster data library is illustrated in figure 16. The fields are described in table 9.

ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED


When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

34-617
DGL
1
36 of 67

Table 9: Transformer data type library fields


1
Field
Specifications: Technology

2
Units
None

Specifications: Voltage

None

Specifications: Grounding:
Primary flag
Specifications: Grounding:
Secondary flag
Specifications: Grounding: R0 (*3)

None

3
Notes
Select the technology for the primary and secondary sides of the
transformer
Select the voltage for the primary and secondary sides of the
transformer
Enable flag if primary winding is earthed (solid or via impedance)

None

Enable flag if secondary winding is earthed (solid or via impedance)

Ohms

Specifications: Grounding: X0

Ohms

Specifications: Z
Specifications: X/R
Specifications: Z0
Specifications: X0/R0
Specifications: Overload

%
Ratio
%
Ratio
Per unit

Specifications: Core loss


Specifications: Core loss
Specifications: Boost

Watts
Var
%

Specifications: Vector Group

None

Specifications: Shift

Tap: Number
Tap: Nominal
Tap: %Min

None
None
%

Tap: %Max

Tap: % Step

Tap: % VMin

Tap:% VMax

Tap: Physical

None

For each winding the earthing zero sequence resistance is specified


in ohms. Star point connected resistances must be multiplied by
three for conversion to zero sequence
For each winding the earthing zero sequence reactance is specified
in ohms. Star point connected reactances must be multiplied by three
for conversion to zero sequence
Positive sequence impedance in % on transformer rated power base
Positive sequence X/R ratio
Zero sequence impedance in % on transformer rated power base
Zero sequence X/R ratio
Overload rating as per unit of rated power. The overload rating is
utilised for all rate B reporting
Rated no-load core loss active power
Rated no-load core loss re-active power
Rated no-load boost voltage relative to the nominal system voltage.
This field is used to model e.g. 380V, 415V and 420V transformers
as may be installed in nominal 400V networks. In the above example
the rated secondary voltage is 400V *(1-5/100)=380V
Enumerated list of main vector groups. Unbalanced vector groups
result in unbalanced load transformation. Balanced vector groups
transform unbalanced secondary loads to the transformer primary as
balanced loads
The phase shift is calculated from the vector group for Unbalanced
vector groups. The phase shift can be user specified for Balanced
vector groups
Sets the number of taps available on the transformer
Specifies the tap for the nominal position
Minimum tap ratio. This is the tap ratio (in % relative to nominal tap)
for maximum boosting. Under no-load conditions the secondary
voltage in this tap = rated secondary voltage * (1+ Boost/100) / Tap
Min. Note that this is a ratio and not a tap position number
Maximum tap ratio. This is the tap ratio (in % relative to nominal tap)
for maximum bucking. Under no-load conditions the secondary
voltage in this tap = rated secondary voltage * (1+ Boost/100) / Tap
Max. Note that this is a ratio and not a tap position number
Tap step size. This is the % change in secondary voltage between
tap positions
Default tap changer controller minimum voltage set-point. If
automatic tap changing is enabled, the secondary voltage will be
adjusted (within tapping range capability) such that the secondary
voltage is >= VMin (%)
Default tap changer controller maximum voltage set-point. If
automatic tap changing is enabled, the secondary voltage will be
adjusted (within tapping range capability) such that the secondary
voltage is <= VMax (%)
Toggle between Physical and % Taps

ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED


When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

9.2

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

34-617
DGL
1
37 of 67

Element data

The ReticMaster transformer element data editor is illustrated in figures 17 and 18. The fields are described
in tables 10 and 11.

Figure 17: Transformer element editor (Specifications)


Table 10: ReticMaster transformer element fields (Specifications)
1

Field

Units

Notes

Open

None

Flag to switch transformer in or out of service

Transformer type

None

Drop down list of all transformers in data type library. Used to


selected main transformer characteristics (power rating, rated
voltages and vector group) and provide default values for other
characteristics such as impedances, earthing and tapping

Primary phasing

None

Phase connection of the transformer primary winding (only needs to


be specified for single phase technologies)

Domestic load category

None

Used in the selection of Herman Beta load parameters for


probabilistic domestic voltage drop calculation. Applies default
Herman Beta parameters to all domestic connections supplied by the
transformer in question. Only required for LV domestic voltage drop
calculation

Specifications

Various

As per descriptions in data type library. Note that impedances,


overload rating and core loss can be changed from library defaults

Earthing

Various

As per descriptions in data type library. Note that earthing flags and
impedances can be changed from library defaults

ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED


When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

34-617
DGL
1
38 of 67

Figure 18: Transformer element editor (Tap Settings)


Table 11: ReticMaster transformer element fields (Tap Settings)
1

Field

Units

Notes

Tap: Number, Nominal, Step &


Position

Per unit

As per descriptions in data type library. Note that tapping


characteristics can be changed from library defaults

Tap: Lock

None

Flag to lock tap position. Set flag for OCTS, and unset flag for OLTC

Tap: Physical

None

Toggle between Physical and % Taps

Voltage Regulation: Minimum


% Voltage

Same as VMin in data type library. Only used if Lock Tap is unset.
Note that voltage control settings can be changed from library
defaults

Voltage Regulation: Maximum


% Voltage

Same as VMax in data type library. Only used if Lock Tap is unset.
Note that voltage control settings can be changed from library
defaults

Line Drop Compensation: Use


LDC

None

Flag to enable LDC. The LDC primary system impedance in ohms


(based on the conductor length, type and temperature) is calculated
and displayed

Line Drop Compensation:


Length

Meters

Length of conductor utilised for LDC impedance modelling. Only


used if Use LDC flag is set

Line Drop Compensation:


Conductor type

None

Conductor type utilised for LDC impedance modelling. Only used if


Use LDC flag is set

Line Drop Compensation:


Temperature

Conductor temperature (as influences conductor resistance) utilised


for LDC impedance modelling. Only used if Use LDC flag is set

9.3

PowerFactory

PowerFactory supports both two winding and three winding transformer models. For simplification only the
two winding transformer model is described in this guideline.

ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED


When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

9.4

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

34-617
DGL
1
39 of 67

Two winding transformer data type library

Figure 19: Two winding transformer type data (Basic Data)


Table 12: Two winding transformer type fields (Basic Data)
1

Fields

Units

Notes

Name

None

Name of the transformer

Technology

None

Describes the number of phases present (three phase, single phase or


SWER). Technology modeling guidelines are provided in DGL 34-618

Rated Power

MVA

Nominal (nameplate) power rating

Nominal Frequency

Hz

Default to 50

Rated voltage: HV side

kV

Rated (nameplate) phase to phase voltage of the primary winding. The


rated voltage can vary slightly from the nominal system voltage

Rated voltage: LV side

kV

Rated (nameplate) phase to phase voltage of the secondary winding.


The rated voltage can vary slightly from the nominal system voltage. The
LV winding is the secondary winding and is not necessarily in the LV
voltage range (<1kV)

Positive Sequence
Impedance: Short Circuit
Voltage uk

Positive sequence impedance in percent on the transformer rated power


base (for neutral tap position)

ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED


When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

34-617
DGL
1
40 of 67

Fields

Units

Notes

Positive Sequence
Impedance: Ratio X/R

Ratio

Positive sequence impedance ratio between reactance and resistance


(for neutral tap position). The X/R ratio can also be specified as a load
loss in kW or the resistive component of the impedance (in percent) can
be specified

Zero Sequ Impedance:


Absolute uk0

Zero sequence impedance in percent on the transformer rated power


base (for neutral tap position)

Zero Sequ Impedance:


Resistive part ukr0

Zero sequence impedance resistive percentage (for neutral tap position).


The resistive percentage can be calculated from the zero sequence X/R
ratio as follows; ukr0 = sqrt(Z^2/((X/R)^2+1))

Vector Group: HV Side

None

Primary winding vector group

Vector Group: LV Side

None

Secondary winding vector group

Vector Group: Phase Shift

*30deg

Phase shift from primary to secondary windings. This integer is multiplied


by 30 to obtain the phase shift in degrees

Figure 20: Two winding transformer type data (Load Flow)

ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED


When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

34-617
DGL
1
41 of 67

Table 13: Two winding transformer type fields (Load Flow)


1

Fields

Units

Notes

Tap Changer: at Side

None

Physical location of the tap changer

Tap Changer: Additional


Voltage per Tap

Change in voltage per tap step. If the tap changer is located on the HV
winding and the buck tap position number is greater than the boost tap
position number (as is the Eskom standard) then the tap step must be
negative

Tap Changer: Phase of du

deg

Tap changer phase shift between primary and secondary windings.


Default 0

Tap Changer: Neutral


Position

None

Tap position number for neutral tap (no bucking or boosting of the rated
voltages)

Tap Changer: Minimum


Position

None

Tap position for maximum bucking of the secondary voltage

Tap Changer: Maximum


Position

None

Tap position for maximum boosting of the secondary voltage

Tap dependant impedance

Various

Positive and zero sequence impedances (real and reactive) can be


specified at maximum tap positions. PowerFactory interpolates the
impedances for interim tap positions. Note that in the element the user
can specify impedances and phase shifts independently for each tap
position

Magnetizing Impedance: No
Load Current

No load core magnetizing current for neutral tap position and rated
voltage, as a percentage of the rated power. This is the apparent core
loss power expressed as a percentage of transformer rating

Magnetizing Impedance: No
Load Losses

No load core magnetizing losses for neutral tap position and rated
voltage, in kW. This is the active core loss power

9.5

Two winding transformer element data

Figure 21: Two winding transformer element data (Basic Data)


ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED
When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

34-617
DGL
1
42 of 67

Table 14: Two winding transformer element fields (Basic Data)


1

Fields

Units

Notes

Name

None

Name of transformer element

Type

None

The relevant two-winding transformer type must be specified

HV-Side

None

Primary busbar and phasing connection

LV-Side

None

Secondary busbar and phasing connection

Out of Service

None

Only select if transformer is to be excluded from study

External Star Point

None

Set flag if transformer has external star point. This flag must be set if a
neutral is to be connected to the transformer star point

Number of parallel
transformers

None

If a bank of identical transformers are modelled as a single element then


the number of transformers in the bank must be specified. Default 1

Rating Factor

Per unit

Additional capacity via consideration of load profile and ambient


temperature. Default 1

Star Point

None

Determines whether the star point is connected to ground or not

Petersen Coil

None

Only select if the internal grounding impedance is a Petersen Coil.

Resistance, Re

Ohm

Winding grounding resistance. This is the physical resistance (not


multiplied by 3)

Reactance, Xe

Ohm

Winding grounding reactance. This is the physical reactance (not


multiplied by 3)

Figure 22: Two winding transformer element data (Load Flow)


ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED
When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

34-617
DGL
1
43 of 67

Table 15: Two winding transformer element fields (Load Flow)


1

Fields

Units

Notes

According to measurement
report

None

If this flag is set tap specific impedances, loading limits and phase shifts
can be specified (via the measurement report). Default unset

Tap position

None

With OCTS transformers this is the fixed tap position. For OLTC
transformers this is the tap position for initial load-flow calculation.
Default to nominal

Automatic Tap Changing

None

If OCTS transformer unset. If OLTC transformer set. Note that the tap
changer control settings specified below are only relevant if Automatic
Tap Changing is set

Tap Changer

None

Options are either discrete or continuous. Discrete Uses integer tap


positions. Tap steps are enforced. Continuous Does not enforce tap
steps. Infinite number of tap steps. Default Discrete

Controlled Node

None

Directly controlled node. Default LV

Control Mode

None

Default V (Voltage). Note that the control parameters vary for different
control modes (voltage, reactive power etc). As voltage control is the
most commonly used method of tap changer control, only voltage control
setting attributes are included below

Phase

None

The phase voltage utilised as the reference voltage by the tap change
controller

Setpoint

None

Busbar target voltage. Default is local.

Remote Control

None

Busbar at which voltage is controlled. If unset then the busbar specified


via the Controlled Node is controlled

Voltage Setpoint

Per unit

Tap changer set-point. Default to typical Regional value e.g. 1.03

Lower Voltage Bound

Per unit

Tap changer lower voltage limit. Default to typical Regional value e.g.
1.02

Upper Voltage Bound

Per unit

Tap changer upper voltage limit. Default to typical Regional value e.g.
1.04

Controller Time Constant

second
s

Time between tapping for the coordination of series tap changers.


Default 0.5

Line Drop Compensation

None

Used to specify LDC settings. Default None. See DGL 34-539 for
additional detail on LDC modelling

ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED


When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

9.6

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

34-617
DGL
1
44 of 67

NECR element data

Figure 23: NECR element data (Basic Data)


Table 16: NECR element fields (Basic Data)
1

Fields

Units

Notes

Name

None

Name of NECR element

Out of Service

None

Only select if NECR is to be excluded from study

Rated Voltage

kV

Rated phase to phase voltage

Rated Current

kA

Rated short duration earth fault current e.g. 360A

Zero Sequence Resistance

Ohm

NEC zero sequence resistance (see note below)

Zero Sequence Reactance

Ohm

NEC zero sequence reactance

Petersen Coil

None

Only select if the internal grounding impedance is a Petersen Coil.

Resistance, Re

Ohm

NEC Resistor resistance (if not modelled in Zero Sequence Resistance,


see note below)

Reactance, Xe

Ohm

NEC Resistor reactance (if not modelled in Zero Sequence Reactance,


see note below)

Note that NECRs do not require type associations. Also note that the NECR resistor does not need to be modelled
separately, and can be included in the NEC zero sequence resistance. This method of modelling (combining NEC and
resistor zero sequence resistances) is preferred where specifications only provide the combined NECR zero
sequence impedances, and dont differentiate between the NEC and earthing Resistor. Note that if the Resistor is
included in the Zero Sequence Resistance its physical resistance must be converted to zero sequence i.e. multiplied
by 3.

ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED


When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

9.7

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

34-617
DGL
1
45 of 67

General notes

The following should be noted:

PowerFactory does not explicitly support emergency thermal ratings. However scales and triggers
can be utilised to specify multiple ratings.

10

Worked example

The following worked example illustrates some of the key issues discussed in this guideline. The associated
PowerFactory file (Power transformer modelling_v14.pfd) is published as an attachment to this guideline.
20MVA and 10MVA 132/11kV transformers are operated in parallel to supply load with a maximum demand
of 15MVA (figure 24):

The incoming 132kV HV supply voltage drops to 97% during peak loading.

Both transformers have a vector group YNd1 and are solidly earthed on their 132kV primary
winding star points.

The 11kV terminals of the transformers are earthed via 300amp NECRs.

Both 132/11kV transformers are fitted with 17 position -5% to +15% 1.25% step OLTC tap
changers located on their primary windings.

The 20MVA transformer has a positive sequence impedance of 10% (X/R = 25).

The 10MVA transformer has a positive sequence impedance of 8% (X/R = 25).

Both OLTC tap changers are set to regulate the 11kV busbar with a set-point of 103%.

The load power factor is 0.9.

As this example involves paralleled sub-transmission transformers, modelling has only been performed in
PowerFactory.

ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED


When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

34-617
DGL
1
46 of 67

Figure 24: Example 20MVA and 10MVA 132/11kV transformers operated in parallel

ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED


When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

34-617
DGL
1
47 of 67

Table 17: Case files


1

Case file

Description

C1 Base network

The network has been modelled in PowerFactory. Note the type and element settings and
values. Dummy 11kV busbars have been used for the connection of the NECRs so that the
NECRs are switched in and out of service with the MV transformer breakers.

C2 In step

Perform a load flow calculation. Both transformers auto-tap to tap position 11 in order to
regulate the 11kV busbar voltage at 103%. Due to the mismatch in impedance the 20MVA
and 10MVA transformers supply 9.43MVA and 5.89MVA respectively. The 20MVA and
10MVA transformers are loaded to 48.6% and 60.75% respectively of their nameplate
current ratings. The total load loss is 0.03MW.

C3 Out of step

Perform a load flow calculation. The 11kV busbar is still regulated at 103%, but with a 4 tap
step differential between the 20MVA (tap 9) and 10MVA (tap 13) transformers (the
transformer taps have been locked in these positions). The tap differential results in
circulating reactive power between the two transformers. The transformer loading has
changed as follows:
20MVA from 48.6% to 41.10%
10MVA from 60.75% to 96.79%
The total load loss has increased from 0.03MW to 0.04MW.
It is important to note that this tap differential is causing the 10MVA transformer to operate
close to its rated power. Load losses have increased even though there has been no change
in the maximum demand of the load supplied by the 11kV busbar.

C4 Maximum 3p
fault level

Perform a fault level calculation. Both transformers are in service. The three phase fault
level at the 11kV busbar is 18.29kA (zero fault impedance). All equipment connected to this
busbar should have a one second fault level rating > 18.29kA.

C5 Minimum 3p
fault level

Perform a fault level calculation. The 20MVA transformer is out of service (HV and MV
breakers are open). The three phase fault level at the 11kV busbar is 7.2kA (zero fault
impedance). Protection coordination should still be acceptable with this reduced fault level.

C6 Maximum 1p
fault level

Perform a fault level calculation. Both transformers are in service. The single phase to
ground fault level at the 11kV busbar is 0.74kA (zero fault impedance). Each NECR supplies
an earth fault current of 0.37kA. There is no zero sequence current flow in the 132kV HV
network due to the 11kV Delta windings.

C7 Minimum 1p
fault level

Perform a fault level calculation. The 20MVA transformer is out of service (HV and MV
breakers are open). The single phase to ground fault level at the 11kV busbar is 0.368kA
(zero fault impedance). Protection coordination should still be acceptable with this reduced
fault level.

C8 10MVA trfr
contingency

Perform a load flow calculation. The 10MVA transformer is out of service (HV and MV
breakers opened). The 20MVA transformer tap position increases to tap 12. The 11kV
busbar is still regulated at 103%. The loading on the 20MVA transformer is 15.53MVA
(80.06% of nameplate current rating). There is no overloading problem.

C9 20MVA trfr
contingency

Perform a load flow calculation. The 20MVA transformer is out of service (HV and MV
breakers opened). The 10MVA transformer tap position increases to tap 14. The 11kV
busbar is still regulated at 103%. The loading on the 10MVA transformer is 15.86MVA
(163.55% of nameplate current rating). There is an overloading problem.
The substation is located in Johannesburg and supplies suburban load. Referring to table
B.1, the emergency overload limit is 130%.The emergency overload capability is being
exceeded.

C10 20MVA trfr


contingency

Perform a load flow calculation. The 20MVA transformer is out of service (HV and MV
breakers opened). The 15MVA load has been scaled to 80%. This simulates 20% load
shedding or 20% load transfer to other MV sources. The 10MVA transformer loading has
been reduced to 130% of its nameplate current rating. Note that this is a loading of
12.55MVA (not 13MVA) due to the less than nominal 132kV voltage of 97%.
ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED

When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

34-617
DGL
1
48 of 67

Annex A - Earth fault current flow with common MV grounding


configurations
For simplicity the transformation ratio in the following figures is 1:1.
I/3

I/3

I/3

I/3

I/3

I/3

I/3

I/3

2I/3

I/3

I/3

I/3

Earth fault

I
NEC
Resistor

Figure A.1: NECR earthing of a star-delta transformer


(Note that primary star point earthing does not affect earth fault current flow)

I
I

I
I
Earthing Resistor
Earth fault
I
I

Figure A.2: Star point resistive earthing of a delta-star transformer

ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED


When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

34-617
DGL
1
49 of 67

Annex A
(Continued)
I

I/3
2I/3

I/3
I/3

2I/3

I/3

I/3

I/3

2I/3

I/3

I/3

I/3

Earth fault

I
NEC
Resistor

Figure A.3: NECR earthing of a delta-star transformer

I
I

I
Earthing Resistor
I

Earth fault
I
I

Figure A.4: Star point resistive earthing of a star-star transformer with earthed primary star point

ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED


When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

34-617
DGL
1
50 of 67

Annex A
(Continued)
I/3

I/3
I/3

I/3
2I/3

I/3

I/3

I
Earthing Resistor
Earth fault

2I/3

I
I

Figure A.5: Star point resistive earthing of a star-star transformer with unearthed primary star
point. If a delta winding is not present the tank delta effect provides a delta winding effect

I/3
I/3

I/3
I/3
2I/3

I/3

2I/3

I/3

2I/3

I/3

I/3

2I/3

I/3

I/3

I/3

I
Earth fault

NEC
Resistor

Figure A.6: NECR earthing of a star-star transformer


(Note that primary star point earthing does not affect earth fault current flow)

ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED


When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

34-617
DGL
1
51 of 67

Annex B - Major power transformer emergency overload ratings


Major power transformer emergency overload ratings have been calculated (RES/RR/03/20960
Transformer loading lookup table) for different geographical locations (variation in ambient temperature)
and load types (variation in load profile) assuming standard Eskom Distribution power transformer
protection settings. The following criteria constrain the maximum loading level:

Maximum top oil temperature of 105C.

Maximum winding hot spot temperature of 120C.

Maximum load current of 130% of rated (nameplate) current (over current will start to pick up
above this limit).

The maximum emergency overload rating is the loading level at which any one of the above criteria is
reached.
It must be noted that these overload ratings are conservative. The IEC60354 emergency overload limits are
based on maximum top oil, winding and load current limits of 115C, 140C and 150% respectively.
Changing protection settings to align with these IEC60354 limits allows additional overload. This additional
overload capacity is only to be utilised by network control in emergency conditions, and is not to be utilised
by Network Planning for contingency overload ratings. Network Planning contingency overload ratings must
be based on the standard Eskom Distribution power transformer protection settings thereby ensuring that
these overload limits can be applied without protection setting changes. This philosophy also provides
some additional overload rating capacity to provide some margin for unexpected events such as greater
than forecasted loads and abnormally high ambient temperatures.

Figure B.1: SABW weather station sites


ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED
When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

34-617
DGL
1
52 of 67

Annex B
(Continued)
Table B.1: Major power transformer emergency overload rating (% of nameplate rating) for standard
Eskom Distribution protection settings
Load type

Suburban

Township

Electrification

Commercial

Agricultural

Basic metals

Chemical

Non-metallic

Textile

Food & beverage

Paper

Other manufac

Gold

Platinum

Other mining

Traction

Alexander bay

1.30

1.30

1.30

1.13

1.25

1.11

1.08

1.10

1.13

1.13

1.12

1.11

1.16

1.16

1.12

1.16

Beaufort West

1.30

1.30

1.30

1.13

1.25

1.09

1.09

1.11

1.15

1.14

1.13

1.13

1.16

1.16

1.12

1.21

Bethlehem

1.30

1.30

1.30

1.18

1.30

1.13

1.14

1.16

1.20

1.19

1.18

1.18

1.20

1.20

1.17

1.26

Bloemfontein

1.30

1.30

1.30

1.15

1.27

1.10

1.11

1.12

1.16

1.15

1.14

1.14

1.18

1.18

1.12

1.23

Calvinia

1.30

1.30

1.30

1.11

1.23

1.10

1.07

1.08

1.12

1.11

1.10

1.10

1.17

1.17

1.11

1.22

Cape Town

1.30

1.30

1.30

1.12

1.25

1.11

1.08

1.09

1.13

1.12

1.11

1.11

1.16

1.16

1.14

1.20

De Aar

1.30

1.30

1.30

1.13

1.27

1.09

1.09

1.11

1.14

1.13

1.12

1.13

1.17

1.17

1.11

1.23

Durban

1.30

1.30

1.30

1.17

1.26

1.08

1.09

1.14

1.16

1.16

1.15

1.16

1.15

1.15

1.13

1.21

East London

1.30

1.30

1.30

1.14

1.28

1.10

1.11

1.14

1.14

1.14

1.13

1.16

1.17

1.17

1.15

1.17

Ellisras

1.30

1.30

1.30

1.13

1.24

1.07

1.08

1.10

1.14

1.13

1.12

1.12

1.14

1.14

1.11

1.18

Ermelo

1.30

1.30

1.30

1.19

1.30

1.13

1.14

1.17

1.19

1.19

1.18

1.18

1.20

1.20

1.17

1.23

George

1.30

1.30

1.30

1.15

1.26

1.11

1.11

1.12

1.14

1.14

1.14

1.13

1.17

1.17

1.12

1.19

Hoedspruit

1.30

1.30

1.30

1.12

1.24

1.07

1.08

1.09

1.13

1.12

1.11

1.11

1.14

1.14

1.10

1.17

Johannesburg

1.30

1.30

1.30

1.18

1.30

1.13

1.14

1.15

1.19

1.18

1.17

1.17

1.20

1.20

1.16

1.24

Kimberly

1.30

1.30

1.30

1.13

1.25

1.08

1.09

1.10

1.14

1.13

1.12

1.12

1.15

1.15

1.10

1.21

Kroonstad

1.30

1.30

1.30

1.16

1.28

1.10

1.11

1.13

1.17

1.16

1.15

1.15

1.18

1.18

1.14

1.23

Ladysmith

1.30

1.30

1.30

1.15

1.28

1.11

1.11

1.13

1.16

1.15

1.15

1.14

1.18

1.18

1.13

1.21

Langebaanweg

1.30

1.30

1.30

1.13

1.23

1.10

1.09

1.10

1.14

1.13

1.12

1.11

1.15

1.15

1.11

1.20

Lichtenburg

1.30

1.30

1.30

1.16

1.28

1.11

1.12

1.13

1.17

1.16

1.15

1.16

1.18

1.18

1.15

1.22

Mafikeng

1.30

1.30

1.30

1.14

1.26

1.09

1.10

1.11

1.15

1.14

1.13

1.13

1.16

1.16

1.13

1.13

Margate

1.30

1.30

1.30

1.17

1.28

1.09

1.10

1.16

1.16

1.16

1.16

1.17

1.16

1.16

1.14

1.21

Location

ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED


When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

34-617
DGL
1
53 of 67

Annex B
(Continued)
Load type

Suburban

Township

Electrification

Commercial

Agricultural

Basic metals

Chemical

Non-metallic

Textile

Food & beverage

Paper

Other manufac

Gold

Platinum

Other mining

Traction

Nelspruit

1.30

1.30

1.30

1.15

1.27

1.10

1.10

1.12

1.16

1.15

1.14

1.14

1.17

1.17

1.14

1.19

Newcastle

1.30

1.30

1.30

1.16

1.28

1.11

1.11

1.14

1.16

1.17

1.16

1.15

1.18

1.18

1.15

1.20

Phalaborwa

1.30

1.30

1.30

1.12

1.25

1.07

1.08

1.10

1.13

1.12

1.11

1.11

1.14

1.14

1.11

1.17

Pietermaritzburg

1.30

1.29

1.30

1.12

1.24

1.09

1.08

1.09

1.13

1.12

1.11

1.11

1.15

1.15

1.09

1.17

Polokwane

1.30

1.30

1.30

1.15

1.28

1.10

1.11

1.13

1.16

1.15

1.14

1.14

1.17

1.17

1.14

1.20

Plettenberg Bay

1.30

1.30

1.30

1.15

1.28

1.11

1.12

1.14

1.14

1.15

1.14

1.16

1.18

1.18

1.14

1.19

Port Elizabeth

1.30

1.30

1.30

1.15

1.26

1.10

1.10

1.12

1.15

1.15

1.14

1.13

1.18

1.18

1.15

1.19

Potchefstroom

1.30

1.30

1.30

1.13

1.25

1.09

1.09

1.10

1.14

1.13

1.12

1.12

1.16

1.16

1.13

1.19

Pretoria

1.30

1.30

1.30

1.14

1.26

1.09

1.10

1.12

1.15

1.14

1.13

1.13

1.16

1.16

1.13

1.20

Queenstown

1.30

1.30

1.30

1.14

1.26

1.11

1.09

1.11

1.15

1.14

1.13

1.13

1.17

1.17

1.11

1.22

Richardsbay

1.30

1.30

1.30

1.13

1.23

1.06

1.08

1.11

1.13

1.12

1.11

1.11

1.13

1.13

1.10

1.18

Springbok

1.30

1.30

1.30

1.14

1.25

1.10

1.10

1.11

1.15

1.14

1.13

1.13

1.16

1.16

1.12

1.22

Umtata

1.30

1.30

1.30

1.14

1.24

1.10

1.09

1.10

1.14

1.13

1.12

1.12

1.15

1.15

1.10

1.21

Upington

1.30

1.30

1.30

1.10

1.22

1.06

1.06

1.08

1.12

1.12

1.10

1.10

1.12

1.12

1.09

1.19

Vryheid

1.30

1.30

1.30

1.15

1.28

1.10

1.11

1.13

1.16

1.15

1.14

1.14

1.18

1.18

1.14

1.19

Welkom

1.30

1.30

1.30

1.15

1.27

1.09

1.10

1.12

1.16

1.15

1.14

1.14

1.16

1.16

1.12

1.22

Witbank

1.30

1.30

1.30

1.15

1.28

1.11

1.12

1.13

1.18

1.16

1.15

1.15

1.18

1.18

1.15

1.22

Location

Referring to table B.1, a 20MVA transformer supplying predominately commercial load in Johannesburg
has an emergency rating (for planning contingency studies) of 1.18*20 = 23.6MVA. The same transformer
supplying predominately agricultural load has an emergency rating of 1.3*20 = 26MVA.

ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED


When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

34-617
DGL
1
54 of 67

Annex C - Parameters required for PSA


The following colour coding has been applied to the tables in this annex.

Blue: Key parameters (determine the link to the standard values).

Orange: Parameters for which standard values can be applied.

Green: Parameters for which standard values can NOT be applied, but which are required for
PSA.
Table C.1: OLTC tap changer
1

Parameter

Units

Description

Tapping range and step size

None

Tapping range and step size standard configurations

Rated voltage

kV

Tap-changer nameplate voltage

Neutral tap position voltage

kV

Tap-changer nominal voltage in neutral tap

Automatic
enabled

None

Automatic tap changing enabled

Voltage control voltage setpoint

% Nominal voltage setpoint for OLTC voltage control

Voltage
bandwidth

% Nominal voltage bandwidth (+-) for OLTC voltage control.


Total bandwidth will be double this value

Tap change control mode

None

On-load tap changing control objective

Voltage control busbar

None

Controlled busbar for automatic voltage control

Voltage control phase

None

Controlled phase(s) for automatic voltage control

LDC enabled

None

Line drop compensation enabled on OLTC tap changer?

LDC CT ratio

Ratio

Line drop compensation Current Transformer ratio

LDC VT ratio

Ratio

Line drop compensation Voltage Transformer ratio

LDC R

Ohms or
Volts

Line drop compensation resistance in either primary system


ohms or controller base voltage

LDC X

Ohms or
Volts

Line drop compensation reactance in either primary system


ohms or controller base voltage

LDC V Max

Line drop compensation Maximum secondary voltage as a % of


the nominal voltage

LDC V Min

Line drop compensation Minimum secondary voltage as a % of


the nominal voltage

Bi-directional

None

Ability to auto-regulate the voltage for power flow in both


directions.

Tap position

None

OLTC tap position

Tap changer location

None

Tap-changer winding location

Minimum tap number

None

Minimum tap number. Is tap position, not tap ratio

Nominal tap number

None

Nominal tap number. Is tap position, not tap ratio

Maximum tap number

None

Maximum tap number. Is tap position, not tap ratio

Tap step size

Tap step size in %. If minimum tap number is boost tap then tap
step must be negative

Reliability parameter linkage

None

Equipment reliability library containing typical performance data

tap-changing

control

voltage

ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED


When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

34-617
DGL
1
55 of 67

Annex C
(Continued)
Table C.2: OCTS tap changer
1

Parameter

Units

Description

Tapping range and step size

None

Tapping range and step size standard configurations

Rated voltage

kV

Tap-changer nameplate voltage

Neutral tap position voltage

kV

Tap-changer nominal voltage in neutral tap

Tap position

None

OCTS tap position

Tap changer location

None

Tap-changer winding location

Minimum tap number

Number

Minimum tap number. Is tap position, not tap ratio

Nominal tap number

Number

Nominal tap number. Is tap position, not tap ratio

Maximum tap number

Number

Maximum tap number. Is tap position, not tap ratio

Tap step size

Tap step size in %. If minimum tap number is boost tap then tap
step must be negative

Reliability parameter linkage

None

Equipment reliability library containing typical performance data

Table C.3: Distribution transformer


1

Parameter

Units

Description

Power rating

kVA

Rated power for all phases (rated line current at rated voltage)

Technology

None

Primary and Secondary Technology (number of phases present)

Rated primary voltage

kV

Primary nameplate voltage

Rated secondary voltage

kV

Secondary nameplate voltage

Tap changer present

None

Describes if a tap changer is present

Tap changer type

None

On-Load Tap Changer versus De-Energised Tap Changer.


None if no tap changer is present.

Tapping range and step size

None

Tapping range and step size standard configurations

Primary phasing

None

Primary phasing (actual physical phases connected to primary)

None

Number of transformers in parallel

Primary earthed

None

Primary winding earthed

Primary earthing resistance

Ohm

Primary winding earthing resistance (physical ohms not * 3)

Primary earthing reactance

Ohm

Primary winding earthing reactance (physical ohms not * 3)

Number
parallel

of

transformers

in

ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED


When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

34-617
DGL
1
56 of 67

Annex C
(Continued)
1

Parameter

Units

Description

Secondary earthed

None

Secondary winding earthed

Secondary earthing resistance

Ohm

Secondary winding earthing resistance (physical ohms not * 3)

Secondary earthing reactance

Ohm

Secondary winding earthing reactance (physical ohms not * 3)

Vector group

None

Vector group

Phase shift

Degrees

Primary to secondary phase shift in degrees (divide by 30 to get


1-12 equivalent)

Positive sequence impedance

Nameplate impedance in % for nominal tap

Positive sequence X/R ratio

Ratio

Positive sequence X/R ratio

Zero sequence impedance

Zero sequence impedance in % for nominal tap

Zero sequence X/R ratio

Ratio

Zero sequence X/R ratio

No-load current

No-load core magnitising current as a % of the rated line current

No-load loss

kW

No-load core loss at rated voltage

Type of cooling

None

Type of cooling

Reliability parameter linkage

None

Equipment reliability library containing typical performance data

Table C.4: Major power transformer


1

Parameter

Units

Description

Power rating

kVA

Rated power for all phases (rated line current at rated voltage)

Vector group

None

Vector group

Technology

None

Primary and secondary technology (number of phases present)

Rated primary voltage

kV

Primary nameplate voltage

Rated secondary voltage

kV

Secondary nameplate voltage

Tap changer present

None

Describes if a tap changer is present

Tap changer type

None

On-Load Tap Changer versus De-Energised Tap Changer. Use


None if no tap changer is present

Tapping range and step size

None

Tapping range and step size standard configurations

Type of cooling

None

Type of cooling

Impedance specification

None

Impedance specification for possible fault level attenuation

Primary phasing

None

Primary phasing (actual physical phases connected to primary)

Additional cooling

None

Additional cooling for increased power rating

Additional cooling rating

kVA

Revised power rating with additional cooling

None

Number of transformers in parallel

Number
parallel

of

transformers

in

ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED


When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

34-617
DGL
1
57 of 67

Annex C
(Continued)
1

Parameter

Units

Description

Primary earthed

None

Primary winding earthed

Primary earthing resistance

Ohm

Primary winding earthing resistance (physical ohms not * 3)

Primary earthing reactance

Ohm

Primary winding earthing reactance (physical ohms not * 3)

Secondary earthed

None

Secondary winding earthed

Secondary earthing resistance

Ohm

Primary winding earthing resistance (physical ohms not * 3)

Secondary earthing reactance

Ohm

Primary winding earthing reactance (physical ohms not * 3)

Positive sequence impedance

Name plate impedance in % for nominal tap

Phase shift

Degrees

Primary to secondary phase shift in degrees (divide by 30 to get


1-12 equivalent)

Positive sequence X/R ratio

Ratio

Positive sequence X/R ratio

Zero sequence impedance

Zero sequence impedance in % for nominal tap

Zero sequence X/R ratio

Ratio

Zero sequence X/R ratio

No-load current

No-load core magnitising current as a % of the rated line current

No-load loss

kW

No-load core loss at rated voltage

Reliability parameter linkage

None

Equipment reliability library containing typical performance data

Table C.5: Major power auto transformer


1

Parameter

Units

Description

Power rating

kVA

Rated power for all phases (rated line current at rated voltage)

Vector group

None

Vector group

Technology

None

Primary and secondary technology (number of phases present)

Rated primary voltage

kV

Primary nameplate voltage

Rated secondary voltage

kV

Secondary nameplate voltage

Tap changer present

None

Describes if a tap changer is present

Tap changer type

None

On-Load Tap Changer versus De-Energised Tap Changer. Use


None if no tap changer is present

Tapping range and step size

None

Tapping range and step size standard configurations

Type of cooling

None

Type of cooling

Impedance specification

None

Impedance specification for possible fault level attenuation

Primary Phasing

None

Primary Phasing (actual physical phases connected to primary)

Additional cooling

None

Additional cooling for increased power rating

Additional cooling rating

kVA

Revised power rating with additional cooling

ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED


When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

34-617
DGL
1
58 of 67

Annex C
(Continued)
1

Parameter

Units

Description

None

Number of transformers in parallel

Star point earthed

None

Common star point of both primary and secondary windings


earthed

Star point earthing resistance

None

Star point winding earthing resistance (physical ohms not * 3)

Star point earthing reactance

None

Star point winding earthing reactance (physical ohms not * 3)

Positive sequence impedance

Name plate impedance in % for nominal tap

Phase shift

Degrees

Primary to secondary phase shift in degrees (divide by 30 to get


1-12 equivalent)

Positive sequence X/R ratio

Ratio

Positive sequence X/R ratio

Zero sequence impedance

Zero sequence impedance in % for nominal tap

Zero sequence X/R ratio

Ratio

Zero sequence X/R ratio

No-load current

No-load core magnitising current as a % of the rated line current

No-load loss

kW

No-load core loss at rated voltage

Reliability parameter linkage

None

Equipment reliability library containing typical performance data

Number
parallel

of

transformers

in

Table C.6: Three winding transformer


1

Parameter

Units

Description

Power rating primary

kVA

Rated primary winding power for all phases (rated line current at
rated voltage)

Power rating secondary

kVA

Rated secondary winding power for all phases (rated line


current at rated voltage)

Power rating tertiary

kVA

Rated tertiary winding power for all phases (rated line current at
rated voltage)

Vector group

None

Vector group

Rated primary voltage

kV

Primary nameplate voltage

Rated secondary voltage

kV

Secondary nameplate voltage

Rated tertiary voltage

kV

Tertiary nameplate voltage

Impedance specification

None

Impedance specification for possible fault level attenuation

Tap changer present

None

Describes if a tap changer is present

Tap changer type

None

On-Load Tap Changer versus De-Energised Tap Changer. Use


None if no tap changer is present

Tapping range and step size

None

Tapping range and step size standard configurations

Additional cooling

None

Additional cooling for increased power rating

ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED


When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

34-617
DGL
1
59 of 67

Annex C
(Continued)
1

Parameter

Units

Description

Additional
primary

cooling

rating

kVA

Primary power rating with additional cooling

Additional
secondary

cooling

rating

kVA

Secondary power rating with additional cooling

Additional cooling rating tertiary

kVA

Tartiary power rating with additional cooling

Number
parallel

None

Number of transformers in parallel

Primary earthed

None

Primary winding earthed

Primary earthing resistance

Ohm

Primary winding earthing resistance (physical ohms not * 3). Not


applicable to auto-transformers.

Primary earthing reactance

Ohm

Primary winding earthing reactance (physical ohms not * 3). Not


applicable to auto-transformers.

Secondary earthed

None

Secondary winding earthed

Secondary earthing resistance

Ohm

Primary winding earthing resistance (physical ohms not * 3). Not


applicable to auto-transformers.

Secondary earthing reactance

Ohm

Primary winding earthing reactance (physical ohms not * 3). Not


applicable to auto-transformers.

Tertiary earthed

None

Tertiary winding earthed

Tertiary earthing resistance

Ohm

Tertiary winding earthing resistance (physical ohms not * 3)

Tertiary earthing reactance

Ohm

Tertiary winding earthing reactance (physical ohms not * 3)

of

transformers

in

Primary phasing

Phasing (actual physical phases present)

Technology

None

Primary, secondary and tertiary technology (number of phases


present)

Degrees

Primary to secondary phase shift in degrees (divide by 30 to get


1-12 equivalent)

Phase shift primary to tertiary

Degrees

Primary to tertiary phase shift in degrees (divide by 30 to get 112 equivalent)

Positive sequence impedance


primary to secondary

Name plate impedance between Primary and Secondary in %


for nominal tap

Positive sequence X/R ratio


primary to secondary

Ratio

Positive sequence X/R ratio Primary to Secondary

Positive sequence impedance


secondary to tertiary

Name plate impedance between Secondary and Tertiary in %


for nominal tap

Positive sequence X/R ratio


secondary to tertiary

Ratio

Positive sequence X/R ratio Secondary to Tertiary

Positive sequence impedance


primary to tertiary

Name plate impedance between Primary and Tertiary in % for


nominal tap

Positive sequence X/R ratio


primary to tertiary

Ratio

Positive sequence X/R ratio Primary to Tertiary

Phase
shift
secondary

primary

to

ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED


When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

34-617
DGL
1
60 of 67

Annex C
(Continued)
1

Parameter

Units

Description

Zero sequence impedance


primary to secondary

Zero sequence impedance Primary to Secondary in % for


nominal tap

Zero sequence X/R


primary to secondary

Ratio

Zero sequence ratio Primary to Secondary in % for nominal tap

Zero sequence impedance


secondary to tertiary

Zero sequence impedance Secondary to Tertiary in % for


nominal tap

Zero sequence X/R


secondary to tertiary

Ratio

Zero sequence ratio Secondary to Tertiary in % for nominal tap

ratio

ratio

Zero sequence
primary to tertiary

impedance

Zero sequence impedance Primary to Tertiary in % for nominal


tap

Zero sequence
primary to tertiary

X/R

Ratio

Zero sequence ratio Primary to Tertiary in % for nominal tap

No-load current

No-load core magnitising current as a % of the rated line current

No-load loss

kW

No-load core loss at rated voltage

Type of cooling

None

Type of cooling

Reliability parameter linkage

None

Equipment reliability library containing typical performance data

ratio

Table C.7: Three winding auto transformer


1

Parameter

Units

Description

Power rating primary

kVA

Rated primary winding power for all phases (rated line current at
rated voltage)

Power rating secondary

kVA

Rated secondary winding power for all phases (rated line


current at rated voltage)

Power rating tertiary

kVA

Rated tertiary winding power for all phases (rated line current at
rated voltage)

Vector group

Vector group

Rated primary voltage

kV

Primary nameplate voltage

Rated secondary voltage

kV

Secondary nameplate voltage

Rated tertiary voltage

kV

Tertiary nameplate voltage

Impedance specification

None

Impedance specification for possible fault level attenuation

Tap changer present

None

Describes if a tap changer is present

Tap changer type

None

On-Load Tap Changer versus De-Energised Tap Changer. Use


None if no tap changer is present

Tapping range and step size

None

Tapping range and step size standard configurations

Additional cooling

None

Additional cooling for increased power rating

ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED


When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

34-617
DGL
1
61 of 67

Annex C
(Continued)
1

Parameter

Units

Description

Additional
primary

cooling

rating

kVA

Primary power rating with additional cooling

Additional
secondary

cooling

rating

kVA

Secondary power rating with additional cooling

Additional cooling rating tertiary

kVA

Tartiary power rating with additional cooling

Number
parallel

in

None

Number of transformers in parallel

point

None

Auto transformer star point earthed. Only set if auto-transformer

Star point earthing resistance

Ohm

Auto-transformer star point winding earthing reistance (physical


ohms not * 3)

Star point earthing reactance

Ohm

Auto-transformer star point winding earthing reactance (physical


ohms not * 3)

Tertiary earthed

None

Tertiary winding earthed

Tertiary earthing resistance

Ohm

Tertiary winding earthing reistance (physical ohms not * 3)

Tertiary earthing reactance

Ohm

Tertiary winding earthing reactance (physical ohms not * 3)

Primary phasing

None

Phasing (actual physical phases present)

Technology

None

Primary, secondary and tertiary technology (number of phases


present)

Degrees

Primary to secondary phase shift in degrees (divide by 30 to get


1-12 equivalent)

Phase shift primary to tertiary

Degrees

Primary to tertiary phase shift in degrees (divide by 30 to get 112 equivalent)

Positive sequence impedance


primary to secondary

Name plate impedance between Primary and Secondary in %


for nominal tap

Positive sequence X/R ratio


primary to secondary

Ratio

Positive sequence X/R ratio Primary to Secondary

Positive sequence impedance


secondary to tertiary

Name plate impedance between Secondary and Tertiary in %


for nominal tap

Positive sequence X/R ratio


secondary to tertiary

Ratio

Positive sequence X/R ratio Secondary to Tertiary

Positive sequence impedance


primary to tertiary

Name plate impedance between Primary and Tertiary in % for


nominal tap

Positive sequence X/R ratio


primary to tertiary

Ratio

Positive sequence X/R ratio Primary to Tertiary

Zero sequence impedance


primary to secondary

Zero sequence impedance Primary to Secondary in % for


nominal tap

Zero sequence X/R


primary to secondary

Ratio

Zero sequence ratio Primary to Secondary in % for nominal tap

of

transformers

Auto-transformer
earthed

Phase
shift
secondary

star

primary

to

ratio

ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED


When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

34-617
DGL
1
62 of 67

Annex C
(Continued)
1

Parameter

Units

Description

Zero sequence impedance


secondary to tertiary

Zero sequence impedance Secondary to Tertiary in % for


nominal tap

Zero sequence X/R


secondary to tertiary

Ratio

Zero sequence ratio Secondary to Tertiary in % for nominal tap

ratio

Zero sequence
primary to tertiary

impedance

Zero sequence impedance Primary to Tertiary in % for nominal


tap

Zero sequence
primary to tertiary

X/R

Ratio

Zero sequence ratio Primary to Tertiary in % for nominal tap

No-load current

No-load core magnitising current as a % of the rated line current

No-load loss

kW

No-load core loss at rated voltage

Type of cooling

None

Type of cooling

Reliability parameter linkage

None

Equipment reliability library containing typical performance data

ratio

Table C.8: NEC


1

Parameter

Units

Description

Amps

Continuous earth fault current rating

10s current rating

Amps

10 second earth fault current rating

Rated primary voltage

kV

Primary nameplate voltage

NEC Primary phasing

None

Phasing (actual physical phases present)

NEC R0

Ohm

NEC zero sequence resistance

NEC X0

Ohm

NEC zero sequence reactance

NEC Technology

None

NEC: Primary Technology (number of phases present)

NEC Vector group

None

NEC Vector group

Reliability parameter linkage

None

Equipment reliability library containing typical performance data

Continuous
rating

normal

current

Table C.9: NECR


1

Parameter

Units

Description

Amps

Continuous earth fault current rating

10s current rating

Amps

10 second earth fault current rating

Rated primary voltage

kV

Primary nameplate voltage

NEC Primary phasing

None

Phasing (actual physical phases present)

NEC R0

Ohm

NEC zero sequence resistance

Continuous
rating

normal

current

ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED


When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

34-617
DGL
1
63 of 67

Annex C
(Continued)
1

Parameter

Units

Description

NEC X0

Ohm

NEC zero sequence reactance

Resistor R

Ohm

Resistor resistance (physical resistance not * 3)

Resistor X

Ohm

Resistor reactance (physical reactance not * 3)

Combined NECR R0

Ohm

Combined NEC and Resistor zero sequence resistance

Combined NECR X0

Ohm

Combined NEC and Resistor zero sequence reactance

NEC Technology

Ohm

NEC: Primary Technology (number of phases present)

NEC Vector group

Ohm

NEC Vector group

Reliability parameter linkage

Ohm

Equipment reliability library containing typical performance data

ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED


When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

34-617
DGL
1
64 of 67

Annex D - Impact assessment


1 Guidelines
o
o
o
o

All comments must be completed.


Motivate why items are N/A (not applicable)
Indicate actions to be taken, persons or organisations responsible for actions and deadline for
action.
Change control committees to discuss the impact assessment, and if necessary give feedback to
the compiler of any omissions or errors.

2 Critical points
2.1 Importance of this document. E.g. is implementation required due to safety deficiencies,
statutory requirements, technology changes, document revisions, improved service quality,
improved service performance, optimised costs.
Comment: Implementation is required to improve Dx Network Planning by providing network planners with
the information/training to analyse and plan transformers.

2.2 If the document to be released impacts on statutory or legal compliance - this need to be very
clearly stated and so highlighted.
Comment: N/A no impact on statutory or legal compliance.

2.3 Impact on stock holding and depletion of existing stock prior to switch over.
Comment: A sub-set of the standard major power transformer ratings have been flagged as preferred
ratings. Planners are to utilise preferred ratings where possible. This will consolidate the number of ratings,
and positively impact future stock keeping and procurement.

2.4 When will new stock be available?


Comment: N/A no impact on stock as there is no change to the standard ratings.

2.5 Has the interchangeability of the product or item been verified - i.e. when it fails is a straight
swop possible with a competitor's product?
Comment: N/A no impact on products.

2.6 Identify and provide details of other critical (items required for the successful implementation
of this document) points to be considered in the implementation of this document.
Comment: The Master Type Library containing default transformer attribute values for power system
studies needs to be maintained and updated. This is being managed by the PSST NUG, chaired by the
author of this document.

2.7 Provide details of any comments made by the Regions regarding the implementation of this
document.
Comment: (N/A during commenting phase)
ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED
When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

34-617
DGL
1
65 of 67

Annex D
(Continued)

3 Implementation timeframe
3.1 Time period for implementation of requirements.
Comment: Can be applied immediately via self study. Full application by all network planners will be
dependent on training rollout (being managed as a separate project under the Planning Study Committee).

3.2 Deadline for changeover to new item and personnel to be informed of DX wide change-over.
Comment: N/A is not a new product or change to an existing product.

4 Buyers Guide and Power Office


4.1 Does the Buyers Guide or Buyers List need updating?
Comment: N/A is not a new product or change to an existing product.

4.2 What Buyers Guides or items have been created?


Comment: N/A is not a new product or change to an existing product.

4.3 List all assembly drawing changes that have been revised in conjunction with this document.
Comment: N/A is not a new product or change to an existing product.

4.4 If the implementation of this document requires assessment by CAP, provide details under 5
4.5 Which Power Office packages have been created, modified or removed?
Comment: N/A is not a new product or change to an existing product.

5 CAP / LAP Pre-Qualification Process related impacts


5.1 Is an ad-hoc re-evaluation of all currently accepted suppliers required as a result of
implementation of this document?
Comment: No, is not a new product or change to an existing product.

5.2 If NO, provide motivation for issuing this specification before Acceptance Cycle Expiry date.
Comment: N/A is not a new product or change to an existing product.

5.3 Are ALL suppliers (currently accepted per LAP), aware of the nature of changes contained in
this document?
Comment: N/A is not a new product or change to an existing product.
ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED
When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

34-617
DGL
1
66 of 67

Annex D
(Continued)

5.4 Is implementation of the provisions of this document required during the current supplier
qualification period?
Comment: N/A is not a new product or change to an existing product.

5.5 If Yes to 5.4, what date has been set for all currently accepted suppliers to comply fully?
Comment: N/A is not a new product or change to an existing product.

5.6 If Yes to 5.4, have all currently accepted suppliers been sent a prior formal notification
informing them of Eskoms expectations, including the implementation date deadline?
Comment: N/A is not a new product or change to an existing product.

5.7 Can the changes made, potentially impact upon the purchase price of the material/equipment?
Comment: N/A is not a new product or change to an existing product.

5.8 Material group(s) affected by specification: (Refer to Pre-Qualification invitation schedule for
list of material groups)
Comment: N/A is not a new product or change to an existing product.

6 Training or communication
6.1 State the level of training or communication required to implement this document. (E.g. none,
communiqus, awareness training, practical / on job, module, etc.)
Comment: The guideline is suitable for self study, but training will be included as part of the Dx network
planning training framework that is being driven by the TESCOD Planning Study Committee.

6.2 State designations of personnel that will require training.


Comment: All Dx Network Planners.

6.3 Is the training material available? Identify person responsible for the development of training
material.
Comment: No. Training material will need to be developed via a new Research project that has been
initiated within R&S for the development of Dx Network Planning training material.

6.4 If applicable, provide details of training that will take place. (E.G. sponsor, costs, trainer,
schedule of training, course material availability, training in erection / use of new equipment,
maintenance training, etc).
Comment: To be decided.

ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED


When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

NETWORK PLANNING GUIDELINE FOR


TRANSFORMERS

Unique Identifier:
Type:
Revision:
Page:

34-617
DGL
1
67 of 67

Annex D
(Continued)

6.5 Was Training & Development Section consulted w.r.t training requirements?
Comment: Yes, this is being done as part of the broader Dx Network Planning training framework.

7 Special tools, equipment, software


7.1 What special tools, equipment, software, etc will need to be purchased by the Region to
effectively implement?
Comment: None. The guideline utilises existing tools and simply enhances there application and the
interpretation of results.

7.2 Are there stock numbers available for the new equipment?
Comment: N/A is not a new product or change to an existing product.

7.3 What will be the costs of these special tools, equipment, software?
Comment: None. The guideline utilises existing tools and simply enhances there application and the
interpretation of results.

8 Finances
8.1 What total costs would the Regions be required to incur in implementing this document?
Identify all cost activities associated with implementation, e.g. labour, training, tooling, stock,
obsolescence
Comment: The direct costs will be training costs. Application will enhance network planning decision
making. Minimum criteria for transformer redundancy as specified elsewhere, and as such this guideline is
not expected to impact the Distribution capital budget.
Impact assessment completed by:
Name: Mr Neville Meyer
Designation: Senior Engineer, Network Planning, Southern region.

ESKOM COPYRIGHT PROTECTED


When downloaded from the IARC WEB, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user
to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the WEB.