GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE

Version 2, June 1991
Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
Preamble
The licenses for most software are designed to take away your
freedom to share and change it. By contrast, the GNU General Public
License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free
software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. This
General Public License applies to most of the Free Software
Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to
using it. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by
the GNU Lesser General Public License instead.) You can apply it to
your programs, too.
When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not
price. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you
have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for
this service if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it
if you want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it
in new free programs; and that you know you can do these things.
To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid
anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights.
These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you
distribute copies of the software, or if you modify it.
For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether
gratis or for a fee, you must give the recipients all the rights that
you have. You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the
source code. And you must show them these terms so they know their
rights.
We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software, and
(2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy,
distribute and/or modify the software.
Also, for each author's protection and ours, we want to make certain
that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free
software. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on, we
want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original, so
that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original
authors' reputations.
Finally, any free program is threatened constantly by software
patents. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free
program will individually obtain patent licenses, in effect making the
program proprietary. To prevent this, we have made it clear that any
patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all.
The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and
modification follow.
GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION

0. This License applies to any program or other work which contains
a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed
under the terms of this General Public License. The "Program", below,
refers to any such program or work, and a "work based on the Program"
means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law:
that is to say, a work containing the Program or a portion of it,
either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another
language. (Hereinafter, translation is included without limitation in
the term "modification".) Each licensee is addressed as "you".
Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not
covered by this License; they are outside its scope. The act of
running the Program is not restricted, and the output from the Program
is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the
Program (independent of having been made by running the Program).
Whether that is true depends on what the Program does.
1. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's
source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you
conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate
copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the
notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty;
and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License
along with the Program.
You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and
you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee.
2. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion
of it, thus forming a work based on the Program, and copy and
distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1
above, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:
a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices
stating that you changed the files and the date of any change.
b) You must cause any work that
whole or in part contains or is
part thereof, to be licensed as
parties under the terms of this

you distribute or publish, that in
derived from the Program or any
a whole at no charge to all third
License.

c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively
when run, you must cause it, when started running for such
interactive use in the most ordinary way, to print or display an
announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a
notice that there is no warranty (or else, saying that you provide
a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under
these conditions, and telling the user how to view a copy of this
License. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but
does not normally print such an announcement, your work based on
the Program is not required to print an announcement.)
These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. If
identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program,
and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in
themselves, then this License, and its terms, do not apply to those
sections when you distribute them as separate works. But when you
distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based
on the Program, the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of

this License, whose permissions for other licensees extend to the
entire whole, and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it.
Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest
your rights to work written entirely by you; rather, the intent is to
exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or
collective works based on the Program.
In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program
with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of
a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under
the scope of this License.
3. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it,
under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of
Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following:
a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable
source code, which must be distributed under the terms of Sections
1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or,
b) Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three
years, to give any third party, for a charge no more than your
cost of physically performing source distribution, a complete
machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code, to be
distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium
customarily used for software interchange; or,
c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer
to distribute corresponding source code. (This alternative is
allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you
received the program in object code or executable form with such
an offer, in accord with Subsection b above.)
The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for
making modifications to it. For an executable work, complete source
code means all the source code for all modules it contains, plus any
associated interface definition files, plus the scripts used to
control compilation and installation of the executable. However, as a
special exception, the source code distributed need not include
anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary
form) with the major components (compiler, kernel, and so on) of the
operating system on which the executable runs, unless that component
itself accompanies the executable.
If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering
access to copy from a designated place, then offering equivalent
access to copy the source code from the same place counts as
distribution of the source code, even though third parties are not
compelled to copy the source along with the object code.
4. You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program
except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt
otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Program is
void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.
However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under
this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such
parties remain in full compliance.
5. You are not required to accept this License, since you have not

signed it. However, nothing else grants you permission to modify or
distribute the Program or its derivative works. These actions are
prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. Therefore, by
modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the
Program), you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so, and
all its terms and conditions for copying, distributing or modifying
the Program or works based on it.
6. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the
Program), the recipient automatically receives a license from the
original licensor to copy, distribute or modify the Program subject to
these terms and conditions. You may not impose any further
restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein.
You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to
this License.
7. If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent
infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues),
conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or
otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not
excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you cannot
distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this
License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you
may not distribute the Program at all. For example, if a patent
license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by
all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you, then
the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to
refrain entirely from distribution of the Program.
If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under
any particular circumstance, the balance of the section is intended to
apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other
circumstances.
It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any
patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any
such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting the
integrity of the free software distribution system, which is
implemented by public license practices. Many people have made
generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed
through that system in reliance on consistent application of that
system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing
to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot
impose that choice.
This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to
be a consequence of the rest of this License.
8. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in
certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces, the
original copyright holder who places the Program under this License
may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding
those countries, so that distribution is permitted only in or among
countries not thus excluded. In such case, this License incorporates
the limitation as if written in the body of this License.
9. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions
of the General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will
be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to
address new problems or concerns.

Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program
specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any
later version", you have the option of following the terms and conditions
either of that version or of any later version published by the Free
Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of
this License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software
Foundation.
10. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free
programs whose distribution conditions are different, write to the author
to ask for permission. For software which is copyrighted by the Free
Software Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes
make exceptions for this. Our decision will be guided by the two goals
of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and
of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally.
NO WARRANTY
11. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY
FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN
OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES
PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED
OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS
TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE
PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING,
REPAIR OR CORRECTION.
12. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING
WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR
REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES,
INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING
OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED
TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY
YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER
PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE
POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs
If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it
free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.
To do so, attach the following notices to the
to attach them to the start of each source file
convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file
the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the

program. It is safest
to most effectively
should have at least
full notice is found.

<one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.>
Copyright (C) <year> <name of author>
This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
(at your option) any later version.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
GNU General Public License for more details.
You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
with this program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.
If the program is interactive, make it output a short notice like this
when it starts in an interactive mode:
Gnomovision version 69, Copyright (C) year name of author
Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type `show w'.
This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it
under certain conditions; type `show c' for details.
The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate
parts of the General Public License. Of course, the commands you use may
be called something other than `show w' and `show c'; they could even be
mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program.
You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your
school, if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if
necessary. Here is a sample; alter the names:
Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program
`Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker.
<signature of Ty Coon>, 1 April 1989
Ty Coon, President of Vice
This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into
proprietary programs. If your program is a subroutine library, you may
consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the
library. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Lesser General
Public License instead of this License.
GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
Version 2, June 1991
Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
Preamble
The licenses for most software are designed to take away your
freedom to share and change it. By contrast, the GNU General Public
License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free
software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. This
General Public License applies to most of the Free Software
Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to
using it. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by
the GNU Lesser General Public License instead.) You can apply it to
your programs, too.
When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not

so that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original authors' reputations. (Hereinafter. a work containing the Program or a portion of it. we want to make certain that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free software. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING. either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another language. distribution and modification are not covered by this License. you must give the recipients all the rights that you have. To prevent this.) Each licensee is addressed as "you". they are outside its scope. refers to any such program or work. too. distribution and modification follow. Whether that is true depends on what the Program does. DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION 0. that you receive source code or can get it if you want it. translation is included without limitation in the term "modification". and that you know you can do these things. Also. and a "work based on the Program" means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say. any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it. We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software. This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed under the terms of this General Public License. Activities other than copying. and the output from the Program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been made by running the Program). that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs. receive or can get the source code. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free program will individually obtain patent licenses. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the software. in effect making the program proprietary. The precise terms and conditions for copying. in any medium. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights.price. whether gratis or for a fee. if you distribute copies of such a program. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on. provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate . for each author's protection and ours. Finally. 1. distribute and/or modify the software. To protect your rights. The act of running the Program is not restricted. we want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original. The "Program". Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish). we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all. For example. and (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy. below. we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights. or if you modify it. You must make sure that they.

Thus. and telling the user how to view a copy of this License. which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. and you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee. In addition. it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by you. your work based on the Program is not required to print an announcement. You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy. 2. saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under these conditions. you must cause it. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it.) These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License.copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty. thus forming a work based on the Program. whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole. provided that you also meet all of these conditions: a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and the date of any change. . do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works. and its terms. and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves. and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it. the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on the Program. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it. to print or display an announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or else. or. c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run. that in derived from the Program or any a whole at no charge to all third License. to be licensed as parties under the terms of this you distribute or publish. when started running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way. keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty. b) You must cause any work that whole or in part contains or is part thereof. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an announcement. under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following: a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code. 3. rather. and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Program. mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this License. and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License along with the Program. then this License.

for a charge no more than your cost of physically performing source distribution. However. to give any third party. kernel. parties who have received copies. plus any associated interface definition files. unless that component itself accompanies the executable. modify. and all its terms and conditions for copying. 4. However. c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding source code. sublicense or distribute the Program is void. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program). a complete machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code. conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order. Therefore. and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.) The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. valid for at least three years. as a special exception. (This alternative is allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the program in object code or executable form with such an offer. in accord with Subsection b above. the source code distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major components (compiler. distributing or modifying the Program or works based on it. then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as distribution of the source code. If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place. since you have not signed it.b) Accompany it with a written offer. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this License. If you cannot . or rights. even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code. agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License. 6. you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so. 7. the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy. However. For an executable work. as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues). You may not copy. modify. nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. or distribute the Program except as expressly provided under this License. to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. by modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the Program). and so on) of the operating system on which the executable runs. Any attempt otherwise to copy. plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the executable. You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein. These actions are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance. or. You are not required to accept this License. complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains. they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. 5. distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and conditions. If. sublicense.

For example. this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License. 8. Each version is given a distinguishing version number. TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. In such case. then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Program. If the Program does not specify a version number of this License. you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation. the balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances. NO WARRANTY 11. which is implemented by public license practices. EXCEPT WHEN . If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces. If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance.distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations. write to the Free Software Foundation. this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution system. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public License from time to time. 9. This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally. Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system. so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any such claims. it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE. 10. but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. write to the author to ask for permission. we sometimes make exceptions for this. If the Program specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any later version". the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries. THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM. if a patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version. then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program at all. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions are different.

Fifth Floor. BUT NOT LIMITED TO. without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. either version 2 of the License. you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER.. type `show c' for details. This is free software. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms. or (at your option) any later version. Boston. SPECIAL. but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY. write to the Free Software Foundation. 51 Franklin Street. for details type `show w'. MA 02110-1301 USA. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE. 12. OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE. if not. attach the following notices to the to attach them to the start of each source file convey the exclusion of warranty.OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. It is safest to most effectively should have at least full notice is found. See the GNU General Public License for more details. Of course. EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. If the program is interactive. BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful. INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS). make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode: Gnomovision version 69. To do so. INCLUDING ANY GENERAL. Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail. and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public. REPAIR OR CORRECTION.> Copyright (C) <year> <name of author> This program is free software. Copyright (C) year name of author Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. INCLUDING. and each file the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the program. Inc. <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does. THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs If you develop a new program. and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions. the commands you use may . YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING. The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License.

President of Vice This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. Fifth Floor. and that you know you can do these things. We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software. distribute and/or modify the software. To protect your rights. that you receive source code or can get it if you want it. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish). or if you modify it.) You can apply it to your programs. This General Public License applies to most of the Free Software Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it. Boston.. if you distribute copies of such a program.. the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 2. By contrast. you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. If this is what you want to do. use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. whether gratis or for a fee. You must make sure that they. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the software. too. Inc. if any. For example. not price. and (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy. 51 Franklin Street. that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs. you must give the recipients all the rights that you have. receive or can get the source code. Preamble The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. June 1991 Copyright (C) 1989. <signature of Ty Coon>. . hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker. but changing it is not allowed. MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document. You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school. 1991 Free Software Foundation. to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program. they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program. we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights. we are referring to freedom. Here is a sample. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Lesser General Public License instead. When we speak of free software. 1 April 1989 Ty Coon. Inc. too. If your program is a subroutine library. if necessary. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights. alter the names: Yoyodyne.be called something other than `show w' and `show c'.

either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another language. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it. we want to make certain that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free software. and you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee. and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above. for each author's protection and ours. 2. distribution and modification follow. The act of running the Program is not restricted. they are outside its scope. we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all. 1. we want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original. and a "work based on the Program" means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free program will individually obtain patent licenses. refers to any such program or work. Whether that is true depends on what the Program does. The precise terms and conditions for copying. To prevent this. to be licensed as parties under the terms of this you distribute or publish. so that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original authors' reputations. b) You must cause any work that whole or in part contains or is part thereof. and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License along with the Program. in effect making the program proprietary. distribution and modification are not covered by this License. (Hereinafter. a work containing the Program or a portion of it.) Each licensee is addressed as "you". DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION 0. any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it. keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty. translation is included without limitation in the term "modification". You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy. The "Program". . in any medium. that in derived from the Program or any a whole at no charge to all third License.Also. This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed under the terms of this General Public License. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on. provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty. Activities other than copying. below. Finally. provided that you also meet all of these conditions: a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and the date of any change. and the output from the Program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been made by running the Program). GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING. thus forming a work based on the Program.

which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an announcement. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program. a complete machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code. as a special exception. to give any third party. in accord with Subsection b above. whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole. or. under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following: a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code. when started running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way. and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves. complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Program. valid for at least three years. However. c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding source code. or. 3. the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License. b) Accompany it with a written offer. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it. for a charge no more than your cost of physically performing source distribution. mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this License. then this License. kernel.) These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. and telling the user how to view a copy of this License.c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run. it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by you. For an executable work. rather. to print or display an announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or else. and its terms. plus any associated interface definition files. (This alternative is allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the program in object code or executable form with such an offer.) The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. the source code distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major components (compiler. you must cause it. plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the executable. Thus. and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it. and so on) of the . In addition. your work based on the Program is not required to print an announcement. the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on the Program. do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works. saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under these conditions.

and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. and all its terms and conditions for copying. modify. Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system. since you have not signed it. even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code. 7. distributing or modifying the Program or works based on it. You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein. by modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the Program). as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues). it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing . If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance. parties who have received copies. You may not copy. the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy. distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and conditions. then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as distribution of the source code. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program). If. sublicense or distribute the Program is void. then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Program. or distribute the Program except as expressly provided under this License. nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. 4. you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so. Therefore. which is implemented by public license practices. from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance. You are not required to accept this License. However. These actions are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program at all. sublicense. modify. 6. conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order. or rights. this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution system. they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License. the balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances. However.operating system on which the executable runs. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this License. 5. If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place. unless that component itself accompanies the executable. if a patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations. It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any such claims. For example. Any attempt otherwise to copy.

to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot
impose that choice.
This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to
be a consequence of the rest of this License.
8. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in
certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces, the
original copyright holder who places the Program under this License
may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding
those countries, so that distribution is permitted only in or among
countries not thus excluded. In such case, this License incorporates
the limitation as if written in the body of this License.
9. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions
of the General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will
be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to
address new problems or concerns.
Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program
specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any
later version", you have the option of following the terms and conditions
either of that version or of any later version published by the Free
Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of
this License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software
Foundation.
10. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free
programs whose distribution conditions are different, write to the author
to ask for permission. For software which is copyrighted by the Free
Software Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes
make exceptions for this. Our decision will be guided by the two goals
of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and
of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally.
NO WARRANTY
11. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY
FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN
OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES
PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED
OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS
TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE
PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING,
REPAIR OR CORRECTION.
12. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING
WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR
REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES,
INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING
OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED
TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY
YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER
PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE
POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs

If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it
free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.
To do so, attach the following notices to the
to attach them to the start of each source file
convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file
the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the

program. It is safest
to most effectively
should have at least
full notice is found.

<one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.>
Copyright (C) <year> <name of author>
This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
(at your option) any later version.
This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
GNU General Public License for more details.
You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
with this program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.
If the program is interactive, make it output a short notice like this
when it starts in an interactive mode:
Gnomovision version 69, Copyright (C) year name of author
Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type `show w'.
This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it
under certain conditions; type `show c' for details.
The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate
parts of the General Public License. Of course, the commands you use may
be called something other than `show w' and `show c'; they could even be
mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program.
You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your
school, if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if
necessary. Here is a sample; alter the names:
Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program
`Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker.
<signature of Ty Coon>, 1 April 1989
Ty Coon, President of Vice
This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into
proprietary programs. If your program is a subroutine library, you may
consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the
library. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Lesser General
Public License instead of this License.
GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
Version 2, June 1991

Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
Preamble
The licenses for most software are designed to take away your
freedom to share and change it. By contrast, the GNU General Public
License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free
software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. This
General Public License applies to most of the Free Software
Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to
using it. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by
the GNU Lesser General Public License instead.) You can apply it to
your programs, too.
When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not
price. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you
have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for
this service if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it
if you want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it
in new free programs; and that you know you can do these things.
To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid
anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights.
These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you
distribute copies of the software, or if you modify it.
For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether
gratis or for a fee, you must give the recipients all the rights that
you have. You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the
source code. And you must show them these terms so they know their
rights.
We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software, and
(2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy,
distribute and/or modify the software.
Also, for each author's protection and ours, we want to make certain
that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free
software. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on, we
want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original, so
that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original
authors' reputations.
Finally, any free program is threatened constantly by software
patents. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free
program will individually obtain patent licenses, in effect making the
program proprietary. To prevent this, we have made it clear that any
patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all.
The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and
modification follow.
GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION
0. This License applies to any program or other work which contains
a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed

under the terms of this General Public License. The "Program", below,
refers to any such program or work, and a "work based on the Program"
means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law:
that is to say, a work containing the Program or a portion of it,
either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another
language. (Hereinafter, translation is included without limitation in
the term "modification".) Each licensee is addressed as "you".
Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not
covered by this License; they are outside its scope. The act of
running the Program is not restricted, and the output from the Program
is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the
Program (independent of having been made by running the Program).
Whether that is true depends on what the Program does.
1. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's
source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you
conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate
copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the
notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty;
and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License
along with the Program.
You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and
you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee.
2. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion
of it, thus forming a work based on the Program, and copy and
distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1
above, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:
a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices
stating that you changed the files and the date of any change.
b) You must cause any work that
whole or in part contains or is
part thereof, to be licensed as
parties under the terms of this

you distribute or publish, that in
derived from the Program or any
a whole at no charge to all third
License.

c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively
when run, you must cause it, when started running for such
interactive use in the most ordinary way, to print or display an
announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a
notice that there is no warranty (or else, saying that you provide
a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under
these conditions, and telling the user how to view a copy of this
License. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but
does not normally print such an announcement, your work based on
the Program is not required to print an announcement.)
These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. If
identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program,
and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in
themselves, then this License, and its terms, do not apply to those
sections when you distribute them as separate works. But when you
distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based
on the Program, the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of
this License, whose permissions for other licensees extend to the
entire whole, and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it.

Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest
your rights to work written entirely by you; rather, the intent is to
exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or
collective works based on the Program.
In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program
with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of
a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under
the scope of this License.
3. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it,
under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of
Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following:
a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable
source code, which must be distributed under the terms of Sections
1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or,
b) Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three
years, to give any third party, for a charge no more than your
cost of physically performing source distribution, a complete
machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code, to be
distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium
customarily used for software interchange; or,
c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer
to distribute corresponding source code. (This alternative is
allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you
received the program in object code or executable form with such
an offer, in accord with Subsection b above.)
The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for
making modifications to it. For an executable work, complete source
code means all the source code for all modules it contains, plus any
associated interface definition files, plus the scripts used to
control compilation and installation of the executable. However, as a
special exception, the source code distributed need not include
anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary
form) with the major components (compiler, kernel, and so on) of the
operating system on which the executable runs, unless that component
itself accompanies the executable.
If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering
access to copy from a designated place, then offering equivalent
access to copy the source code from the same place counts as
distribution of the source code, even though third parties are not
compelled to copy the source along with the object code.
4. You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program
except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt
otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Program is
void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.
However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under
this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such
parties remain in full compliance.
5. You are not required to accept this License, since you have not
signed it. However, nothing else grants you permission to modify or
distribute the Program or its derivative works. These actions are
prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. Therefore, by

modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the
Program), you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so, and
all its terms and conditions for copying, distributing or modifying
the Program or works based on it.
6. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the
Program), the recipient automatically receives a license from the
original licensor to copy, distribute or modify the Program subject to
these terms and conditions. You may not impose any further
restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein.
You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to
this License.
7. If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent
infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues),
conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or
otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not
excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you cannot
distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this
License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you
may not distribute the Program at all. For example, if a patent
license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by
all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you, then
the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to
refrain entirely from distribution of the Program.
If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under
any particular circumstance, the balance of the section is intended to
apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other
circumstances.
It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any
patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any
such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting the
integrity of the free software distribution system, which is
implemented by public license practices. Many people have made
generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed
through that system in reliance on consistent application of that
system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing
to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot
impose that choice.
This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to
be a consequence of the rest of this License.
8. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in
certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces, the
original copyright holder who places the Program under this License
may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding
those countries, so that distribution is permitted only in or among
countries not thus excluded. In such case, this License incorporates
the limitation as if written in the body of this License.
9. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions
of the General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will
be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to
address new problems or concerns.
Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program
specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any

TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. and each file the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the program. REPAIR OR CORRECTION. SPECIAL. THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM.> Copyright (C) <year> <name of author> This program is free software. OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE. THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation. but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY. attach the following notices to the to attach them to the start of each source file convey the exclusion of warranty. 12. we sometimes make exceptions for this. <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does. INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS). THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. BUT NOT LIMITED TO. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. write to the author to ask for permission. YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING. EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. you have the either of that version or of Software Foundation. EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE. END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs If you develop a new program. you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation. It is safest to most effectively should have at least full notice is found. See the . NO WARRANTY 11. either version 2 of the License. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions are different. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER. the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.later version". To do so. INCLUDING ANY GENERAL. If the this License. and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public. write to the Free Software Foundation. you may choose Foundation. INCLUDING. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally. option of following the terms and conditions any later version published by the Free Program does not specify a version number of any version ever published by the Free Software 10. or (at your option) any later version.

(Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Lesser General Public License instead. If the program is interactive. alter the names: Yoyodyne. Fifth Floor. if not. MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 2. Copyright (C) year name of author Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. If this is what you want to do. Inc. <signature of Ty Coon>. Inc. MA 02110-1301 USA. the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. 1 April 1989 Ty Coon. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program.) You can apply it to your programs. You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school. 51 Franklin Street. This is free software. if necessary. June 1991 Copyright (C) 1989. Boston. but changing it is not allowed. If your program is a subroutine library. Here is a sample. 51 Franklin Street. and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions. we are referring to freedom.. use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. Inc.. make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode: Gnomovision version 69. Boston.GNU General Public License for more details. type `show c' for details. they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program. if any. for details type `show w'. When we speak of free software. that you receive source code or can get it . By contrast. too. 1991 Free Software Foundation. write to the Free Software Foundation. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish). hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker. The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. This General Public License applies to most of the Free Software Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it. Of course. President of Vice This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. the commands you use may be called something other than `show w' and `show c'. Preamble The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. not price. to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program. Fifth Floor. Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail. you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library..

we want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original. For example. Finally. The act of running the Program is not restricted. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free program will individually obtain patent licenses. Activities other than copying. too. To prevent this. and that you know you can do these things. so that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original authors' reputations. DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION 0. The precise terms and conditions for copying. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING. Also.) Each licensee is addressed as "you". in effect making the program proprietary. a work containing the Program or a portion of it. and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License . And you must show them these terms so they know their rights.if you want it. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it. keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty. We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software. in any medium. To protect your rights. or if you modify it. that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs. if you distribute copies of such a program. (Hereinafter. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the software. receive or can get the source code. for each author's protection and ours. distribution and modification are not covered by this License. whether gratis or for a fee. they are outside its scope. and the output from the Program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been made by running the Program). refers to any such program or work. we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights. and a "work based on the Program" means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say. translation is included without limitation in the term "modification". distribution and modification follow. distribute and/or modify the software. you must give the recipients all the rights that you have. below. and (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy. The "Program". either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another language. any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. You must make sure that they. Whether that is true depends on what the Program does. 1. This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed under the terms of this General Public License. provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty. we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all. we want to make certain that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free software. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on.

a complete .) These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program. rather. and you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee. saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under these conditions. whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole. and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves. c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run. and its terms. and telling the user how to view a copy of this License. it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by you. thus forming a work based on the Program. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an announcement. Thus. 2. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Program. and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above. you must cause it. that in derived from the Program or any a whole at no charge to all third License. for a charge no more than your cost of physically performing source distribution. the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License.along with the Program. to be licensed as parties under the terms of this you distribute or publish. and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it. 3. You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy. or. do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works. then this License. to print or display an announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or else. valid for at least three years. your work based on the Program is not required to print an announcement. b) Accompany it with a written offer. under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following: a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code. when started running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it. In addition. mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this License. the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on the Program. which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. to give any third party. provided that you also meet all of these conditions: a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and the date of any change. b) You must cause any work that whole or in part contains or is part thereof.

Any attempt otherwise to copy. Therefore. distributing or modifying the Program or works based on it. If. modify. conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order. 5. parties who have received copies. However. or. kernel. nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. or distribute the Program except as expressly provided under this License. distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and conditions. from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance. You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein. These actions are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy.) The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. in accord with Subsection b above. to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. sublicense or distribute the Program is void. agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License. they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. or rights. unless that component itself accompanies the executable. If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place. modify. even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code. You are not required to accept this License. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations. 7. plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the executable.machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code. However. as a special exception. and all its terms and conditions for copying. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this License. plus any associated interface definition files. You may not copy. since you have not signed it. then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program at all. For example. (This alternative is allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the program in object code or executable form with such an offer. the source code distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major components (compiler. 4. complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains. as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues). sublicense. you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so. 6. However. by modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the Program). For an executable work. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program). then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as distribution of the source code. and so on) of the operating system on which the executable runs. c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding source code. if a patent .

this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution system. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally. If the Program specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any later version". we sometimes make exceptions for this. THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF . For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation. If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance. If the Program does not specify a version number of this License. EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. 10. but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system. This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version. then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Program. 8. the balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances. BUT NOT LIMITED TO. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM.license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you. Each version is given a distinguishing version number. this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public License from time to time. so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any such claims. which is implemented by public license practices. you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation. 9. TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. In such case. write to the author to ask for permission. it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice. INCLUDING. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE. write to the Free Software Foundation. NO WARRANTY 11. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions are different. you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries.

Boston.MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. 12. INCLUDING ANY GENERAL. but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY. attach the following notices to the to attach them to the start of each source file convey the exclusion of warranty. See the GNU General Public License for more details. for details type `show w'. either version 2 of the License. the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms. and each file the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the program. Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program.. the commands you use may be called something other than `show w' and `show c'. END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs If you develop a new program. <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does. Copyright (C) year name of author Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS). To do so. The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING. and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public. This is free software. EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. or (at your option) any later version. and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions. type `show c' for details. If the program is interactive. make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode: Gnomovision version 69. write to the Free Software Foundation. REPAIR OR CORRECTION. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER. Fifth Floor. It is safest to most effectively should have at least full notice is found. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE. you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation.> Copyright (C) <year> <name of author> This program is free software. BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES. without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program. . 51 Franklin Street. OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE. Inc. SPECIAL. if not. MA 02110-1301 USA. Of course.

GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 2. By contrast. Inc. 51 Franklin Street. not price. distribute and/or modify the software. Boston. 1991 Free Software Foundation. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the software. you must give the recipients all the rights that you have. You must make sure that they.You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school. Also. we . we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights. Here is a sample. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on. If your program is a subroutine library. too. President of Vice This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. and (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy.. Preamble The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. When we speak of free software. and that you know you can do these things. To protect your rights. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights. we want to make certain that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free software. if necessary. MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document. 1 April 1989 Ty Coon. whether gratis or for a fee. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Lesser General Public License instead. if you distribute copies of such a program.) You can apply it to your programs. alter the names: Yoyodyne. For example. receive or can get the source code. <signature of Ty Coon>. for each author's protection and ours. the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. if any. you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. This General Public License applies to most of the Free Software Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it. hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker. that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs. too.. or if you modify it. We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software. to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program. that you receive source code or can get it if you want it. Inc. Fifth Floor. use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish). June 1991 Copyright (C) 1989. If this is what you want to do. but changing it is not allowed. we are referring to freedom.

keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty. to print or display an . either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another language. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it. and a "work based on the Program" means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say. distribution and modification follow. You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy. they are outside its scope. provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty. and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License along with the Program. to be licensed as parties under the terms of this you distribute or publish. and you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee. 2. any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. The act of running the Program is not restricted. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING. The precise terms and conditions for copying. distribution and modification are not covered by this License. b) You must cause any work that whole or in part contains or is part thereof. and the output from the Program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been made by running the Program). provided that you also meet all of these conditions: a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and the date of any change. in any medium. To prevent this. (Hereinafter. c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run. Activities other than copying. Whether that is true depends on what the Program does. when started running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free program will individually obtain patent licenses. you must cause it. and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above. in effect making the program proprietary. so that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original authors' reputations. a work containing the Program or a portion of it. we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all.) Each licensee is addressed as "you". The "Program". This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed under the terms of this General Public License. translation is included without limitation in the term "modification". thus forming a work based on the Program. refers to any such program or work. Finally. 1. below.want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original. DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION 0. that in derived from the Program or any a whole at no charge to all third License. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it.

unless that component itself accompanies the executable. kernel. to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. and telling the user how to view a copy of this License. the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License. a complete machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code. and its terms. plus any associated interface definition files. and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves. do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works. 3. plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the executable. or. . and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it. rather. whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole.) These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. to give any third party. mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this License. In addition. the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on the Program. For an executable work. in accord with Subsection b above.announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or else. which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. and so on) of the operating system on which the executable runs. complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains. b) Accompany it with a written offer. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program. your work based on the Program is not required to print an announcement. saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under these conditions. (This alternative is allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the program in object code or executable form with such an offer. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an announcement. it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by you. valid for at least three years. as a special exception. for a charge no more than your cost of physically performing source distribution. c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding source code.) The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. then this License. under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following: a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code. However. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Program. or. the source code distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major components (compiler. Thus.

For example. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program). by modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the Program). distributing or modifying the Program or works based on it. These actions are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. If. modify. conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order. Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system. agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License. it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice. since you have not signed it. the balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances. You are not required to accept this License. this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution system. It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any such claims. You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein. even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code. then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Program. or distribute the Program except as expressly provided under this License. . parties who have received copies. which is implemented by public license practices. Any attempt otherwise to copy. However. and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations. However. modify. Therefore. distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and conditions. then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as distribution of the source code. nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this License. you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so. they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy. 6. as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues). or rights. then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program at all. 4. sublicense. if a patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you. from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance. 7. and all its terms and conditions for copying. 5. sublicense or distribute the Program is void.If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place. You may not copy.

THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM. 12. REPAIR OR CORRECTION. this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License. and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public. If the Program specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any later version". BUT NOT LIMITED TO. BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES. 8. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally. write to the Free Software Foundation.This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License. write to the author to ask for permission. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE. YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING. SPECIAL. TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public License from time to time. Each version is given a distinguishing version number. INCLUDING ANY GENERAL. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version. the best way to achieve this is to make it . In such case. NO WARRANTY 11. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation. EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. 9. END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs If you develop a new program. INCLUDING. you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation. but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER. 10. we sometimes make exceptions for this. EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS). the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces. THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions are different. If the Program does not specify a version number of this License.

but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY. use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License.free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms. If the program is interactive. Inc.. The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail. June 1991 Copyright (C) 1989. make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode: Gnomovision version 69. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions. to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program. the commands you use may be called something other than `show w' and `show c'. you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation. without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. write to the Free Software Foundation. See the GNU General Public License for more details. for details type `show w'. Copyright (C) year name of author Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. Boston. Of course. Fifth Floor. Inc. if any. This is free software. Inc. attach the following notices to the to attach them to the start of each source file convey the exclusion of warranty.> Copyright (C) <year> <name of author> This program is free software. 51 Franklin Street. Fifth Floor.. and each file the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the program. MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies . It is safest to most effectively should have at least full notice is found. if necessary. President of Vice This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. type `show c' for details. <signature of Ty Coon>. You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school. 51 Franklin Street. To do so. If your program is a subroutine library. <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does. Here is a sample. 1991 Free Software Foundation. either version 2 of the License. If this is what you want to do. or (at your option) any later version. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 2. MA 02110-1301 USA. 1 April 1989 Ty Coon.. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful. if not. alter the names: Yoyodyne. hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker. Boston. they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program.

And you must show them these terms so they know their rights. Finally. but changing it is not allowed. This General Public License applies to most of the Free Software Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it. When we speak of free software. The "Program". whether gratis or for a fee. not price. we are referring to freedom. and that you know you can do these things. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on. receive or can get the source code. the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. in effect making the program proprietary. Also.) You can apply it to your programs. for each author's protection and ours. For example. This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed under the terms of this General Public License.of this license document. We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software. we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all. and a "work based on the Program" means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law: . To prevent this. The precise terms and conditions for copying. By contrast. Preamble The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Lesser General Public License instead. or if you modify it. distribute and/or modify the software. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish). and (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING. any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights. You must make sure that they. we want to make certain that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free software. refers to any such program or work. that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs. too. below. that you receive source code or can get it if you want it. you must give the recipients all the rights that you have. if you distribute copies of such a program. To protect your rights. so that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original authors' reputations. distribution and modification follow. too. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the software. DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION 0. we want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free program will individually obtain patent licenses.

Thus. your work based on the Program is not required to print an announcement. do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works. and its terms. thus forming a work based on the Program. provided that you also meet all of these conditions: a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and the date of any change. translation is included without limitation in the term "modification". You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it. then this License. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program. Activities other than copying. and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above. The act of running the Program is not restricted. it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by you. in any medium. and telling the user how to view a copy of this License. either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another language. You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy. the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or . you must cause it. when started running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way. and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License along with the Program. provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty. the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License. a work containing the Program or a portion of it. Whether that is true depends on what the Program does. and the output from the Program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been made by running the Program). (Hereinafter. c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run. distribution and modification are not covered by this License. to print or display an announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or else. they are outside its scope.that is to say. keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty. rather. 1. to be licensed as parties under the terms of this you distribute or publish. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Program. that in derived from the Program or any a whole at no charge to all third License. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an announcement.) Each licensee is addressed as "you". saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under these conditions. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it. and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it. b) You must cause any work that whole or in part contains or is part thereof. and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves. 2. and you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee. whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole.) These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole.

In addition. you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so. as a special exception. to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. or rights. or distribute the Program except as expressly provided under this License. You may not copy. valid for at least three years. even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code. mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this License. by modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the Program). c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding source code. a complete machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code. modify. plus any associated interface definition files.) The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. However. for a charge no more than your cost of physically performing source distribution. since you have not signed it. However. parties who have received copies. (This alternative is allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the program in object code or executable form with such an offer. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it. complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains. sublicense. then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as distribution of the source code. or. sublicense or distribute the Program is void. or. which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. modify. from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance. and all its terms and conditions for copying. distributing or modifying . 4. to give any third party. b) Accompany it with a written offer. However. You are not required to accept this License. For an executable work. kernel. 5. nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. and so on) of the operating system on which the executable runs.collective works based on the Program. 3. Any attempt otherwise to copy. Therefore. in accord with Subsection b above. under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following: a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code. If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place. These actions are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the executable. the source code distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major components (compiler. unless that component itself accompanies the executable.

9. Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system. agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License. 7. For example. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public License from time to time. If. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program). Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version. If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance. the balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances. Each version is given a distinguishing version number. You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein. this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution system. If the Program specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any later version". if a patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations. conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order. then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Program.the Program or works based on it. the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries. the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy. If the Program does not specify a version number of . but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License. it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice. distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and conditions. so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. 6. as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues). It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any such claims. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this License. they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. which is implemented by public license practices. 8. you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program at all. This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License. In such case.

INCLUDING ANY GENERAL. See the GNU General Public License for more details. 10. To do so. but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY.> Copyright (C) <year> <name of author> This program is free software. INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS). you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions are different. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE. write to the Free Software Foundation. or (at your option) any later version. you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation. BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES. we sometimes make exceptions for this. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation. OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE. and each file the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the program. and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public. THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful. INCLUDING. the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER. TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. BUT NOT LIMITED TO. NO WARRANTY 11. END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs If you develop a new program. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. SPECIAL. write to the author to ask for permission. REPAIR OR CORRECTION. THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM. either version 2 of the License. 12. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along . YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING. attach the following notices to the to attach them to the start of each source file convey the exclusion of warranty. EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. It is safest to most effectively should have at least full notice is found. <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally.this License.

. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Lesser General Public License instead. if any. June 1991 Copyright (C) 1989.. MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document. make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode: Gnomovision version 69. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 2. <signature of Ty Coon>. President of Vice This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. By contrast. you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker. This General Public License applies to most of the Free Software Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it. . You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school. 51 Franklin Street. Preamble The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. This is free software. 51 Franklin Street. Fifth Floor. When we speak of free software. that you receive source code or can get it if you want it. write to the Free Software Foundation. Here is a sample.with this program. Boston. to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program. Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail. Copyright (C) year name of author Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. 1991 Free Software Foundation. if not. for details type `show w'. If the program is interactive.) You can apply it to your programs. Inc. type `show c' for details. if necessary. If this is what you want to do. The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. the commands you use may be called something other than `show w' and `show c'. MA 02110-1301 USA. Boston. use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. Inc. Of course. they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program. alter the names: Yoyodyne. that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs. not price. If your program is a subroutine library. Fifth Floor. and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions. 1 April 1989 Ty Coon. the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. and that you know you can do these things.. too. but changing it is not allowed. Inc. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish). we are referring to freedom.

we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights. provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty. a work containing the Program or a portion of it. for each author's protection and ours. Finally. Whether that is true depends on what the Program does. distribution and modification follow. translation is included without limitation in the term "modification". keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty. The act of running the Program is not restricted. For example. and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License along with the Program. they are outside its scope. and .To protect your rights. and the output from the Program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been made by running the Program). DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION 0. whether gratis or for a fee. in any medium. we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all. we want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original. You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy. so that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original authors' reputations. and (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy. or if you modify it. too. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the software. in effect making the program proprietary. We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software. and a "work based on the Program" means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say. Also. we want to make certain that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free software. if you distribute copies of such a program. you must give the recipients all the rights that you have. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it. You must make sure that they. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING. either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another language. distribution and modification are not covered by this License. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free program will individually obtain patent licenses. The precise terms and conditions for copying. below. The "Program". If the software is modified by someone else and passed on. Activities other than copying. distribute and/or modify the software. To prevent this. any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. 1. (Hereinafter. refers to any such program or work. receive or can get the source code.) Each licensee is addressed as "you". This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed under the terms of this General Public License.

2. to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it. or. provided that you also meet all of these conditions: a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and the date of any change. thus forming a work based on the Program. 3. under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following: a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code. saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under these conditions. a complete machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code. c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run. mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this License. In addition. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an announcement. which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. and telling the user how to view a copy of this License.you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee. Thus.) These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. your work based on the Program is not required to print an announcement. b) Accompany it with a written offer. for a charge no more than your cost of physically performing source distribution. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program. rather. it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by you. . You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it. and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it. do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works. valid for at least three years. and its terms. to be licensed as parties under the terms of this you distribute or publish. and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above. to print or display an announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or else. you must cause it. the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License. the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on the Program. whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole. b) You must cause any work that whole or in part contains or is part thereof. when started running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way. and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves. to give any third party. that in derived from the Program or any a whole at no charge to all third License. or. then this License. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Program.

you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so. in accord with Subsection b above. However. 7. Any attempt otherwise to copy. 4. complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains. (This alternative is allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the program in object code or executable form with such an offer. then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program at all. agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License. However. These actions are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. kernel. the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy. You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein. since you have not signed it.c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding source code. For example. the source code distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major components (compiler. 6. sublicense. parties who have received copies. and so on) of the operating system on which the executable runs. For an executable work. if a patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you. plus any associated interface definition files. or distribute the Program except as expressly provided under this License. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program). modify. You are not required to accept this License. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations. or rights. from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance. 5. then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to . If. then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as distribution of the source code. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this License. unless that component itself accompanies the executable. If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place. they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code. Therefore. and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. However. as a special exception. by modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the Program). modify. plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the executable. nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order.) The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues). You may not copy. distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and conditions. sublicense or distribute the Program is void. and all its terms and conditions for copying. distributing or modifying the Program or works based on it.

so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. In such case. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces. Each version is given a distinguishing version number. we sometimes make exceptions for this. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public License from time to time. it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice. 10. but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation. you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation. which is implemented by public license practices. write to the Free Software Foundation. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE. TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License. the balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances. If the Program specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any later version". Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system. It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any such claims. NO WARRANTY 11. 9. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License. write to the author to ask for permission. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions are different. this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution system. . Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally. BUT NOT LIMITED TO. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. 8. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version. If the Program does not specify a version number of this License. YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING. If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance.refrain entirely from distribution of the Program. EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. INCLUDING. THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM. the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries.

the commands you use may be called something other than `show w' and `show c'.REPAIR OR CORRECTION. Copyright (C) year name of author Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY. make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode: Gnomovision version 69. 12. If the program is interactive. The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. or (at your option) any later version. alter the names: . INCLUDING ANY GENERAL. 51 Franklin Street. Inc. write to the Free Software Foundation. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER. they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful. you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation. INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS). You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school. either version 2 of the License. BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES. for details type `show w'. if necessary. This is free software. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE. without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.> Copyright (C) <year> <name of author> This program is free software. if any. attach the following notices to the to attach them to the start of each source file convey the exclusion of warranty. Boston. <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does. type `show c' for details. Here is a sample. and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions. if not. the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms. To do so. SPECIAL. and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public. and each file the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the program. MA 02110-1301 USA. EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail. Of course. END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs If you develop a new program. Fifth Floor. See the GNU General Public License for more details. It is safest to most effectively should have at least full notice is found. to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program..

so that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original authors' reputations. If this is what you want to do. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish). but changing it is not allowed. we want to make certain that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free software. When we speak of free software. Fifth Floor. not price. too. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights. 51 Franklin Street.. you must give the recipients all the rights that you have. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the software. whether gratis or for a fee. . (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Lesser General Public License instead. Inc. we want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original. and (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy. You must make sure that they.. or if you modify it. We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software. <signature of Ty Coon>. hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker. we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights. you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. if you distribute copies of such a program. use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License.Yoyodyne. distribute and/or modify the software. receive or can get the source code. Preamble The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document. By contrast. 1991 Free Software Foundation. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 2. 1 April 1989 Ty Coon. This General Public License applies to most of the Free Software Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it. If your program is a subroutine library. that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs. we are referring to freedom. June 1991 Copyright (C) 1989. Also. Boston. too. Inc. and that you know you can do these things. the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users.) You can apply it to your programs. that you receive source code or can get it if you want it. To protect your rights. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on. President of Vice This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. For example. for each author's protection and ours.

keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty. and a "work based on the Program" means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say. 2. either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another language. in any medium. they are outside its scope. when started running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way. to print or display an announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or else. a work containing the Program or a portion of it. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free program will individually obtain patent licenses. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING. You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy. any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. provided that you also meet all of these conditions: a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and the date of any change.) Each licensee is addressed as "you". The act of running the Program is not restricted. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it. (Hereinafter. you must cause it. Activities other than copying. and you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee. The "Program". in effect making the program proprietary. To prevent this. and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License along with the Program. DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION 0. refers to any such program or work. 1. below. c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run. This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed under the terms of this General Public License. that in derived from the Program or any a whole at no charge to all third License. and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above. translation is included without limitation in the term "modification". to be licensed as parties under the terms of this you distribute or publish. distribution and modification follow. distribution and modification are not covered by this License. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it. Whether that is true depends on what the Program does. saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under . thus forming a work based on the Program. b) You must cause any work that whole or in part contains or is part thereof. The precise terms and conditions for copying. and the output from the Program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been made by running the Program). we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all. provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty.Finally.

or. and its terms. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program. For an executable work. In addition. c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding source code. do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works. the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License. However.these conditions. to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. for a charge no more than your cost of physically performing source distribution.) The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole. as a special exception. rather. in accord with Subsection b above. and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves. plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the executable. then this License. to give any third party. the source code distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major components (compiler. and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it. which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it. then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as . valid for at least three years. your work based on the Program is not required to print an announcement. a complete machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code. complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains. kernel. plus any associated interface definition files. unless that component itself accompanies the executable.) These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on the Program. it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by you. b) Accompany it with a written offer. 3. and telling the user how to view a copy of this License. (This alternative is allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the program in object code or executable form with such an offer. under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following: a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code. mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this License. or. If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Program. Thus. and so on) of the operating system on which the executable runs. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an announcement.

conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order. modify. 4. the balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances. distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and conditions. sublicense or distribute the Program is void. nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance. parties who have received copies. and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. For example. modify. These actions are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. However. distributing or modifying the Program or works based on it. . this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution system. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations. even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code. sublicense. the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy. It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any such claims. If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance. or distribute the Program except as expressly provided under this License. 6. and all its terms and conditions for copying. 7. However. by modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the Program). You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein. or rights. it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice.distribution of the source code. which is implemented by public license practices. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program). you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so. If. then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Program. then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program at all. This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License. You may not copy. 5. Therefore. since you have not signed it. if a patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you. Any attempt otherwise to copy. Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this License. agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License. You are not required to accept this License. as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues).

write to the Free Software Foundation. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions are different. INCLUDING. BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES. and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally. SPECIAL. Each version is given a distinguishing version number. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version. BUT NOT LIMITED TO. REPAIR OR CORRECTION. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE. INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS). IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER. you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. If the Program specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any later version". write to the author to ask for permission. we sometimes make exceptions for this. the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE. but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms. INCLUDING ANY GENERAL. In such case. 10. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM. END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs If you develop a new program. NO WARRANTY 11. THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. To do so. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public License from time to time. YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING.8. 9. TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. If the Program does not specify a version number of this License. so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. 12. this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License. attach the following notices to the program. It is safest . you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation. EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED.

Fifth Floor. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 2. write to the Free Software Foundation. 51 Franklin Street. you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation. 51 Franklin Street. MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document.. Inc. for details type `show w'. 1 April 1989 Ty Coon. Inc.. Preamble . but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY. Boston. if not. If this is what you want to do. Of course. President of Vice This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. Here is a sample. If your program is a subroutine library.to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively convey the exclusion of warranty. Boston. either version 2 of the License.> Copyright (C) <year> <name of author> This program is free software. The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program. Fifth Floor. If the program is interactive. <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does. they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program. the commands you use may be called something other than `show w' and `show c'. and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions. Copyright (C) year name of author Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. This is free software. June 1991 Copyright (C) 1989. <signature of Ty Coon>. if necessary. MA 02110-1301 USA. without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details. if any. Inc. or (at your option) any later version. alter the names: Yoyodyne. hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker. You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school. Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail. you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. but changing it is not allowed. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful. 1991 Free Software Foundation. and each file should have at least the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found. type `show c' for details. use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode: Gnomovision version 69..

we want to make certain that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free software. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights. so that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original authors' reputations. To protect your rights. the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. translation is included without limitation in . that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on. For example. When we speak of free software. or if you modify it. You must make sure that they. below. distribution and modification follow. The "Program". We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software. a work containing the Program or a portion of it. if you distribute copies of such a program. whether gratis or for a fee. we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all. and a "work based on the Program" means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say. in effect making the program proprietary. we want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original. By contrast. and that you know you can do these things. To prevent this. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish). distribute and/or modify the software. This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed under the terms of this General Public License. either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another language.) You can apply it to your programs. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free program will individually obtain patent licenses. The precise terms and conditions for copying. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the software. you must give the recipients all the rights that you have. and (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy. too. too. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Lesser General Public License instead. receive or can get the source code. not price. This General Public License applies to most of the Free Software Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it. DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION 0. for each author's protection and ours. Finally. refers to any such program or work. we are referring to freedom. (Hereinafter. we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights. any free program is threatened constantly by software patents.The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. that you receive source code or can get it if you want it. Also.

and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves. then this License. in any medium. it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by you. Thus. Whether that is true depends on what the Program does. provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Program. when started running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way. and its terms. you must cause it. You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy. saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under these conditions. distribution and modification are not covered by this License. and you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee.) Each licensee is addressed as "you". In addition. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it. the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License. and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above. mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program . that in derived from the Program or any a whole at no charge to all third License. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program. they are outside its scope. c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run. b) You must cause any work that whole or in part contains or is part thereof. 1.) These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. thus forming a work based on the Program. and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License along with the Program. whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole. to print or display an announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or else. to be licensed as parties under the terms of this you distribute or publish. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it. and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it. the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on the Program. rather. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an announcement. 2. keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty. The act of running the Program is not restricted. do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works.the term "modification". and telling the user how to view a copy of this License. and the output from the Program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been made by running the Program). your work based on the Program is not required to print an announcement. provided that you also meet all of these conditions: a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and the date of any change. Activities other than copying.

4. unless that component itself accompanies the executable. However. However. for a charge no more than your cost of physically performing source distribution. Any attempt otherwise to copy. nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. to give any third party. then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as distribution of the source code. c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding source code. kernel. For an executable work. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it. 5. or rights. b) Accompany it with a written offer. to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. You are not required to accept this License. and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. distributing or modifying the Program or works based on it. However. or distribute the Program except as expressly provided under this License. the source code distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major components (compiler. by modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the Program). even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code. modify. sublicense. sublicense or distribute the Program is void.with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this License. plus any associated interface definition files. 3. Therefore. plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the executable. You may not copy. parties who have received copies. under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following: a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code. complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains. from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the . valid for at least three years. or. 6. as a special exception. These actions are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. modify. and so on) of the operating system on which the executable runs. and all its terms and conditions for copying. (This alternative is allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the program in object code or executable form with such an offer. you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so. or.) The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place. in accord with Subsection b above. which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. since you have not signed it. a complete machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code.

This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License. which is implemented by public license practices. so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. 7. this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution system. For example. 9. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations. . conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order. If the Program specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any later version". 8. You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein. It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any such claims. agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License. the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version. then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program at all. if a patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you. but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation. then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Program. this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License. as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues). In such case. Each version is given a distinguishing version number. Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system. If. If the Program does not specify a version number of this License. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public License from time to time. the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries. the balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances. it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this License.Program). you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance. distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and conditions.

BUT NOT LIMITED TO. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER. you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation. SPECIAL. if not. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation. write to the author to ask for permission. BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES. OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE. To do so. See the GNU General Public License for more details. EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public. It is safest to most effectively should have at least full notice is found.> Copyright (C) <year> <name of author> This program is free software. and each file the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the program. . Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE. NO WARRANTY 11.. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions are different. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE.10. the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms. MA 02110-1301 USA. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. either version 2 of the License. or (at your option) any later version. 51 Franklin Street. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. write to the Free Software Foundation. YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful. INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS). but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY. 12. Boston. REPAIR OR CORRECTION. Fifth Floor. TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. INCLUDING. <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does. END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs If you develop a new program. EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM. Inc. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. we sometimes make exceptions for this. attach the following notices to the to attach them to the start of each source file convey the exclusion of warranty. write to the Free Software Foundation. INCLUDING ANY GENERAL.

and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions. we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights. Copyright (C) year name of author Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. Here is a sample. make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode: Gnomovision version 69. If the program is interactive. and that you know you can do these things. the commands you use may be called something other than `show w' and `show c'. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you . use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program. too. This is free software.. if necessary. 1991 Free Software Foundation. Of course. Boston. type `show c' for details. Inc. hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker.) You can apply it to your programs. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 2. June 1991 Copyright (C) 1989. that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs. Fifth Floor. This General Public License applies to most of the Free Software Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it. but changing it is not allowed. we are referring to freedom. If your program is a subroutine library. Inc. 51 Franklin Street. alter the names: Yoyodyne. for details type `show w'. you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. To protect your rights. the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. If this is what you want to do. not price. Preamble The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Lesser General Public License instead. if any. 1 April 1989 Ty Coon. By contrast. to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program. President of Vice This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school. <signature of Ty Coon>. The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document. When we speak of free software. that you receive source code or can get it if you want it.Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish)..

2. distribution and modification follow. you must give the recipients all the rights that you have. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights. The "Program". You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion . translation is included without limitation in the term "modification". they are outside its scope. whether gratis or for a fee. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on. we want to make certain that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free software. (Hereinafter. in effect making the program proprietary. a work containing the Program or a portion of it. we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all. The precise terms and conditions for copying. 1. too. and (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy. any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. refers to any such program or work. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free program will individually obtain patent licenses. in any medium. we want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original. Finally. and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License along with the Program. keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty. For example. To prevent this. receive or can get the source code. Whether that is true depends on what the Program does. so that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original authors' reputations. below. or if you modify it. The act of running the Program is not restricted. for each author's protection and ours. distribution and modification are not covered by this License. distribute and/or modify the software. and you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee. and the output from the Program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been made by running the Program).) Each licensee is addressed as "you". Activities other than copying. either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another language. This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed under the terms of this General Public License. and a "work based on the Program" means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say.distribute copies of the software. provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING. We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software. You must make sure that they. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it. DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION 0. if you distribute copies of such a program. Also.

Thus. do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works. for a charge no more than your cost of physically performing source distribution. whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole. and its terms. then this License. it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by you. which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. thus forming a work based on the Program. the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on the Program. when started running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way. and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it. In addition. to print or display an announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or else. valid for at least three years. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Program. under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following: a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code. to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange.of it. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it. provided that you also meet all of these conditions: a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and the date of any change. or. rather. and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves. you must cause it. and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above. or. and telling the user how to view a copy of this License. the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License. a complete machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an announcement. 3. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program. c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding source code. your work based on the Program is not required to print an announcement. to be licensed as parties under the terms of this you distribute or publish. (This alternative is . mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this License. b) You must cause any work that whole or in part contains or is part thereof.) These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run. b) Accompany it with a written offer. saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under these conditions. that in derived from the Program or any a whole at no charge to all third License. to give any third party.

You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein. then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program at all. in accord with Subsection b above. modify. You may not copy. For an executable work. from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance. If. 5. Any attempt otherwise to copy. modify. sublicense. as a special exception. plus any associated interface definition files. you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so. Therefore. 6. However. distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and conditions. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations. If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under . agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License.allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the program in object code or executable form with such an offer. the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy. parties who have received copies. then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as distribution of the source code. If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place. 4. the source code distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major components (compiler. and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. You are not required to accept this License. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this License. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program). they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains. 7. by modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the Program). if a patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you. conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order. kernel. and so on) of the operating system on which the executable runs. even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code.) The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. These actions are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. since you have not signed it. or distribute the Program except as expressly provided under this License. sublicense or distribute the Program is void. distributing or modifying the Program or works based on it. nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. or rights. However. plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the executable. unless that component itself accompanies the executable. as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues). then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Program. However. and all its terms and conditions for copying. For example.

it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice. BUT NOT LIMITED TO. the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. write to the author to ask for permission. the balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions are different. If the Program specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any later version". This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally. 9. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version. TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. 8. 10. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE. EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public License from time to time. write to the Free Software Foundation.any particular circumstance. but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. we sometimes make exceptions for this. INCLUDING. It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any such claims. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces. Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system. NO WARRANTY 11. you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of this License. 12. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING . Each version is given a distinguishing version number. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation. YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING. REPAIR OR CORRECTION. which is implemented by public license practices. you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM. this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License. In such case. so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution system. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE. THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.

Of course. either version 2 of the License. and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public. the commands you use may be called something other than `show w' and `show c'. END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs If you develop a new program. if necessary. If the program is interactive. to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program. if any. MA 02110-1301 USA. This is free software. SPECIAL. Copyright (C) year name of author Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program. See the GNU General Public License for more details. write to the Free Software Foundation. the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms. alter the names: Yoyodyne.> Copyright (C) <year> <name of author> This program is free software.. you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation. hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker. Inc. and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions. and each file the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the program. BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES. <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does. without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.. make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode: Gnomovision version 69. for details type `show w'. if not. . This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful. You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school. Fifth Floor. but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY.WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER. Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail. To do so. Boston. INCLUDING ANY GENERAL. OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE. It is safest to most effectively should have at least full notice is found. EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. attach the following notices to the to attach them to the start of each source file convey the exclusion of warranty. INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS). You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. type `show c' for details. Inc. Here is a sample. 51 Franklin Street. or (at your option) any later version. The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License.

Fifth Floor. we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free . the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. 51 Franklin Street. but changing it is not allowed.<signature of Ty Coon>. This General Public License applies to most of the Free Software Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it. any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights. if you distribute copies of such a program. 1 April 1989 Ty Coon.) You can apply it to your programs. or if you modify it. Finally. distribute and/or modify the software. that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs. 1991 Free Software Foundation.. you must give the recipients all the rights that you have. If your program is a subroutine library. and that you know you can do these things. Boston. whether gratis or for a fee. not price. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on. so that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original authors' reputations. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish). By contrast. for each author's protection and ours. President of Vice This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. Also. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Lesser General Public License instead. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 2. We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the software. we are referring to freedom. Inc. You must make sure that they. you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. we want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original. Preamble The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. and (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy. that you receive source code or can get it if you want it. too. If this is what you want to do. we want to make certain that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free software. For example. too. To protect your rights. When we speak of free software. MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document. June 1991 Copyright (C) 1989. receive or can get the source code.

and a "work based on the Program" means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say. You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy.program will individually obtain patent licenses. 1. to be licensed as parties under the terms of this you distribute or publish. your work based on . You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it. The "Program". This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed under the terms of this General Public License. and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License along with the Program. The act of running the Program is not restricted. (Hereinafter. that in derived from the Program or any a whole at no charge to all third License. distribution and modification are not covered by this License. provided that you also meet all of these conditions: a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and the date of any change. Activities other than copying.) Each licensee is addressed as "you". they are outside its scope. 2. we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all. To prevent this. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING. Whether that is true depends on what the Program does. when started running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it. thus forming a work based on the Program. in effect making the program proprietary. you must cause it. saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under these conditions. either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another language. to print or display an announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or else. in any medium. and telling the user how to view a copy of this License. refers to any such program or work. b) You must cause any work that whole or in part contains or is part thereof. a work containing the Program or a portion of it. and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above. DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION 0. keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty. distribution and modification follow. and you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee. The precise terms and conditions for copying. provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an announcement. and the output from the Program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been made by running the Program). below. c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run. translation is included without limitation in the term "modification".

or. even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code. b) Accompany it with a written offer. If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place. the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on the Program. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it. in accord with Subsection b above. to give any third party. and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves. for a charge no more than your cost of physically performing source distribution. 3. c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding source code. kernel. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Program.) The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. Thus. mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this License. to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. and so on) of the operating system on which the executable runs. valid for at least three years.) These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by you. then this License. then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as distribution of the source code. complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains. do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works.the Program is not required to print an announcement. However. and its terms. the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License. For an executable work. In addition. under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following: a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program. plus any associated interface definition files. which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. unless that component itself accompanies the executable. (This alternative is allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the program in object code or executable form with such an offer. a complete machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code. . whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole. rather. and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it. the source code distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major components (compiler. plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the executable. as a special exception. or.

4. then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Program. 7. You are not required to accept this License. It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any such claims. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this License. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations. or distribute the Program except as expressly provided under this License. conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order. the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License . If. 6. Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system. Any attempt otherwise to copy. the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy. or rights. For example. You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein. from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program). 8. You may not copy. since you have not signed it. If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance. which is implemented by public license practices. distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and conditions. and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. and all its terms and conditions for copying. as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues). parties who have received copies. modify. you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so. it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice. sublicense. 5. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces. nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License. then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program at all. modify. they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License. the balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances. However. if a patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you. sublicense or distribute the Program is void. However. These actions are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. by modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the Program). this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution system. Therefore. distributing or modifying the Program or works based on it.

INCLUDING ANY GENERAL. 10. To do so. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation. INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS). so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. SPECIAL. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER. REPAIR OR CORRECTION. THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM. EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public License from time to time. It is safest to most effectively should have at least full notice is found. BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES. you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation. TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. INCLUDING. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally. and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public. Each version is given a distinguishing version number. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE. THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. write to the author to ask for permission. END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs If you develop a new program. write to the Free Software Foundation. If the Program specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any later version". If the Program does not specify a version number of this License. but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms. attach the following notices to the to attach them to the start of each source file convey the exclusion of warranty. BUT NOT LIMITED TO. YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING. In such case. we sometimes make exceptions for this. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND.may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries. 9. this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License. EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE. 12. NO WARRANTY 11. OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions are different. . and each file the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the program. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program. Fifth Floor. June 1991 Copyright (C) 1989. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful. either version 2 of the License. Fifth Floor.> Copyright (C) <year> <name of author> This program is free software. if necessary. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 2. write to the Free Software Foundation. President of Vice This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. 1 April 1989 Ty Coon. make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode: Gnomovision version 69. 1991 Free Software Foundation. the commands you use may be called something other than `show w' and `show c'. the GNU General Public . if any. Boston. You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school. Boston. Copyright (C) year name of author Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker. for details type `show w'. If the program is interactive. but changing it is not allowed. without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. By contrast. Inc. MA 02110-1301 USA. This is free software.<one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does. See the GNU General Public License for more details. you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation. and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions.. to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program. <signature of Ty Coon>. If this is what you want to do. 51 Franklin Street. Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail. Here is a sample.. Inc. use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. alter the names: Yoyodyne. Preamble The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. or (at your option) any later version. 51 Franklin Street. type `show c' for details. Of course. The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. Inc. MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document. If your program is a subroutine library.. but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY. if not.

To protect your rights. we are referring to freedom. whether gratis or for a fee.License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. To prevent this. and a "work based on the Program" means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say. below. For example. or if you modify it. if you distribute copies of such a program. so that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original authors' reputations. we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights. and that you know you can do these things. either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another language. we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all. (Hereinafter. and (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy. Also. distribution and modification follow. translation is included without limitation in the term "modification". You must make sure that they. we want to make certain that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free software. that you receive source code or can get it if you want it. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free program will individually obtain patent licenses. This General Public License applies to most of the Free Software Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it. distribute and/or modify the software. a work containing the Program or a portion of it. The precise terms and conditions for copying.) You can apply it to your programs. receive or can get the source code. DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION 0. too. not price. This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed under the terms of this General Public License. any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. you must give the recipients all the rights that you have. Activities other than copying. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on. We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software. too. The "Program". Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish). refers to any such program or work. that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs. for each author's protection and ours. we want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Lesser General Public License instead. Finally. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the software. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING. in effect making the program proprietary. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights.) Each licensee is addressed as "you". distribution and modification are not . When we speak of free software.

then this License. and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves. provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty. you must cause it. to print or display an announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or else. saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under these conditions. In addition. the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License. Thus. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it. and the output from the Program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been made by running the Program). mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this License. and you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee. . and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License along with the Program. the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on the Program. 1. rather. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program. that in derived from the Program or any a whole at no charge to all third License. they are outside its scope.) These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. and its terms. do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works. provided that you also meet all of these conditions: a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and the date of any change. Whether that is true depends on what the Program does. c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Program. your work based on the Program is not required to print an announcement. You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy. in any medium. whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole. keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty. 2. b) You must cause any work that whole or in part contains or is part thereof. and telling the user how to view a copy of this License. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an announcement.covered by this License. to be licensed as parties under the terms of this you distribute or publish. it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by you. thus forming a work based on the Program. and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it. and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above. when started running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it. The act of running the Program is not restricted.

plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the executable. the source code distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major components (compiler. nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and conditions. to give any third party. by modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the Program). and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. and so on) of the operating system on which the executable runs. plus any associated interface definition files. or.) The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. and all its terms and conditions for copying. to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. You are not required to accept this License. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it. a complete machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code. You may not impose any further . However. since you have not signed it. 4. Any attempt otherwise to copy. 5. in accord with Subsection b above. complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains. parties who have received copies. sublicense. modify. or distribute the Program except as expressly provided under this License. You may not copy. b) Accompany it with a written offer. for a charge no more than your cost of physically performing source distribution. or rights. c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding source code. distributing or modifying the Program or works based on it. For an executable work. Therefore. as a special exception. then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as distribution of the source code. However. which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. sublicense or distribute the Program is void. or. If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place. even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code. (This alternative is allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the program in object code or executable form with such an offer. 6. valid for at least three years. under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following: a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code. kernel.3. the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy. modify. from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance. However. These actions are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. unless that component itself accompanies the executable. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program). you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so.

For example. Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system. it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice.restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein. For software which is copyrighted by the Free . If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version. If the Program does not specify a version number of this License. agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License. then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program at all. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public License from time to time. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions are different. which is implemented by public license practices. you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation. write to the author to ask for permission. Each version is given a distinguishing version number. but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any such claims. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this License. 9. conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order. If the Program specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any later version". 8. 7. this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License. This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces. the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries. if a patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you. you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues). this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution system. then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Program. 10. they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. the balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations. If. In such case.

INCLUDING. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally. <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does. Inc. REPAIR OR CORRECTION. EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE. you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation. INCLUDING ANY GENERAL. but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY. write to the Free Software Foundation. Fifth Floor. YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES. without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER. make it output a short notice like this . SPECIAL. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. either version 2 of the License. 51 Franklin Street. If the program is interactive. It is safest to most effectively should have at least full notice is found. MA 02110-1301 USA. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful. and each file the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the program. if not. the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.> Copyright (C) <year> <name of author> This program is free software. BUT NOT LIMITED TO. NO WARRANTY 11. Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.Software Foundation. To do so. TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM.. 12. and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public. or (at your option) any later version. Boston. we sometimes make exceptions for this. END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs If you develop a new program. OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE. write to the Free Software Foundation. EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. attach the following notices to the to attach them to the start of each source file convey the exclusion of warranty. See the GNU General Public License for more details. INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS).

use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions. the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 2. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Lesser General Public License instead. This is free software. 51 Franklin Street. not price. MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the software. <signature of Ty Coon>. if any. Of course. whether . When we speak of free software. but changing it is not allowed. they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program. or if you modify it. If your program is a subroutine library. If this is what you want to do. Inc. To protect your rights. that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs. if you distribute copies of such a program. Inc. By contrast. June 1991 Copyright (C) 1989. type `show c' for details. President of Vice This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker. alter the names: Yoyodyne. and that you know you can do these things. Here is a sample. we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights..when it starts in an interactive mode: Gnomovision version 69. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish). 1 April 1989 Ty Coon. too.) You can apply it to your programs. Preamble The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. the commands you use may be called something other than `show w' and `show c'. 1991 Free Software Foundation. if necessary. for details type `show w'.. that you receive source code or can get it if you want it. Boston. Fifth Floor. Copyright (C) year name of author Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school. For example. we are referring to freedom. This General Public License applies to most of the Free Software Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it.

2. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights. (Hereinafter. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING. This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed under the terms of this General Public License. they are outside its scope. We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software. To prevent this. You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy. distribution and modification are not covered by this License. keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty. DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION 0. and (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy. any free program is threatened constantly by software patents.gratis or for a fee. The "Program". You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it. below. provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty. The precise terms and conditions for copying. distribution and modification follow. receive or can get the source code. and you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee. we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all. The act of running the Program is not restricted. either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another language. we want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original. a work containing the Program or a portion of it. and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above. distribute and/or modify the software. in any medium. thus forming a work based on the Program. for each author's protection and ours. 1. Also. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it. Finally.) Each licensee is addressed as "you". so that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original authors' reputations. in effect making the program proprietary. you must give the recipients all the rights that you have. provided that you also meet all of these conditions: . too. translation is included without limitation in the term "modification". We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free program will individually obtain patent licenses. Whether that is true depends on what the Program does. we want to make certain that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free software. refers to any such program or work. You must make sure that they. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on. and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License along with the Program. Activities other than copying. and the output from the Program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been made by running the Program). and a "work based on the Program" means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say.

and its terms. a complete machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code.a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and the date of any change. when started running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way. or. that in derived from the Program or any a whole at no charge to all third License. to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. and telling the user how to view a copy of this License. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an announcement. in accord with Subsection b above. saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under these conditions. to print or display an announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or else. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it. which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. you must cause it. In addition. b) You must cause any work that whole or in part contains or is part thereof. c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program. and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it. mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this License. c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding source code. your work based on the Program is not required to print an announcement. and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves. do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works. valid for at least three years. (This alternative is allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the program in object code or executable form with such an offer.) .) These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. Thus. or. to give any third party. the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on the Program. whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole. b) Accompany it with a written offer. under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following: a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code. to be licensed as parties under the terms of this you distribute or publish. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Program. rather. for a charge no more than your cost of physically performing source distribution. 3. it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by you. then this License. the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License.

then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as distribution of the source code. the balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances. However. 5. you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so. then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program at all. modify. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program). 6. sublicense. the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy. conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order. plus any associated interface definition files. kernel. 4. . they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. as a special exception. distributing or modifying the Program or works based on it. agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License. You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein. or distribute the Program except as expressly provided under this License. If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance. 7. modify. even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code. For example. unless that component itself accompanies the executable. Any attempt otherwise to copy. from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance. sublicense or distribute the Program is void. then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Program. complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations. and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. Therefore. distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and conditions. by modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the Program). parties who have received copies. and so on) of the operating system on which the executable runs. plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the executable. If. However. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this License. as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues). if a patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you. These actions are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place. You may not copy.The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. and all its terms and conditions for copying. or rights. nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. You are not required to accept this License. For an executable work. since you have not signed it. However. the source code distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major components (compiler.

If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions are different. BUT NOT LIMITED TO. INCLUDING ANY GENERAL. the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries. If the Program specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any later version". OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE. SPECIAL. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER. THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. write to the Free Software Foundation. 9. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of this License. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. 10. NO WARRANTY 11. which is implemented by public license practices. THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public License from time to time. 12. YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE. This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE. Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system. this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution system. EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. REPAIR OR CORRECTION. Each version is given a distinguishing version number. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally. we sometimes make exceptions for this. INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING . EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. INCLUDING. 8. so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces. In such case. you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation. this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version. BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES.It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any such claims. it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice. TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. write to the author to ask for permission.

This is free software. If the program is interactive. or (at your option) any later version. See the GNU General Public License for more details. END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs If you develop a new program. if not. if necessary. Copyright (C) year name of author Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms. they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program. but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY. without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. type `show c' for details.. Inc. 1 April 1989 Ty Coon. hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker.> Copyright (C) <year> <name of author> This program is free software. To do so. Boston. <signature of Ty Coon>.. Inc.OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS). the commands you use may be called something other than `show w' and `show c'. write to the Free Software Foundation. and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions. Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail. make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode: Gnomovision version 69. <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does. Of course. You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school. It is safest to most effectively should have at least full notice is found. if any. Here is a sample. attach the following notices to the to attach them to the start of each source file convey the exclusion of warranty. 51 Franklin Street. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful. President of Vice . and each file the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the program. MA 02110-1301 USA. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. alter the names: Yoyodyne. you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation. Fifth Floor. and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public. either version 2 of the License. for details type `show w'. EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program. The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License.

if you distribute copies of such a program. too. We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software. Boston. use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. This General Public License applies to most of the Free Software Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it. For example. for each author's protection and ours. but changing it is not allowed. To prevent this. any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. Also. too. we want to make certain that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free software. whether gratis or for a fee. we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights. Finally. or if you modify it. When we speak of free software. not price. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the software. so that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original authors' reputations. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Lesser General Public License instead. Fifth Floor.) You can apply it to your programs. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish). . that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights. You must make sure that they. we want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original. If this is what you want to do. we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all. June 1991 Copyright (C) 1989. receive or can get the source code. Preamble The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. To protect your rights. you must give the recipients all the rights that you have. we are referring to freedom. distribute and/or modify the software. the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. Inc. that you receive source code or can get it if you want it. 51 Franklin Street. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 2. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on. in effect making the program proprietary. If your program is a subroutine library. MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document. and (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy.. and that you know you can do these things.This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. By contrast. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free program will individually obtain patent licenses. you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. 1991 Free Software Foundation.

to print or display an announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or else. to be licensed as parties under the terms of this you distribute or publish. Whether that is true depends on what the Program does. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an announcement. Activities other than copying. and you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee. 2. b) You must cause any work that whole or in part contains or is part thereof. If .The precise terms and conditions for copying. distribution and modification follow. The act of running the Program is not restricted. refers to any such program or work.) Each licensee is addressed as "you". This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed under the terms of this General Public License. keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING. provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty. below.) These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. your work based on the Program is not required to print an announcement. You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy. 1. when started running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it. that in derived from the Program or any a whole at no charge to all third License. either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another language. they are outside its scope. and the output from the Program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been made by running the Program). DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION 0. The "Program". thus forming a work based on the Program. (Hereinafter. and a "work based on the Program" means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say. translation is included without limitation in the term "modification". you must cause it. and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License along with the Program. distribution and modification are not covered by this License. provided that you also meet all of these conditions: a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and the date of any change. a work containing the Program or a portion of it. and telling the user how to view a copy of this License. in any medium. and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it. saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under these conditions. c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run.

and its terms. modify. b) Accompany it with a written offer. modify. rather. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it. and so on) of the operating system on which the executable runs. kernel. (This alternative is allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the program in object code or executable form with such an offer. sublicense or distribute the Program is .identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program. then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as distribution of the source code. Any attempt otherwise to copy. a complete machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code. plus any associated interface definition files. For an executable work. to give any third party. You may not copy. c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding source code. and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it. under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following: a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code. In addition. as a special exception. the source code distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major components (compiler. and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves. in accord with Subsection b above. to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. then this License. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Program. whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole. even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code. mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this License. However. or. the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License. the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on the Program. 3. If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place. unless that component itself accompanies the executable. plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the executable.) The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. sublicense. or distribute the Program except as expressly provided under this License. it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by you. Thus. or. complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains. valid for at least three years. 4. do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works. for a charge no more than your cost of physically performing source distribution.

void. as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues). However. These actions are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. and all its terms and conditions for copying. by modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the Program). this License incorporates . then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Program. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this License. and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance. 6. parties who have received copies. However. the balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program). since you have not signed it. or rights. Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system. 8. you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so. Therefore. then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program at all. If. distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and conditions. the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy. if a patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you. from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance. they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any such claims. it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice. In such case. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations. agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License. distributing or modifying the Program or works based on it. You are not required to accept this License. which is implemented by public license practices. nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. 7. 5. This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License. so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution system. For example. the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries. You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein. conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order.

you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation. INCLUDING. To do so. 12. attach the following notices to the to attach them to the start of each source file convey the exclusion of warranty. and each file the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the program. write to the author to ask for permission. SPECIAL. 9. NO WARRANTY 11. If the Program does not specify a version number of this License. OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE. TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally. you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public. write to the Free Software Foundation. THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions are different. <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does. EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. If the Program specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any later version". we sometimes make exceptions for this. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE. EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. BUT NOT LIMITED TO. the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER. but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. It is safest to most effectively should have at least full notice is found. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version. END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs If you develop a new program. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. Each version is given a distinguishing version number. INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS). The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public License from time to time. 10. INCLUDING ANY GENERAL.the limitation as if written in the body of this License. BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES. REPAIR OR CORRECTION.> Copyright (C) <year> <name of author> . For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation. THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM. YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING.

This is free software. and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions. Of course. Inc. write to the Free Software Foundation. Fifth Floor. if necessary. MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document. If your program is a subroutine library. type `show c' for details. See the GNU General Public License for more details. Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail. Fifth Floor. MA 02110-1301 USA. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful. The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. for details type `show w'. If this is what you want to do. 1991 Free Software Foundation. hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker.This program is free software. If the program is interactive.. the commands you use may be called something other than `show w' and `show c'. to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program. 51 Franklin Street. without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. if any. 51 Franklin Street. You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school. 1 April 1989 Ty Coon. either version 2 of the License. Copyright (C) year name of author Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. President of Vice This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program. <signature of Ty Coon>. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 2. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode: Gnomovision version 69. if not.. you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation. Here is a sample. June 1991 Copyright (C) 1989. but changing it is not allowed. or (at your option) any later version. Preamble The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. Inc. By contrast. the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. alter the names: Yoyodyne. Inc.. This General Public License applies to most of the Free Software . Boston. but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY. Boston.

that you receive source code or can get it if you want it. a work containing the Program or a portion of it. that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs. and a "work based on the Program" means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say. We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software. The act of running the Program is not restricted. too. if you distribute copies of such a program. Activities other than copying. translation is included without limitation in the term "modification". too.Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it. DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION 0. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on. for each author's protection and ours. we want to make certain that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free software. not price. and the output from the Program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the . Also. or if you modify it. below. The "Program". so that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original authors' reputations. receive or can get the source code. any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the software. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish). they are outside its scope. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING. we are referring to freedom. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights. To protect your rights.) You can apply it to your programs. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free program will individually obtain patent licenses. You must make sure that they. either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another language. and that you know you can do these things. distribution and modification are not covered by this License. The precise terms and conditions for copying. When we speak of free software. To prevent this. (Hereinafter. in effect making the program proprietary. distribution and modification follow. This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed under the terms of this General Public License. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Lesser General Public License instead. we want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original. distribute and/or modify the software. Finally. we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights. and (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy. whether gratis or for a fee. you must give the recipients all the rights that you have. we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all.) Each licensee is addressed as "you". For example. refers to any such program or work.

2. mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this License. the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License. in any medium. and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above. under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of . to be licensed as parties under the terms of this you distribute or publish. and telling the user how to view a copy of this License. In addition. b) You must cause any work that whole or in part contains or is part thereof. and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves. your work based on the Program is not required to print an announcement. whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole. 1. rather. the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on the Program. that in derived from the Program or any a whole at no charge to all third License. it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by you. you must cause it. saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under these conditions. Thus. 3. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it. then this License. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an announcement. provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty. provided that you also meet all of these conditions: a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and the date of any change. c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run. when started running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way. and its terms. keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty. to print or display an announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or else. thus forming a work based on the Program. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it. and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License along with the Program. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it. You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Program. and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it. do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works.) These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. Whether that is true depends on what the Program does. and you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee.Program (independent of having been made by running the Program).

4. plus any associated interface definition files. the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy. modify. then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as distribution of the source code. b) Accompany it with a written offer. and all its terms and conditions for copying. (This alternative is allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the program in object code or executable form with such an offer. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this License. and so on) of the operating system on which the executable runs. sublicense or distribute the Program is void. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program). 5. distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and conditions. However. If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place. However. and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. a complete machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code. the source code distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major components (compiler. unless that component itself accompanies the executable. or distribute the Program except as expressly provided under this License. even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code. Therefore. in accord with Subsection b above. For an executable work.) The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so. for a charge no more than your cost of physically performing source distribution. c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding source code. plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the executable. These actions are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. as a special exception. which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance. or. distributing or modifying the Program or works based on it. You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein. You may not copy. or. sublicense. or rights. Any attempt otherwise to copy. to give any third party. complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains.Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following: a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code. However. by modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the Program). You are not required to accept this License. modify. since you have not signed it. parties who have received copies. . valid for at least three years. nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. kernel. to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. 6.

this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License. then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Program. 10. If the Program specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any later version". In such case. it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice. If. we sometimes make exceptions for this. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces. you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation. If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance. 8. the balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances. For example. It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any such claims. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions are different. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public License from time to time. then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program at all. if a patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you. but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License. write to the author to ask for permission. you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and . conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order. so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License. write to the Free Software Foundation. as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues).7. If the Program does not specify a version number of this License. Each version is given a distinguishing version number. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation. which is implemented by public license practices. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations. this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution system. the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries. 9. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version. Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system.

IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER. NO WARRANTY 11. YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING.of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally. Fifth Floor. <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does. if not. Inc. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. 51 Franklin Street. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE. BUT NOT LIMITED TO. To do so. make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode: Gnomovision version 69. but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY. If the program is interactive. the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms. attach the following notices to the to attach them to the start of each source file convey the exclusion of warranty. and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public. MA 02110-1301 USA. Copyright (C) year name of author . THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. INCLUDING ANY GENERAL. END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs If you develop a new program. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful. without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE. you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation. and each file the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the program. either version 2 of the License. or (at your option) any later version. Boston. TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM. See the GNU General Public License for more details.. EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. SPECIAL. BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES. EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. It is safest to most effectively should have at least full notice is found. REPAIR OR CORRECTION. INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS). Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.> Copyright (C) <year> <name of author> This program is free software. INCLUDING. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE. write to the Free Software Foundation. 12.

This General Public License applies to most of the Free Software Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it. By contrast.. Fifth Floor. President of Vice This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. Here is a sample. you must give the recipients all the rights that you have. whether gratis or for a fee. June 1991 Copyright (C) 1989. or if you modify it. too. Inc. To protect your rights. that you receive source code or can get it if you want it. You must make sure that they. they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program. MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document. not price. if you distribute copies of such a program. When we speak of free software. alter the names: Yoyodyne. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish). that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Lesser General Public License instead. if any. If this is what you want to do. <signature of Ty Coon>. and that you know you can do these things. The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. Preamble The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program. For example.. This is free software. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the software. for details type `show w'. we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights. we are referring to freedom. hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker. receive or can get the source code. too. Boston. 1 April 1989 Ty Coon.Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. but changing it is not allowed. Of course. You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school. the commands you use may be called something other than `show w' and `show c'. and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions. 51 Franklin Street. And you must show them these terms so they know their . GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 2. If your program is a subroutine library. if necessary.) You can apply it to your programs. 1991 Free Software Foundation. use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. type `show c' for details. Inc.

1. provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty.) Each licensee is addressed as "you". we want to make certain that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free software. Also. in effect making the program proprietary. The precise terms and conditions for copying. distribution and modification are not covered by this License. so that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original authors' reputations. DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION 0. and you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee. keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty. in any medium. This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed under the terms of this General Public License. refers to any such program or work. Whether that is true depends on what the Program does. To prevent this. We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software. thus forming a work based on the Program. and the output from the Program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been made by running the Program). 2. below. (Hereinafter. for each author's protection and ours. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it. and (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy. The "Program". You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it. a work containing the Program or a portion of it. distribution and modification follow. provided that you also meet all of these conditions: a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and the date of any change. any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free program will individually obtain patent licenses. either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another language. Activities other than copying. distribute and/or modify the software.rights. Finally. translation is included without limitation in the term "modification". we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all. and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License along with the Program. . The act of running the Program is not restricted. and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above. we want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original. You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on. and a "work based on the Program" means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say. they are outside its scope.

) The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program. under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following: a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code. to print or display an announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or else. the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License. your work based on the Program is not required to print an announcement. whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole. then this License. to be licensed as parties under the terms of this you distribute or publish. when started running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way. which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run. to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Program. In addition. that in derived from the Program or any a whole at no charge to all third License. and telling the user how to view a copy of this License.) These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. Thus. or. For an executable work. and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it. b) Accompany it with a written offer. you must cause it. the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on the Program. (This alternative is allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the program in object code or executable form with such an offer. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it. saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under these conditions. in accord with Subsection b above. or. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an announcement. and its terms. it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by you. complete source . c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding source code. rather. mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this License. a complete machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code. do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works. 3. to give any third party.b) You must cause any work that whole or in part contains or is part thereof. valid for at least three years. and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves. for a charge no more than your cost of physically performing source distribution.

nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any . the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy. from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance. plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the executable. plus any associated interface definition files. However. Therefore. or distribute the Program except as expressly provided under this License. If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place. distributing or modifying the Program or works based on it. You are not required to accept this License. For example. you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so. You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein. as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues). You may not copy. and so on) of the operating system on which the executable runs. agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License. then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as distribution of the source code. even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code. 7. and all its terms and conditions for copying.code means all the source code for all modules it contains. 4. parties who have received copies. These actions are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this License. If. and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. the balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances. 6. sublicense or distribute the Program is void. conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order. 5. or rights. Any attempt otherwise to copy. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program). unless that component itself accompanies the executable. sublicense. then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program at all. modify. then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Program. as a special exception. modify. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations. If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance. if a patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you. they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. However. since you have not signed it. by modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the Program). distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and conditions. the source code distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major components (compiler. However. kernel.

this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License. 8. it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice. If the Program does not specify a version number of this License. This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License. TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces. In such case.such claims. you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version. this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution system. the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries. INCLUDING ANY GENERAL. Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions are different. write to the Free Software Foundation. REPAIR OR CORRECTION. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally. INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER . which is implemented by public license practices. EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. NO WARRANTY 11. Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system. If the Program specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any later version". 10. BUT NOT LIMITED TO. BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES. we sometimes make exceptions for this. THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. INCLUDING. SPECIAL. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE. 12. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE. 9. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation. but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM. so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. write to the author to ask for permission. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public License from time to time. YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU.

if necessary. the commands you use may be called something other than `show w' and `show c'. write to the Free Software Foundation. to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program. and each file the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the program. <signature of Ty Coon>. Fifth Floor.PROGRAMS). hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker. they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program. This is free software. MA 02110-1301 USA. the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful. and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public. Inc.> Copyright (C) <year> <name of author> This program is free software. Boston. See the GNU General Public License for more details. without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation. Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail. It is safest to most effectively should have at least full notice is found. President of Vice This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school.. for details type `show w'. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. Of course. type `show c' for details. make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode: Gnomovision version 69. if any. <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does. you may . Copyright (C) year name of author Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY. 51 Franklin Street. If your program is a subroutine library. The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. Here is a sample. either version 2 of the License. alter the names: Yoyodyne. if not. or (at your option) any later version. and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions. 1 April 1989 Ty Coon. To do so.. If the program is interactive. Inc. END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs If you develop a new program. attach the following notices to the to attach them to the start of each source file convey the exclusion of warranty. EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.

whether gratis or for a fee.) You can apply it to your programs. not price. that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs. Boston. we want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original. MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document. The precise terms and conditions for copying. if you distribute copies of such a program. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free program will individually obtain patent licenses. Also. we are referring to freedom. By contrast. or if you modify it. Finally. we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all. Fifth Floor.consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. for each author's protection and ours. June 1991 Copyright (C) 1989. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the software. that you receive source code or can get it if you want it. When we speak of free software. We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software. you must give the recipients all the rights that you have. too. To prevent this. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Lesser General Public License instead. distribute and/or modify the software. For example. . To protect your rights. too. so that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original authors' reputations. the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. receive or can get the source code. but changing it is not allowed. and that you know you can do these things. 51 Franklin Street. If this is what you want to do. distribution and modification follow. You must make sure that they. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish). Preamble The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. This General Public License applies to most of the Free Software Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it. in effect making the program proprietary. 1991 Free Software Foundation. use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. and (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 2. we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights. Inc. we want to make certain that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free software. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights..

You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it.GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING. to print or display an announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or else. c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run. 2. and the output from the Program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been made by running the Program). saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under these conditions. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it. provided that you also meet all of these conditions: a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and the date of any change. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program. when started running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way. keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty. and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves. provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty. b) You must cause any work that whole or in part contains or is part thereof. either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another language. The "Program". distribution and modification are not covered by this License. a work containing the Program or a portion of it.) Each licensee is addressed as "you". do not apply to those . to be licensed as parties under the terms of this you distribute or publish. and its terms. and telling the user how to view a copy of this License. The act of running the Program is not restricted. your work based on the Program is not required to print an announcement. then this License. 1. refers to any such program or work. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an announcement. (Hereinafter. that in derived from the Program or any a whole at no charge to all third License.) These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. you must cause it. and a "work based on the Program" means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say. and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above. Whether that is true depends on what the Program does. translation is included without limitation in the term "modification". and you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee. in any medium. they are outside its scope. thus forming a work based on the Program. Activities other than copying. This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed under the terms of this General Public License. You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy. below. and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License along with the Program. DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION 0.

even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code. You may not copy. to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. for a charge no more than your cost of physically performing source distribution. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Program. the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License. 3. from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such . to give any third party. b) Accompany it with a written offer. or distribute the Program except as expressly provided under this License.) The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. the source code distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major components (compiler. or rights. Any attempt otherwise to copy. valid for at least three years. parties who have received copies.sections when you distribute them as separate works. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it. unless that component itself accompanies the executable. However. c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding source code. rather. or. a complete machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code. in accord with Subsection b above. whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole. the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on the Program. as a special exception. then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as distribution of the source code. However. and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it. it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by you. If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place. complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains. (This alternative is allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the program in object code or executable form with such an offer. 4. kernel. plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the executable. Thus. under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following: a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code. sublicense or distribute the Program is void. or. modify. mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this License. and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. sublicense. which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. plus any associated interface definition files. For an executable work. modify. In addition. and so on) of the operating system on which the executable runs.

conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order. agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License. it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice. If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance. this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License. this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution system. You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces. If. the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy. 6. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this License. 9. and all its terms and conditions for copying. since you have not signed it. You are not required to accept this License. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions . 7. However. by modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the Program). For example. so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. Therefore. which is implemented by public license practices. the balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances. This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License. they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Program. you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so. Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations. distributing or modifying the Program or works based on it.parties remain in full compliance. distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and conditions. if a patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you. In such case. as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues). nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program at all. 5. the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program). It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any such claims. 8. These actions are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License.

the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms. SPECIAL. TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does. OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE. If the Program does not specify a version number of this License. and each file the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the program. BUT NOT LIMITED TO. NO WARRANTY 11. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE. INCLUDING. To do so. It is safest to most effectively should have at least full notice is found. EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. REPAIR OR CORRECTION. 12.> Copyright (C) <year> <name of author> This program is free software. EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions are different. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER. INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS). but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. If the Program specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any later version". YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs If you develop a new program. we sometimes make exceptions for this. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally. attach the following notices to the to attach them to the start of each source file convey the exclusion of warranty. you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation. THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM. write to the Free Software Foundation. you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by . BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES.of the General Public License from time to time. 10. INCLUDING ANY GENERAL. Each version is given a distinguishing version number. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public. write to the author to ask for permission. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version. THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation.

but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY. <signature of Ty Coon>. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. Boston. This General Public License applies to most of the Free Software Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it. 51 Franklin Street. If this is what you want to do. alter the names: Yoyodyne. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Lesser General Public License instead. Inc. they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program. President of Vice This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program. if any. See the GNU General Public License for more details. make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode: Gnomovision version 69. This is free software. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 2. write to the Free Software Foundation. Here is a sample. use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. By contrast. for details type `show w'. Fifth Floor. Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.) You can apply it to . Fifth Floor. you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. or (at your option) any later version. MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document. Copyright (C) year name of author Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions. Inc. either version 2 of the License. 51 Franklin Street. Of course. Preamble The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. If the program is interactive. if not. the commands you use may be called something other than `show w' and `show c'..the Free Software Foundation. Boston. You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school. hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker. June 1991 Copyright (C) 1989. The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. 1991 Free Software Foundation. Inc. but changing it is not allowed. without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. type `show c' for details. if necessary... 1 April 1989 Ty Coon. If your program is a subroutine library. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful. MA 02110-1301 USA.

(Hereinafter. distribution and modification are not covered by this License. too. distribution and modification follow. Finally. and that you know you can do these things. a work containing the Program or a portion of it. in effect making the program proprietary. You must make sure that they. . that you receive source code or can get it if you want it. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on. For example. Also. below. they are outside its scope. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights. we are referring to freedom. distribute and/or modify the software. refers to any such program or work. whether gratis or for a fee. we want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original. we want to make certain that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free software. The act of running the Program is not restricted. for each author's protection and ours. Activities other than copying. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the software. that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs. translation is included without limitation in the term "modification". receive or can get the source code. This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed under the terms of this General Public License. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish). if you distribute copies of such a program. not price. or if you modify it.your programs. The precise terms and conditions for copying. you must give the recipients all the rights that you have. The "Program". When we speak of free software. We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software. DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION 0. and a "work based on the Program" means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say. either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another language. To protect your rights. Whether that is true depends on what the Program does. too. so that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original authors' reputations.) Each licensee is addressed as "you". any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING. To prevent this. and the output from the Program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been made by running the Program). we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all. and (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free program will individually obtain patent licenses. we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights.

your work based on the Program is not required to print an announcement. under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following: a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable .1. b) You must cause any work that whole or in part contains or is part thereof. to be licensed as parties under the terms of this you distribute or publish. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it. In addition. keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty. then this License. in any medium. Thus. and its terms. and you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee. the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on the Program. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it. You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy. saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under these conditions. to print or display an announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or else. and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License along with the Program. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it. c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run. 3.) These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty. thus forming a work based on the Program. 2. and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves. whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole. when started running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way. and telling the user how to view a copy of this License. and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it. and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an announcement. that in derived from the Program or any a whole at no charge to all third License. rather. you must cause it. do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works. the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License. it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by you. mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this License. provided that you also meet all of these conditions: a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and the date of any change. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Program.

valid for at least three years. plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the executable. in accord with Subsection b above. You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein. You may not copy. distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and conditions. However.) The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. modify. distributing or modifying the Program or works based on it. These actions are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. to give any third party. and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. sublicense. and so on) of the operating system on which the executable runs. since you have not signed it. modify. then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as distribution of the source code. parties who have received copies. unless that component itself accompanies the executable. by modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the Program). a complete machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code. 6. the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy. kernel. which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code.source code. c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding source code. you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so. You are not required to accept this License. sublicense or distribute the Program is void. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program). You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this License. 7. . If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place. or distribute the Program except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt otherwise to copy. or rights. For an executable work. for a charge no more than your cost of physically performing source distribution. 4. However. 5. or. and all its terms and conditions for copying. Therefore. plus any associated interface definition files. the source code distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major components (compiler. from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance. as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues). If. as a special exception. b) Accompany it with a written offer. complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains. (This alternative is allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the program in object code or executable form with such an offer. However. or.

If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation. Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system. they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. 10. you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. which is implemented by public license practices. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public License from time to time. this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution system. If the Program specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any later version". This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions are different. In such case. then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program at all. the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries. we sometimes make exceptions for this. write to the Free Software Foundation. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally. so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. NO WARRANTY . the balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances. agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License. then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Program. this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License. write to the author to ask for permission. For example. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces. It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any such claims. it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice. If the Program does not specify a version number of this License. Each version is given a distinguishing version number. if a patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you.conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order. 8. but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations. 9. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version. you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation.

Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER. either version 2 of the License. THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions. BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES. 51 Franklin Street. INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS). This is free software. without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM. If the program is interactive. YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING. SPECIAL. but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY. BUT NOT LIMITED TO. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. write to the Free Software Foundation. INCLUDING. REPAIR OR CORRECTION. . EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. or (at your option) any later version. type `show c' for details. To do so. 12. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful. Inc. if not. INCLUDING ANY GENERAL. TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode: Gnomovision version 69. you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation. MA 02110-1301 USA. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE. EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does. END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs If you develop a new program. the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms. and each file the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the program. Copyright (C) year name of author Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. Fifth Floor. It is safest to most effectively should have at least full notice is found.> Copyright (C) <year> <name of author> This program is free software. See the GNU General Public License for more details. and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. attach the following notices to the to attach them to the start of each source file convey the exclusion of warranty.. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE.11. for details type `show w'. Boston. OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE.

too. <signature of Ty Coon>. the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school. For example. This General Public License applies to most of the Free Software Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 2. if any. they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program. too. If this is what you want to do. You must make sure that they. 1 April 1989 Ty Coon. to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program. President of Vice This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs.. whether gratis or for a fee. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish). that you receive source code or can get it if you want it. We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Lesser General Public License instead. that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs. you must give the recipients all the rights that you have. Here is a sample. we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights. or if you modify it.. To protect your rights. MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document. 51 Franklin Street. if necessary.) You can apply it to your programs. alter the names: Yoyodyne. hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker. we are referring to freedom. If your program is a subroutine library. not price.The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. June 1991 Copyright (C) 1989. if you distribute copies of such a program. Inc. receive or can get the source code. Boston. the commands you use may be called something other than `show w' and `show c'. you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. Fifth Floor. use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. Inc. Of course. 1991 Free Software Foundation. and . These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the software. but changing it is not allowed. and that you know you can do these things. Preamble The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. When we speak of free software. By contrast.

The act of running the Program is not restricted. so that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original authors' reputations. and a "work based on the Program" means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say.) Each licensee is addressed as "you". 1. we want to make certain that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free software. The precise terms and conditions for copying. for each author's protection and ours. a work containing the Program or a portion of it. provided that you also meet all of these conditions: a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and the date of any change. Whether that is true depends on what the Program does. refers to any such program or work. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it.(2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy. that in whole or in part contains or is derived from the Program or any . thus forming a work based on the Program. we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all. distribution and modification are not covered by this License. we want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original. 2. Activities other than copying. in any medium. keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty. and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License along with the Program. This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed under the terms of this General Public License. in effect making the program proprietary. b) You must cause any work that you distribute or publish. Also. provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty. and the output from the Program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been made by running the Program). To prevent this. any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. distribution and modification follow. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on. distribute and/or modify the software. translation is included without limitation in the term "modification". DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION 0. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free program will individually obtain patent licenses. The "Program". You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy. they are outside its scope. Finally. below. either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another language. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it. (Hereinafter. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING. and you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee. and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above.

part thereof. and telling the user how to view a copy of this License. For an executable work. a complete machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code. and its terms. to give any third party. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an announcement. you must cause it. whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole. plus any associated interface definition files. for a charge no more than your cost of physically performing source distribution. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program. your work based on the Program is not required to print an announcement. 3. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Program. saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under these conditions. do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works.) These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. valid for at least three years. to be licensed as a whole at no charge to all third parties under the terms of this License. to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run. then this License. mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this License. rather. when started running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way. in accord with Subsection b above. or. the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License. plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the executable.) The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by you. In addition. the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on the Program. to print or display an announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or else. b) Accompany it with a written offer. c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding source code. as a . and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it. complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains. under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following: a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code. and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves. Thus. (This alternative is allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the program in object code or executable form with such an offer. or. However. which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange.

You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this License. this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution system. by modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the Program). However. These actions are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. unless that component itself accompanies the executable. then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program at all. or distribute the Program except as expressly provided under this License. which is implemented by public license practices. 7. from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance. 4. Any attempt otherwise to copy. Many people have made . conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order. since you have not signed it. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program). However.special exception. or rights. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations. You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein. 6. and all its terms and conditions for copying. even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code. For example. then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as distribution of the source code. sublicense. You are not required to accept this License. If. agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License. you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so. If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance. they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. sublicense or distribute the Program is void. modify. distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and conditions. if a patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you. distributing or modifying the Program or works based on it. the balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances. then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Program. as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues). 5. the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy. and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. You may not copy. nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. parties who have received copies. the source code distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major components (compiler. It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any such claims. modify. and so on) of the operating system on which the executable runs. If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place. Therefore. kernel.

you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of this License. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM. INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS). If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions are different. 8. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version. EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. we sometimes make exceptions for this. write to the author to ask for permission. YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER. 10. OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE. REPAIR OR CORRECTION. BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES. but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE. it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE. so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. write to the Free Software Foundation. BUT NOT LIMITED TO. 9. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. Each version is given a distinguishing version number. NO WARRANTY 11. this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License. 12. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces. This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License. INCLUDING. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public License from time to time. . THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. In such case. you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation. INCLUDING ANY GENERAL. If the Program specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any later version". SPECIAL. EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW.generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system.

If this is what you want to do. or (at your option) any later version. . President of Vice This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. attach the following notices to the to attach them to the start of each source file convey the exclusion of warranty. <signature of Ty Coon>. 51 Franklin Street. and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public. Copyright (C) year name of author Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY.. The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. 1 April 1989 Ty Coon. and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions. <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. If the program is interactive.. MA 02110-1301 USA. If your program is a subroutine library. if necessary. you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. It is safest to most effectively should have at least full notice is found. if any. if not. To do so. but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY. This is free software. write to the Free Software Foundation. and each file the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the program.END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs If you develop a new program. make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode: Gnomovision version 69. to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program. Fifth Floor. Inc. the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms. hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful. You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school. Of course. for details type `show w'. type `show c' for details. Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail. See the GNU General Public License for more details. the commands you use may be called something other than `show w' and `show c'. Inc. Here is a sample. use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. alter the names: Yoyodyne. you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation. either version 2 of the License. they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program.> Copyright (C) <year> <name of author> This program is free software. Boston.

if you distribute copies of such a program. By contrast. distribute and/or modify the software. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights. Finally. and that you know you can do these things. 51 Franklin Street. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free program will individually obtain patent licenses. or if you modify it. that you receive source code or can get it if you want it. the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users.GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 2. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the software. we are referring to freedom. but changing it is not allowed. distribution and modification follow. Inc. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Lesser General Public License instead. we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all. This General Public License applies to most of the Free Software Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it. For example. MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document. Boston. any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. To prevent this. you must give the recipients all the rights that you have.. too. we want to make certain that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free software. We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software. so that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original authors' reputations. June 1991 Copyright (C) 1989. Also. When we speak of free software. we want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original. Preamble The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. To protect your rights. 1991 Free Software Foundation. The precise terms and conditions for copying. receive or can get the source code. for each author's protection and ours. and (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING. DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION . If the software is modified by someone else and passed on. You must make sure that they. in effect making the program proprietary. too. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish). Fifth Floor.) You can apply it to your programs. we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights. that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs. whether gratis or for a fee. not price.

refers to any such program or work. they are outside its scope. and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above. (Hereinafter. in any medium. This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed under the terms of this General Public License. provided that you also meet all of these conditions: a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and the date of any change. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it. and telling the user how to view a copy of this License. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an announcement. Activities other than copying. you must cause it. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program. to be licensed as parties under the terms of this you distribute or publish. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it.) These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty. when started running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way.0. and a "work based on the Program" means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say. and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License along with the Program. translation is included without limitation in the term "modification". 2. Whether that is true depends on what the Program does. and the output from the Program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been made by running the Program). saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under these conditions. distribution and modification are not covered by this License. below. c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run. The act of running the Program is not restricted. b) You must cause any work that whole or in part contains or is part thereof.) Each licensee is addressed as "you". a work containing the Program or a portion of it. The "Program". do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works. then this License. and you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee. the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of . that in derived from the Program or any a whole at no charge to all third License. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Program. to print or display an announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or else. provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty. and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves. You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy. your work based on the Program is not required to print an announcement. thus forming a work based on the Program. either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another language. and its terms. 1.

3. In addition. for a charge no more than your cost of physically performing source distribution. as a special exception. it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by you. or. Thus. sublicense or distribute the Program is void. For an executable work. which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it. since you have not . or distribute the Program except as expressly provided under this License. You may not copy. whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole. or. from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance. modify. You are not required to accept this License. 5. rather. Any attempt otherwise to copy. under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following: a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code. even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code. plus any associated interface definition files. the source code distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major components (compiler. mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this License. b) Accompany it with a written offer. and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. kernel.this License. to give any third party. then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as distribution of the source code. to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. parties who have received copies. and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it. a complete machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code. If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place. c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding source code. 4. complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains. sublicense. valid for at least three years. However. modify. in accord with Subsection b above. the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on the Program. and so on) of the operating system on which the executable runs. However. plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the executable.) The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. unless that component itself accompanies the executable. or rights. (This alternative is allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the program in object code or executable form with such an offer.

Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system. 6. if a patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations. they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. However. This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License. 9. this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution system. which is implemented by public license practices. 7. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces. It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any such claims. If. as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues). the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy. this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License. by modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the Program). but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. . distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and conditions. These actions are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so. 8. If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance. then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Program. and all its terms and conditions for copying. so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public License from time to time. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program).signed it. agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this License. In such case. You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein. Therefore. the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries. it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice. For example. then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program at all. nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. the balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances. distributing or modifying the Program or works based on it. conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order.

you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs If you develop a new program. THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM. you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation. we sometimes make exceptions for this. INCLUDING ANY GENERAL. the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE. 12. INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS). REPAIR OR CORRECTION.Each version is given a distinguishing version number.> Copyright (C) <year> <name of author> This program is free software. you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation. SPECIAL. NO WARRANTY 11. If the Program does not specify a version number of this License. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation. EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. either version 2 of the License. BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES. To do so. write to the Free Software Foundation. OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally. and each file the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the program. and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public. write to the author to ask for permission. attach the following notices to the to attach them to the start of each source file convey the exclusion of warranty. INCLUDING. If the Program specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any later version". 10. THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. It is safest to most effectively should have at least full notice is found. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING. or (at your option) any later version. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions are different. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE. EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. BUT NOT LIMITED TO. . IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER.

use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. If the program is interactive. Here is a sample. alter the names: Yoyodyne. MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document. If this is what you want to do. Boston. but changing it is not allowed. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Lesser General Public License instead. Inc. By contrast. Copyright (C) year name of author Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. See the GNU General Public License for more details. not . to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program.This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program.) You can apply it to your programs.. you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. Of course. Inc.. If your program is a subroutine library. This is free software. When we speak of free software.. <signature of Ty Coon>. June 1991 Copyright (C) 1989. MA 02110-1301 USA. Fifth Floor. 1991 Free Software Foundation. 1 April 1989 Ty Coon. Inc. hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker. President of Vice This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. if any. type `show c' for details. This General Public License applies to most of the Free Software Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it. they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program. too. write to the Free Software Foundation. the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. we are referring to freedom. The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 2. but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY. if not. make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode: Gnomovision version 69. if necessary. 51 Franklin Street. for details type `show w'. without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Boston. You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school. Preamble The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail. and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions. 51 Franklin Street. Fifth Floor. the commands you use may be called something other than `show w' and `show c'.

Finally. To protect your rights. we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights. translation is included without limitation in the term "modification". The precise terms and conditions for copying. Whether that is true depends on what the Program does. whether gratis or for a fee. receive or can get the source code. provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate . and a "work based on the Program" means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the software. they are outside its scope. so that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original authors' reputations. for each author's protection and ours. and that you know you can do these things. distribution and modification are not covered by this License. too. The "Program". distribute and/or modify the software. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING.) Each licensee is addressed as "you". we want to make certain that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free software. any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. below. you must give the recipients all the rights that you have. DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION 0. and the output from the Program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been made by running the Program). distribution and modification follow. Also. 1. You must make sure that they. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on. We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software.price. The act of running the Program is not restricted. we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all. or if you modify it. in any medium. To prevent this. Activities other than copying. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free program will individually obtain patent licenses. either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another language. and (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy. that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs. refers to any such program or work. that you receive source code or can get it if you want it. For example. This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed under the terms of this General Public License. a work containing the Program or a portion of it. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish). if you distribute copies of such a program. we want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original. (Hereinafter. in effect making the program proprietary.

and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above. In addition. and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it.copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty. which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it. it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by you.) These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. b) You must cause any work that whole or in part contains or is part thereof. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an announcement. then this License. or. under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following: a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code. the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License. you must cause it. to print or display an announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or else. provided that you also meet all of these conditions: a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and the date of any change. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Program. and telling the user how to view a copy of this License. whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole. You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy. and its terms. your work based on the Program is not required to print an announcement. saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under these conditions. that in derived from the Program or any a whole at no charge to all third License. do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works. and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License along with the Program. mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this License. rather. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program. 2. and you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee. the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on the Program. 3. . Thus. keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty. c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run. when started running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way. and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves. thus forming a work based on the Program. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it. to be licensed as parties under the terms of this you distribute or publish.

since you have not signed it. or. for a charge no more than your cost of physically performing source distribution. the source code distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major components (compiler. modify. as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues). complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains. 6. agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License. even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code. they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order. You are not required to accept this License. a complete machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code. and so on) of the operating system on which the executable runs. These actions are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding source code. in accord with Subsection b above. sublicense or distribute the Program is void. unless that component itself accompanies the executable. or rights. then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as distribution of the source code. Therefore. You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein. plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the executable. If. modify. and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. and all its terms and conditions for copying. by modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the Program). You may not copy. to give any third party. valid for at least three years.b) Accompany it with a written offer.) The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. If you cannot . distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and conditions. from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program). to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so. nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. 5. However. Any attempt otherwise to copy. parties who have received copies. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this License. as a special exception. sublicense. 7. or distribute the Program except as expressly provided under this License. the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy. 4. distributing or modifying the Program or works based on it. (This alternative is allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the program in object code or executable form with such an offer. If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place. However. plus any associated interface definition files. kernel. For an executable work. However.

BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE. THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM. 8. we sometimes make exceptions for this. If the Program specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any later version". write to the author to ask for permission. then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Program. For example. this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License. then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program at all. In such case. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public License from time to time. EXCEPT WHEN . It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any such claims. the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries. you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation. which is implemented by public license practices. Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system. If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance. This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License. NO WARRANTY 11.distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions are different. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation. you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. if a patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you. 10. Each version is given a distinguishing version number. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally. so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. the balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances. write to the Free Software Foundation. it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version. but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. 9. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces. If the Program does not specify a version number of this License. this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution system. TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW.

attach the following notices to the to attach them to the start of each source file convey the exclusion of warranty. for details type `show w'. or (at your option) any later version. Copyright (C) year name of author Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail. If the program is interactive. and each file the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the program. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs If you develop a new program. INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS). but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY. INCLUDING ANY GENERAL. you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation. if not. EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED.OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. 12. EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. 51 Franklin Street.> Copyright (C) <year> <name of author> This program is free software. BUT NOT LIMITED TO.. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER. The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. either version 2 of the License. <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does. See the GNU General Public License for more details. type `show c' for details. SPECIAL. and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public. BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful. YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING. and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions. Fifth Floor. make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode: Gnomovision version 69. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms. To do so. Of course. Boston. OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE. without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. the commands you use may . MA 02110-1301 USA. REPAIR OR CORRECTION. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE. This is free software. write to the Free Software Foundation. It is safest to most effectively should have at least full notice is found. INCLUDING. Inc.

<signature of Ty Coon>.) You can apply it to your programs. When we speak of free software. You must make sure that they. you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. To protect your rights. President of Vice This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights. By contrast. 51 Franklin Street. This General Public License applies to most of the Free Software Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it. hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker. they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program. Fifth Floor. Inc. June 1991 Copyright (C) 1989. that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs. alter the names: Yoyodyne. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 2. Here is a sample. For example. . not price. 1991 Free Software Foundation.. receive or can get the source code. MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document. that you receive source code or can get it if you want it. 1 April 1989 Ty Coon. If your program is a subroutine library. too. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish). Boston. and that you know you can do these things. You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school. the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. but changing it is not allowed. we are referring to freedom.. or if you modify it. and (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy. if any. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the software. if you distribute copies of such a program. too. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Lesser General Public License instead. If this is what you want to do. we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights. to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program. distribute and/or modify the software. if necessary. whether gratis or for a fee. you must give the recipients all the rights that you have. We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software. Inc.be called something other than `show w' and `show c'. use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. Preamble The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it.

we want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original. To prevent this. and a "work based on the Program" means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say. The act of running the Program is not restricted. thus forming a work based on the Program. refers to any such program or work. provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty.Also. You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy.) Each licensee is addressed as "you". either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another language. to be licensed as parties under the terms of this you distribute or publish. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it. so that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original authors' reputations. we want to make certain that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free software. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING. . and the output from the Program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been made by running the Program). and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License along with the Program. translation is included without limitation in the term "modification". and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above. Finally. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free program will individually obtain patent licenses. Whether that is true depends on what the Program does. This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed under the terms of this General Public License. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on. distribution and modification follow. distribution and modification are not covered by this License. a work containing the Program or a portion of it. 2. DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION 0. b) You must cause any work that whole or in part contains or is part thereof. and you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee. that in derived from the Program or any a whole at no charge to all third License. we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all. in effect making the program proprietary. The "Program". keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty. 1. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it. (Hereinafter. they are outside its scope. The precise terms and conditions for copying. in any medium. Activities other than copying. any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. for each author's protection and ours. below. provided that you also meet all of these conditions: a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and the date of any change.

and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves. under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following: a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code. In addition. kernel. rather. saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under these conditions. the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on the Program. plus any associated interface definition files. a complete machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code. valid for at least three years. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program. the source code distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major components (compiler. and telling the user how to view a copy of this License. Thus. c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding source code. 3. which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. when started running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way. you must cause it. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Program. b) Accompany it with a written offer. your work based on the Program is not required to print an announcement.c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run. then this License.) The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. However. do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works. or. whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole. the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License. mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this License. for a charge no more than your cost of physically performing source distribution. complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it. and so on) of the . and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an announcement. it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by you. in accord with Subsection b above.) These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. as a special exception. and its terms. to print or display an announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or else. to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. (This alternative is allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the program in object code or executable form with such an offer. plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the executable. or. to give any third party. For an executable work.

or rights. this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution system. or distribute the Program except as expressly provided under this License. distributing or modifying the Program or works based on it. Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system. nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. the balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances. you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so. For example. conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order. distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and conditions. then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Program. even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code. However. These actions are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as distribution of the source code. they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations. It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any such claims. If. If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place. and all its terms and conditions for copying. However. and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues). modify. since you have not signed it. 6. if a patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you. agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program). which is implemented by public license practices. modify. 4. the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy. 5. unless that component itself accompanies the executable. Therefore. by modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the Program). then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program at all. parties who have received copies.operating system on which the executable runs. sublicense or distribute the Program is void. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this License. You may not copy. If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance. Any attempt otherwise to copy. it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing . You are not required to accept this License. 7. sublicense. You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein.

THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES. 8. INCLUDING. YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally. you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs . REPAIR OR CORRECTION. BUT NOT LIMITED TO. we sometimes make exceptions for this. Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions are different. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version. 9. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE. so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces. you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public License from time to time. 10. this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License. OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER. This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License. THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. In such case.to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice. write to the author to ask for permission. If the Program specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any later version". If the Program does not specify a version number of this License. the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation. but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. SPECIAL. INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS). NO WARRANTY 11. INCLUDING ANY GENERAL. write to the Free Software Foundation. 12.

you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. if not. Copyright (C) year name of author Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. if necessary. Inc. the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms. either version 2 of the License. you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation. hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker. make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode: Gnomovision version 69.. they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program. or (at your option) any later version. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. Here is a sample. If your program is a subroutine library. and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions. If the program is interactive. Inc. This is free software. President of Vice This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. write to the Free Software Foundation. if any. <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does. to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program. June 1991 . for details type `show w'. 1 April 1989 Ty Coon. The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY. without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. attach the following notices to the to attach them to the start of each source file convey the exclusion of warranty. If this is what you want to do. Of course. the commands you use may be called something other than `show w' and `show c'. Fifth Floor. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 2. It is safest to most effectively should have at least full notice is found. use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. type `show c' for details. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful. See the GNU General Public License for more details. To do so. Boston. alter the names: Yoyodyne. MA 02110-1301 USA.If you develop a new program. and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public. You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school. <signature of Ty Coon>..> Copyright (C) <year> <name of author> This program is free software. Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail. and each file the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the program. 51 Franklin Street.

Inc. The precise terms and conditions for copying. for each author's protection and ours. Preamble The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it.) You can apply it to your programs. Boston. receive or can get the source code. To prevent this. you must give the recipients all the rights that you have. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the software.Copyright (C) 1989. too. too. distribution and modification follow. any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed . Fifth Floor. the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. and that you know you can do these things. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on. You must make sure that they. distribute and/or modify the software. and (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy. To protect your rights. not price. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Lesser General Public License instead. we want to make certain that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free software. that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs. This General Public License applies to most of the Free Software Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it. that you receive source code or can get it if you want it. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights. DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION 0. whether gratis or for a fee. we want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original. We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software. 51 Franklin Street. or if you modify it. Finally. When we speak of free software.. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish). By contrast. we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all. Also. so that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original authors' reputations. MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING. if you distribute copies of such a program. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free program will individually obtain patent licenses. we are referring to freedom. 1991 Free Software Foundation. in effect making the program proprietary. but changing it is not allowed. we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights. For example.

The "Program". either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another language. and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License along with the Program. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it. and telling the user how to view a copy of this License. and a "work based on the Program" means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say. keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty. they are outside its scope. below. to print or display an announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or else. a work containing the Program or a portion of it. 2. and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program.) These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. refers to any such program or work. in any medium. when started running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way. and you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee. 1. translation is included without limitation in the term "modification". c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run. the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License.under the terms of this General Public License. and its terms. Whether that is true depends on what the Program does. then this License. provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty. The act of running the Program is not restricted. to be licensed as parties under the terms of this you distribute or publish. provided that you also meet all of these conditions: a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and the date of any change. you must cause it. saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under these conditions. and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves. b) You must cause any work that whole or in part contains or is part thereof. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Program. whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an announcement. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it.) Each licensee is addressed as "you". . (Hereinafter. your work based on the Program is not required to print an announcement. You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy. distribution and modification are not covered by this License. and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above. thus forming a work based on the Program. do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works. Activities other than copying. that in derived from the Program or any a whole at no charge to all third License. and the output from the Program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been made by running the Program).

nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this License. sublicense. These actions are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License.Thus. For an executable work. modify. 4. which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. for a charge no more than your cost of physically performing source distribution. even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code. unless that component itself accompanies the executable. from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance. rather. c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding source code. If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place. and so on) of the operating system on which the executable runs. since you have not signed it. valid for at least three years. then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as distribution of the source code. in accord with Subsection b above. You are not required to accept this License. or. to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. a complete machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code. kernel. plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the executable. 3. or.) The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. However. 5. Therefore. modify. the source code distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major components (compiler. (This alternative is allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the program in object code or executable form with such an offer. sublicense or distribute the Program is void. parties who have received copies. to give any third party. under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following: a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code. However. You may not copy. it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by you. as a special exception. Any attempt otherwise to copy. However. b) Accompany it with a written offer. or rights. or distribute the Program except as expressly provided under this License. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it. by . plus any associated interface definition files. In addition. and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on the Program. complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains.

If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance. If the Program specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any . For example. Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system. the balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances. 9. It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any such claims. the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries.modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the Program). You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein. if a patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public License from time to time. you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so. distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and conditions. agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations. it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice. and all its terms and conditions for copying. this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License. so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order. distributing or modifying the Program or works based on it. This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License. the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program). which is implemented by public license practices. this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution system. they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this License. 8. then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Program. In such case. as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues). If. 7. 6. then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program at all. but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces. Each version is given a distinguishing version number. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version.

either version 2 of the License. you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation. or (at your option) any later version. TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful. without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the . you have the either of that version or of Software Foundation. SPECIAL. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions are different. EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.later version". BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE. and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE. BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES. 12. BUT NOT LIMITED TO. REPAIR OR CORRECTION. EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. NO WARRANTY 11. the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.> Copyright (C) <year> <name of author> This program is free software. END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs If you develop a new program. you may choose Foundation. THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does. option of following the terms and conditions any later version published by the Free Program does not specify a version number of any version ever published by the Free Software 10. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation. write to the author to ask for permission. THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM. YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING. INCLUDING. attach the following notices to the to attach them to the start of each source file convey the exclusion of warranty. OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE. It is safest to most effectively should have at least full notice is found. and each file the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the program. If the this License. INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS). INCLUDING ANY GENERAL. we sometimes make exceptions for this. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. write to the Free Software Foundation. but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY. To do so.

to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program. When we speak of free software. that you receive source code or can get it . Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail. Fifth Floor. but changing it is not allowed. June 1991 Copyright (C) 1989. the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users.. 51 Franklin Street. Of course. Inc. By contrast. Boston. Fifth Floor. Inc. This General Public License applies to most of the Free Software Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it. Inc. You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school. If this is what you want to do. they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program. for details type `show w'. type `show c' for details.) You can apply it to your programs. hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker. if not. 1 April 1989 Ty Coon. Preamble The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. 51 Franklin Street. If your program is a subroutine library. and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish). The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. If the program is interactive. if any. Here is a sample. Copyright (C) year name of author Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. MA 02110-1301 USA. MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Lesser General Public License instead. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. alter the names: Yoyodyne. <signature of Ty Coon>. not price. use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. the commands you use may be called something other than `show w' and `show c'.GNU General Public License for more details. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 2. write to the Free Software Foundation. make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode: Gnomovision version 69. we are referring to freedom. you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library.. This is free software. too. President of Vice This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. Boston.. if necessary. 1991 Free Software Foundation.

) Each licensee is addressed as "you". You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it. we want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original. and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License . Finally. refers to any such program or work. for each author's protection and ours. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free program will individually obtain patent licenses. (Hereinafter. receive or can get the source code. we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all. a work containing the Program or a portion of it. we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights. provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty. in effect making the program proprietary. The "Program". in any medium. This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed under the terms of this General Public License. and the output from the Program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been made by running the Program). that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on. you must give the recipients all the rights that you have. distribute and/or modify the software. distribution and modification are not covered by this License. if you distribute copies of such a program.if you want it. The precise terms and conditions for copying. To prevent this. Also. We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software. they are outside its scope. too. Whether that is true depends on what the Program does. and (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy. keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty. To protect your rights. and that you know you can do these things. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the software. so that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original authors' reputations. or if you modify it. You must make sure that they. either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another language. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING. distribution and modification follow. 1. Activities other than copying. translation is included without limitation in the term "modification". any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights. whether gratis or for a fee. we want to make certain that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free software. For example. below. and a "work based on the Program" means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say. The act of running the Program is not restricted. DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION 0.

You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it. and you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee. b) Accompany it with a written offer. thus forming a work based on the Program. 2. and telling the user how to view a copy of this License. to give any third party. which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. a complete . (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an announcement. You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy. to be licensed as parties under the terms of this you distribute or publish. In addition. for a charge no more than your cost of physically performing source distribution. the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License. under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following: a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code. Thus. your work based on the Program is not required to print an announcement. rather. and its terms.along with the Program. and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it. provided that you also meet all of these conditions: a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and the date of any change. whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole. b) You must cause any work that whole or in part contains or is part thereof. when started running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way. then this License. and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves. or. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it. that in derived from the Program or any a whole at no charge to all third License. you must cause it. valid for at least three years. mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this License. the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on the Program. to print or display an announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or else. saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under these conditions. 3. c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Program. do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works.) These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by you. and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above.

sublicense. if a patent . You may not copy. 5. parties who have received copies. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations. from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance. complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains. 4. distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and conditions. Therefore. For example. You are not required to accept this License.machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code. and all its terms and conditions for copying. agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License. the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy. by modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the Program). and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. sublicense or distribute the Program is void. they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License.) The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. or. you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so. as a special exception. modify. in accord with Subsection b above. to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. since you have not signed it. modify. the source code distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major components (compiler. plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the executable. kernel. You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein. as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues). and so on) of the operating system on which the executable runs. plus any associated interface definition files. nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. unless that component itself accompanies the executable. However. distributing or modifying the Program or works based on it. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program). If. These actions are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place. c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding source code. However. conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order. then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program at all. or distribute the Program except as expressly provided under this License. For an executable work. then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as distribution of the source code. 7. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this License. or rights. Any attempt otherwise to copy. However. 6. even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code. (This alternative is allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the program in object code or executable form with such an offer.

In such case. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions are different. you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM. which is implemented by public license practices. Each version is given a distinguishing version number. then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Program. TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries. write to the author to ask for permission. BUT NOT LIMITED TO. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces. If the Program does not specify a version number of this License. If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance. this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution system. this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License.license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you. the balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances. EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice. It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any such claims. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally. so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. write to the Free Software Foundation. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version. 9. Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system. INCLUDING. 8. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public License from time to time. 10. If the Program specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any later version". you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation. NO WARRANTY 11. This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License. we sometimes make exceptions for this. THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF .

IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER. either version 2 of the License. Of course. make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode: Gnomovision version 69. Inc. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE. INCLUDING ANY GENERAL. Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful. attach the following notices to the to attach them to the start of each source file convey the exclusion of warranty.MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Boston. the commands you use may be called something other than `show w' and `show c'. they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program. the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms. It is safest to most effectively should have at least full notice is found. Fifth Floor. if not. and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions. 51 Franklin Street. write to the Free Software Foundation. See the GNU General Public License for more details. If the program is interactive. you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation. To do so. END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs If you develop a new program. REPAIR OR CORRECTION. without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING. SPECIAL. <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public. INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS). The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. for details type `show w'. type `show c' for details. Copyright (C) year name of author Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. . or (at your option) any later version.. EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES. MA 02110-1301 USA. and each file the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the program.> Copyright (C) <year> <name of author> This program is free software. OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE. but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY. 12. This is free software.

too.) You can apply it to your programs. If your program is a subroutine library. June 1991 Copyright (C) 1989. that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs. use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. Boston. if any. Inc. We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software. if necessary. we want to make certain that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free software. we are referring to freedom. MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document. 1991 Free Software Foundation. or if you modify it. <signature of Ty Coon>. we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights. Preamble The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 2. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the software. you must give the recipients all the rights that you have. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Lesser General Public License instead. whether gratis or for a fee. for each author's protection and ours. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights. we . If the software is modified by someone else and passed on. hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker.. You must make sure that they. distribute and/or modify the software. too. When we speak of free software. Here is a sample. but changing it is not allowed. If this is what you want to do. to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program.. alter the names: Yoyodyne. not price. For example. that you receive source code or can get it if you want it. and that you know you can do these things. receive or can get the source code. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish). Inc. To protect your rights. you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. 51 Franklin Street. President of Vice This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs.You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school. and (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy. By contrast. the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. 1 April 1989 Ty Coon. Fifth Floor. Also. This General Public License applies to most of the Free Software Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it. if you distribute copies of such a program.

The "Program". provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty. they are outside its scope. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it. a work containing the Program or a portion of it. any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. refers to any such program or work. to print or display an . below. so that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original authors' reputations. You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy. to be licensed as parties under the terms of this you distribute or publish. in any medium. 1. This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed under the terms of this General Public License. To prevent this. c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run.) Each licensee is addressed as "you". provided that you also meet all of these conditions: a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and the date of any change. translation is included without limitation in the term "modification". and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above. in effect making the program proprietary. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it. (Hereinafter. The act of running the Program is not restricted. and the output from the Program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been made by running the Program). and a "work based on the Program" means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say. you must cause it. and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License along with the Program. b) You must cause any work that whole or in part contains or is part thereof. distribution and modification follow. thus forming a work based on the Program. DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION 0. 2. that in derived from the Program or any a whole at no charge to all third License. distribution and modification are not covered by this License. Whether that is true depends on what the Program does. when started running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING. keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty. Activities other than copying. and you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee.want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original. either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another language. Finally. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free program will individually obtain patent licenses. The precise terms and conditions for copying. we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all.

(Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an announcement. for a charge no more than your cost of physically performing source distribution. the source code distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major components (compiler. as a special exception. and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it. your work based on the Program is not required to print an announcement.announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or else. which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. and its terms. the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on the Program. However. (This alternative is allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the program in object code or executable form with such an offer. plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the executable. in accord with Subsection b above. Thus. unless that component itself accompanies the executable. mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this License. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it. then this License. it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by you. valid for at least three years. kernel. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Program. the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License. to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. b) Accompany it with a written offer. or. . a complete machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code. In addition. whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole. and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves. do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works.) The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under these conditions. and so on) of the operating system on which the executable runs.) These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program. or. 3. rather. complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains. under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following: a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code. c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding source code. and telling the user how to view a copy of this License. plus any associated interface definition files. to give any third party. For an executable work.

4. Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system. they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program at all. 5. Therefore. Any attempt otherwise to copy. distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and conditions. it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program). as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues). 6. However. this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution system. For example. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations. which is implemented by public license practices. sublicense or distribute the Program is void. you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so. You may not copy. and all its terms and conditions for copying. sublicense. If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance. distributing or modifying the Program or works based on it. You are not required to accept this License. then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Program. modify. nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. . It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any such claims. 7. These actions are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. or distribute the Program except as expressly provided under this License. agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License. conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order. However. by modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the Program). even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code. from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance. You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein. the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy. the balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances. if a patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this License. If. since you have not signed it. parties who have received copies. modify.If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place. and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. or rights. then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as distribution of the source code.

INCLUDING ANY GENERAL. we sometimes make exceptions for this. INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS). INCLUDING. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version. 8. 12. Each version is given a distinguishing version number. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation. END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs If you develop a new program. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER. TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License. the best way to achieve this is to make it . If the Program does not specify a version number of this License. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions are different. NO WARRANTY 11. SPECIAL. you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation. If the Program specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any later version". EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE. 9. write to the Free Software Foundation. YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. 10. the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public License from time to time. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public. you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. In such case. BUT NOT LIMITED TO. so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES. this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License. but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces. write to the author to ask for permission. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally. REPAIR OR CORRECTION. THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM.

if necessary. Inc. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 2. the commands you use may be called something other than `show w' and `show c'. if not. if any. Fifth Floor. The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. MA 02110-1301 USA. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful. If this is what you want to do. 51 Franklin Street.. either version 2 of the License. to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program. 1 April 1989 Ty Coon. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. Copyright (C) year name of author Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. Inc. <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does. If the program is interactive. type `show c' for details. Inc. without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details. but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY. and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions. or (at your option) any later version. use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. Boston. alter the names: Yoyodyne. hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker. Here is a sample. To do so. they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program. 51 Franklin Street. 1991 Free Software Foundation. Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail. Fifth Floor. make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode: Gnomovision version 69. You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school. This is free software. write to the Free Software Foundation. It is safest to most effectively should have at least full notice is found.. for details type `show w'. and each file the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the program. you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. Boston. President of Vice This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. June 1991 Copyright (C) 1989.> Copyright (C) <year> <name of author> This program is free software. Of course.free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms. If your program is a subroutine library. you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation. <signature of Ty Coon>. attach the following notices to the to attach them to the start of each source file convey the exclusion of warranty. MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies ..

too. To protect your rights.) You can apply it to your programs. we want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original.of this license document. The precise terms and conditions for copying. When we speak of free software. any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. if you distribute copies of such a program. Preamble The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights. and (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy. not price. you must give the recipients all the rights that you have. distribution and modification follow. You must make sure that they. whether gratis or for a fee. and a "work based on the Program" means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law: . Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish). the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. or if you modify it. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on. that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs. Also. For example. we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights. By contrast. too. for each author's protection and ours. The "Program". we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all. We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Lesser General Public License instead. we are referring to freedom. we want to make certain that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free software. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free program will individually obtain patent licenses. DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION 0. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the software. but changing it is not allowed. To prevent this. that you receive source code or can get it if you want it. This General Public License applies to most of the Free Software Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it. This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed under the terms of this General Public License. and that you know you can do these things. refers to any such program or work. distribute and/or modify the software. so that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original authors' reputations. receive or can get the source code. Finally. in effect making the program proprietary. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING. below.

and you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee. do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works. you must cause it. it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by you. and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above. they are outside its scope. The act of running the Program is not restricted. and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License along with the Program. when started running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way. and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it. (Hereinafter. provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty. provided that you also meet all of these conditions: a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and the date of any change. in any medium. Thus. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an announcement. the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or . distribution and modification are not covered by this License. and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves.) These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. b) You must cause any work that whole or in part contains or is part thereof. c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run. either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another language. and telling the user how to view a copy of this License. 1. a work containing the Program or a portion of it.that is to say. and its terms. 2. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it.) Each licensee is addressed as "you". You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it. rather. that in derived from the Program or any a whole at no charge to all third License. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Program. to be licensed as parties under the terms of this you distribute or publish. your work based on the Program is not required to print an announcement. keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty. translation is included without limitation in the term "modification". You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy. Whether that is true depends on what the Program does. then this License. to print or display an announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or else. whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole. and the output from the Program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been made by running the Program). the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License. thus forming a work based on the Program. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program. Activities other than copying. saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under these conditions.

If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place. since you have not signed it. modify. valid for at least three years. or. or rights. distributing or modifying . Any attempt otherwise to copy. a complete machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code. by modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the Program). c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding source code. under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following: a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code. 4.collective works based on the Program. However. as a special exception. Therefore. to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. sublicense. plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the executable. You are not required to accept this License. kernel. mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this License. modify. parties who have received copies. and so on) of the operating system on which the executable runs. For an executable work. b) Accompany it with a written offer.) The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. In addition. even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code. nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. the source code distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major components (compiler. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it. and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. in accord with Subsection b above. (This alternative is allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the program in object code or executable form with such an offer. sublicense or distribute the Program is void. plus any associated interface definition files. for a charge no more than your cost of physically performing source distribution. you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so. 3. then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as distribution of the source code. and all its terms and conditions for copying. However. These actions are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains. However. 5. unless that component itself accompanies the executable. to give any third party. You may not copy. or. or distribute the Program except as expressly provided under this License. from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance. which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange.

If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations. distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and conditions. then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Program. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this License. if a patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces.the Program or works based on it. they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy. this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License. If the Program specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any later version". it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice. 7. but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program). the balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances. 9. so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance. the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries. agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License. It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any such claims. Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system. conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order. which is implemented by public license practices. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version. 8. If the Program does not specify a version number of . 6. In such case. then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program at all. You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein. this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution system. This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License. you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. If. as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues). The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public License from time to time. For example.

SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE. To do so. THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions are different. NO WARRANTY 11.this License. we sometimes make exceptions for this. you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation. EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. It is safest to most effectively should have at least full notice is found. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful. BUT NOT LIMITED TO. or (at your option) any later version. SPECIAL. TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING. INCLUDING ANY GENERAL. EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. attach the following notices to the to attach them to the start of each source file convey the exclusion of warranty. INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS). either version 2 of the License. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along . and each file the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the program. See the GNU General Public License for more details. OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally. 12. INCLUDING. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms. 10. THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.> Copyright (C) <year> <name of author> This program is free software. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE. and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public. you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation. write to the author to ask for permission. write to the Free Software Foundation. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER. REPAIR OR CORRECTION. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation. END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs If you develop a new program. but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY. <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does. BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES.

(Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Lesser General Public License instead. Preamble The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. that you receive source code or can get it if you want it. use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. 51 Franklin Street. Inc. If your program is a subroutine library. Copyright (C) year name of author Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions. if necessary. Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail. the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. Fifth Floor. If the program is interactive. President of Vice This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. Inc. <signature of Ty Coon>. When we speak of free software. to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program. 1991 Free Software Foundation. If this is what you want to do. the commands you use may be called something other than `show w' and `show c'.) You can apply it to your programs. MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document. for details type `show w'. Inc. make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode: Gnomovision version 69. type `show c' for details. 51 Franklin Street. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 2. but changing it is not allowed. Fifth Floor. You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school. MA 02110-1301 USA. June 1991 Copyright (C) 1989. . and that you know you can do these things.. too. The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. By contrast. they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program. Boston. Of course.. 1 April 1989 Ty Coon. This is free software. that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs. write to the Free Software Foundation. hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker.. we are referring to freedom. not price. Boston. if not.with this program. alter the names: Yoyodyne. Here is a sample. you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish). This General Public License applies to most of the Free Software Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it. if any.

for each author's protection and ours. too. whether gratis or for a fee. refers to any such program or work. we want to make certain that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free software. and the output from the Program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been made by running the Program). keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty. we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all. distribution and modification follow. either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another language. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING. in any medium. provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty. DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION 0. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it. (Hereinafter. The "Program". any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. and . Whether that is true depends on what the Program does. and (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy. translation is included without limitation in the term "modification". in effect making the program proprietary.To protect your rights. and a "work based on the Program" means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the software. a work containing the Program or a portion of it. 1. To prevent this. Finally. Activities other than copying. and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License along with the Program. or if you modify it. You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy. The act of running the Program is not restricted. This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed under the terms of this General Public License. distribute and/or modify the software. we want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original. distribution and modification are not covered by this License. below.) Each licensee is addressed as "you". they are outside its scope. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free program will individually obtain patent licenses. receive or can get the source code. so that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original authors' reputations. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on. if you distribute copies of such a program. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights. The precise terms and conditions for copying. Also. You must make sure that they. We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software. you must give the recipients all the rights that you have. we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights. For example.

saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under these conditions. then this License. . (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an announcement. In addition. that in derived from the Program or any a whole at no charge to all third License. whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole.) These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves. 3. you must cause it.you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee. which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. to give any third party. and its terms. or. b) Accompany it with a written offer. c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run. thus forming a work based on the Program. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it. it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by you. provided that you also meet all of these conditions: a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and the date of any change. the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License. for a charge no more than your cost of physically performing source distribution. 2. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program. or. valid for at least three years. Thus. a complete machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code. under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following: a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code. and telling the user how to view a copy of this License. and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it. your work based on the Program is not required to print an announcement. the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on the Program. b) You must cause any work that whole or in part contains or is part thereof. do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works. mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this License. and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Program. to print or display an announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or else. when started running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way. to be licensed as parties under the terms of this you distribute or publish. rather. to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange.

they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so. Therefore. 5. However. as a special exception. and all its terms and conditions for copying.c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding source code. as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues). If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations. parties who have received copies. and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. since you have not signed it. If. (This alternative is allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the program in object code or executable form with such an offer. if a patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you. Any attempt otherwise to copy. the source code distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major components (compiler. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program). kernel. or distribute the Program except as expressly provided under this License. If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place. These actions are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. distributing or modifying the Program or works based on it. plus any associated interface definition files. the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy. 6. For an executable work. and so on) of the operating system on which the executable runs. 7. from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance. However. For example. You are not required to accept this License. You may not copy.) The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. or rights. unless that component itself accompanies the executable. modify. nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to . sublicense or distribute the Program is void. by modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the Program). then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program at all. You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein. modify. 4. conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order. then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as distribution of the source code. in accord with Subsection b above. plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the executable. agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License. even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this License. sublicense. distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and conditions. complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains. However.

In such case. BUT NOT LIMITED TO. NO WARRANTY 11. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally. it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE. If the Program specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any later version". write to the author to ask for permission. This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License.refrain entirely from distribution of the Program. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version. 9. Each version is given a distinguishing version number. you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation. If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance. INCLUDING. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions are different. we sometimes make exceptions for this. THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces. so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public License from time to time. this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License. this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution system. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. . EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. If the Program does not specify a version number of this License. which is implemented by public license practices. THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM. you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. the balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances. but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. 8. It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any such claims. Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE. the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries. 10. write to the Free Software Foundation.

MA 02110-1301 USA.REPAIR OR CORRECTION. Of course. 51 Franklin Street. or (at your option) any later version. This is free software. INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS). To do so. Fifth Floor. It is safest to most effectively should have at least full notice is found. If the program is interactive.> Copyright (C) <year> <name of author> This program is free software. and each file the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the program. for details type `show w'. if not. the commands you use may be called something other than `show w' and `show c'. 12. and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public. Boston. END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs If you develop a new program. Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail. and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions. write to the Free Software Foundation. type `show c' for details. <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does. SPECIAL. The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES. INCLUDING ANY GENERAL. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful. without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. if necessary. they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program. attach the following notices to the to attach them to the start of each source file convey the exclusion of warranty. either version 2 of the License. You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school. See the GNU General Public License for more details. but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY. OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE. Here is a sample. alter the names: .. you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation. to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program. make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode: Gnomovision version 69. Inc. EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER. Copyright (C) year name of author Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. if any.

<signature of Ty Coon>. 1991 Free Software Foundation. you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. not price. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 2. By contrast. distribute and/or modify the software. we want to make certain that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free software. you must give the recipients all the rights that you have.) You can apply it to your programs. but changing it is not allowed.Yoyodyne. . MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document. too. and that you know you can do these things. that you receive source code or can get it if you want it. receive or can get the source code. If your program is a subroutine library. 1 April 1989 Ty Coon. the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish). too. we want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original. When we speak of free software. June 1991 Copyright (C) 1989. We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software. whether gratis or for a fee. we are referring to freedom.. Fifth Floor. Boston. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the software.. Preamble The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. if you distribute copies of such a program. hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker. Also. and (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy. or if you modify it. President of Vice This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. This General Public License applies to most of the Free Software Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it. that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs. For example. so that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original authors' reputations. You must make sure that they. If this is what you want to do. Inc. Inc. we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights. for each author's protection and ours. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Lesser General Public License instead. 51 Franklin Street. To protect your rights.

when started running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way. DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION 0. To prevent this. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it. distribution and modification follow. This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed under the terms of this General Public License. The act of running the Program is not restricted. we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all. distribution and modification are not covered by this License. to be licensed as parties under the terms of this you distribute or publish. and a "work based on the Program" means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say.) Each licensee is addressed as "you". any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. b) You must cause any work that whole or in part contains or is part thereof. keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty. You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free program will individually obtain patent licenses. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING. and you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee. in effect making the program proprietary. Activities other than copying. provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty. 2. refers to any such program or work. The "Program". provided that you also meet all of these conditions: a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and the date of any change. The precise terms and conditions for copying. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it. and the output from the Program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been made by running the Program). in any medium. saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under . they are outside its scope. (Hereinafter. 1. c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run. below. to print or display an announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or else. translation is included without limitation in the term "modification". that in derived from the Program or any a whole at no charge to all third License. and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above. either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another language. you must cause it. and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License along with the Program. Whether that is true depends on what the Program does. thus forming a work based on the Program.Finally. a work containing the Program or a portion of it.

and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves. do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works. In addition. Thus. b) Accompany it with a written offer. and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it. it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by you.) These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. and so on) of the operating system on which the executable runs. unless that component itself accompanies the executable. then this License. the source code distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major components (compiler. and telling the user how to view a copy of this License. a complete machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code. rather. If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place. For an executable work.these conditions. or. as a special exception. (This alternative is allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the program in object code or executable form with such an offer. to give any third party. under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following: a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code. which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. your work based on the Program is not required to print an announcement. However. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Program. the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License.) The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole. 3. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program. valid for at least three years. or. and its terms. to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an announcement. the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on the Program. complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains. plus any associated interface definition files. c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding source code. then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as . mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this License. in accord with Subsection b above. kernel. for a charge no more than your cost of physically performing source distribution. plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the executable.

It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any such claims. from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance. modify. You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein. .distribution of the source code. 5. since you have not signed it. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this License. 6. nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice. parties who have received copies. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations. the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy. and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. if a patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you. Any attempt otherwise to copy. the balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances. even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code. For example. If. modify. sublicense or distribute the Program is void. conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order. This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License. they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. or rights. by modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the Program). as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues). 7. this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution system. which is implemented by public license practices. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program). Therefore. then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program at all. or distribute the Program except as expressly provided under this License. If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance. 4. sublicense. then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Program. You are not required to accept this License. However. You may not copy. distributing or modifying the Program or works based on it. Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system. However. you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so. distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and conditions. and all its terms and conditions for copying. agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License. These actions are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License.

write to the Free Software Foundation. write to the author to ask for permission. attach the following notices to the program. INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS). INCLUDING. so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. To do so. If the Program does not specify a version number of this License. this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License. you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation. 12. If the Program specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any later version". NO WARRANTY 11. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES. 9. THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER. Each version is given a distinguishing version number. In such case. END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs If you develop a new program. INCLUDING ANY GENERAL. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions are different. TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. BUT NOT LIMITED TO. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE. 10. REPAIR OR CORRECTION. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public License from time to time. and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public. EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.8. THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE. we sometimes make exceptions for this. It is safest . you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally. EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation. YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING. the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms. OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE. SPECIAL. the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries.

Of course. make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode: Gnomovision version 69. Copyright (C) year name of author Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker. to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program.. If the program is interactive. and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions. if any. Boston. Inc. alter the names: Yoyodyne. 1 April 1989 Ty Coon. but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY. This is free software. Inc. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 2. or (at your option) any later version.. but changing it is not allowed. If this is what you want to do. you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation. type `show c' for details.to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively convey the exclusion of warranty. Here is a sample. Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail. 51 Franklin Street. MA 02110-1301 USA. Boston. for details type `show w'. use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document. if necessary. they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program. either version 2 of the License. Inc. <signature of Ty Coon>. June 1991 Copyright (C) 1989.. Fifth Floor. without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does. 51 Franklin Street. if not. and each file should have at least the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found. President of Vice This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. See the GNU General Public License for more details. the commands you use may be called something other than `show w' and `show c'. You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school.> Copyright (C) <year> <name of author> This program is free software. Preamble . 1991 Free Software Foundation. Fifth Floor. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful. If your program is a subroutine library. write to the Free Software Foundation. The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License.

We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free program will individually obtain patent licenses. receive or can get the source code. you must give the recipients all the rights that you have. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights. The precise terms and conditions for copying.The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it.) You can apply it to your programs. we are referring to freedom. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on. distribution and modification follow. so that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original authors' reputations. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish). or if you modify it. in effect making the program proprietary. We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software. and that you know you can do these things. that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Lesser General Public License instead. too. This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed under the terms of this General Public License. distribute and/or modify the software. any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. The "Program". whether gratis or for a fee. for each author's protection and ours. that you receive source code or can get it if you want it. we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights. the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. and (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy. By contrast. This General Public License applies to most of the Free Software Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING. When we speak of free software. translation is included without limitation in . Also. You must make sure that they. refers to any such program or work. (Hereinafter. To protect your rights. we want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original. For example. DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION 0. too. we want to make certain that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free software. and a "work based on the Program" means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say. we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all. if you distribute copies of such a program. To prevent this. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the software. Finally. either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another language. below. a work containing the Program or a portion of it. not price.

your work based on the Program is not required to print an announcement. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it. and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above. You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy. whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole. and you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee. and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it. then this License. saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under these conditions. provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty. and its terms. and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves. The act of running the Program is not restricted. provided that you also meet all of these conditions: a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and the date of any change. mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program . Activities other than copying. Thus. it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by you. to print or display an announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or else. rather. do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it. 1. and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License along with the Program. keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty. b) You must cause any work that whole or in part contains or is part thereof. to be licensed as parties under the terms of this you distribute or publish. 2.the term "modification". in any medium. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program. distribution and modification are not covered by this License. Whether that is true depends on what the Program does. they are outside its scope. In addition. that in derived from the Program or any a whole at no charge to all third License. and telling the user how to view a copy of this License. when started running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way. you must cause it. thus forming a work based on the Program. the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License. and the output from the Program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been made by running the Program). the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on the Program. c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Program.) Each licensee is addressed as "you".) These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an announcement.

or rights. Any attempt otherwise to copy. plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the executable. However. 5. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the . For an executable work. plus any associated interface definition files. a complete machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code. even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code. c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding source code. the source code distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major components (compiler. If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place. These actions are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. for a charge no more than your cost of physically performing source distribution. to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. or distribute the Program except as expressly provided under this License. unless that component itself accompanies the executable. or. modify. then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as distribution of the source code. 4. you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so. by modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the Program). under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following: a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code. You may not copy. valid for at least three years. or. 6. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it. and all its terms and conditions for copying.) The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. (This alternative is allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the program in object code or executable form with such an offer. b) Accompany it with a written offer. and so on) of the operating system on which the executable runs. and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. modify. sublicense. distributing or modifying the Program or works based on it. sublicense or distribute the Program is void. However. Therefore. 3. to give any third party. kernel. However.with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this License. You are not required to accept this License. since you have not signed it. complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains. which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. parties who have received copies. from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance. as a special exception. in accord with Subsection b above.

If the Program does not specify a version number of this License. the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version. which is implemented by public license practices. you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces. In such case. . If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations. agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License. Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system. distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and conditions. the balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances.Program). If the Program specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any later version". It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any such claims. this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License. If. 8. 9. then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Program. conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order. you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this License. so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance. Each version is given a distinguishing version number. but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. 7. This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License. For example. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public License from time to time. this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution system. if a patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you. then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program at all. it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice. the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy. as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues).

OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE. write to the Free Software Foundation. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE. if not. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation. Fifth Floor. YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING. EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation. the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms. THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does. TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. INCLUDING. THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.10. INCLUDING ANY GENERAL. and each file the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the program. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER. BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES. write to the Free Software Foundation. . It is safest to most effectively should have at least full notice is found. 12. write to the author to ask for permission. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions are different. but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE. and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public. Inc. END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs If you develop a new program. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. 51 Franklin Street. INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS). This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful. EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.. we sometimes make exceptions for this. or (at your option) any later version. See the GNU General Public License for more details. MA 02110-1301 USA. either version 2 of the License. To do so. SPECIAL.> Copyright (C) <year> <name of author> This program is free software. BUT NOT LIMITED TO. NO WARRANTY 11. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally. attach the following notices to the to attach them to the start of each source file convey the exclusion of warranty. Boston. REPAIR OR CORRECTION.

1991 Free Software Foundation. we are referring to freedom.Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail. You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school. but changing it is not allowed. Preamble The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. If your program is a subroutine library.) You can apply it to your programs. By contrast. to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program. hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker. The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. Here is a sample. the commands you use may be called something other than `show w' and `show c'. too. that you receive source code or can get it if you want it. type `show c' for details. use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. Fifth Floor. June 1991 Copyright (C) 1989. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 2. Inc. To protect your rights. Boston. This General Public License applies to most of the Free Software Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it. This is free software. 1 April 1989 Ty Coon. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Lesser General Public License instead. they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program. MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document. Copyright (C) year name of author Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you . alter the names: Yoyodyne. When we speak of free software. not price. President of Vice This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. If the program is interactive. make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode: Gnomovision version 69. and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions. you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library.. if any. Of course.. if necessary. If this is what you want to do. 51 Franklin Street. we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights. Inc. the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. <signature of Ty Coon>. and that you know you can do these things. for details type `show w'. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish). that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs.

To prevent this. We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software. 1. refers to any such program or work. This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed under the terms of this General Public License. whether gratis or for a fee. they are outside its scope. distribution and modification follow. either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another language. in any medium. The precise terms and conditions for copying. and (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy. and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License along with the Program. any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. Whether that is true depends on what the Program does. in effect making the program proprietary. receive or can get the source code. You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy. distribute and/or modify the software. if you distribute copies of such a program. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free program will individually obtain patent licenses. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on. and you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee. DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION 0. or if you modify it. and a "work based on the Program" means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say. provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it. Also. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion . for each author's protection and ours. we want to make certain that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free software. You must make sure that they. For example. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING. keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty. (Hereinafter. The act of running the Program is not restricted. The "Program". Activities other than copying. 2. below. we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all. too. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights.distribute copies of the software. we want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original. distribution and modification are not covered by this License. so that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original authors' reputations. you must give the recipients all the rights that you have. Finally. and the output from the Program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been made by running the Program). translation is included without limitation in the term "modification". a work containing the Program or a portion of it.) Each licensee is addressed as "you".

the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License. or. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Program. whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole. when started running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way. that in derived from the Program or any a whole at no charge to all third License. (This alternative is . under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following: a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code. the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on the Program. to be licensed as parties under the terms of this you distribute or publish. valid for at least three years. you must cause it. do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works. and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it. which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program. Thus. and its terms. mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this License. it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by you. c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run. b) Accompany it with a written offer. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an announcement. to give any third party. to print or display an announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or else.) These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. b) You must cause any work that whole or in part contains or is part thereof. 3. for a charge no more than your cost of physically performing source distribution. and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above. provided that you also meet all of these conditions: a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and the date of any change. c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding source code. then this License. or. a complete machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code. and telling the user how to view a copy of this License. thus forming a work based on the Program. In addition. to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. your work based on the Program is not required to print an announcement. saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under these conditions. and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves. rather.of it. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it.

in accord with Subsection b above. 4. distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and conditions. 7. Any attempt otherwise to copy. and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. or rights. You are not required to accept this License. If. if a patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you. For example. you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so. 5. modify. Therefore. For an executable work. However. If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place. and so on) of the operating system on which the executable runs. from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance. You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein. However. modify. then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program at all. 6. and all its terms and conditions for copying. However. parties who have received copies. agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License. plus any associated interface definition files. kernel. sublicense or distribute the Program is void. conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order. the source code distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major components (compiler. unless that component itself accompanies the executable. These actions are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Program. or distribute the Program except as expressly provided under this License. You may not copy. even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program). You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this License. sublicense. distributing or modifying the Program or works based on it. complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains. as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues). the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy. as a special exception. nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. since you have not signed it.allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the program in object code or executable form with such an offer. then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as distribution of the source code. they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. by modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the Program).) The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the executable. If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under . If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations.

If the Program specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any later version". YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING. you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation. THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM.any particular circumstance. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces. this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License. 12. the balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances. but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. REPAIR OR CORRECTION. NO WARRANTY 11. write to the Free Software Foundation. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally. it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE. Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system. Each version is given a distinguishing version number. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation. we sometimes make exceptions for this. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any such claims. you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public License from time to time. TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version. this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution system. the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries. which is implemented by public license practices. INCLUDING. In such case. write to the author to ask for permission. BUT NOT LIMITED TO. 9. 10. 8. so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. If the Program does not specify a version number of this License. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions are different. This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License. THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING .

The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. ..> Copyright (C) <year> <name of author> This program is free software. This is free software. Of course. but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY. and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions. INCLUDING ANY GENERAL. to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program. or (at your option) any later version. OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE. Inc. type `show c' for details. if necessary. if any. without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. 51 Franklin Street. See the GNU General Public License for more details. Inc. write to the Free Software Foundation. Boston. hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker. EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.. and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public. Here is a sample. alter the names: Yoyodyne. END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs If you develop a new program. Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail. for details type `show w'. if not. SPECIAL. MA 02110-1301 USA. To do so. <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does. the commands you use may be called something other than `show w' and `show c'. You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms. make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode: Gnomovision version 69. Copyright (C) year name of author Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. and each file the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the program. Fifth Floor. INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS). attach the following notices to the to attach them to the start of each source file convey the exclusion of warranty. either version 2 of the License. they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program. It is safest to most effectively should have at least full notice is found. BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES.WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER. you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful. If the program is interactive.

If your program is a subroutine library. President of Vice This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. By contrast. To protect your rights. MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document. June 1991 Copyright (C) 1989. for each author's protection and ours. that you receive source code or can get it if you want it. you must give the recipients all the rights that you have.) You can apply it to your programs. We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software. whether gratis or for a fee. 1991 Free Software Foundation. Inc. use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. we are referring to freedom. This General Public License applies to most of the Free Software Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it. distribute and/or modify the software. Finally. 51 Franklin Street. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on. we want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original. too. 1 April 1989 Ty Coon. but changing it is not allowed.. If this is what you want to do. the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. Preamble The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. receive or can get the source code. and that you know you can do these things. we want to make certain that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free software. you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free . GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 2. or if you modify it. any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. not price. When we speak of free software. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Lesser General Public License instead. For example. and (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy. that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs. we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights. Also. too. if you distribute copies of such a program. Fifth Floor.<signature of Ty Coon>. Boston. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the software. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish). so that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original authors' reputations. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights. You must make sure that they.

and a "work based on the Program" means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it. in any medium. a work containing the Program or a portion of it. c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run. Activities other than copying. and the output from the Program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been made by running the Program). You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it. To prevent this.program will individually obtain patent licenses. saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under these conditions. You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy. provided that you also meet all of these conditions: a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and the date of any change. provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty. Whether that is true depends on what the Program does. DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION 0. that in derived from the Program or any a whole at no charge to all third License. 2. thus forming a work based on the Program. in effect making the program proprietary. This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed under the terms of this General Public License. and you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee. below. translation is included without limitation in the term "modification". The precise terms and conditions for copying. to print or display an announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or else. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING. either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another language. your work based on . and telling the user how to view a copy of this License. b) You must cause any work that whole or in part contains or is part thereof. The act of running the Program is not restricted. 1. when started running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an announcement. refers to any such program or work. and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above. (Hereinafter. you must cause it. and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License along with the Program. they are outside its scope. The "Program". keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty.) Each licensee is addressed as "you". distribution and modification are not covered by this License. to be licensed as parties under the terms of this you distribute or publish. we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all. distribution and modification follow.

rather. even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code. or. or. in accord with Subsection b above. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program. as a special exception. (This alternative is allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the program in object code or executable form with such an offer. If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place. for a charge no more than your cost of physically performing source distribution. to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. a complete machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code. to give any third party. c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding source code.) The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Program. and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it. plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the executable. Thus. under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following: a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code. do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works. b) Accompany it with a written offer. the source code distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major components (compiler. the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License. and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves. and so on) of the operating system on which the executable runs. it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by you. valid for at least three years.) These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. However. which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. kernel. then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as distribution of the source code. . mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this License. complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains. whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole. plus any associated interface definition files. unless that component itself accompanies the executable. 3. the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on the Program. For an executable work. In addition. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it. and its terms. then this License.the Program is not required to print an announcement.

5. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces. agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License. 8. These actions are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License. it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice. distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and conditions. sublicense. which is implemented by public license practices. If. You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein. by modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the Program). since you have not signed it. modify. and all its terms and conditions for copying. If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance. then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Program.4. You may not copy. You are not required to accept this License. then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program at all. It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any such claims. Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system. or distribute the Program except as expressly provided under this License. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this License. as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues). from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance. 7. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations. or rights. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program). they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. For example. distributing or modifying the Program or works based on it. However. sublicense or distribute the Program is void. the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy. 6. this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution system. and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. the balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances. However. conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order. Therefore. you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so. the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License . modify. Any attempt otherwise to copy. parties who have received copies. if a patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you.

the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms. 10. It is safest to most effectively should have at least full notice is found. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions are different. THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. 12. EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. BUT NOT LIMITED TO. INCLUDING. REPAIR OR CORRECTION. INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS). THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM. YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING. Each version is given a distinguishing version number. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version. OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE. To do so. attach the following notices to the to attach them to the start of each source file convey the exclusion of warranty. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE. SPECIAL. so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public License from time to time. NO WARRANTY 11. END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs If you develop a new program. but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. If the Program specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any later version". . Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally. you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation. TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. In such case. 9. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. INCLUDING ANY GENERAL. If the Program does not specify a version number of this License. write to the Free Software Foundation.may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. we sometimes make exceptions for this. write to the author to ask for permission. and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public. and each file the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the program. BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES. this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER.

. the GNU General Public . This is free software. make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode: Gnomovision version 69. <signature of Ty Coon>.. or (at your option) any later version. Copyright (C) year name of author Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. but changing it is not allowed. Boston. Fifth Floor. The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. MA 02110-1301 USA. If this is what you want to do. See the GNU General Public License for more details. 51 Franklin Street. if any. President of Vice This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. if necessary. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. Inc. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful. Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail. alter the names: Yoyodyne. you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. 51 Franklin Street. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 2. write to the Free Software Foundation. the commands you use may be called something other than `show w' and `show c'. 1991 Free Software Foundation. Preamble The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. type `show c' for details. Inc. use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions. Here is a sample.. If your program is a subroutine library. MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document. 1 April 1989 Ty Coon. Of course. you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation.> Copyright (C) <year> <name of author> This program is free software. to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program. Boston. they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program.<one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does. Inc. if not. Fifth Floor. but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY. without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school. By contrast. for details type `show w'. If the program is interactive. either version 2 of the License. hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker. June 1991 Copyright (C) 1989.

not price. either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another language. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish). you must give the recipients all the rights that you have. Also. for each author's protection and ours. a work containing the Program or a portion of it. receive or can get the source code. Activities other than copying. or if you modify it. and a "work based on the Program" means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say. we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all. we want to make certain that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free software. This General Public License applies to most of the Free Software Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it.License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. in effect making the program proprietary. (Hereinafter. When we speak of free software. distribution and modification are not . This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed under the terms of this General Public License. The "Program". distribute and/or modify the software. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the software. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free program will individually obtain patent licenses. if you distribute copies of such a program. so that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original authors' reputations. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights. The precise terms and conditions for copying. and that you know you can do these things. any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. For example. below. To prevent this. that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs. and (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy.) Each licensee is addressed as "you". too. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING. We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software.) You can apply it to your programs. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Lesser General Public License instead. whether gratis or for a fee. translation is included without limitation in the term "modification". we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights. You must make sure that they. distribution and modification follow. DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION 0. we are referring to freedom. refers to any such program or work. that you receive source code or can get it if you want it. Finally. To protect your rights. too. we want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original.

you must cause it.) These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. and you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it. it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by you. and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License along with the Program. You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy. when started running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way.covered by this License. do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works. provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty. c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an announcement. then this License. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Program. and the output from the Program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been made by running the Program). that in derived from the Program or any a whole at no charge to all third License. and telling the user how to view a copy of this License. to be licensed as parties under the terms of this you distribute or publish. and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it. mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this License. 2. and its terms. Thus. whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole. Whether that is true depends on what the Program does. to print or display an announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or else. rather. The act of running the Program is not restricted. the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on the Program. . In addition. and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it. saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under these conditions. your work based on the Program is not required to print an announcement. they are outside its scope. and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above. provided that you also meet all of these conditions: a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and the date of any change. 1. in any medium. the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License. thus forming a work based on the Program. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program. b) You must cause any work that whole or in part contains or is part thereof. keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty.

you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so. 6. or distribute the Program except as expressly provided under this License. and all its terms and conditions for copying. as a special exception. from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance. However. modify. by modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the Program). unless that component itself accompanies the executable. 5. to give any third party. plus any associated interface definition files. and so on) of the operating system on which the executable runs. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program). a complete machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code. If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place. distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and conditions. modify. under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following: a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code.) The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. kernel. These actions are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. or. Any attempt otherwise to copy. sublicense or distribute the Program is void. However. in accord with Subsection b above. parties who have received copies. since you have not signed it. Therefore. for a charge no more than your cost of physically performing source distribution. You are not required to accept this License. You may not copy. 4. For an executable work. You may not impose any further . then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as distribution of the source code. (This alternative is allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the program in object code or executable form with such an offer. or. complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains. even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code.3. or rights. distributing or modifying the Program or works based on it. the source code distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major components (compiler. the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy. c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding source code. plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the executable. which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it. However. sublicense. nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. b) Accompany it with a written offer. valid for at least three years. and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.

this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution system. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public License from time to time. if a patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you. Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system. you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. 7. If the Program does not specify a version number of this License. but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions are different. write to the author to ask for permission. as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues). You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this License. Each version is given a distinguishing version number. you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation. so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations.restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein. it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice. then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program at all. conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order. this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License. the balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances. For software which is copyrighted by the Free . 10. which is implemented by public license practices. If the Program specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any later version". they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any such claims. For example. the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries. If. 9. In such case. If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces. 8. agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License. then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Program. This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License.

we sometimes make exceptions for this. Fifth Floor. <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does. Inc. and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public. or (at your option) any later version. either version 2 of the License. REPAIR OR CORRECTION. INCLUDING ANY GENERAL.> Copyright (C) <year> <name of author> This program is free software. but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY.. 12. 51 Franklin Street. OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE. you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation. END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs If you develop a new program. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE. SPECIAL. BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES. EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. make it output a short notice like this . INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS). SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE. EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. BUT NOT LIMITED TO. if not. Boston. attach the following notices to the to attach them to the start of each source file convey the exclusion of warranty. write to the Free Software Foundation. If the program is interactive. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. MA 02110-1301 USA. without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. It is safest to most effectively should have at least full notice is found. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms. write to the Free Software Foundation. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful. THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM. NO WARRANTY 11. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally. Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail. and each file the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the program. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER. To do so. INCLUDING.Software Foundation. TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. See the GNU General Public License for more details. YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING.

when it starts in an interactive mode: Gnomovision version 69. If your program is a subroutine library. For example. 1991 Free Software Foundation. they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program. you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. If this is what you want to do. that you receive source code or can get it if you want it. and that you know you can do these things. and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions. or if you modify it. You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school. <signature of Ty Coon>. we are referring to freedom. The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish). Of course. alter the names: Yoyodyne. To protect your rights. Here is a sample. President of Vice This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. type `show c' for details. Inc. whether . to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the software. not price. 1 April 1989 Ty Coon. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 2. if any. When we speak of free software. Copyright (C) year name of author Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. Inc. if you distribute copies of such a program. MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document. hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker. too. Boston. for details type `show w'. use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. 51 Franklin Street. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Lesser General Public License instead.) You can apply it to your programs. if necessary. June 1991 Copyright (C) 1989. This General Public License applies to most of the Free Software Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it. Preamble The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. This is free software. that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs. but changing it is not allowed. By contrast... Fifth Floor. the commands you use may be called something other than `show w' and `show c'.

You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights. any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. Whether that is true depends on what the Program does. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it. and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above. keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty. refers to any such program or work. we want to make certain that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free software. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it. below. and a "work based on the Program" means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say. so that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original authors' reputations. and you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free program will individually obtain patent licenses. either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another language. and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License along with the Program. You must make sure that they. and the output from the Program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been made by running the Program). provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty. Also. too. in any medium. distribute and/or modify the software. The "Program". GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING. provided that you also meet all of these conditions: .gratis or for a fee. distribution and modification are not covered by this License. The act of running the Program is not restricted.) Each licensee is addressed as "you". we want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on. To prevent this. The precise terms and conditions for copying. translation is included without limitation in the term "modification". (Hereinafter. distribution and modification follow. a work containing the Program or a portion of it. we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all. DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION 0. We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software. you must give the recipients all the rights that you have. This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed under the terms of this General Public License. for each author's protection and ours. Activities other than copying. and (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy. receive or can get the source code. 1. they are outside its scope. thus forming a work based on the Program. in effect making the program proprietary. 2. Finally.

the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on the Program. it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by you. b) You must cause any work that whole or in part contains or is part thereof. under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following: a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code. when started running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way. a complete machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code. In addition. whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it. you must cause it. c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run. or. mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this License. rather. and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves. and its terms. saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under these conditions. do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works. your work based on the Program is not required to print an announcement. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Program. that in derived from the Program or any a whole at no charge to all third License. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an announcement. then this License. b) Accompany it with a written offer. or. (This alternative is allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the program in object code or executable form with such an offer. for a charge no more than your cost of physically performing source distribution. c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding source code. and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it. Thus. 3.) These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. to give any third party.a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and the date of any change. valid for at least three years. which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. in accord with Subsection b above. the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License. to print or display an announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or else. to be licensed as parties under the terms of this you distribute or publish. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program.) . and telling the user how to view a copy of this License.

However. and so on) of the operating system on which the executable runs. you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so. 6. You are not required to accept this License. parties who have received copies. kernel. and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License. since you have not signed it. plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the executable. If. the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy. If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance. Any attempt otherwise to copy. plus any associated interface definition files. modify. 4. as a special exception. distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and conditions. 5. then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as distribution of the source code. even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code. For an executable work. sublicense. they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. by modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the Program). modify. . These actions are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. You may not copy. nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. the balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances. distributing or modifying the Program or works based on it. as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues). 7. complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains. sublicense or distribute the Program is void. conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order. if a patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you. the source code distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major components (compiler. However. then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Program. You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein. and all its terms and conditions for copying. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this License. For example.The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. or distribute the Program except as expressly provided under this License. or rights. from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations. Therefore. then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program at all. However. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program). unless that component itself accompanies the executable. If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place.

NO WARRANTY 11. EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation. BUT NOT LIMITED TO. 8. 10. 12. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public License from time to time. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions are different.It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any such claims. which is implemented by public license practices. THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM. you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE. SPECIAL. the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries. this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution system. If the Program does not specify a version number of this License. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces. In such case. BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. write to the author to ask for permission. this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License. INCLUDING. THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version. This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License. INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING . you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation. If the Program specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any later version". BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE. Each version is given a distinguishing version number. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally. 9. but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. write to the Free Software Foundation. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER. we sometimes make exceptions for this. REPAIR OR CORRECTION. Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE. YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING. so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. INCLUDING ANY GENERAL. it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice.

<one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does. Of course. If the program is interactive. and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public. Here is a sample. attach the following notices to the to attach them to the start of each source file convey the exclusion of warranty. President of Vice . Inc. EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS). Inc. but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY. Boston. hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker. if necessary.. and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions. either version 2 of the License.> Copyright (C) <year> <name of author> This program is free software. type `show c' for details. MA 02110-1301 USA. you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. <signature of Ty Coon>. write to the Free Software Foundation. for details type `show w'. You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school. It is safest to most effectively should have at least full notice is found. and each file the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the program. 1 April 1989 Ty Coon. Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.. the commands you use may be called something other than `show w' and `show c'. if any. the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms. they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program. See the GNU General Public License for more details. Copyright (C) year name of author Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. Fifth Floor. without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. This is free software. To do so. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful. or (at your option) any later version. END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs If you develop a new program. make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode: Gnomovision version 69. to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program. alter the names: Yoyodyne. 51 Franklin Street. if not.

the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. If this is what you want to do. if you distribute copies of such a program. in effect making the program proprietary. and (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy.) You can apply it to your programs. whether gratis or for a fee. any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. For example. June 1991 Copyright (C) 1989. . receive or can get the source code. When we speak of free software. Inc. we are referring to freedom. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on. or if you modify it. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish). By contrast. not price. To protect your rights. Fifth Floor.. use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. that you receive source code or can get it if you want it. We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software. that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the software. too. for each author's protection and ours. If your program is a subroutine library. but changing it is not allowed. so that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original authors' reputations. To prevent this. Boston. Also. we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights. we want to make certain that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free software. too.This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document. Preamble The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. 51 Franklin Street. you must give the recipients all the rights that you have. we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all. This General Public License applies to most of the Free Software Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it. You must make sure that they. distribute and/or modify the software. you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 2. and that you know you can do these things. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights. Finally. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free program will individually obtain patent licenses. we want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Lesser General Public License instead. 1991 Free Software Foundation.

You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an announcement. c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run. provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty. either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another language. 1. Whether that is true depends on what the Program does.The precise terms and conditions for copying.) Each licensee is addressed as "you". provided that you also meet all of these conditions: a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and the date of any change. keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty. If . translation is included without limitation in the term "modification". Activities other than copying. 2. that in derived from the Program or any a whole at no charge to all third License. The "Program". thus forming a work based on the Program. your work based on the Program is not required to print an announcement. This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed under the terms of this General Public License. and a "work based on the Program" means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say. The act of running the Program is not restricted. in any medium. and the output from the Program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been made by running the Program). you must cause it. distribution and modification are not covered by this License. a work containing the Program or a portion of it. (Hereinafter. refers to any such program or work. saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under these conditions. to be licensed as parties under the terms of this you distribute or publish. and you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it. and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above. and telling the user how to view a copy of this License. distribution and modification follow. to print or display an announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or else. they are outside its scope. You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy. when started running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING. and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License along with the Program.) These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION 0. below. b) You must cause any work that whole or in part contains or is part thereof.

sublicense or distribute the Program is . and its terms. then this License. and so on) of the operating system on which the executable runs. the source code distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major components (compiler. under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following: a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code. which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this License. or. for a charge no more than your cost of physically performing source distribution. If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place. For an executable work. c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding source code. as a special exception. plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the executable. complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains. it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by you. In addition. whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it. valid for at least three years. Any attempt otherwise to copy. or distribute the Program except as expressly provided under this License. then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as distribution of the source code. Thus. plus any associated interface definition files. and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves. or.identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program. even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code. modify. modify. do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works. kernel. unless that component itself accompanies the executable. to give any third party. rather.) The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. 4. a complete machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code. in accord with Subsection b above. 3. However. the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License. and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it. (This alternative is allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the program in object code or executable form with such an offer. You may not copy. to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Program. sublicense. b) Accompany it with a written offer. the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on the Program.

since you have not signed it. However. distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and conditions. You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein. this License incorporates . 8. if a patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you. This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License. These actions are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License. If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance. 5. In such case. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program). as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues). from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance. For example. and all its terms and conditions for copying. distributing or modifying the Program or works based on it. the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy. parties who have received copies. If. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces. or rights. by modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the Program). it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this License. this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution system. nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so. the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries. they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. which is implemented by public license practices. Therefore. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations. 7. 6. You are not required to accept this License. the balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances. then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program at all. Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system. It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any such claims. However. conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order. so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded.void. then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Program. and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.

SPECIAL. REPAIR OR CORRECTION. INCLUDING ANY GENERAL. INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS). Each version is given a distinguishing version number. we sometimes make exceptions for this. you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation. attach the following notices to the to attach them to the start of each source file convey the exclusion of warranty. END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs If you develop a new program. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND.> Copyright (C) <year> <name of author> . write to the Free Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of this License. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions are different. and each file the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the program. YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING. To do so. 9. OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE. and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public. 10. <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally. NO WARRANTY 11. the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms. you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. write to the author to ask for permission. BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation. 12. EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER. It is safest to most effectively should have at least full notice is found. INCLUDING. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE. If the Program specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any later version". but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. BUT NOT LIMITED TO. TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW.the limitation as if written in the body of this License. THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public License from time to time.

GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 2. 51 Franklin Street. June 1991 Copyright (C) 1989. you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode: Gnomovision version 69. The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. but changing it is not allowed. you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation. the commands you use may be called something other than `show w' and `show c'.This program is free software. Boston. type `show c' for details. without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. By contrast. but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY. See the GNU General Public License for more details. Here is a sample. use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. for details type `show w'. This General Public License applies to most of the Free Software . if not. If the program is interactive. Preamble The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. This is free software. 1991 Free Software Foundation.. 1 April 1989 Ty Coon. MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document. President of Vice This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker. if necessary. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful. Inc.. Boston. Copyright (C) year name of author Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. 51 Franklin Street. if any. Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail. or (at your option) any later version. either version 2 of the License. <signature of Ty Coon>. Of course. Fifth Floor.. alter the names: Yoyodyne. Fifth Floor. Inc. You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school. MA 02110-1301 USA. If your program is a subroutine library. to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program. Inc. the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program. write to the Free Software Foundation. and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. If this is what you want to do.

that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs. (Hereinafter. Activities other than copying. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the software. We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software. so that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original authors' reputations. too. This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed under the terms of this General Public License. distribution and modification are not covered by this License. we want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original. and that you know you can do these things. You must make sure that they.) You can apply it to your programs. we want to make certain that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free software. receive or can get the source code.Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it. The precise terms and conditions for copying. if you distribute copies of such a program. and the output from the Program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the . GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish). (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Lesser General Public License instead. below. Also. you must give the recipients all the rights that you have. a work containing the Program or a portion of it. refers to any such program or work. in effect making the program proprietary. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights. and (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on. Finally. whether gratis or for a fee. For example. DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION 0. they are outside its scope. The act of running the Program is not restricted. and a "work based on the Program" means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say. translation is included without limitation in the term "modification". we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all. that you receive source code or can get it if you want it. any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. we are referring to freedom. To prevent this. we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights. too. When we speak of free software. not price. To protect your rights. either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another language. distribute and/or modify the software. distribution and modification follow.) Each licensee is addressed as "you". or if you modify it. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free program will individually obtain patent licenses. for each author's protection and ours. The "Program".

You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it. provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it. 2. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it. 3. under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of . and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves. and you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee. then this License. provided that you also meet all of these conditions: a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and the date of any change. 1. and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License along with the Program. thus forming a work based on the Program. mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this License. do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works. it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by you. You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program. you must cause it. in any medium. In addition. and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above. and its terms. b) You must cause any work that whole or in part contains or is part thereof. c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run. rather. Thus.) These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole.Program (independent of having been made by running the Program). the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License. that in derived from the Program or any a whole at no charge to all third License. keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty. your work based on the Program is not required to print an announcement. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an announcement. whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole. Whether that is true depends on what the Program does. when started running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way. saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under these conditions. and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it. the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on the Program. to print or display an announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or else. to be licensed as parties under the terms of this you distribute or publish. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Program. and telling the user how to view a copy of this License.

If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place. modify. and so on) of the operating system on which the executable runs. complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains. However. You are not required to accept this License.) The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. the source code distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major components (compiler. or. or rights. to give any third party. distributing or modifying the Program or works based on it. plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the executable. You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein. then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as distribution of the source code. parties who have received copies. Any attempt otherwise to copy. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this License. as a special exception. even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code. 4. 5. a complete machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code. kernel. in accord with Subsection b above. plus any associated interface definition files. the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy. to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so. (This alternative is allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the program in object code or executable form with such an offer. for a charge no more than your cost of physically performing source distribution. valid for at least three years. You may not copy. These actions are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. or. However. and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. For an executable work. 6. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program). which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. Therefore. by modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the Program). or distribute the Program except as expressly provided under this License. sublicense or distribute the Program is void. since you have not signed it. b) Accompany it with a written offer.Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following: a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code. distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and conditions. sublicense. unless that component itself accompanies the executable. from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance. However. and all its terms and conditions for copying. modify. . c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding source code.

If. but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. If the Program does not specify a version number of this License. If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations. so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License. as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues). Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system. it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice. write to the Free Software Foundation. agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License. this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution system. If the Program specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any later version". 9. 8.7. we sometimes make exceptions for this. conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order. if a patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version. It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any such claims. write to the author to ask for permission. then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program at all. 10. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces. For example. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and . In such case. which is implemented by public license practices. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions are different. they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. Each version is given a distinguishing version number. you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation. then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Program. the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public License from time to time. This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License. the balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances.

SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE. INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS).. REPAIR OR CORRECTION. To do so. Boston. END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs If you develop a new program. NO WARRANTY 11. THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM. It is safest to most effectively should have at least full notice is found. write to the Free Software Foundation. and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER. SPECIAL. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful. BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES. 12. If the program is interactive. BUT NOT LIMITED TO. attach the following notices to the to attach them to the start of each source file convey the exclusion of warranty. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE.> Copyright (C) <year> <name of author> This program is free software. Fifth Floor. TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. MA 02110-1301 USA. Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail. but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY. INCLUDING. See the GNU General Public License for more details. if not. 51 Franklin Street. Inc. <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does. make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode: Gnomovision version 69. OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE. either version 2 of the License. the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms. YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING. or (at your option) any later version. without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Copyright (C) year name of author .of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally. INCLUDING ANY GENERAL. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. and each file the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the program. THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED.

Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. if any.. You must make sure that they. Here is a sample. use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. for details type `show w'. MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document. you must give the recipients all the rights that you have. too. that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs.) You can apply it to your programs. receive or can get the source code. type `show c' for details. hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker. we are referring to freedom. or if you modify it. And you must show them these terms so they know their . they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program. not price. alter the names: Yoyodyne. the commands you use may be called something other than `show w' and `show c'. Boston. whether gratis or for a fee. If your program is a subroutine library. You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school.. When we speak of free software. the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. Of course. that you receive source code or can get it if you want it. Fifth Floor. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 2. and that you know you can do these things. June 1991 Copyright (C) 1989. To protect your rights. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish). 51 Franklin Street. but changing it is not allowed. The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. By contrast. too. Inc. 1991 Free Software Foundation. This is free software. President of Vice This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. if you distribute copies of such a program. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Lesser General Public License instead. 1 April 1989 Ty Coon. Preamble The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. if necessary. we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights. This General Public License applies to most of the Free Software Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it. For example. you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. <signature of Ty Coon>. and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the software. to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program. Inc. If this is what you want to do.

they are outside its scope. so that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original authors' reputations. we want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original. Activities other than copying.) Each licensee is addressed as "you".rights. (Hereinafter. translation is included without limitation in the term "modification". GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING. in any medium. provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty. we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all. and (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy. distribute and/or modify the software. and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License along with the Program. The precise terms and conditions for copying. for each author's protection and ours. a work containing the Program or a portion of it. and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above. and a "work based on the Program" means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say. Whether that is true depends on what the Program does. and you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee. This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed under the terms of this General Public License. below. Finally. To prevent this. The act of running the Program is not restricted. refers to any such program or work. distribution and modification follow. The "Program". DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION 0. and the output from the Program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been made by running the Program). provided that you also meet all of these conditions: a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and the date of any change. we want to make certain that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free software. 2. . 1. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free program will individually obtain patent licenses. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it. distribution and modification are not covered by this License. You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy. any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. thus forming a work based on the Program. keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it. We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software. in effect making the program proprietary. either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another language. Also. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on.

to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. that in derived from the Program or any a whole at no charge to all third License. valid for at least three years. in accord with Subsection b above. under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following: a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code. when started running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way. complete source . for a charge no more than your cost of physically performing source distribution. a complete machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code. to print or display an announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or else. the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on the Program. (This alternative is allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the program in object code or executable form with such an offer. For an executable work. or. mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this License. Thus. to be licensed as parties under the terms of this you distribute or publish. and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it. c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding source code. the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License. to give any third party. then this License.b) You must cause any work that whole or in part contains or is part thereof. your work based on the Program is not required to print an announcement. and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it. 3. In addition. saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under these conditions. b) Accompany it with a written offer. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program. it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by you. whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole. and telling the user how to view a copy of this License. or. and its terms. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Program.) These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works.) The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an announcement. you must cause it. c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run. rather. which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange.

7. by modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the Program). These actions are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. since you have not signed it. However. kernel. from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance. plus any associated interface definition files. conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order. sublicense. For example. then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as distribution of the source code. It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any . modify. 4. agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License. sublicense or distribute the Program is void.code means all the source code for all modules it contains. they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Program. Therefore. as a special exception. or rights. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations. Any attempt otherwise to copy. and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. You are not required to accept this License. you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so. or distribute the Program except as expressly provided under this License. If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place. the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy. the balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this License. 5. If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance. unless that component itself accompanies the executable. 6. However. plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the executable. as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues). modify. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program). However. If. distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and conditions. and all its terms and conditions for copying. if a patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you. You may not copy. distributing or modifying the Program or works based on it. You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein. even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code. the source code distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major components (compiler. parties who have received copies. and so on) of the operating system on which the executable runs. then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program at all.

so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice. 12. the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries. INCLUDING. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces. EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE. Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system. INCLUDING ANY GENERAL. Each version is given a distinguishing version number. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation. write to the Free Software Foundation. BUT NOT LIMITED TO. SPECIAL. 10. YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING. this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution system. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public License from time to time. BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES. we sometimes make exceptions for this. OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version.such claims. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER. 9. but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE. THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions are different. you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License. If the Program specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any later version". Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally. REPAIR OR CORRECTION. this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License. INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER . write to the author to ask for permission. If the Program does not specify a version number of this License. you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. NO WARRANTY 11. which is implemented by public license practices. In such case. 8.

PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE
POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs
If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it
free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.
To do so, attach the following notices to the
to attach them to the start of each source file
convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file
the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the

program. It is safest
to most effectively
should have at least
full notice is found.

<one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.>
Copyright (C) <year> <name of author>
This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
(at your option) any later version.
This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
GNU General Public License for more details.
You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
with this program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.
If the program is interactive, make it output a short notice like this
when it starts in an interactive mode:
Gnomovision version 69, Copyright (C) year name of author
Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type `show w'.
This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it
under certain conditions; type `show c' for details.
The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate
parts of the General Public License. Of course, the commands you use may
be called something other than `show w' and `show c'; they could even be
mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program.
You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your
school, if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if
necessary. Here is a sample; alter the names:
Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program
`Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker.
<signature of Ty Coon>, 1 April 1989
Ty Coon, President of Vice
This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into
proprietary programs. If your program is a subroutine library, you may

consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the
library. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Lesser General
Public License instead of this License.
GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
Version 2, June 1991
Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
Preamble
The licenses for most software are designed to take away your
freedom to share and change it. By contrast, the GNU General Public
License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free
software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. This
General Public License applies to most of the Free Software
Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to
using it. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by
the GNU Lesser General Public License instead.) You can apply it to
your programs, too.
When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not
price. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you
have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for
this service if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it
if you want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it
in new free programs; and that you know you can do these things.
To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid
anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights.
These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you
distribute copies of the software, or if you modify it.
For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether
gratis or for a fee, you must give the recipients all the rights that
you have. You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the
source code. And you must show them these terms so they know their
rights.
We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software, and
(2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy,
distribute and/or modify the software.
Also, for each author's protection and ours, we want to make certain
that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free
software. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on, we
want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original, so
that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original
authors' reputations.
Finally, any free program is threatened constantly by software
patents. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free
program will individually obtain patent licenses, in effect making the
program proprietary. To prevent this, we have made it clear that any
patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all.
The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and
modification follow.

GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION
0. This License applies to any program or other work which contains
a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed
under the terms of this General Public License. The "Program", below,
refers to any such program or work, and a "work based on the Program"
means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law:
that is to say, a work containing the Program or a portion of it,
either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another
language. (Hereinafter, translation is included without limitation in
the term "modification".) Each licensee is addressed as "you".
Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not
covered by this License; they are outside its scope. The act of
running the Program is not restricted, and the output from the Program
is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the
Program (independent of having been made by running the Program).
Whether that is true depends on what the Program does.
1. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's
source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you
conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate
copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the
notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty;
and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License
along with the Program.
You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and
you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee.
2. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion
of it, thus forming a work based on the Program, and copy and
distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1
above, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:
a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices
stating that you changed the files and the date of any change.
b) You must cause any work that
whole or in part contains or is
part thereof, to be licensed as
parties under the terms of this

you distribute or publish, that in
derived from the Program or any
a whole at no charge to all third
License.

c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively
when run, you must cause it, when started running for such
interactive use in the most ordinary way, to print or display an
announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a
notice that there is no warranty (or else, saying that you provide
a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under
these conditions, and telling the user how to view a copy of this
License. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but
does not normally print such an announcement, your work based on
the Program is not required to print an announcement.)
These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. If
identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program,
and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in
themselves, then this License, and its terms, do not apply to those

sections when you distribute them as separate works. But when you
distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based
on the Program, the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of
this License, whose permissions for other licensees extend to the
entire whole, and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it.
Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest
your rights to work written entirely by you; rather, the intent is to
exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or
collective works based on the Program.
In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program
with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of
a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under
the scope of this License.
3. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it,
under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of
Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following:
a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable
source code, which must be distributed under the terms of Sections
1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or,
b) Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three
years, to give any third party, for a charge no more than your
cost of physically performing source distribution, a complete
machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code, to be
distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium
customarily used for software interchange; or,
c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer
to distribute corresponding source code. (This alternative is
allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you
received the program in object code or executable form with such
an offer, in accord with Subsection b above.)
The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for
making modifications to it. For an executable work, complete source
code means all the source code for all modules it contains, plus any
associated interface definition files, plus the scripts used to
control compilation and installation of the executable. However, as a
special exception, the source code distributed need not include
anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary
form) with the major components (compiler, kernel, and so on) of the
operating system on which the executable runs, unless that component
itself accompanies the executable.
If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering
access to copy from a designated place, then offering equivalent
access to copy the source code from the same place counts as
distribution of the source code, even though third parties are not
compelled to copy the source along with the object code.
4. You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program
except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt
otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Program is
void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.
However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under
this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such

parties remain in full compliance.
5. You are not required to accept this License, since you have not
signed it. However, nothing else grants you permission to modify or
distribute the Program or its derivative works. These actions are
prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. Therefore, by
modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the
Program), you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so, and
all its terms and conditions for copying, distributing or modifying
the Program or works based on it.
6. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the
Program), the recipient automatically receives a license from the
original licensor to copy, distribute or modify the Program subject to
these terms and conditions. You may not impose any further
restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein.
You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to
this License.
7. If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent
infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues),
conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or
otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not
excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you cannot
distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this
License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you
may not distribute the Program at all. For example, if a patent
license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by
all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you, then
the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to
refrain entirely from distribution of the Program.
If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under
any particular circumstance, the balance of the section is intended to
apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other
circumstances.
It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any
patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any
such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting the
integrity of the free software distribution system, which is
implemented by public license practices. Many people have made
generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed
through that system in reliance on consistent application of that
system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing
to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot
impose that choice.
This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to
be a consequence of the rest of this License.
8. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in
certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces, the
original copyright holder who places the Program under this License
may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding
those countries, so that distribution is permitted only in or among
countries not thus excluded. In such case, this License incorporates
the limitation as if written in the body of this License.
9. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions

of the General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will
be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to
address new problems or concerns.
Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program
specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any
later version", you have the option of following the terms and conditions
either of that version or of any later version published by the Free
Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of
this License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software
Foundation.
10. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free
programs whose distribution conditions are different, write to the author
to ask for permission. For software which is copyrighted by the Free
Software Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes
make exceptions for this. Our decision will be guided by the two goals
of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and
of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally.
NO WARRANTY
11. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY
FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN
OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES
PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED
OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS
TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE
PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING,
REPAIR OR CORRECTION.
12. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING
WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR
REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES,
INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING
OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED
TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY
YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER
PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE
POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs
If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it
free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.
To do so, attach the following notices to the
to attach them to the start of each source file
convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file
the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the

program. It is safest
to most effectively
should have at least
full notice is found.

<one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.>
Copyright (C) <year> <name of author>
This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by

the Free Software Foundation. If your program is a subroutine library. MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document. and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions. they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program. See the GNU General Public License for more details. either version 2 of the License. You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school. the commands you use may be called something other than `show w' and `show c'. MA 02110-1301 USA. or (at your option) any later version. By contrast. <signature of Ty Coon>. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 2. Fifth Floor. the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. 51 Franklin Street. use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. if necessary. you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. Of course. If the program is interactive... for details type `show w'. alter the names: Yoyodyne. If this is what you want to do. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program.. but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY. Here is a sample. Boston. Boston. without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. if not. 1991 Free Software Foundation. Inc. Fifth Floor. Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail. but changing it is not allowed. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Lesser General Public License instead. This is free software. if any. to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program. June 1991 Copyright (C) 1989. Inc. This General Public License applies to most of the Free Software Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it. Copyright (C) year name of author Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. Preamble The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. write to the Free Software Foundation.) You can apply it to . President of Vice This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful. 51 Franklin Street. hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker. 1 April 1989 Ty Coon. type `show c' for details. The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. Inc. make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode: Gnomovision version 69.

your programs, too.
When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not
price. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you
have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for
this service if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it
if you want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it
in new free programs; and that you know you can do these things.
To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid
anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights.
These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you
distribute copies of the software, or if you modify it.
For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether
gratis or for a fee, you must give the recipients all the rights that
you have. You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the
source code. And you must show them these terms so they know their
rights.
We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software, and
(2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy,
distribute and/or modify the software.
Also, for each author's protection and ours, we want to make certain
that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free
software. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on, we
want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original, so
that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original
authors' reputations.
Finally, any free program is threatened constantly by software
patents. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free
program will individually obtain patent licenses, in effect making the
program proprietary. To prevent this, we have made it clear that any
patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all.
The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and
modification follow.
GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION
0. This License applies to any program or other work which contains
a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed
under the terms of this General Public License. The "Program", below,
refers to any such program or work, and a "work based on the Program"
means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law:
that is to say, a work containing the Program or a portion of it,
either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another
language. (Hereinafter, translation is included without limitation in
the term "modification".) Each licensee is addressed as "you".
Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not
covered by this License; they are outside its scope. The act of
running the Program is not restricted, and the output from the Program
is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the
Program (independent of having been made by running the Program).
Whether that is true depends on what the Program does.

1. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's
source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you
conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate
copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the
notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty;
and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License
along with the Program.
You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and
you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee.
2. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion
of it, thus forming a work based on the Program, and copy and
distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1
above, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:
a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices
stating that you changed the files and the date of any change.
b) You must cause any work that
whole or in part contains or is
part thereof, to be licensed as
parties under the terms of this

you distribute or publish, that in
derived from the Program or any
a whole at no charge to all third
License.

c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively
when run, you must cause it, when started running for such
interactive use in the most ordinary way, to print or display an
announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a
notice that there is no warranty (or else, saying that you provide
a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under
these conditions, and telling the user how to view a copy of this
License. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but
does not normally print such an announcement, your work based on
the Program is not required to print an announcement.)
These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. If
identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program,
and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in
themselves, then this License, and its terms, do not apply to those
sections when you distribute them as separate works. But when you
distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based
on the Program, the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of
this License, whose permissions for other licensees extend to the
entire whole, and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it.
Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest
your rights to work written entirely by you; rather, the intent is to
exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or
collective works based on the Program.
In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program
with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of
a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under
the scope of this License.
3. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it,
under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of
Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following:
a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable

source code, which must be distributed under the terms of Sections
1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or,
b) Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three
years, to give any third party, for a charge no more than your
cost of physically performing source distribution, a complete
machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code, to be
distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium
customarily used for software interchange; or,
c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer
to distribute corresponding source code. (This alternative is
allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you
received the program in object code or executable form with such
an offer, in accord with Subsection b above.)
The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for
making modifications to it. For an executable work, complete source
code means all the source code for all modules it contains, plus any
associated interface definition files, plus the scripts used to
control compilation and installation of the executable. However, as a
special exception, the source code distributed need not include
anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary
form) with the major components (compiler, kernel, and so on) of the
operating system on which the executable runs, unless that component
itself accompanies the executable.
If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering
access to copy from a designated place, then offering equivalent
access to copy the source code from the same place counts as
distribution of the source code, even though third parties are not
compelled to copy the source along with the object code.
4. You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program
except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt
otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Program is
void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.
However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under
this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such
parties remain in full compliance.
5. You are not required to accept this License, since you have not
signed it. However, nothing else grants you permission to modify or
distribute the Program or its derivative works. These actions are
prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. Therefore, by
modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the
Program), you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so, and
all its terms and conditions for copying, distributing or modifying
the Program or works based on it.
6. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the
Program), the recipient automatically receives a license from the
original licensor to copy, distribute or modify the Program subject to
these terms and conditions. You may not impose any further
restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein.
You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to
this License.
7. If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent
infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues),

conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or
otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not
excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you cannot
distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this
License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you
may not distribute the Program at all. For example, if a patent
license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by
all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you, then
the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to
refrain entirely from distribution of the Program.
If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under
any particular circumstance, the balance of the section is intended to
apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other
circumstances.
It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any
patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any
such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting the
integrity of the free software distribution system, which is
implemented by public license practices. Many people have made
generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed
through that system in reliance on consistent application of that
system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing
to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot
impose that choice.
This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to
be a consequence of the rest of this License.
8. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in
certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces, the
original copyright holder who places the Program under this License
may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding
those countries, so that distribution is permitted only in or among
countries not thus excluded. In such case, this License incorporates
the limitation as if written in the body of this License.
9. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions
of the General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will
be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to
address new problems or concerns.
Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program
specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any
later version", you have the option of following the terms and conditions
either of that version or of any later version published by the Free
Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of
this License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software
Foundation.
10. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free
programs whose distribution conditions are different, write to the author
to ask for permission. For software which is copyrighted by the Free
Software Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes
make exceptions for this. Our decision will be guided by the two goals
of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and
of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally.
NO WARRANTY

11. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY
FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN
OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES
PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED
OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS
TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE
PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING,
REPAIR OR CORRECTION.
12. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING
WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR
REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES,
INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING
OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED
TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY
YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER
PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE
POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs
If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it
free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.
To do so, attach the following notices to the
to attach them to the start of each source file
convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file
the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the

program. It is safest
to most effectively
should have at least
full notice is found.

<one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.>
Copyright (C) <year> <name of author>
This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
(at your option) any later version.
This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
GNU General Public License for more details.
You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
with this program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.
If the program is interactive, make it output a short notice like this
when it starts in an interactive mode:
Gnomovision version 69, Copyright (C) year name of author
Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type `show w'.
This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it
under certain conditions; type `show c' for details.

The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate
parts of the General Public License. Of course, the commands you use may
be called something other than `show w' and `show c'; they could even be
mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program.
You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your
school, if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if
necessary. Here is a sample; alter the names:
Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program
`Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker.
<signature of Ty Coon>, 1 April 1989
Ty Coon, President of Vice
This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into
proprietary programs. If your program is a subroutine library, you may
consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the
library. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Lesser General
Public License instead of this License.
GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
Version 2, June 1991
Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
Preamble
The licenses for most software are designed to take away your
freedom to share and change it. By contrast, the GNU General Public
License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free
software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. This
General Public License applies to most of the Free Software
Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to
using it. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by
the GNU Lesser General Public License instead.) You can apply it to
your programs, too.
When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not
price. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you
have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for
this service if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it
if you want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it
in new free programs; and that you know you can do these things.
To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid
anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights.
These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you
distribute copies of the software, or if you modify it.
For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether
gratis or for a fee, you must give the recipients all the rights that
you have. You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the
source code. And you must show them these terms so they know their
rights.
We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software, and

(2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy,
distribute and/or modify the software.
Also, for each author's protection and ours, we want to make certain
that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free
software. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on, we
want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original, so
that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original
authors' reputations.
Finally, any free program is threatened constantly by software
patents. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free
program will individually obtain patent licenses, in effect making the
program proprietary. To prevent this, we have made it clear that any
patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all.
The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and
modification follow.
GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION
0. This License applies to any program or other work which contains
a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed
under the terms of this General Public License. The "Program", below,
refers to any such program or work, and a "work based on the Program"
means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law:
that is to say, a work containing the Program or a portion of it,
either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another
language. (Hereinafter, translation is included without limitation in
the term "modification".) Each licensee is addressed as "you".
Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not
covered by this License; they are outside its scope. The act of
running the Program is not restricted, and the output from the Program
is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the
Program (independent of having been made by running the Program).
Whether that is true depends on what the Program does.
1. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's
source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you
conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate
copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the
notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty;
and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License
along with the Program.
You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and
you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee.
2. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion
of it, thus forming a work based on the Program, and copy and
distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1
above, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:
a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices
stating that you changed the files and the date of any change.
b) You must cause any work that you distribute or publish, that in
whole or in part contains or is derived from the Program or any

part thereof, to be licensed as a whole at no charge to all third
parties under the terms of this License.
c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively
when run, you must cause it, when started running for such
interactive use in the most ordinary way, to print or display an
announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a
notice that there is no warranty (or else, saying that you provide
a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under
these conditions, and telling the user how to view a copy of this
License. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but
does not normally print such an announcement, your work based on
the Program is not required to print an announcement.)
These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. If
identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program,
and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in
themselves, then this License, and its terms, do not apply to those
sections when you distribute them as separate works. But when you
distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based
on the Program, the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of
this License, whose permissions for other licensees extend to the
entire whole, and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it.
Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest
your rights to work written entirely by you; rather, the intent is to
exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or
collective works based on the Program.
In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program
with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of
a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under
the scope of this License.
3. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it,
under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of
Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following:
a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable
source code, which must be distributed under the terms of Sections
1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or,
b) Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three
years, to give any third party, for a charge no more than your
cost of physically performing source distribution, a complete
machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code, to be
distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium
customarily used for software interchange; or,
c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer
to distribute corresponding source code. (This alternative is
allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you
received the program in object code or executable form with such
an offer, in accord with Subsection b above.)
The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for
making modifications to it. For an executable work, complete source
code means all the source code for all modules it contains, plus any
associated interface definition files, plus the scripts used to
control compilation and installation of the executable. However, as a

special exception, the source code distributed need not include
anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary
form) with the major components (compiler, kernel, and so on) of the
operating system on which the executable runs, unless that component
itself accompanies the executable.
If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering
access to copy from a designated place, then offering equivalent
access to copy the source code from the same place counts as
distribution of the source code, even though third parties are not
compelled to copy the source along with the object code.
4. You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program
except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt
otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Program is
void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.
However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under
this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such
parties remain in full compliance.
5. You are not required to accept this License, since you have not
signed it. However, nothing else grants you permission to modify or
distribute the Program or its derivative works. These actions are
prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. Therefore, by
modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the
Program), you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so, and
all its terms and conditions for copying, distributing or modifying
the Program or works based on it.
6. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the
Program), the recipient automatically receives a license from the
original licensor to copy, distribute or modify the Program subject to
these terms and conditions. You may not impose any further
restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein.
You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to
this License.
7. If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent
infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues),
conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or
otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not
excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you cannot
distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this
License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you
may not distribute the Program at all. For example, if a patent
license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by
all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you, then
the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to
refrain entirely from distribution of the Program.
If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under
any particular circumstance, the balance of the section is intended to
apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other
circumstances.
It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any
patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any
such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting the
integrity of the free software distribution system, which is
implemented by public license practices. Many people have made

generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed
through that system in reliance on consistent application of that
system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing
to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot
impose that choice.
This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to
be a consequence of the rest of this License.
8. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in
certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces, the
original copyright holder who places the Program under this License
may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding
those countries, so that distribution is permitted only in or among
countries not thus excluded. In such case, this License incorporates
the limitation as if written in the body of this License.
9. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions
of the General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will
be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to
address new problems or concerns.
Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program
specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any
later version", you have the option of following the terms and conditions
either of that version or of any later version published by the Free
Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of
this License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software
Foundation.
10. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free
programs whose distribution conditions are different, write to the author
to ask for permission. For software which is copyrighted by the Free
Software Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes
make exceptions for this. Our decision will be guided by the two goals
of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and
of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally.
NO WARRANTY
11. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY
FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN
OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES
PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED
OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS
TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE
PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING,
REPAIR OR CORRECTION.
12. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING
WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR
REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES,
INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING
OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED
TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY
YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER
PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE
POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.

and each file the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the program.END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs If you develop a new program. to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program. Boston. If this is what you want to do. write to the Free Software Foundation. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program.> Copyright (C) <year> <name of author> This program is free software. Fifth Floor. Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail. but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY. you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation. or (at your option) any later version. if necessary. they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program. without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does. The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. either version 2 of the License. See the GNU General Public License for more details. . <signature of Ty Coon>. 1 April 1989 Ty Coon. Copyright (C) year name of author Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school. for details type `show w'. attach the following notices to the to attach them to the start of each source file convey the exclusion of warranty. the commands you use may be called something other than `show w' and `show c'. To do so. if not. type `show c' for details. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful. If your program is a subroutine library. This is free software. and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions. 51 Franklin Street. It is safest to most effectively should have at least full notice is found. use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public. President of Vice This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. Inc. Here is a sample.. Inc. hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker. if any. make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode: Gnomovision version 69. If the program is interactive. Of course. MA 02110-1301 USA. you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms. alter the names: Yoyodyne..

) You can apply it to your programs. we want to make certain that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free software. You must make sure that they. To protect your rights. The precise terms and conditions for copying. that you receive source code or can get it if you want it. Boston. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish). And you must show them these terms so they know their rights. June 1991 Copyright (C) 1989. if you distribute copies of such a program. This General Public License applies to most of the Free Software Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it. 51 Franklin Street. and that you know you can do these things. or if you modify it. 1991 Free Software Foundation. By contrast. Also. we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights. that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs. distribute and/or modify the software. When we speak of free software. MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document. in effect making the program proprietary. we want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original. receive or can get the source code. the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. you must give the recipients all the rights that you have. we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all. For example. DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION . we are referring to freedom. but changing it is not allowed. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the software. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Lesser General Public License instead. We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software.. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING. not price. too.GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 2. any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. and (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy. Preamble The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. Finally. so that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original authors' reputations. for each author's protection and ours. too. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on. whether gratis or for a fee. To prevent this. Fifth Floor. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free program will individually obtain patent licenses. Inc. distribution and modification follow.

and telling the user how to view a copy of this License. (Hereinafter. below. when started running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way. Activities other than copying. refers to any such program or work. and the output from the Program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been made by running the Program). then this License. saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under these conditions. to be licensed as parties under the terms of this you distribute or publish. and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above. keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty. to print or display an announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or else.) Each licensee is addressed as "you".) These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy. Whether that is true depends on what the Program does. This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed under the terms of this General Public License. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it. b) You must cause any work that whole or in part contains or is part thereof. and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves. provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty. translation is included without limitation in the term "modification". either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another language. thus forming a work based on the Program. and you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee. 2. you must cause it. c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run. and its terms. 1. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an announcement. a work containing the Program or a portion of it. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Program. in any medium. and a "work based on the Program" means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say.0. provided that you also meet all of these conditions: a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and the date of any change. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program. they are outside its scope. The act of running the Program is not restricted. The "Program". distribution and modification are not covered by this License. that in derived from the Program or any a whole at no charge to all third License. the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of . and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License along with the Program. your work based on the Program is not required to print an announcement. do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it.

However. parties who have received copies. You may not copy. for a charge no more than your cost of physically performing source distribution. In addition. a complete machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code. to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this License. However. unless that component itself accompanies the executable. under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following: a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code. kernel. and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it. or distribute the Program except as expressly provided under this License. whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole. valid for at least three years. rather. For an executable work. sublicense. it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by you. or. even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code. to give any third party. or. from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance. Thus. and so on) of the operating system on which the executable runs. If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place. 4. complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains. as a special exception. the source code distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major components (compiler. (This alternative is allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the program in object code or executable form with such an offer. since you have not . sublicense or distribute the Program is void. the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on the Program. and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. or rights. modify. then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as distribution of the source code. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it. in accord with Subsection b above. c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding source code. You are not required to accept this License. plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the executable. plus any associated interface definition files. Any attempt otherwise to copy. 5. which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange.) The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. 3. b) Accompany it with a written offer.this License. modify.

this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution system. so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. if a patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you. In such case. you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so. This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License. it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice. 7. 6. the balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces. as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues). conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order. distributing or modifying the Program or works based on it. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations. the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy. the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries. and all its terms and conditions for copying. If. nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Program. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public License from time to time. agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program). . These actions are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. 8. then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program at all. It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any such claims. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this License. Therefore. However. this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License. distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and conditions. by modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the Program). You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein. For example. If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance. but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.signed it. which is implemented by public license practices. 9. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version. Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system.

you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. INCLUDING. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE. BUT NOT LIMITED TO. EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation. INCLUDING ANY GENERAL. write to the Free Software Foundation.Each version is given a distinguishing version number. To do so. BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES. 12. 10. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does. TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. It is safest to most effectively should have at least full notice is found. attach the following notices to the to attach them to the start of each source file convey the exclusion of warranty. the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms. you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER. either version 2 of the License. THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.> Copyright (C) <year> <name of author> This program is free software. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation. OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE. END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs If you develop a new program. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM. and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public. NO WARRANTY 11. we sometimes make exceptions for this. and each file the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the program. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE. . If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions are different. YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING. SPECIAL. If the Program does not specify a version number of this License. REPAIR OR CORRECTION. If the Program specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any later version". Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally. INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS). EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. or (at your option) any later version. write to the author to ask for permission.

(Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Lesser General Public License instead. Inc. alter the names: Yoyodyne. type `show c' for details. By contrast. Preamble The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. <signature of Ty Coon>. See the GNU General Public License for more details. 51 Franklin Street. they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program. if any. if necessary. The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail. Boston. Copyright (C) year name of author Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 2. This General Public License applies to most of the Free Software Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it. This is free software. hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker.This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful. we are referring to freedom. Inc. to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program. the commands you use may be called something other than `show w' and `show c'. If this is what you want to do. use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. President of Vice This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. but changing it is not allowed. If the program is interactive. Of course. Fifth Floor. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. too.) You can apply it to your programs. if not. but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY. MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document. 51 Franklin Street. When we speak of free software. write to the Free Software Foundation. 1991 Free Software Foundation. Here is a sample. without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.. 1 April 1989 Ty Coon. You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school. you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. If your program is a subroutine library. for details type `show w'. not . the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. Fifth Floor.. June 1991 Copyright (C) 1989. MA 02110-1301 USA. Inc.. Boston. make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode: Gnomovision version 69. and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions.

or if you modify it. For example. in any medium. To prevent this. (Hereinafter. in effect making the program proprietary. provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate . Activities other than copying. We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software. 1. and the output from the Program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been made by running the Program). they are outside its scope. so that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original authors' reputations. DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION 0. you must give the recipients all the rights that you have. too. This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed under the terms of this General Public License. that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it. we want to make certain that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free software. distribution and modification follow. for each author's protection and ours. To protect your rights. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING. that you receive source code or can get it if you want it. distribute and/or modify the software. Also. whether gratis or for a fee. Whether that is true depends on what the Program does. a work containing the Program or a portion of it. The "Program".price. we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all. and that you know you can do these things. distribution and modification are not covered by this License. receive or can get the source code. Finally. The precise terms and conditions for copying. translation is included without limitation in the term "modification". any free program is threatened constantly by software patents.) Each licensee is addressed as "you". And you must show them these terms so they know their rights. either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another language. below. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the software. The act of running the Program is not restricted. You must make sure that they. refers to any such program or work. we want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free program will individually obtain patent licenses. and (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish). we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights. if you distribute copies of such a program. and a "work based on the Program" means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on.

3. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it. Thus. and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above. then this License. c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run. and telling the user how to view a copy of this License. it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by you. that in derived from the Program or any a whole at no charge to all third License. thus forming a work based on the Program. saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under these conditions. provided that you also meet all of these conditions: a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and the date of any change. You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy. the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on the Program. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program. keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty. and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves. under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following: a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code. do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works. to be licensed as parties under the terms of this you distribute or publish. which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Program.copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty. rather. the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License. to print or display an announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or else. b) You must cause any work that whole or in part contains or is part thereof. and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it. when started running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way. mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this License. In addition. your work based on the Program is not required to print an announcement. you must cause it. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an announcement.) These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License along with the Program. 2. and its terms. or. . and you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee. whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole.

even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code. However. 6. parties who have received copies. distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and conditions.b) Accompany it with a written offer. However. kernel. as a special exception. distributing or modifying the Program or works based on it. agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License. or distribute the Program except as expressly provided under this License. You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein. or. If. for a charge no more than your cost of physically performing source distribution. and so on) of the operating system on which the executable runs. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program). sublicense. 7. c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding source code. unless that component itself accompanies the executable. and all its terms and conditions for copying. If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place. to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange.) The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. in accord with Subsection b above. sublicense or distribute the Program is void. modify. However. Any attempt otherwise to copy. These actions are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. since you have not signed it. by modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the Program). or rights. You are not required to accept this License. valid for at least three years. and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. 4. a complete machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code. modify. (This alternative is allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the program in object code or executable form with such an offer. conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order. You may not copy. 5. from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance. then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as distribution of the source code. Therefore. plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the executable. the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy. complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains. as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues). to give any third party. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this License. plus any associated interface definition files. If you cannot . For an executable work. they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so. the source code distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major components (compiler.

If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces. so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. 9. this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally. write to the author to ask for permission. In such case. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public License from time to time. you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation. TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance. we sometimes make exceptions for this. write to the Free Software Foundation. then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program at all. which is implemented by public license practices. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation. this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution system. you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of this License. the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries. It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any such claims. If the Program specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any later version". 8. then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Program. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE. EXCEPT WHEN . This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License. the balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version. Each version is given a distinguishing version number. but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. NO WARRANTY 11. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions are different. it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice. if a patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you. 10. Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system. For example. THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM.distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations.

Boston. you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation. The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE. BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES. and each file the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the program.OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. This is free software. YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING. and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode: Gnomovision version 69. for details type `show w'. type `show c' for details. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE. Copyright (C) year name of author Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs If you develop a new program. if not. INCLUDING ANY GENERAL. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER. It is safest to most effectively should have at least full notice is found. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful. EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. or (at your option) any later version. and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions. the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms. If the program is interactive.. 51 Franklin Street. To do so. INCLUDING. attach the following notices to the to attach them to the start of each source file convey the exclusion of warranty. 12.> Copyright (C) <year> <name of author> This program is free software. REPAIR OR CORRECTION. See the GNU General Public License for more details. MA 02110-1301 USA. write to the Free Software Foundation. but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY. the commands you use may . <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does. Fifth Floor. BUT NOT LIMITED TO. Of course. either version 2 of the License. Inc. INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS). EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. SPECIAL.

You must make sure that they. if you distribute copies of such a program. Boston. that you receive source code or can get it if you want it. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights. Inc. To protect your rights. President of Vice This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school. If this is what you want to do.) You can apply it to your programs. Inc.. not price. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 2. whether gratis or for a fee. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Lesser General Public License instead. alter the names: Yoyodyne. and that you know you can do these things. For example. distribute and/or modify the software. the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. you must give the recipients all the rights that you have. <signature of Ty Coon>. you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. too. use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. This General Public License applies to most of the Free Software Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it. or if you modify it.be called something other than `show w' and `show c'. . if any. we are referring to freedom. if necessary. Preamble The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. but changing it is not allowed. we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights. and (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy. If your program is a subroutine library. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the software. We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software. June 1991 Copyright (C) 1989. Here is a sample. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish). When we speak of free software. MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document.. By contrast. that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs. to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program. 1 April 1989 Ty Coon. too. 51 Franklin Street. hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker. receive or can get the source code. 1991 Free Software Foundation. Fifth Floor. they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program.

thus forming a work based on the Program.Also. provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty. we want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on. 1. 2. . The "Program". Whether that is true depends on what the Program does. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it. to be licensed as parties under the terms of this you distribute or publish. This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed under the terms of this General Public License. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it. translation is included without limitation in the term "modification". provided that you also meet all of these conditions: a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and the date of any change. refers to any such program or work. To prevent this. Finally. and the output from the Program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been made by running the Program). they are outside its scope. that in derived from the Program or any a whole at no charge to all third License. You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy. (Hereinafter. and you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee. in effect making the program proprietary. Activities other than copying. The precise terms and conditions for copying. b) You must cause any work that whole or in part contains or is part thereof. keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty. so that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original authors' reputations. below. and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License along with the Program. and a "work based on the Program" means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free program will individually obtain patent licenses. we want to make certain that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free software. DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION 0. for each author's protection and ours. in any medium.) Each licensee is addressed as "you". The act of running the Program is not restricted. any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. distribution and modification follow. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING. either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another language. a work containing the Program or a portion of it. we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all. distribution and modification are not covered by this License. and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above.

and telling the user how to view a copy of this License. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it. your work based on the Program is not required to print an announcement. (This alternative is allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the program in object code or executable form with such an offer. and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it. the source code distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major components (compiler. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program. in accord with Subsection b above. Thus. then this License.c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run. rather. the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on the Program. saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under these conditions. you must cause it. do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works. complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains. under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following: a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code. it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by you. kernel. c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding source code. mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this License. In addition.) The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. or. and so on) of the . plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the executable. a complete machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code. b) Accompany it with a written offer. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Program. as a special exception. to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole. and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an announcement. 3. valid for at least three years. However. or. For an executable work. when started running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way. for a charge no more than your cost of physically performing source distribution. plus any associated interface definition files. to print or display an announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or else.) These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. and its terms. to give any third party. the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License.

which is implemented by public license practices. sublicense or distribute the Program is void. modify. agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License. since you have not signed it. It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any such claims. Any attempt otherwise to copy. the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program). distributing or modifying the Program or works based on it. These actions are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. You may not copy. and all its terms and conditions for copying. then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as distribution of the source code. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this License. For example. distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and conditions. modify. or rights. sublicense. You are not required to accept this License. Therefore. they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein. conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order. However. nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations. you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so. even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code. unless that component itself accompanies the executable. If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place. if a patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you. and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. the balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances. from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance. then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program at all. this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution system. by modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the Program). If. parties who have received copies. Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system. 5. 7. or distribute the Program except as expressly provided under this License.operating system on which the executable runs. then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Program. 6. as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues). it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing . 4. However.

INCLUDING ANY GENERAL. the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries. THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM. this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License. END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs . Each version is given a distinguishing version number. you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. we sometimes make exceptions for this. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version. In such case. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions are different. write to the Free Software Foundation. This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License. SPECIAL. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public License from time to time. REPAIR OR CORRECTION.to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice. TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. NO WARRANTY 11. THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER. INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS). THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. write to the author to ask for permission. so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally. 8. EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. BUT NOT LIMITED TO. OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces. If the Program specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any later version". EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. If the Program does not specify a version number of this License. 12. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE. 10. but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. INCLUDING. you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation. YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE. 9.

you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. if necessary. you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation.. type `show c' for details. Here is a sample. See the GNU General Public License for more details. To do so. Boston. Of course.If you develop a new program. President of Vice This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. June 1991 . <signature of Ty Coon>. alter the names: Yoyodyne. and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public. the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms. This is free software. <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does. for details type `show w'.> Copyright (C) <year> <name of author> This program is free software. If the program is interactive. to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program. write to the Free Software Foundation. they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program. the commands you use may be called something other than `show w' and `show c'. either version 2 of the License. The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 2. and each file the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the program. hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker. If your program is a subroutine library. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program.. 51 Franklin Street. Copyright (C) year name of author Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. if any. Inc. or (at your option) any later version. use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. It is safest to most effectively should have at least full notice is found. attach the following notices to the to attach them to the start of each source file convey the exclusion of warranty. make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode: Gnomovision version 69. 1 April 1989 Ty Coon. without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. If this is what you want to do. MA 02110-1301 USA. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful. Inc. and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions. if not. but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY. Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail. You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school. Fifth Floor.

that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish). And you must show them these terms so they know their rights. The precise terms and conditions for copying. Preamble The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING. you must give the recipients all the rights that you have. To prevent this.. To protect your rights. This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed . Also. We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software. or if you modify it. When we speak of free software. Boston. any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document. For example. we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all. You must make sure that they. that you receive source code or can get it if you want it. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the software. too. Finally. Fifth Floor. receive or can get the source code. distribution and modification follow. By contrast. distribute and/or modify the software. for each author's protection and ours. we want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original. if you distribute copies of such a program. whether gratis or for a fee. This General Public License applies to most of the Free Software Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it. 51 Franklin Street. but changing it is not allowed. 1991 Free Software Foundation. DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION 0. we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights. not price. and (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy. Inc. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free program will individually obtain patent licenses. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Lesser General Public License instead.) You can apply it to your programs. so that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original authors' reputations. in effect making the program proprietary. we are referring to freedom. and that you know you can do these things. the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users.Copyright (C) 1989. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on. we want to make certain that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free software. too.

and its terms. You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy. that in derived from the Program or any a whole at no charge to all third License. and telling the user how to view a copy of this License. either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another language. distribution and modification are not covered by this License. your work based on the Program is not required to print an announcement.) These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License along with the Program. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it. 1. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program. Activities other than copying. and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves. when started running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way. translation is included without limitation in the term "modification". the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License. The act of running the Program is not restricted. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Program. Whether that is true depends on what the Program does. and you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee. keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty. 2. saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under these conditions. and a "work based on the Program" means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say. and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above. . c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run. refers to any such program or work.) Each licensee is addressed as "you". and the output from the Program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been made by running the Program). then this License. below. b) You must cause any work that whole or in part contains or is part thereof. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an announcement. to be licensed as parties under the terms of this you distribute or publish. a work containing the Program or a portion of it. they are outside its scope. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it. provided that you also meet all of these conditions: a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and the date of any change. The "Program". thus forming a work based on the Program. and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it. in any medium. whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole. (Hereinafter.under the terms of this General Public License. you must cause it. do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works. provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty. to print or display an announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or else.

since you have not signed it. modify. However. These actions are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. (This alternative is allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the program in object code or executable form with such an offer. a complete machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code. it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by you. mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this License. parties who have received copies. to give any third party. If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place. complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains. 3. and so on) of the operating system on which the executable runs. modify. as a special exception. then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as distribution of the source code.Thus. or. for a charge no more than your cost of physically performing source distribution. the source code distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major components (compiler. 4. rather. or rights. by . from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance. the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on the Program. sublicense. In addition. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it. c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding source code. even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code.) The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. However. You are not required to accept this License. plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the executable. in accord with Subsection b above. under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following: a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code. b) Accompany it with a written offer. plus any associated interface definition files. to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. You may not copy. However. Therefore. or distribute the Program except as expressly provided under this License. kernel. valid for at least three years. which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. For an executable work. sublicense or distribute the Program is void. unless that component itself accompanies the executable. Any attempt otherwise to copy. and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. or. 5.

so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues). then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program at all. If. distributing or modifying the Program or works based on it. this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License. then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Program. which is implemented by public license practices. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version. agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License.modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the Program). You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein. if a patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations. In such case. the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy. you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public License from time to time. and all its terms and conditions for copying. If the Program specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any . If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance. but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order. Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system. It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any such claims. this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution system. Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces. the balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances. distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and conditions. it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice. 8. This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License. 9. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program). For example. the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this License. 7. they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. 6.

you may choose Foundation. you have the either of that version or of Software Foundation. If the this License. NO WARRANTY 11. the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. and each file the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the program. BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES. or (at your option) any later version. INCLUDING ANY GENERAL. EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE. THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. It is safest to most effectively should have at least full notice is found. See the . If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions are different. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation. write to the Free Software Foundation. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. 12. THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM. EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. we sometimes make exceptions for this. INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS). IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER. and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public. To do so. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful. SPECIAL.> Copyright (C) <year> <name of author> This program is free software. END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs If you develop a new program. without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation. BUT NOT LIMITED TO.later version". OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE. <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does. REPAIR OR CORRECTION. attach the following notices to the to attach them to the start of each source file convey the exclusion of warranty. YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING. TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. INCLUDING. either version 2 of the License. write to the author to ask for permission. but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE. option of following the terms and conditions any later version published by the Free Program does not specify a version number of any version ever published by the Free Software 10.

MA 02110-1301 USA. 1 April 1989 Ty Coon. alter the names: Yoyodyne. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Lesser General Public License instead. Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail. that you receive source code or can get it . Fifth Floor. if necessary. Inc. and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions. Boston. This General Public License applies to most of the Free Software Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it. President of Vice This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. By contrast. Of course. you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. Inc. This is free software. June 1991 Copyright (C) 1989.) You can apply it to your programs.. too. MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document. hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker. type `show c' for details. for details type `show w'. the commands you use may be called something other than `show w' and `show c'. The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License.. If this is what you want to do. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. If your program is a subroutine library. You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school. Here is a sample. if not. Copyright (C) year name of author Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. 51 Franklin Street. to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program. we are referring to freedom. if any. <signature of Ty Coon>. make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode: Gnomovision version 69. If the program is interactive. Boston. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish). Inc.. Preamble The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. When we speak of free software. but changing it is not allowed. 1991 Free Software Foundation. 51 Franklin Street. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 2. use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. not price. the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. write to the Free Software Foundation. Fifth Floor. they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program.GNU General Public License for more details.

distribution and modification are not covered by this License. a work containing the Program or a portion of it. Finally. and (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy. distribute and/or modify the software. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free program will individually obtain patent licenses. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the software. too. below. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it. you must give the recipients all the rights that you have. either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another language. To protect your rights. The "Program". refers to any such program or work. This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed under the terms of this General Public License. any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. The act of running the Program is not restricted. keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty. provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty. and the output from the Program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been made by running the Program). Whether that is true depends on what the Program does. that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs. We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software. distribution and modification follow. and that you know you can do these things. and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License . in effect making the program proprietary. You must make sure that they. translation is included without limitation in the term "modification". To prevent this. we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all. for each author's protection and ours. they are outside its scope. so that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original authors' reputations. Also.if you want it. For example. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on. in any medium. we want to make certain that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free software. Activities other than copying.) Each licensee is addressed as "you". whether gratis or for a fee. and a "work based on the Program" means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say. 1. we want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original. The precise terms and conditions for copying. receive or can get the source code. if you distribute copies of such a program. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights. (Hereinafter. or if you modify it. DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION 0. we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights.

under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following: a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code. b) You must cause any work that whole or in part contains or is part thereof. provided that you also meet all of these conditions: a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and the date of any change. which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on the Program. when started running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way. valid for at least three years. and its terms. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it. Thus. to be licensed as parties under the terms of this you distribute or publish. or. mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this License.) These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by you.along with the Program. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it. 2. for a charge no more than your cost of physically performing source distribution. do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program. and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above. In addition. whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole. that in derived from the Program or any a whole at no charge to all third License. and telling the user how to view a copy of this License. b) Accompany it with a written offer. thus forming a work based on the Program. c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an announcement. to give any third party. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Program. and you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee. and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it. and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves. 3. You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy. rather. to print or display an announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or else. your work based on the Program is not required to print an announcement. you must cause it. the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License. saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under these conditions. then this License. a complete .

However. For example. You may not copy. plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the executable. as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues). to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. the source code distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major components (compiler. You are not required to accept this License. unless that component itself accompanies the executable. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations. they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. If. (This alternative is allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the program in object code or executable form with such an offer. modify.) The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code. in accord with Subsection b above. For an executable work. or. and so on) of the operating system on which the executable runs. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program). 7. or distribute the Program except as expressly provided under this License. 4. conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order. complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains. However. You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein. sublicense. agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License. distributing or modifying the Program or works based on it. These actions are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. Therefore. 5. However. kernel. as a special exception. parties who have received copies. then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as distribution of the source code. the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy. modify. and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this License. and all its terms and conditions for copying. Any attempt otherwise to copy. distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and conditions. then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program at all. plus any associated interface definition files. by modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the Program). or rights. you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so. from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance. If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place. 6. since you have not signed it.machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code. c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding source code. if a patent . sublicense or distribute the Program is void.

so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License. we sometimes make exceptions for this. write to the author to ask for permission. you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE. TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. 9. write to the Free Software Foundation. it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version. then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Program. NO WARRANTY 11. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public License from time to time. you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. INCLUDING. the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries. which is implemented by public license practices. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions are different.license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you. If the Program specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any later version". This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License. the balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances. BUT NOT LIMITED TO. THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF . 10. If the Program does not specify a version number of this License. It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any such claims. this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution system. THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM. 8. In such case. Each version is given a distinguishing version number. Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally. but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance.

without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation. To do so. OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE. 12. and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions. the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms. the commands you use may be called something other than `show w' and `show c'.. The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. Boston. MA 02110-1301 USA. This is free software. EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. Fifth Floor. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. attach the following notices to the to attach them to the start of each source file convey the exclusion of warranty. if not. Inc. make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode: Gnomovision version 69. BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES. SPECIAL. . INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS). Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail. <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does. but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING. or (at your option) any later version. for details type `show w'. END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs If you develop a new program. INCLUDING ANY GENERAL. If the program is interactive. See the GNU General Public License for more details. and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public. It is safest to most effectively should have at least full notice is found. write to the Free Software Foundation. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE. 51 Franklin Street. type `show c' for details.> Copyright (C) <year> <name of author> This program is free software. Of course. and each file the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the program. either version 2 of the License. Copyright (C) year name of author Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful.MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. REPAIR OR CORRECTION.

the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. distribute and/or modify the software. Here is a sample. Boston. whether gratis or for a fee. but changing it is not allowed. receive or can get the source code. If this is what you want to do. if necessary.) You can apply it to your programs. if you distribute copies of such a program. For example. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on. use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. If your program is a subroutine library. too. June 1991 Copyright (C) 1989. Preamble The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish). to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program. that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs. we . Also. Inc. hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker. you must give the recipients all the rights that you have. This General Public License applies to most of the Free Software Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it. for each author's protection and ours. that you receive source code or can get it if you want it. we want to make certain that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free software. We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software. 51 Franklin Street. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the software. When we speak of free software... To protect your rights. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 2. Inc. too. if any. or if you modify it. By contrast. and that you know you can do these things.You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school. and (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy. you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. President of Vice This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. You must make sure that they. we are referring to freedom. MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document. we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights. 1991 Free Software Foundation. 1 April 1989 Ty Coon. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights. <signature of Ty Coon>. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Lesser General Public License instead. not price. alter the names: Yoyodyne. Fifth Floor.

and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License along with the Program. refers to any such program or work. below. DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION 0. b) You must cause any work that whole or in part contains or is part thereof. a work containing the Program or a portion of it. when started running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way. that in derived from the Program or any a whole at no charge to all third License. they are outside its scope. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it. 2. and the output from the Program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been made by running the Program). provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty. to print or display an . The act of running the Program is not restricted. To prevent this. Whether that is true depends on what the Program does. keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty.want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original. Finally. any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy. distribution and modification are not covered by this License. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it. translation is included without limitation in the term "modification". 1. distribution and modification follow.) Each licensee is addressed as "you". (Hereinafter. either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another language. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free program will individually obtain patent licenses. and a "work based on the Program" means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say. in effect making the program proprietary. to be licensed as parties under the terms of this you distribute or publish. provided that you also meet all of these conditions: a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and the date of any change. in any medium. and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above. This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed under the terms of this General Public License. c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run. The "Program". The precise terms and conditions for copying. you must cause it. so that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original authors' reputations. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING. Activities other than copying. we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all. and you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee. thus forming a work based on the Program.

. do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works. Thus. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an announcement. the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on the Program. and telling the user how to view a copy of this License. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it. then this License. and its terms. and so on) of the operating system on which the executable runs. as a special exception. the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License. For an executable work. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Program. and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it. which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. your work based on the Program is not required to print an announcement. or. b) Accompany it with a written offer. However. kernel. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program. a complete machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code. 3. (This alternative is allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the program in object code or executable form with such an offer.announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or else. plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the executable. c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding source code. complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains. and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves. saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under these conditions. it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by you. under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following: a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code. mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this License. plus any associated interface definition files. or. the source code distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major components (compiler.) The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. rather. In addition. unless that component itself accompanies the executable. to give any third party. whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole. valid for at least three years. to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. for a charge no more than your cost of physically performing source distribution.) These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. in accord with Subsection b above.

conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order. nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein. You may not copy. then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Program. which is implemented by public license practices. For example. sublicense. 4. and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place. sublicense or distribute the Program is void. and all its terms and conditions for copying. even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations. from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance. agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this License. the balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances. If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance. modify. 7. this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution system. or rights. if a patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you. However. then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as distribution of the source code. as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues). by modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the Program). then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program at all. since you have not signed it. they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. 5. You are not required to accept this License. the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy. . Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system. Therefore. 6. distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and conditions. it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice. If. you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so. However. It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any such claims. parties who have received copies. distributing or modifying the Program or works based on it. or distribute the Program except as expressly provided under this License. modify. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program). Any attempt otherwise to copy. These actions are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License.

9. 8. If the Program does not specify a version number of this License. BUT NOT LIMITED TO. write to the Free Software Foundation. NO WARRANTY 11. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version. but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. 10. 12.This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License. Each version is given a distinguishing version number. SPECIAL. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces. write to the author to ask for permission. INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS). IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries. END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs If you develop a new program. you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation. the best way to achieve this is to make it . If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions are different. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE. In such case. BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally. so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. we sometimes make exceptions for this. this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public License from time to time. INCLUDING ANY GENERAL. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation. THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. REPAIR OR CORRECTION. OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE. you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. If the Program specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any later version". and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public. THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM. YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING. EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. INCLUDING. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE.

MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies .. <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does. Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail. <signature of Ty Coon>. if not. See the GNU General Public License for more details. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. Fifth Floor. if any. Inc. make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode: Gnomovision version 69. Fifth Floor. either version 2 of the License.free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms. if necessary. type `show c' for details. 51 Franklin Street. without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.. Boston. It is safest to most effectively should have at least full notice is found. to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program. Here is a sample. Copyright (C) year name of author Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker. You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 2. The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. 1991 Free Software Foundation. attach the following notices to the to attach them to the start of each source file convey the exclusion of warranty. Inc. If your program is a subroutine library.. and each file the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the program. you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation. or (at your option) any later version. 1 April 1989 Ty Coon. for details type `show w'. If the program is interactive. This is free software. President of Vice This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. To do so.> Copyright (C) <year> <name of author> This program is free software. write to the Free Software Foundation. If this is what you want to do. use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY. the commands you use may be called something other than `show w' and `show c'. Boston. 51 Franklin Street. they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program. MA 02110-1301 USA. June 1991 Copyright (C) 1989. Inc. alter the names: Yoyodyne. Of course. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful. and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions.

By contrast. When we speak of free software. For example. but changing it is not allowed. To prevent this. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the software. distribution and modification follow. You must make sure that they. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING. too. and a "work based on the Program" means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law: . We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free program will individually obtain patent licenses. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights. the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. we want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original. we are referring to freedom. Also. We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software. any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. The precise terms and conditions for copying. you must give the recipients all the rights that you have. This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed under the terms of this General Public License. Preamble The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. This General Public License applies to most of the Free Software Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it. To protect your rights. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Lesser General Public License instead. for each author's protection and ours. we want to make certain that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free software. The "Program". not price. DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION 0. that you receive source code or can get it if you want it. we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all. below. too.of this license document. and that you know you can do these things. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish). and (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy. refers to any such program or work. we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights. whether gratis or for a fee. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on. receive or can get the source code. in effect making the program proprietary.) You can apply it to your programs. so that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original authors' reputations. that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs. or if you modify it. Finally. distribute and/or modify the software. if you distribute copies of such a program.

the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or . You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it. when started running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way. either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another language. to be licensed as parties under the terms of this you distribute or publish.) These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Program. your work based on the Program is not required to print an announcement. you must cause it. and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License along with the Program. keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty. and its terms. then this License. provided that you also meet all of these conditions: a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and the date of any change. c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run. and the output from the Program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been made by running the Program). Whether that is true depends on what the Program does. Activities other than copying. translation is included without limitation in the term "modification". and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it. 1. in any medium.) Each licensee is addressed as "you". b) You must cause any work that whole or in part contains or is part thereof. and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves. Thus. thus forming a work based on the Program. they are outside its scope. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program. the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License. whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an announcement.that is to say. and telling the user how to view a copy of this License. it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by you. a work containing the Program or a portion of it. 2. You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy. do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works. and you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee. distribution and modification are not covered by this License. that in derived from the Program or any a whole at no charge to all third License. saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under these conditions. The act of running the Program is not restricted. rather. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it. and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above. to print or display an announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or else. provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty. (Hereinafter.

under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following: a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code. sublicense. or. 5. even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code. or distribute the Program except as expressly provided under this License. then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as distribution of the source code. 3. kernel. as a special exception. distributing or modifying . modify. or. the source code distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major components (compiler. Any attempt otherwise to copy. c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding source code. 4. mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this License. However. for a charge no more than your cost of physically performing source distribution. which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. b) Accompany it with a written offer. You are not required to accept this License. parties who have received copies. modify. complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains. In addition. You may not copy. valid for at least three years. a complete machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code. in accord with Subsection b above. plus any associated interface definition files. and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance. If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place. and all its terms and conditions for copying. These actions are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. Therefore. unless that component itself accompanies the executable. since you have not signed it. to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the executable.) The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. or rights.collective works based on the Program. However. sublicense or distribute the Program is void. you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it. (This alternative is allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the program in object code or executable form with such an offer. However. by modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the Program). and so on) of the operating system on which the executable runs. For an executable work. to give any third party.

For example. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program). but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public License from time to time. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations. 8. it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice. If the Program does not specify a version number of . 9. Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system. if a patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you. they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. If the Program specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any later version". If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance. then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Program. this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License.the Program or works based on it. this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution system. In such case. conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order. so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. 6. the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy. 7. You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein. the balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces. This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version. you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries. as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues). Each version is given a distinguishing version number. then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program at all. distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and conditions. If. which is implemented by public license practices. It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any such claims. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this License.

THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. SPECIAL. THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM. EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. INCLUDING. NO WARRANTY 11. 10. we sometimes make exceptions for this. without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. 12. write to the Free Software Foundation. See the GNU General Public License for more details. you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation. It is safest to most effectively should have at least full notice is found. and each file the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the program. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER. attach the following notices to the to attach them to the start of each source file convey the exclusion of warranty. and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE. YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally. INCLUDING ANY GENERAL. you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful. To do so. OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE. but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY. write to the author to ask for permission.> Copyright (C) <year> <name of author> This program is free software. <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does. TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions are different. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along . or (at your option) any later version. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation. END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs If you develop a new program. EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. REPAIR OR CORRECTION. the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.this License. BUT NOT LIMITED TO. INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS). BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES. either version 2 of the License.

You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school. Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.) You can apply it to your programs. we are referring to freedom. If this is what you want to do. If your program is a subroutine library. type `show c' for details. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 2. to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program. If the program is interactive. When we speak of free software. MA 02110-1301 USA. Here is a sample. for details type `show w'. alter the names: Yoyodyne. use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. This is free software. . Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish). Copyright (C) year name of author Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. too. Preamble The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. write to the Free Software Foundation. Inc. 1991 Free Software Foundation. if necessary. and that you know you can do these things. <signature of Ty Coon>. hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker. Fifth Floor. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Lesser General Public License instead. This General Public License applies to most of the Free Software Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it. they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program. June 1991 Copyright (C) 1989. Fifth Floor.. if any. that you receive source code or can get it if you want it. The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. but changing it is not allowed. Boston. if not. Inc. By contrast. make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode: Gnomovision version 69.. Of course. the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. 51 Franklin Street. not price. that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs.with this program. 51 Franklin Street. MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document. you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. President of Vice This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. 1 April 1989 Ty Coon. Inc. Boston. and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions. the commands you use may be called something other than `show w' and `show c'..

This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed under the terms of this General Public License. distribute and/or modify the software. The act of running the Program is not restricted. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on. For example. in any medium. To prevent this. we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights. either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another language. so that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original authors' reputations. Activities other than copying. and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License along with the Program. whether gratis or for a fee. (Hereinafter. we want to make certain that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free software.To protect your rights. translation is included without limitation in the term "modification". a work containing the Program or a portion of it. and a "work based on the Program" means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it. Whether that is true depends on what the Program does. DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION 0. Finally. We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the software. below. and (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy. or if you modify it. we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all. too. we want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original. The "Program". you must give the recipients all the rights that you have. You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy. 1. provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty. refers to any such program or work. and the output from the Program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been made by running the Program). distribution and modification are not covered by this License. in effect making the program proprietary. and . receive or can get the source code. The precise terms and conditions for copying. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING. You must make sure that they. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free program will individually obtain patent licenses. if you distribute copies of such a program. for each author's protection and ours.) Each licensee is addressed as "you". Also. distribution and modification follow. they are outside its scope. keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty. any free program is threatened constantly by software patents.

and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Program. valid for at least three years. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an announcement. it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by you. b) Accompany it with a written offer. to give any third party. whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole. the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License. thus forming a work based on the Program. b) You must cause any work that whole or in part contains or is part thereof. when started running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way.you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee. and its terms.) These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. Thus. do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works. you must cause it. or. a complete machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code. saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under these conditions. and telling the user how to view a copy of this License. 3. 2. rather. for a charge no more than your cost of physically performing source distribution. that in derived from the Program or any a whole at no charge to all third License. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it. . If identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program. then this License. and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it. to be licensed as parties under the terms of this you distribute or publish. to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on the Program. In addition. under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following: a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code. provided that you also meet all of these conditions: a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and the date of any change. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it. your work based on the Program is not required to print an announcement. c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run. to print or display an announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or else. or. which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves. mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this License.

if a patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you. complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains. If. then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as distribution of the source code. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program). You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein. the source code distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major components (compiler. 6. distributing or modifying the Program or works based on it. These actions are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance. plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the executable. unless that component itself accompanies the executable. (This alternative is allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the program in object code or executable form with such an offer. conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order. the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy. modify. or distribute the Program except as expressly provided under this License. distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and conditions. parties who have received copies. then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to . and all its terms and conditions for copying. 4. plus any associated interface definition files.c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding source code. they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. 7. by modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the Program). agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License. as a special exception. as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues). then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program at all. even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code. For an executable work. Any attempt otherwise to copy. nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. You are not required to accept this License. For example. However. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this License. modify. and so on) of the operating system on which the executable runs. sublicense or distribute the Program is void. However. kernel. If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place. or rights. However. since you have not signed it. You may not copy.) The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. in accord with Subsection b above. you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so. 5. Therefore. and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. sublicense.

EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. we sometimes make exceptions for this. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally. INCLUDING. 10. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces. Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system.refrain entirely from distribution of the Program. THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions are different. you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License. 8. BUT NOT LIMITED TO. write to the Free Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of this License. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public License from time to time. this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution system. This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License. 9. which is implemented by public license practices. the balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances. In such case. so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE. If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance. it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version. write to the author to ask for permission. THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM. the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries. you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation. It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any such claims. NO WARRANTY 11. If the Program specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any later version". BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE. . Each version is given a distinguishing version number.

SPECIAL. It is safest to most effectively should have at least full notice is found. INCLUDING ANY GENERAL. without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. if necessary. Here is a sample. to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program. if any. This is free software. Copyright (C) year name of author Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE. you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation. Of course.> Copyright (C) <year> <name of author> This program is free software. Inc. and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public. Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail. 12. type `show c' for details. either version 2 of the License. the commands you use may be called something other than `show w' and `show c'. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER. The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. Boston. write to the Free Software Foundation.REPAIR OR CORRECTION. <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does. make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode: Gnomovision version 69. the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms. You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school. and each file the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the program. but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY. and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions. INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS).. they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program. MA 02110-1301 USA. or (at your option) any later version. If the program is interactive. To do so. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful. if not. See the GNU General Public License for more details. 51 Franklin Street. attach the following notices to the to attach them to the start of each source file convey the exclusion of warranty. Fifth Floor. EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs If you develop a new program. BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES. for details type `show w'. alter the names: .

For example. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Lesser General Public License instead. too. Inc. we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights. 1991 Free Software Foundation. <signature of Ty Coon>. 1 April 1989 Ty Coon. receive or can get the source code. use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. President of Vice This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the software. or if you modify it. We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software. we want to make certain that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free software. Fifth Floor. If your program is a subroutine library. for each author's protection and ours. we are referring to freedom. Also. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on. If this is what you want to do.) You can apply it to your programs. Preamble The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. distribute and/or modify the software. . hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker. MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document. Boston. When we speak of free software. June 1991 Copyright (C) 1989. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish).. By contrast. 51 Franklin Street. that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs. To protect your rights. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 2. Inc. You must make sure that they. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights. we want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original. whether gratis or for a fee. too. so that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original authors' reputations. that you receive source code or can get it if you want it. but changing it is not allowed. and that you know you can do these things. the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. and (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy.. you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. not price. you must give the recipients all the rights that you have.Yoyodyne. if you distribute copies of such a program. This General Public License applies to most of the Free Software Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it.

b) You must cause any work that whole or in part contains or is part thereof. (Hereinafter. translation is included without limitation in the term "modification". We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free program will individually obtain patent licenses. to be licensed as parties under the terms of this you distribute or publish. we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all. distribution and modification follow. To prevent this. The precise terms and conditions for copying. 1.) Each licensee is addressed as "you". provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty. thus forming a work based on the Program. in any medium. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it. You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy. a work containing the Program or a portion of it. keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty. and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License along with the Program. they are outside its scope. that in derived from the Program or any a whole at no charge to all third License. and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above. refers to any such program or work. The act of running the Program is not restricted. either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another language. and a "work based on the Program" means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say. Activities other than copying. Whether that is true depends on what the Program does. distribution and modification are not covered by this License. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it. in effect making the program proprietary. to print or display an announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or else. you must cause it. This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed under the terms of this General Public License.Finally. below. 2. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING. The "Program". and you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee. any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run. and the output from the Program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been made by running the Program). when started running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way. DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION 0. saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under . provided that you also meet all of these conditions: a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and the date of any change.

for a charge no more than your cost of physically performing source distribution. valid for at least three years. the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on the Program. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program. it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by you. kernel. which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves. whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole. plus any associated interface definition files. do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works. b) Accompany it with a written offer. However. mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this License. rather. the source code distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major components (compiler. If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place.) The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it.these conditions. c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding source code. as a special exception. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it. in accord with Subsection b above. to give any third party. then this License. under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following: a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code. complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains. your work based on the Program is not required to print an announcement. and so on) of the operating system on which the executable runs. the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License. and its terms. and telling the user how to view a copy of this License. and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it. unless that component itself accompanies the executable. For an executable work. In addition. a complete machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an announcement. to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. Thus. (This alternative is allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the program in object code or executable form with such an offer. plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the executable. or. then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as . But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Program.) These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. or. 3.

from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance. 5. If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance. If. modify. This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License. distributing or modifying the Program or works based on it. parties who have received copies. You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein. For example. sublicense. by modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the Program). nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and conditions. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program). You are not required to accept this License. Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system. However. sublicense or distribute the Program is void. Any attempt otherwise to copy. modify. they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. and all its terms and conditions for copying. or distribute the Program except as expressly provided under this License. the balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances. These actions are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. if a patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you. then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program at all.distribution of the source code. as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues). However. you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so. which is implemented by public license practices. the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy. Therefore. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this License. even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code. it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice. 7. You may not copy. agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License. . this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution system. It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any such claims. or rights. 6. since you have not signed it. and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Program. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations. 4. conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order.

SPECIAL. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces. write to the Free Software Foundation. OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE. this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE. so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. 12. EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS). NO WARRANTY 11. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE. In such case. To do so. YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING. REPAIR OR CORRECTION. TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions are different. and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public. If the Program specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any later version". Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version.8. attach the following notices to the program. but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. BUT NOT LIMITED TO. Each version is given a distinguishing version number. write to the author to ask for permission. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public License from time to time. END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs If you develop a new program. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER. THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM. you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms. you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation. 9. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally. THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. INCLUDING ANY GENERAL. the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries. It is safest . If the Program does not specify a version number of this License. we sometimes make exceptions for this. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation. 10. INCLUDING. BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES.

but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful. Of course. if any.to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively convey the exclusion of warranty.. Here is a sample. without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.> Copyright (C) <year> <name of author> This program is free software.. but changing it is not allowed. You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school. 51 Franklin Street. <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does. and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions. Fifth Floor. MA 02110-1301 USA. make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode: Gnomovision version 69. use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. and each file should have at least the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found. MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document. Preamble . hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker. they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program. Boston. you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation. Inc. If this is what you want to do. Copyright (C) year name of author Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail. If the program is interactive. either version 2 of the License. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. write to the Free Software Foundation.. Boston. June 1991 Copyright (C) 1989. See the GNU General Public License for more details. alter the names: Yoyodyne. if not. The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. if necessary. This is free software. type `show c' for details. If your program is a subroutine library. for details type `show w'. 51 Franklin Street. 1991 Free Software Foundation. 1 April 1989 Ty Coon. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 2. Fifth Floor. <signature of Ty Coon>. Inc. the commands you use may be called something other than `show w' and `show c'. President of Vice This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. or (at your option) any later version. to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program. you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. Inc.

too. This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed under the terms of this General Public License. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights. so that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original authors' reputations. that you receive source code or can get it if you want it. too. any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. and (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy. To prevent this. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free program will individually obtain patent licenses. For example. we are referring to freedom. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING. not price. The precise terms and conditions for copying. and a "work based on the Program" means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say. in effect making the program proprietary. we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all. if you distribute copies of such a program. we want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original. for each author's protection and ours. distribute and/or modify the software. By contrast. below. a work containing the Program or a portion of it. we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on.) You can apply it to your programs.The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the software. the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. Also. whether gratis or for a fee. You must make sure that they. either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another language. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Lesser General Public License instead. Finally. This General Public License applies to most of the Free Software Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it. DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION 0. We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software. receive or can get the source code. we want to make certain that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free software. or if you modify it. that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish). you must give the recipients all the rights that you have. and that you know you can do these things. distribution and modification follow. refers to any such program or work. To protect your rights. When we speak of free software. (Hereinafter. translation is included without limitation in . The "Program".

the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License. the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on the Program. provided that you also meet all of these conditions: a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and the date of any change. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it.the term "modification". do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works. they are outside its scope. Activities other than copying. you must cause it. and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves. it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by you. that in derived from the Program or any a whole at no charge to all third License. your work based on the Program is not required to print an announcement.) Each licensee is addressed as "you". thus forming a work based on the Program. in any medium. You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy. c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program. 2. then this License. and the output from the Program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been made by running the Program). provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Program. and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it. In addition.) These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. distribution and modification are not covered by this License. b) You must cause any work that whole or in part contains or is part thereof. whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole. rather. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an announcement. and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License along with the Program. 1. and you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee. and its terms. Whether that is true depends on what the Program does. when started running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way. to print or display an announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or else. mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program . You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it. and telling the user how to view a copy of this License. keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty. The act of running the Program is not restricted. and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above. saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under these conditions. Thus. to be licensed as parties under the terms of this you distribute or publish.

sublicense. 4. in accord with Subsection b above. or. the source code distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major components (compiler. If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place. plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the executable. then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as distribution of the source code. valid for at least three years. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the . to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. (This alternative is allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the program in object code or executable form with such an offer. modify. You are not required to accept this License. since you have not signed it. or rights. 6. For an executable work. sublicense or distribute the Program is void. unless that component itself accompanies the executable. and all its terms and conditions for copying. nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. However. Therefore. 3. kernel. even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code. or. you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so. modify. a complete machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code. b) Accompany it with a written offer. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it.with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this License. You may not copy. under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following: a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code. as a special exception. Any attempt otherwise to copy. c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding source code. 5. However. and so on) of the operating system on which the executable runs. These actions are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. to give any third party. distributing or modifying the Program or works based on it. However. from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance. plus any associated interface definition files. complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains. by modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the Program). and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. for a charge no more than your cost of physically performing source distribution. parties who have received copies.) The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. or distribute the Program except as expressly provided under this License.

then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Program. as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues). then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program at all. the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries. the balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances. If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance. this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution system. this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations. conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order. . If.Program). which is implemented by public license practices. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces. For example. but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. 7. the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy. agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License. If the Program does not specify a version number of this License. so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. If the Program specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any later version". distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and conditions. This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License. they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this License. Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system. if a patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you. you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. Each version is given a distinguishing version number. it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice. You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein. In such case. you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation. It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any such claims. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public License from time to time. 8. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version. 9.

If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions are different. INCLUDING ANY GENERAL. attach the following notices to the to attach them to the start of each source file convey the exclusion of warranty. you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation.. END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs If you develop a new program. REPAIR OR CORRECTION. BUT NOT LIMITED TO. MA 02110-1301 USA. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. and each file the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the program. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. NO WARRANTY 11. we sometimes make exceptions for this. EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.10. BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES. It is safest to most effectively should have at least full notice is found. Boston. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation. INCLUDING. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE. and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER. write to the Free Software Foundation. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. Fifth Floor. To do so. EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED.> Copyright (C) <year> <name of author> This program is free software. INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS). THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms. either version 2 of the License. . THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM. without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. write to the author to ask for permission. See the GNU General Public License for more details. but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE. if not. or (at your option) any later version. YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING. 12. 51 Franklin Street. TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally. SPECIAL. OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE. <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does. Inc. write to the Free Software Foundation. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful.

that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs. Boston. If the program is interactive. and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions. they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program. June 1991 Copyright (C) 1989. The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. we are referring to freedom. You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you . This is free software. Here is a sample. that you receive source code or can get it if you want it. MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document.. but changing it is not allowed. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish). make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode: Gnomovision version 69. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Lesser General Public License instead. Fifth Floor. hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker. If your program is a subroutine library. you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. if any. too. President of Vice This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. Inc. not price. When we speak of free software. the commands you use may be called something other than `show w' and `show c'. 51 Franklin Street. for details type `show w'. to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program. alter the names: Yoyodyne. use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. type `show c' for details.Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail. we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights.) You can apply it to your programs. if necessary. By contrast. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 2. This General Public License applies to most of the Free Software Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it. the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. If this is what you want to do. 1991 Free Software Foundation. and that you know you can do these things. To protect your rights.. Inc. Of course. 1 April 1989 Ty Coon. Preamble The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. <signature of Ty Coon>. Copyright (C) year name of author Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY.

and the output from the Program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been made by running the Program). You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free program will individually obtain patent licenses. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING. you must give the recipients all the rights that you have. For example. Also. 2. The "Program". You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion . We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software. distribution and modification are not covered by this License. distribution and modification follow. if you distribute copies of such a program. and a "work based on the Program" means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say. below. To prevent this. either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another language. refers to any such program or work. a work containing the Program or a portion of it. This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed under the terms of this General Public License. in effect making the program proprietary. or if you modify it. too. distribute and/or modify the software. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on. and (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy. DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION 0. and you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee. we want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original. (Hereinafter.distribute copies of the software. we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all. The act of running the Program is not restricted. Finally. You must make sure that they. whether gratis or for a fee. The precise terms and conditions for copying. in any medium.) Each licensee is addressed as "you". for each author's protection and ours. and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License along with the Program. Whether that is true depends on what the Program does. they are outside its scope. provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty. we want to make certain that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free software. any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. 1. receive or can get the source code. so that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original authors' reputations. keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty. Activities other than copying. translation is included without limitation in the term "modification".

In addition. when started running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way. it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by you. thus forming a work based on the Program. (This alternative is . the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on the Program. rather. valid for at least three years. 3. which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an announcement. to be licensed as parties under the terms of this you distribute or publish. and its terms. mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this License.) These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. b) Accompany it with a written offer. do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works. the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License. to give any third party. to print or display an announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or else. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it. and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it. and telling the user how to view a copy of this License. provided that you also meet all of these conditions: a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and the date of any change. that in derived from the Program or any a whole at no charge to all third License. Thus. c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding source code. or. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program.of it. a complete machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code. whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole. saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under these conditions. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Program. you must cause it. and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves. and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above. your work based on the Program is not required to print an announcement. under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following: a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code. b) You must cause any work that whole or in part contains or is part thereof. for a charge no more than your cost of physically performing source distribution. to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. then this License. or. c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run.

and all its terms and conditions for copying. then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as distribution of the source code. unless that component itself accompanies the executable. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program). as a special exception. For example. or distribute the Program except as expressly provided under this License. modify. If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place. then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program at all.allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the program in object code or executable form with such an offer. kernel. the source code distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major components (compiler. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations. or rights.) The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. 5. You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein. then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Program. by modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the Program). However. nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. and so on) of the operating system on which the executable runs. and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. in accord with Subsection b above. modify. For an executable work. you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so. plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the executable. the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy. plus any associated interface definition files. Therefore. if a patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you. conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order. parties who have received copies. You may not copy. However. 4. If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under . they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. If. sublicense. 6. since you have not signed it. distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and conditions. 7. as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues). However. agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License. These actions are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. distributing or modifying the Program or works based on it. even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code. Any attempt otherwise to copy. from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance. complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains. You are not required to accept this License. sublicense or distribute the Program is void. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this License.

THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM. 12. 8. Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system. It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any such claims. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING . THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. NO WARRANTY 11. In such case. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally. TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE. it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice. THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation. this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution system. 10. but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version.any particular circumstance. this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE. BUT NOT LIMITED TO. If the Program specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any later version". Each version is given a distinguishing version number. This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License. so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. write to the author to ask for permission. the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions are different. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public License from time to time. you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. 9. we sometimes make exceptions for this. which is implemented by public license practices. If the Program does not specify a version number of this License. write to the Free Software Foundation. REPAIR OR CORRECTION. INCLUDING. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation. the balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces.

make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode: Gnomovision version 69.. <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does. You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school. 51 Franklin Street. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. SPECIAL. Inc. Inc. alter the names: Yoyodyne. the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms. INCLUDING ANY GENERAL. you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation. OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE. they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program. It is safest to most effectively should have at least full notice is found. BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES. If the program is interactive. Here is a sample. the commands you use may be called something other than `show w' and `show c'. hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker.. for details type `show w'. type `show c' for details. Fifth Floor. if any. write to the Free Software Foundation. or (at your option) any later version. Boston.WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER. to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program. Of course. and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public. but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY. without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. and each file the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the program. . if necessary. and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions. MA 02110-1301 USA. To do so. EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. See the GNU General Public License for more details.> Copyright (C) <year> <name of author> This program is free software. attach the following notices to the to attach them to the start of each source file convey the exclusion of warranty. END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs If you develop a new program. INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS). This is free software. either version 2 of the License. The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. Copyright (C) year name of author Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail. if not. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful.

so that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original authors' reputations. distribute and/or modify the software. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on. Preamble The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. Finally. President of Vice This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. if you distribute copies of such a program. Boston. that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 2. You must make sure that they. This General Public License applies to most of the Free Software Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it.<signature of Ty Coon>. any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. receive or can get the source code. Also. By contrast. too. June 1991 Copyright (C) 1989. Fifth Floor. but changing it is not allowed. you must give the recipients all the rights that you have. For example. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the software. 1991 Free Software Foundation. MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document. whether gratis or for a fee. To protect your rights.) You can apply it to your programs. Inc. we want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original. 1 April 1989 Ty Coon. When we speak of free software. we are referring to freedom.. for each author's protection and ours. or if you modify it. We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights. you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. too. we want to make certain that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free software. that you receive source code or can get it if you want it. we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights. use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Lesser General Public License instead. and that you know you can do these things. If this is what you want to do. and (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy. 51 Franklin Street. If your program is a subroutine library. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free . the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. not price. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish).

we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all. refers to any such program or work. distribution and modification follow. when started running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way. in effect making the program proprietary. and a "work based on the Program" means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say. thus forming a work based on the Program. keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty. either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another language. and you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee. and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License along with the Program. in any medium. a work containing the Program or a portion of it. that in derived from the Program or any a whole at no charge to all third License. to be licensed as parties under the terms of this you distribute or publish. to print or display an announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or else. 2. and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it. provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty. You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy. saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under these conditions. they are outside its scope. below. Activities other than copying. 1. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it. distribution and modification are not covered by this License. (Hereinafter. Whether that is true depends on what the Program does. translation is included without limitation in the term "modification". To prevent this. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING.) Each licensee is addressed as "you". This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed under the terms of this General Public License. The precise terms and conditions for copying. b) You must cause any work that whole or in part contains or is part thereof. DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION 0. The act of running the Program is not restricted. and the output from the Program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been made by running the Program). and telling the user how to view a copy of this License. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an announcement.program will individually obtain patent licenses. you must cause it. your work based on . The "Program". provided that you also meet all of these conditions: a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and the date of any change. c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run.

kernel. valid for at least three years.) These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. then this License. to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the executable. b) Accompany it with a written offer. plus any associated interface definition files.) The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. as a special exception. (This alternative is allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the program in object code or executable form with such an offer. However. c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding source code. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Program. 3. under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following: a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code. it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by you. for a charge no more than your cost of physically performing source distribution. in accord with Subsection b above. do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works. mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this License.the Program is not required to print an announcement. In addition. unless that component itself accompanies the executable. and so on) of the operating system on which the executable runs. a complete machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code. to give any third party. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it. or. . the source code distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major components (compiler. then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as distribution of the source code. and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it. the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License. and its terms. If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place. complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program. which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. Thus. For an executable work. and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves. even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code. whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole. rather. or. the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on the Program.

which is implemented by public license practices. then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program at all. they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program). sublicense. by modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the Program). or rights. modify. the balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances. Any attempt otherwise to copy. It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any such claims. These actions are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Program. This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License. and all its terms and conditions for copying. You may not copy. as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues). distributing or modifying the Program or works based on it. If. However. sublicense or distribute the Program is void. and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this License. from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance. However.4. or distribute the Program except as expressly provided under this License. distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and conditions. if a patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you. For example. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces. this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution system. Therefore. nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. 8. the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License . Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system. modify. 6. You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein. If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance. conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order. you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so. You are not required to accept this License. since you have not signed it. 5. 7. parties who have received copies. the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy. it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice.

. INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS). For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. write to the Free Software Foundation.may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries. In such case. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER. INCLUDING ANY GENERAL. and each file the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the program. so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public. but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. It is safest to most effectively should have at least full notice is found. EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. To do so. OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE. THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. SPECIAL. If the Program specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any later version". EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs If you develop a new program. the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms. BUT NOT LIMITED TO. write to the author to ask for permission. this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions are different. BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES. If the Program does not specify a version number of this License. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version. you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation. 12. INCLUDING. Each version is given a distinguishing version number. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE. THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM. attach the following notices to the to attach them to the start of each source file convey the exclusion of warranty. you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. REPAIR OR CORRECTION. YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING. we sometimes make exceptions for this. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public License from time to time. 10. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally. 9. NO WARRANTY 11.

. June 1991 Copyright (C) 1989. for details type `show w'. Fifth Floor. if any. alter the names: Yoyodyne. This is free software. 1 April 1989 Ty Coon. If your program is a subroutine library. 51 Franklin Street. <signature of Ty Coon>. without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. 1991 Free Software Foundation. you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation. but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY. Boston. and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions. the GNU General Public .> Copyright (C) <year> <name of author> This program is free software. Fifth Floor. to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. if necessary. Inc. MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document. If the program is interactive. Of course. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 2. Here is a sample. Inc. 51 Franklin Street. The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school. If this is what you want to do. President of Vice This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail. either version 2 of the License. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful.<one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does. Preamble The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. See the GNU General Public License for more details. type `show c' for details. the commands you use may be called something other than `show w' and `show c'. you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. or (at your option) any later version.. they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program. Copyright (C) year name of author Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. if not. hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker. but changing it is not allowed. Boston. use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. Inc.. MA 02110-1301 USA. By contrast. make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode: Gnomovision version 69. write to the Free Software Foundation.

We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free program will individually obtain patent licenses. Also. too. distribution and modification are not . Activities other than copying. To prevent this. either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another language. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on.) You can apply it to your programs. so that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original authors' reputations. a work containing the Program or a portion of it. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Lesser General Public License instead. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING. that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs. we want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original. distribute and/or modify the software. The "Program". you must give the recipients all the rights that you have. that you receive source code or can get it if you want it. we are referring to freedom. The precise terms and conditions for copying. not price. This General Public License applies to most of the Free Software Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it. When we speak of free software. DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION 0. too. any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish). we want to make certain that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free software. whether gratis or for a fee. we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights. distribution and modification follow. or if you modify it. (Hereinafter.License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. To protect your rights. For example. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the software. if you distribute copies of such a program. and (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy. below. we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all. This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed under the terms of this General Public License. and that you know you can do these things. translation is included without limitation in the term "modification". You must make sure that they. in effect making the program proprietary.) Each licensee is addressed as "you". for each author's protection and ours. and a "work based on the Program" means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say. We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software. receive or can get the source code. refers to any such program or work. Finally.

covered by this License. . then this License. and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it. mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this License. in any medium. the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on the Program. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Program. Thus. and you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee. keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty. and telling the user how to view a copy of this License. provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty. and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License along with the Program. and the output from the Program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been made by running the Program). 1. the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License. provided that you also meet all of these conditions: a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and the date of any change. it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by you. and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above. Whether that is true depends on what the Program does. The act of running the Program is not restricted. b) You must cause any work that whole or in part contains or is part thereof. your work based on the Program is not required to print an announcement. thus forming a work based on the Program. saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under these conditions. and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves. when started running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way. you must cause it. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an announcement.) These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. rather. they are outside its scope. c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run. In addition. You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy. to print or display an announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or else. that in derived from the Program or any a whole at no charge to all third License. and its terms. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it. whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole. 2. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program. to be licensed as parties under the terms of this you distribute or publish. do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works.

complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains. plus any associated interface definition files. However. and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. parties who have received copies. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program). If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place. as a special exception. or. under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following: a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code. 6. which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. modify. modify. even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code. b) Accompany it with a written offer. sublicense. a complete machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code. in accord with Subsection b above. from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance. Any attempt otherwise to copy.) The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. You are not required to accept this License. since you have not signed it. These actions are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. and all its terms and conditions for copying.3. For an executable work. c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding source code. or distribute the Program except as expressly provided under this License. You may not copy. the source code distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major components (compiler. However. for a charge no more than your cost of physically performing source distribution. 5. or. unless that component itself accompanies the executable. kernel. You may not impose any further . plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the executable. (This alternative is allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the program in object code or executable form with such an offer. valid for at least three years. by modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the Program). then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as distribution of the source code. nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. sublicense or distribute the Program is void. to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange. and so on) of the operating system on which the executable runs. 4. to give any third party. distributing or modifying the Program or works based on it. the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy. distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and conditions. However. Therefore. you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so. or rights.

For software which is copyrighted by the Free . you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation. 10. then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Program. this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License. If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations. conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order. 7. then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program at all. 9. For example. It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any such claims. If the Program specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any later version". 8. Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system. If. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public License from time to time. so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this License. as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues). In such case.restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein. this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of t