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Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan

Lucknow Region

Study Material
Subject : CHEMISTRY
Class - XII

Prepared under supervision of


Mrs. NOMITA WILSON
PRINCIPAL, KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA IIM,LUCKNOW
Astt. Commissioner KVS (LR)

RANVIR SINGH

Under Guidance of
Dr. Satyendra pal
Principal
Kendriya Vidyalaya No. 1 , AFS, Agra

Prepared By
S.NO
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

NAME OF THE TEACHER


Dr. ABHYAS YADAV
SANGITA RANI SINGH
R.C.TIWARI
B.K.SHARMA
A.K.DIXIT
MANJULA DIXIT
RAJ SHEKHAR

KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA
BARABANKI
GOMTI NAGAR, LUCKNOW
B.K.T. , LUCKNOW
ALIGANJ , LUCKNOW
SITAPUR
I I M, LUCKNOW
I I M, LUCKNOW

CONTENTS
ONE PAPER
70 MARKS
UNIT NO.

TITLE

MARKS

I
II
III
IV
V
VI

SOLID STATE
SOLUTIONS
ELECTROCHEMISTRY
CHEMICAL KINETICS
SURFACE CHEMISTRY
GENERAL PRINCIPALES AND PROCESSES OF

4
5
5
5
4
3

VII
VIII
IX
X
XI
XII
XIII

ISOLATION OF ELEMENTS
P-BLOCK ELEMENTS
D & F BLOCK ELEMENTS
COORDINATION COMPOUNDS
HALOALKANES & HALORENES
ALCOHALS, PHENOLS & ETHERS
ALDEHYDES, KETONES & CARBOXYLIC ACID
ORGANIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING

8
5
3
4
4
6
4

XIV
XV
XVI

NITROGEN
BIOMOLECULES
POLYMERS
CHEMISRY IN EVERDAY LIFE

4
3
3

TOTAL

70

Unit-I THE SOLID STATE


Density of unit cell = Mass of unit cell =
Volume of unit cell

zM
Na a3

z- Number of atoms per unit cell M Atomic mass or formula mass


for ionic solids
Na Avogadro number
a Edge length
Radius ratio = r+ =
Radius of the cation
rRadius of the anion
If R is the radius of spheres in the close packed arrangement then
I. Radius of octahedral void = r = 0.414 R
II. Radius of tetrahedral void = r = 0.225 R
Packing fraction =
Volume occupied by atoms in unit cell
Total volume of the unit cell

Different types of solids (table)


Unit cell

Distance b/w Radius


Coord Packing Number of
nearest
Constituent Ination fraction Constituent
neighbor (d) Atom
no.
Atoms

Simple cubic
a
a/2
Face centered
a/
a/2
cubic (FCC)
Body centered
/2a
/4a
cubic (BCC)
Where, a = edge length of unit cell
Different Type of Solids
s.n.Type of
Solids
1. Molecular
Solids
(i)Non
-polar

6
12

0.52
0.74

0.68

ConstituentBonding/ Examples
Particles Attractive
Forces

1/88 = 1
(1/88) +
(1/26) = 4
(1/88) + 1
=2

PhysicalElectrical Melting
Nature ConductivityPoint
Soft

Molecule
s

Dispersio
n or
London
forces

Ar, CCl4 ,
H2 , I2 , CO2

Insulator
Soft
Insulator

HCl , SO2
(ii)Polar
(iii)Hydrog
en
bonded

Dipoledipole
Interactio
ns
Hydrogen
bonding

Very
low
Low

Hard
Insulator
H2O(ice)

Low

2. Ionic
solids

Ions

3. Metallic
solids

Positive
Metallic
ions
bonding
In a sea
of
delocaliz
ed
electrons
Atoms
Covalent
bonding

4. Covalent
or
Network
solids

Coulombi NaCl, MgO


c or
Zns, CaF2
electrosta
tic

Hard
but
brittle

Fe, Cu, Ag,


Mg

Hard
but
mallea
ble
and
ductile

Insulators
High
in
solid state
but
conductors
in
molten
state
and in
aqueous
solutions
Conductors Fairly
in
high
solid state
as well as
in molten
state

SiO2
(quartz),
SiC ,
C(diamond
),
AIN,
C(graphite)

Hard

Insulators

Soft

Conductor
(exception)

Very
high

Important Questions;
1. Name the non-stoichiometric point defect responsible for colour in alkali
halides.
Ans: F-centres
2. What happens when a ferromagnetic substance is heated to high
temperature?
Ans: Ferromagnetic substance changes to paramagnetic substance due to
randomization of domains (spins) on heating.
3. A compound is formed by two elements X and Y. Atoms of the element Y
(anions) make ccp and those of the element X (cations) occupy all the
octahedral voids. What is the formula of the compound?
Ans: Suppose no. of atoms Y in ccp = N
:. No. of octahedral voids = N
:. No. of atoms X = N
Ratio of X : Y = N : N =1: 1
Formula of compound is XY
4. Explain the following terms with suitable examples:

(i) Schottky defect


(ii) F-centres
Ans
(i) Stoichiometric defect when equal number of cations and anions are
missing from the lattice. Cations and anions are of almost same size. It lowers
the density of solid e.g. NaCl , KCl etc.
(ii)The electrons trapped at the anion vacancies are referred to as Fcentres from German word Farbenzenter meaning colour centre e.g. yellow
colour imparted to NaCl when heated in an atmosphere of sodium vapour.
5. Iron has a body-centred cubic unit cell with a cell edge of 286.65 pm. The
density of iron is 7.87 g cm-3 Use this information to calculate Avogadros
number. (At. Mass of iron = 56 g mol-1)
Ans :

d= zxM
a3 x NA
For bcc lattice , z = 2
7.87 g cm-3 = 2 x 56 g mol-1
(286.65 x 10-10 cm)3 x NA
NA = 6.04 x 1023 mol-1

Unit-II SOLUTIONS

Mass percent

Mass of component in solution x 100


Total mass of solution
Mole fraction of a component = Number of moles of the component
Total number of moles of all the components
B =

Molarity (M)

Moles of solute
Volume of solution in litre
=
WB
x
1000

MB
Volume of solution in ml
WB mass of solute
MB molar mass of solute
Molality (m) =
Moles of solute
Mass of solvent in Kg
=
WB x
1000
MB
WA (in grams)
WA mass of
solvent
Henrys law
P = KH x 1
P partial pressure KH Henrys constant
1 - mole fraction
Raoults law for volatile solute
PA = PA A
PA= partial pressure of component A in solution
PA = vapour pressure of pure component
A = mole fraction
P = PA + PB
= PA A + PBB
Raoults law for non-volatile solute
PA - PA = B =
nB
= WB x MA
PA
nA + nB
MB
WA (dilute solution)
Elevation in boiling point
Tb = Kb x m = Kb x WB x
1000
MB
WA
Depression in freezing point
Tf = Kf x m = Kf x WB
x
1000
An ideal solution should have:
i.
Vmix = 0
ii.
Hmix = 0
iii.
Obeys Raoults law over a wide range of concentration
Non-ideal solution
i.
Vmix 0
ii.
Hmix 0
iii.
Raoults law is not obeyed
Two types:
a) Positive Deviation : When partial pressure of each liquid and the resultant
total pressure is greater than the pressure expected on the basis of the
Raoults law
eg- Ether-acetone, Benzene-acetone , water-ethanol , n-hexane-ethanol etc.
Hmix = +ve
Vmix = +ve
PA > PAA
;
PB > PBB

b) Negative deviation :When partial pressure of each liquid is less than the
vapour pressure expected on basis of Raoults law.
Eg- Methanol-acetic acid , water-nitric acid , acetone-chloroform , chloroformbenzene , chloroform-ether etc.
Hmix = -ve
1. How is the molality of a solution different from its molarity?
Ans- Molarity is the number of moles of solute per litre of solution whereas
molarity is the number of moles of solute in 1kg of the solvent.
2.State Henrys law and mention two importants application.
Ans- Henrys law : The pressure of gas over a solution is directly proportional to
the mol fraction of the gas dissolve in the mol fraction of the gas dissolve in tje
solution.
Applications :(i): To make soft drink bottle more rich in CO2 sealing is done at high pressure.
(ii):Deep sea divers use He and O2 mixture for respiration He is less soluble
in blood as compared to N2 at high pressure and create the pain ful effect
on the human body.
3. A 5 % sol (by mass) of Cane sugar in water has freezing point of 271K.
Calculate the freezing point of 5% glucose in water if freezing point of pure water
is 273.15K.
Ans- 5% glucose means 5gm in 100gm of sol
f

For sugar 273.15 271 =


2.15 = kf 0.154
For glucose
f

= Kf 0.292

Comparing the two


=
Freezing point of solution will be 273.15K 4.08K
= 269.07K

UNIT-III - ELECTROCHEMISTRY
Important formulae

R=V/I

Where R is Resistance, V is Voltage, I is Current.

Conductivity or conductance = 1/R = 1/V


The unit of conductance is
Ohm-1 = Siemens = S.

Specific Conductance = 1/ Specific


resistance
K=1/p

^m = Specific Conductance/ Molarity

K/M
Kohlrausch law - ^m = V+ ^+ + v-^-

Faradays First Law of Electrolysis

m=ZxQ
m=ZxIxt
Where is mass of substance deposited, I is current in
ampere, t is time in seconds,
Q=Ixt
Z = Eq. Wt./ 96500
Where z is electrochemical equivalent. Unit of
electrochemical equivalent is gram/coulomb
Faraday is charge on 1 mole of electrons.
Charge on 1 electron = 1.602 x 10 -19 C
Charge on 1 mole of electrons = 1.602 x 10 -19 x 6.023 x
10 23

= 96487 C
= 96500 C

Eo
Eo
Eo

Faradays Second Law of Electrolysis :


W1/E1 = W2/E2 = W3/E3

Where W1 is mass of substance 1 deposited


and E1 is its equivalent weight,
W2 is mass of substance 2 deposited and E2
is its equivalent weight,
W3 is mass of substance 3 deposited and E3
deposited and E3 is its equivalent weight.
Nernst Equation
= - Eo reduction
= Eo cathode Eo anode
= Eo anode Eo cathode

oxidation
cell
cell

Mn+ + neM
o
E = E 2.303 RT / nF log [M]/[Mn+]
where E = reduction electrode potential,
Eo = Standard Reduction electrode Potential,
n = No. of electrons
T = Temperature in Kelvin, F = 96500 C
Change in Gibb,s free energy ( G ) = - n F E0 Cell
G0 = - 2.303RTlogKc

Important Questions

Why is the equilibrium constant K related to only E ocell and not


Ecell ?

Ans: It is because Ecell at equilibrium is 0 volt .

Write the nernst Equation for the electrode reaction


M

n+

+ ne-

M(s)

Ans : Emn+/m = Eomn+/m +2.303RT/nF log[Mn+]

Predict the product of Electrolysis in each of the Following


a) An aq Sol. Of AgNO3 with silver electrodes.
b) An aq. Sol. Of AgNO3 with platinum electrodes.
Ans : At Cathode : Ag+ (aq) + eAg(s)
At anode
Ag(s)
Ag + (aq)+ eAgNO3(aq)
Ag+(aq) + NO3-(aq); H2O(l)
+ OH- (aq)

H+(aq)

b) At cathode
2Ag+(aq) + 2e2Ag(s)
At anode
2OH (aq)
O2(g) + 2H+(aq) +
4e Can you store copper sulphate in zinc pot ?
Ans: No , because Zn is more reactive than Cu .
If a current of 0.5 ampere flows through a metallic wire for 2 hours
, then how many electrons flow through the wire ?
Ans : Q = it = 5 2 60 60 = 3600 C
No. of electrons flow = 3600 6.022 1023
9600
= 2.246 1022

UNIT-IV Chemical Kinetics

Important formulae

Rate Of reaction : it is defined as the change in concentration


of reactant (or product) in a particular time interval. Unit of rate
of reaction is mol L-1 s-1. If time is in minutes, then units is mol
L-1 min-1 and so on. R = K Conc n
Rate Law or rate equation : It is the expression which relates
the rate of reaction with concentration of the reactants. The
constant of proportionality k is known as rate constant.
R = K [ A ]p [ B ]q Where , p and q are not stoichiometric
coefficient but they are order of the reaction
Rate constant : when concentration of both reactants are unity,
then the rate of reaction is known as rate constant. It is also
called specific reaction rate.
Unit of K = Conc 1- n time -1
But in gaseous reaction , unit of K = atm

1-n

time-1

Molecularity : Total number of atoms, ions or molecules of the

reactants involved in the reaction is termed as its molecularity.


It is always in whole number. It is never more than three. It
cannot be zero.
Examples: Unimolecular reaction
NH4NO2
N2 + 2H2O
Bimolecular reaction
2HI(g)
H2(g)+I
Trimolecular reaction
2NO(g) + O2 (g)
2NO2(g)

Order of reaction : The sum of the exponents of the


concentration of reactants in the rate law is termed as order of
the reaction. It can be in fraction. It can be zero also.

Zero order reaction : The rate of reaction does not change with
the concentration of the reactants,
i.e., rate = k [A]0, where k is rate constant
Unit of rate constant is mol L-1s-1

Half life of a reaction : The time taken for a reaction when half
of the starting material has reacted is called half-life of a
reaction. For first order reaction t1/2 = 0.693/k, where k is rate
constant.
it is independent of initial concentration for first order reaction.
Important formulae

K = 2.303 log a
t
ax
For First order reaction

t = 0.693
K

Slope = - K / 2.303

General expression for the time taken for nth fraction of a


reaction of 1st order to complete :
t 1/n = 2.303 log 1
K
1- 1/ n
General expression for half life period of a reaction of nth order :
T 1/2 [ Ao ] 1-n
Amount of substance left after n half lives = [ A o ] / 2n
No. of half lives = t / t
Arrhenius equation :
K = A e Ea / RT
Log K2 / K1 = Ea / 2.303 R ( T2 T1 ) / T1T2
Slope = - Ea / 2.303 R

Important questions

A reaction is 50% complete in 2 hours and 75% complete


in 4 hours. What is the order of the reaction ?
Ans : First order because t75% = 2 t50%

Express the relation between the half life period of a


reactant and its initial concentration for a reaction of n th
order.
Ans : t1/2
1/[R]on-1

Show that time required for 99% completion is twice the


time required for the completion of 90% reaction.
Ans :
t99% = 2.303/k log [R]o/([R]o 99/100[R]0)
= 2.303/k log 100 = 2.303 x 2/k = 4.606/k
t 90% = 2.303/k log [R]0/([R]0 90/100[R]0 )
= 2.303/k x l
t99%/t90% = 4.606/k x k/2.303 = 2
t99% = 2t90%

UNIT-V- SURFACE CHEMISTRY


Adsorption : Phenomenon of attracting and retaining molecules of a substance on
the surface of a solid resulting in to a higher conc. On the surface than in the bulk .
Difference between Physical and Chemical adsorption :
Physical Adsorption

Chemical Adsorption
1. Arises due to van der waals forces
1.Chemical bond
2. Not specific
2. Highly specific
3. Reversible
3.Irreversible
4. Low enthalpy of adsorption
4.High enthalpy of adsorption
Adsorption Isotherm : Frendlich Adsorption Isotherm ( effect of Pressure )
X / m = K P 1/n
Where , x = mass of adsorbate
m = mass of adsorbent
P = pressure
K and n = Constants
Shape Selective Catalysis by Zeolites : The catalytic reaction that depends upon
the pore , structure of the catalyst and the size of the reactant and product molecules
. Zeolites are aluminosilicatees with three- dimensional network .
ZSM 5 is used in the petroleum industry for the conversion of hydrocarbons
into gasoline

Sol = solid in liquid example starch sol


Gel = liquid in solid example butter
Emulsion = liquid in liquid example milk
Types of Colloids : 1.Lyophilic sol : Reversible
2.Lyophobic : Irreversible
3.Multimolecular : smaller to colloidal range
4.Macromolecular : bigger to colloidal range
5. Associated : soap solution
Peptisation : ppt + dispersion medium = colloid
Dialysis : Purification of colloid
Tyndall effect : Scattering of light by colloidal solution
Zeta Potential ; Potential diff . between the fixed layer and diffused layer of opposite
charges .
Electrophoresis : Movement of colloidal particles under the influence of electric
field .
Coagulation : Colloid + Electrolyte = ppt
Hardy Schulze Rule : Coagulation power of an ion ( valency of the ion ) 4
Demulsification : E mulsions can be broken into the constituent liquids by heating ,
freezing , centrifuging .

Important Questions
Q1. What is meant by shape selective catalysis ?
Ans. The catalytic reaction yhat depends upon the pore structure and size of the
catalyst .
Q2. Define the following :
i.
Peptisation
ii.
Reversible sols
Q3.What is the diff between multimolecular and macromolecular colloids ?
Give one example of each .
Ans : Multimolecular Colloids -- smaller to colloidal range example gold sol
Macromolecular Colloids -- bigger to colloidal range example protein sol

UNIT:-VI- General Principles & Process of Isolation of


Elements
The chemical substances in the earths crust obtained by mining are called Minerals.
1. Minerals, which act as source for metal, are called Ore.
2. The unwanted impurities present in ore are called Gangue.
3. The entire process of extraction of metal from its ore is called
Metallurgy.
4. Removal of gangue from ore is called Concentration, Dressing or
Benefaction of ore.
5. Concentration by Hydraulic washing is based on the difference in
gravities of ore and gangue particles.
6. Concentration by Magnetic separation is based on differences in
magnetic properties of ore components. If either of ore or
gangue is capable of attracted by a magnet field, then such
separation is carried out.
7. Concentration by Froth Flotation Process is based on the facts
that sulphide ore is wetted by oil & gangue particles are wetted
by water.
8. Concentration by Leaching is based on the facts that ore is
soluble in some suitable reagent & gangue is insoluble in same
reagent. e.g. Bauxite ore contains impurities of silica, iron oxide
& TiO2 .The powdered ore is treated with NaOH which dissolve Al
& impurities remains insoluble in it.
Al2O3 +2NaOH + 3 H2O
2 Na [Al(OH)4].
10. Calcination involves heating of ore in absence of air below
melting
point of metal. In this process volatile impurities escapes leaving behind metal
oxide.
Fe2O3.xH2O
Fe2O3 +xH2O
ZnCO3
ZnO +CO2
CaCO3.MgCO3
CaO + MgO + 2CO2
11. Roasting involves heating of ore in presence of air below melting point of metal
in reverberatory furnace. In this process volatile impurities escapes leaving behind
metal oxide and metal sulphide converts to metal oxide.
2 ZnS + 3 O2
2ZnO+2SO2
2PbS + 3 O2
2 PbO +2 SO2

2 Cu2S + 3 O2
2Cu2O + 2 SO2
12. Reduction of metal oxide involves heating of metal in presence of suitable
reagent Coke or CO2.
13. Reactions taking place at different zones of blast furnace in extraction of iron:(i) Zone of reduction:- Temperature range 250oC-700oC
3Fe2O3+CO
2Fe3O4+CO2
Fe3O4+CO
3FeO+ CO2
FeO +CO
Fe+ CO2
(ii) Zone of slag formation:- Temperature range 800oC-1000oC
CaCO3
CaO+CO2
CaO+SiO2
CaSiO3,
P4O10+10C
4P+10CO,
SiO2+2C
Si+2CO,
MnO2+2C
Mn+2CO
o
o
(iii) Zone of fusion:- Temperature range 1150 C-1350 C
CO2 + C
2CO
(iv) Zone of fusion:- Temperature range 1450oC-1950oC
C +O2
CO2
ELLINGHAN DIAGRAM: For considering the choice of reducing agent in the reduction of oxides
G H T S

G must be negative, G n E F , G RT ln K

IMPORTANT QUESTIONS:
1.Is it true that under certain conditions Mg can reduce SiO2 and Si can reduce MgO? what are these
conditions ?
Ans.: By using Ellinghan Diagram
2. Diffrentiate between mineral and ores?
Ans: Mineral is a naturally occurring Chemical substance.
ore is a mineral from which we extract metal profitably.
3. How is cast Iron different from Pig Iron ?
Ans: Cast Iron = Iron + 3% Carbon
Pig Iron = Iron + 4% Carbon
4. Why is the reduction of a metal oxide is easier if the metal formed is in liquidstate at the
temperature of reduction/
Ans: Due to more S +
G become

ve

more on negative side. And reduction become easier.

5.What is the role of depressant in froth flotation process?


Ans: An ore containing ZnS and PbS , the depressants usedis NaCN . It selectively
prevents ZnS from coming to the froth but allows PbS to come with the froth.
6.Describe Mond process and Van Arkels method .
Ans: Mond Process :refining of Nickel
330-350 K
450-470K
Ni + 4CO

Ni( CO)4

Ni + 4CO
Van Arkel Method : refining of Zr
Zr + 2I2

Zr I 4

1800K

Zr + 2 I 2

Unit-VII - p-BLOCK ELEMENTS


Nitrogen Family :

1) ns2np3
2) O.S. (N) -3,-2,-1,0,+1,+2,+3,+4,+5
Tendency to show +5 O.S. N>P>As>Sb>Bi
Tendency to show +3 O.S. N<P<As<Sb<Bi
Disproportionation
H3PO3

HNO3
HNO3+H2O+2NO
H3PO4 +PH3

3) Formation of hydrides
angle
NH3>PH3>AsH3>SbH3>BiH3
Reducing Power Nh3<PH3
Boiling Point

NH3

SbH3

PH3
4) Anomalous behavior of (Nitrogen, Oxygen,Fluorine)
Small Size, High Electronegativety,Non availability of d-orbitals
& High I.E.
5) 4NH3+5O2
4NO+6O2
P4+3NAOH+3H2O
PH3+3NaH2PO2(sodium hypophosphite)
PCL3+3H2O
H3PO3+3HCl

Sulphur Family
1)
2)
3)
4)

ns2np4
O.S.
-2
Hydrides
NO + O3

(+2+4+6)
H2E(H2O,H2S,H2Ss)
NO2+O2(Depleting of oxygen)

Halogens
1)
2)
3)
4)

ns2np5
O.S. <Fluorine (-1)>
(+1,+3,+5,+7)
Halogen oxides halide ions of higher atomic number.
Hydride :
Acidic strength HF<HCl<HBr<HI
Dissociation enthalpy HF>HCI>HBr>HI
5) Inter Halogen Compounds :Halogens combine among themselves to form a
number of compounds known as interhalogens of the types
XX,XX3,XX5,XX7
6) Cl2 is a powerful bleaching agent
7) Due to high electronegativity and small size. Fluorine forms only one
oxoacid(HOF)
8) Acidic strength HClO<HCIO2<HCIO3<HCIO4

GROUP 18
1) ns2np6

2) Nobel gases have low b.p. because being mono atomic they have no inter
atomic forces except weak dispersion forces .
3) Neil Bartett prepared a compound (O2PtF6)
Ionization enthalpy of Xe (1170 KJ/Mol)
O2 (1175 KJ/Mol)
4) XeF2 + PF5
[XeF]+[PF6]XeF4 + SbF5
[XeF]+[SbF6]+
XeF6 + MF M [XeF7]{M=No,K,Rb or Cs)
5) Hydrolysis
6XeF4+12H20

4Xe + 2Xe03 + 24HF + 3O2


XeF6+ 3H2O
XeO3 +6HF

Questions :
1) How does ammonia reacts with a solution of Cu ++?
2) Why does No2 dimerise?
3) Are all five bonds in PCl5 molecule equivalent?
4)Are all five bonds in PCl5 molecule equivalent ?Justify your answer
5) H3PO3 is diprotic and why?
6) Which form of sulphur shows paramagnetic behavior ?
7) Complete the following relations
1. Cl2 + 2X-
2. Br2 + 2I-
8) Why is helium used in diving apparatus?
9)What is covalency of nitrogen inN2O5 ?
10) Why does R3P=0 exits but R3N=0 does not exists ?
11) PCl5 Is ionic in nature in the solid state .Give reason?
12) ClF3 exists but FCl3 does not .Why?
d-Block Elements
1. The transition metals are very much hard and have low validility, because
greater number of electrons form (n-1)d in addition to the ns electrons in the
interatomic metallic bonding .
2. High enthalpies of atomization .
3. Variable o.s. The enthalpies difference b/w (n-1)d orbitals is small.
4. Formation of colored ions : When an electron from the lower energy d-orbital is
exited to a higher energy d-orbital the energy of excitation corresponding to
the frequency of light absorbed .the color observed corresponding to the
complementary color of the light absorbs .
5. Formation of complex compound : Due to the small size of metal ions their high
ionic charges and availability of vacant d-orbitals for bond formation .
6. Catalytic Properties :
a. Variable O.S.
b. Metal surfaces have free vacancies.
c. They can form complexes.
7. Alloy Formation : d-block transition metals have similar atomic size due to
which one metal ion can be readily replaced by another metal atom.
8. Interstitial state : Transition metals accommodate atoms of small size in the
voids of there crystal lattice and form interstitial compounds.
Questions :
A. Why is highest O.S. of a metal exhibited in its oxide or fluoride only ?
B. What is lanthanoid contraction ? what are its consequences ?
C. Why La(OH)2 is more basic than Lu(OH)3
D. Write preparation of K2Cr2O7?

E. What is meant by disproportionation? Give two examples?

F. What are interstitial compounds? Why are such compounds well known
for transition metal?
G. Explain why transition elements have many irregularities in their electronic
configurations?

H. Which metal in the first series of transition metals exhibits +1 oxidation


state most frequently and why?

UNIT IX-- COORDINATION COMPOUNDS


1. A co-ordination compound is a molecular compound in which the central
metal atom or metal ion is linked toa number of ions or neutral molecules
by coordinate bonds e.g. K4[Fe(CN)6]

2. Central metal atom & ligands are collectively written inside square bracket
known as COORDINATION SPHERE.
3. The ligands whose only one donor atom is bonded to metal atom/ion are
called mono dentate ligand. CO, NH3 ,H2O.
4. The ligand, which contain two-donor atom through which it is bonded to
central atom, is called bidentate ligands. e.g. C2O4-- , NH2-CH2-CH2-NH2 .
5. A complex in which there is a close ring of atoms caused by attachment of
ligand to a metal atom at two points is called CHELATES.
6. A molecule or ion that can form close ring with metal atom is called
chelating ligand. e. g. C2O4--, NH2-CH2-CH2-NH2.
7. 10. Ethylene Di Amine Tetra Acetate is hexa dentate chelating ligand.
11. Ionization isomerism occurs when there is interchanging of groups between coordination
sphere to ionization sphere.
e.g. [ Co (NH3)5Br] SO4 and [Co (NH3)5 SO4] Br
13. Linkage isomerism exhibited by that compound in which a ligand can form
linkage with metal through different atoms i.e. ambidentate ligand form this
isomerism.
e.g. [Co (NH3)5ONO]Cl2 and [Co (NH3)5NO2]Cl2
14. Hydrated isomerism occurs due to interchanging of H 2O ligand from
coordination sphere to ionization sphere.
e.g. [Co (H2O)6]Cl3 [Co (H2O)5Cl]Cl2.H2O
15. Tetrahedral complex does not show geometrical isomerism.
16. In square planar complex cis (when same group are on same side) and
trans (when same group on are opposite side) isomers are possible.

17. In octahedral complex cis trans isomers are as following:-

18. According to crystal field theory as ligands approaches to metal atom then
splitting of d-orbitals of metal atoms takes place. These d-orbitals splits into
two categories:(i) t2g orbital contains dxy, dyz, dzx
(ii) eg orbital contains d X2- Y2 , d Z2.
21. For octahedral complex energy of eg is more than that of t2g orbitals.
22. For tetrahedral complex energy of eg is less than that of t2g orbitals.
23. Coordination compounds find use in followings field:(i) In qualitative analysis K4[Fe(CN)6] gives blue and brown colour with Fe3+
&Cu2+
respectively.
(ii) In quantitative analysis EDTA is used to remove hardness of water.
(iii) In extraction of metals like gold silver complex is formed.
(iv) In biological system Chlorophyll & Haemoglobin is a complex of Mg2+ &Fe3+ respectively.

Important Questions:
Q.1- Write the IUPAC name of linkage isomer of [Cr (en)2(ONO)2]Cl.
A.1-Linkage isomer is [Cr (en)2 (NO2)2] Br.
IUPAC name- bis(ethane-1,2-diamine)dinitrito-N-chromium(iii) bromide
Q.2- What is meant by the chelate effect? Give an example.
A.2- A complex in which there is a close ring of atoms caused by attachment of ligand to a metal
atom at two points is called chelate effect. e.g.

Q.3- Which complex is used in the treatment of cancer?


A.3- cis-platin or cis- [Pt (NH3)2 Cl2]
Q.4-Draw optical isomers of [Co(en)3]2+

A.4-

Q.5- Draw a sketch to show the splitting of d-orbitals in an octahedral


crystal field.
A.5-

Unit-X HALOALKANES & HALOARENES

POINTS TO BE REMEMBERED
A Haloalkane:1. Halogen derivative of alkanes are called as Haloalkanes & of aromatic
hydrocarbon are called Haloarenes.
2. In Haloalkane C-atom of C-X bond is sp3 Hybridized while in Haloarene it is
sp2 hybridized.
3. Alcohols can be converted into Haloalkanes by reacting with HalogenAcids,

+H-X
R-OH

PCl5
SOCl2

R-X+H2O
R-Cl+POCl3+HCl
R-Cl+SO2+HCl

Phosphorous halide &Thionyl chloride (SOCl2).


4. Haloalkanes can also be prepared by electrophilic addition of Halogen Acids
(HX) to the alkanes.
R-CH=CH2 + HBr
R-CH2-CH2Br

R2O2
R-CH=CH2+HBr

R-CHBr-CH3

Markownikoffs Rule
5. The Physical Properties of Haloalkanes are attributed to dipole-dipole and
dipole-induced dipole interaction.
6. Haloalkanes undergo Nucleophilic Substitution reaction (SN) due to polar
character of C+X- bond.
7. There are two types of SN reaction
(a). SN1-Unimolecular Nucleophilic Substitution reaction proceeds in two
steps (slow and fast).
(b)
SN2-Bimolecular Nucleophilic substitution reaction proceeds in a single
steps and its rate depends on the concentration of both Haloalkane &
Nucleophile.
8. The reactivity of Haloalkane in SN1reaction follows the order ; Tertiary >
Secondary > Primary. While reactivity of Haloalkane in SN2 reaction follows the
order ; Primary > Secondary > Tertiary.
9. Optically Active compounds have the capacity to rotate the plane of polarized
light either to Right (Dextorotatory) or to the left (Laevorotatory).

10. Optical Isomerism in compounds is due to the presence of Chiral carbon


Atom as well as Dissymetry.
11. SN1 Mechanism in optically active alkyl Halide leads to Racemisation .
12. SN2 Mechanism in optically active alkyl halide leads to inversion of
configuration .
13. Alkyl Halide on reaction with metals form Organometallic compounds such
as Grignard Reagent (a useful compound) .
B. HALOARENES:-

1. Haloarenes are prepared from their parent arenes and from diazonium salts.
C6H6+X2
C6H5X + HX

FeCl3,Dark

C6H5N2+X-

C6H5X + N2 +HX

Cu2X2 / HX
2. Haloarenes are more stable & hence less reactive than Haloalkane due to
(a) Sp2- hybridized C atom of C-X bond .
(b) delocalization of - electron cloud.
3. Halogen present on the benzene is Ortho and Para directing but deactivating
in nature.
4. Halogenation of benzene proceeds by Electrophilic substitution Mechanism.
5. m.p.of p-dichlorobenzene is higher than that of O & m isomers.
C. polyhalogen compound :1.
Organic compound having two or more than two halogen atom are
called as polyhalogen compounds.
2.
polyhalogen compounds such as dichloromethane(CH2Cl2),
trichloromethane(CHI3), tetrachloromethane(CCl4),p-dichlorobenzen,
Freons(CFC,CCl2F2)BHC,(Benzene hexachloride C6H6Cl6), DDT&PFC
have many industrial application.
3.
chloroform is no longer used as aneasthatic due to its poisionous
nature &tendency to form phosgen gas(COCl2)when exposed to air .
4.
BHC is a better insecticide as well as pesticide than DDT as DDT is
non-biodegradable. -Isomers of BHC is called Gammexane or lindane
or 666.
5.
Freon used as a refrigerants but cause depletion of ozone layer.
VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
(1MARK)

Q.1. Write the structural isomers of C3H6Cl2 which can exihibit


enantiomerism ?
H
Ans.
CH3 CCH2Cl
Can exihibit enantiomerism
Cl
(i.e optical isomerism).
Q.2 which compound (CH3)3 C-Cl or ;CH3Cl Will react faster in SN2 Reaction with
OH?
Ans.CH3Cl is more reactive than (CH3)3-C-Cl because of steric Hinderance of
three bulky group in (CH3)3CCl.
Q.3. Why is vinyl chloride less reactive than ethyl chloride?
Ans. Conjugation of electron pair with -electron pair of double bond in vinyl
chloride results to a partial double bond character in C-Cl &its bond strength
increases. CH2=CH-Cl CH2-CH=Cl+
Q.4.Write the formula & chemical name of DDT?
Ans. DDT is 2 , 2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichioroethane
Cl

CH

Cl

C.Cl3
Q.5.Write down the structure of the following compounds;
(a) 1-chloro-4-ethyl cyclohexane
(b) 1, 4-dibromo but-2-ene
(c) 4-tert.butyl-3-iodoheptane
(d) 1-bromo-4-secbutyl-2-methylbenzene
(e) perfluorobenzene
Cl
Ans. (a)
(b) Br-CH2-CH=CH-CH2-Br
Cl
s

C2H5
(c) H3C-CH2-CH-CH-CH2-CH2-CH3
I

CH3

C-(CH3)3

F
(e)

(d)

Br

H3C-CH-C2H5

F
F

Q.6. An alkyl halide having molecular formula C4H9Cl is optically active. What is
its structure ?
Ans. CH3
*CH
CH2 CH3
Cl
Q.7. Out of C6H5CH2Cl & C6H5CHCl C6H5 which is more easily hydrolysed with
aq. KOH & why?
Ans. C6H5 CH C6H5 will get hydrolysed easily because
Cl
Carbocation formed will be stabilized by resonance effect of two phenyl group.
Q.8. Why is sulphuric acid not used during the reaction of alchohols with KI?
Ans. Because HI formed will get oxidized to I2 by conc. H2SO4 which is an
oxidizing agent.
Q.9. A hydrocarbon C5H10 does not react with chlorine in dark but it gives a
single monobromo compound in bright sunlight. Identify the compound.
Cl
Ans.
sun
+
Cl2
light
+ HCl
Cyclopentane

Chlorocyclopentane

Q.10.Chloroform is stored in dark coloured & sealed bottle. Why ?


Ans. As Chloroform reacts with O2 of air in presence of sunlight & forms
Phosgene gas which is poisonous .

light
2 CHCl3 + O2

2COCl2
+ 2HCl
Phosgene gas
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

Q.1. Give the IUPAC names of the following compounds ?

(2MARK)

a) ClCH2C
CCH2Br
c) CH3CH(Cl)CH(Br)CH3

d)

b) (CCl3)3CCl

Br

Cl

Ans. (a)1-Bromo-4-chlorobut-2-yne
(b) 2-(Trichloromethyl)-1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptachloropropane
(c) 3-bromo-3-chlorobutane
(4) p-bromo chlorobenzene
Q.2. Predict the product of the following reactions;
(a) CH3
CH
C(CH3)2
+ HCl
(b) CH3

CH

Na/Dry ether

CH3

(c)

u.v.light

+ Cl2
(d) CH3

CH

CH2

Br KOH(alc)

CH3
(e)

CH3

Markonikoffs rule
+

Ans. (a) CH3

CH
Cl

(b)

CH3

CH
CH3

HI
CH3
C CH3
H

2-chloro-3-methylbutane
I

+ 2Na

CH
CH3

CH3

ether

(c)

CH3-CH-CH-CH3+2NaF

Cl
Cl

Cl

Cl

CH3 CH3
(2,3-dimethylbutane)

Cl

Cl
Benzene Hexachloride (BHC)
CH
CH3
(d). CH3

CH

(e).

CH2

Br

CH3
C
CH2 +KB r+H2O
2-methyl propene

CH3
+ HI Markonikoffs
rule

I
CH3

1-Iodo-1-methyl
Cyclohexane
Q.3. Starting from Methyl Iodide, how will you prepare :
(a) Nitromethane.
(b) Methyl Nitrite.
Ans. (a) CH3I

+ AgNO2

CH3-----

+ AgI
O
O

(b) CH3I + K O
N=O
CH3
N
O KI
Q.4. How can Iodoform be prepared from ethanol ?
Ans. C2H5OH + 6NaOH +4I2
CHI3 + HCOONa + 5NaI + 5H2O
Q.5.Write the reactions involved in :
(a). The Isocyanide test.
(b). Iodoform test .
Ans.(a). R-NH2 + CHCl3 + 3KOH(alc.)
RN=C + 3KCl+3H2O
o
1 -Amine chloroform
O
(b) CH3-C-CH3+3I2 +4NaOH
CHI3 +CH3COONa +3NaI+3H2O
Q.6.How will you distinguish between
(i) CH3NH2 and (CH3)2NH
(ii) Ethanol & 1-propanol
Ans. (i) CH3NH2 (Methyl amine) gives Isocyanide test while (CH3)2NH do not.
CH3-NH2 + CHCl3 + 3KOH
CH3-N=C +3KCl +3H2O

(ii) Add I2 & NaOH, ethanol will gives yellow ppt. of Iodoform whereas 1-propanol
will not .
Q.7. Propose the Mechanism of the following reaction ;
CH3-CH2 Br +CH3OCH3-CH2-OCH3 + BrAns.
CH3 H
H3C
H
CH3
CH3-O +C-Br
[ CH3O
C
Br ]
CH3O C H +BrH
H
(Nucleophile)
H
Q.8.Give the uses of (a) CCl4 (b) Iodoform .
Ans. (a). Ccl4 is used as a solvent and also in fire Extinguisher.
(b). Iodoform is used as Antiseptic.
Q.9.Which will have a higher boiling point 1-chloropentane or
2-chloro-2-methylbutane ?
Ans. CH3 CH2 CH2
CH2
CH2
Cl has higher boiling point
1-chloropentane
than
CH3
CH3

CH2

CH3 (2-chloro-2-methyl butane).Because branc-

Cl
-hing of C-atom chain decreases the molecular size and vander
waals force of attraction leading to decrease in boiling point.
Q.10. Rearranging the following in order of increasing ease of dehydro
-halogenation CH3CH2CH2Cl , CH3CHClCH3 ,
CH3
C
Cl(CH3)2.
Ans. CH3CH2CH2Cl < CH3CHClCH3 < CH3
C
Cl(CH3)2.
As per saytzeffs rule more alkylated alkene is more stable and hence is
formed.
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
(3MARK)
Q.1. How will you bring the following conversion?
(a) Propene to Propyne
(b) Toluene to Benzyl Alcohol
(c) Aniline to Phenylisocyanide
Ans.
Br2 / CCl4
KOH(alc)
(a) CH3-CH=CH2
CH3-CHCH2
CH3-C=CH

Br
(b)

CH3

(Propyne)

Br

CH2Cl

Cl2 / h

CH2OH

aq.KOH

-HCl

-KCl
NC

NH2

(c)
+ CHCl3 + 3KOH(alc.)

3H2O

+3KCl +

Q.2. What happen when;


(a) n-butyl chloride is treated with alc. KOH.
(b)ethyl chloride is treated with aq.KOH.
(c)methyl chloride is treated with KCN.
Ans.
+KOH(alc.)
(a) CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-Cl
(b) CH3-CH2-Cl+KOH(aq.)
(c) CH3-Cl +KCN

CH3CH2CH=CH2 + KCl + H2O


CH3CH2OH+KCl+H2O
CH3CN+KCl

Q.3. Complete the following reaction;


(a) Cl2CH-CH-Cl2+Zn

(b)(CH3)2-CH-CH-CH2-CH3
C2H5ONa
Ethanol
Br
(c) C6H5ONa +C2H5Cl
Ans. (a). Cl2CH-CHCl2+Zn

Cl-CH=CHCl+ZnCl2

(b). (CH3)2-CH-CH-CH2-CH3
Br
(C). C6H5O-Na+ + C2H5Cl
Sodium
Phenoxide

C2H5ONa
Ethanol

(CH3)2-CH-CH-CH2-CH3
OC2H5

C6H5OCH2CH3+NaCl
(Phenetole)

Unit-XI Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers


Points to be remembered:Alcohols:
Compounds containing one or more -OH group directly attached to C- atom of an
aliphatic system.

Phenol:
Compounds containing OH group directly attached to C-atom of an aromatic
system.

Ethers:
Compounds obtained by substitution of a H-atom in a hydrocarbon by an alkoxy or
aryloxy group.

Structure of functional group:


H

142 pm sp3
sp3

108.9

96 pm
H

H
H
Alcohol
sp 2
C

H
O

136 pm
Phenol
C-O bond length (136pm) is less than that in alcohol due to
1. Partial double bound character on account of the conjugation of unshared e pair of
oxygen with aromatic ring.
2. sp2 state of C to which O-atom is attached
141pm
sp2
H
H

O
C

111.7

H
C

H
H

Ether
The C-O-C bound angle is slightly greater than angle due to repulsion interaction
between two bulky (-R)gps

Preparation of Alcohols:
8. Prom Alkene:
(i) By Acid Catalysed hydration:
H+

>C = C

+ H2O

> C -C<
H

OH

(ii) By hydroboration oxidation:


H2O2, OH3CH3 - CH = CH2 + BH3 (CH3-CH2-CH2)3B

3CH3-CH2-CH2-OH
Propan -1-ol

+ B (OH) 3

(b) From Carbonyl Compounds:


(i) By reduction of aldehydes and ketones Pd/Pt/Hi
RCHO + H2

RCH2OH

(Primary alcohols)

NaBH4
RCOR1-

R-CH-R1

(Sec. Alcohols)

1 LiACH4
OH
(ii) By reduction of Carboxylic acids and esters
(i) LiAl H4
RCOOH
R CH2 OH (Pri alcohol)
(ii) H2O
Or
R1OH
H2
RCOOH
RCOOR1
RCH2OH + R1OH.
H+
Catalyst
(c) From Grignard Regards H2O
(i) HCHO + RMg X
RCH2OMgX
RCH2OH + Mg(OH)X
Formaldehyde
Pri. Alcohol
H2O R1
(ii) RCHO + R1MgX
R-CH OMgX
R-CH-OH+Mg(OH)X
Other aldelydc
R1
R1
H2O
(iii) RCOR + R1MgX
R
C OMgX
R C OH + Mg (OH) X
Ketone
R1
R
Test alcohol
Sec. Alcohol

Preparation of phenols
(a) From Haloarenes Cl
623k
|
+NaOH
300atm

OH

ONa+
HCl

9. From Benzene Sulphoric acid


SO3H
Oleum

OH
NaOH

H+
10. From diazonium Salts
NH2
|

N2+Cl

273-278K
NaNo2+H
Cl

OH
H2O warm
N2 +HCl

300atm

Aniline

Benzene
diazonium
Chloride

(d) From Cumene (Manufacture)


CH3

CH3

H3C-CH

CH3---C-OO-H
O2

OH
H+

CH3COCH3

H2O

Cumene

Cumene
Hydro peroxide

Physical Properties:
Boiling Point

The B.P. of alcohols and phenols increase with increase in the no. of C-alones
(increase in Vander waal forces).

In alcohols B.P. decrease with increase in branching (decrease in vander waals


forces with decrease in surface area).
(iii) Due to intermolecular H-bonding, B.P. of alcohols & phenols are higher than
hydrocarbons, ethane, haloalkanes and haloarenes of comparable messes.

Solubility:
Solubility of alcohols and phenols in water due to them ability to form H-bond with water
molecules. Solubility decrease with increase in size of alkyl / aryl group.

Na
C2H5ONa + H2
NaH
C2H5 ONa + H2
PCl5
C2H5CL
PX3
C2H5X

Alcohol
C2 H5 OH

(X=Cl, Br, 1)
SOCl2
O
C2 H5 Cl
CH3 C OH / H+
O
CH3 C OC2H5
CH3 C Cl
Ch3 C OC2H5
O
K2 Cr2 O7 / H+
CH3 C OH
O
Cu / 575 K
CH3 C H

ONa

OH

NaOH

COOH
CO2

H+

Kolbes reaction
OH

OH
NO2

Dil.HNO3
+
Nitration
OH
OH

NO2
OH
O2N

NO2

Conc.HNO3
OH
OH
Br2
CHCl3
+
aq.NaOH

OH

CS2

Br
+

273
OH

Reimer Tiemrnn
Reaction

Br

Br
Br

aq.
Br2
ONa

Br

ONa

CHCl2

CHO
H+

NaOH

O
Na2Cr2O7

H2SO4
O

Acidity of Phenols:
Phenol is acidic due to resonance stabilized phenoxide ion.

Acidity Phenol Vs Alcohol:

OH
CHO

Phenols are stronger acid than alcohol and water because


(i) In phenol OH gp is attached to sp2 C-atom which being more electronegative
decreases c-dually on o-atom and increase of ionisation of phenols than that of alcohols.
(ii) In alkoxide in, the negative charge is localized on O-atom while in phenoxide ion,
change is delocalized as phenoxide in is resonance stabilized. Hence phenoxide ion is more
stabilized than alkoxide ion.

Distinction between primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols


Lucas test Alcohols are soluble in Lucas reagent (conc. HCland ZnCl2) while than
halides are insoluble and produce turbidity in solution.
If turbidity is produced immediately it is test alcohol, if after 5 min. it is sec alcohol and if
turbidity is not produced at roar keep. It is pri. Alcohol.

Test for phenol:


(i) FeCl3 test :- Phenol gives purple color with FeCl3 solution.
(ii) Br2 test :- Phenol decolorizes Br2 water forming tribromphenol as while ppt.

Preparation of Ethane:(i)

By dehydration of alcohols.
H2SO4
CH2 = CH2
443K
CH3 CH2 OH
H2 SO4
C2 H5O C2H5
413K
(ii) Williamson Syntheses (lab method)
RX + R1O Na

R OR1 + NaX

Physical Properties of Ethane:


(i) Boling point C-O bond in ethane polar and ethers have a net dipole moment. But in
weak and not affect then B.P. which they have lower B.P. than alcohol due to absence of
intermolecular H bonding in ethers.
(ii) Solubility The miscibility of ethers with reasonable those of alcohols of same
molecular ware as O-atom of ether can form H-bond with water.

Chemical Properties of ethers:


(a) Cleavage of C-O bond in ethers R O R + HX
R OH + HX
R
O
+ HX

(b) Electrophonic Substitution -

RX + R OH
RX + H2O
OH
+ RX

In Anisole OCH3 group attached to benzene group is ortho para directing and ring
activating and thus it gives ortho and para substituted products.

Very Short Answer type Questions


(1mark)
(i)
How do you account for themiscibility of ethoxyethane with water?
Ans:- Due to intermolecular hydrogen bonding between ether and water molecule.
(ii)
Write the I.U.P.A.C. name of the following compound :
H3C CH CH2 CH CH CH2OH
I
I
I
CH3
OH CH3
Ans:- 2,5 dimethylhexane 1,3 diol
(iii)
Give the I.U.P.A.C. name of the following compound :
H3C C = C CH2OH
I I
CH3 Br
Ans:- 2 bromo 3 methylbut 2eu 1ol
(iv)
Among HI, HBr, HCl, HI is most reactive towards alcohols. Why ?
Ans:- HI has lowest bond dissociation enthalpy due to longer bond lengh, that is why it is most
reactive.
(v)
Give the I.U.P.A.C. name of the following compound :
H2C = CH CH CH2 CH2 CH3
I
OH
Ans:- Hex 1 en- 3 ol
(vi)
C2H5ONa + CH3Br
C2H5OCH3 + NaBr, What is the name of the
reaction?
Ans:- Williamsons synthesis of ethers.
(vii) Convert ethyl alcohol to diethyl ether.
Ans:- 2C2H5OH

C2H5OC2H5 + H2O

(viii)

Give chemical test to distinguish between phenol and ethanol in seemingly similar
conditions.
Ans:Test
Phenol
Ehtnaol
Lucas Test:
No positive test
Cloudiness appear on heating. Comp. + Lucas
Reagent

(conc. HCl + Anhyd. ZnCl2)


(ix)
Ortho nitrophenol is more acidic than ortho methoxy phenol. Why?
Ans:- Because nitro group being electron withdrawing, increases acidic character whereas
methoxy group ( - OCH3) being electron releasing group decreases acidic character.
(x)
Complete the following reaction
CH3 CH CH3 PCl5
I
OH
Ans:- CH3 CH CH3 PCl5
CH3 CH CH3 POCl3 HCl
I
|

OH

Cl

Short Answer type Questions


(3mark)
Give a chemical test to distinguish between the following pairs of compounds.

(b) CH3 CH CH3


I

(i)

And

OH
Why is phenol more acidic than ethanol?

Ans:- (i) (a)


Test
1. Bromine Water test.

2. Ferric Chloride Test

Phenol
Cyclohexanol
Pale yellow ppt. of 2,4,6 Does not give this test
Tri bromo phenol is formed

Give Red to purple color.

Do not give any color

(b)
Test
2 Propanol (Sec. alcohol)
Lucas Test :
produces lubridity within 5 min.
No turbidity
Comp. + Lucas Reagent
Cl
(HCl + ZnCl2)
I
CH3 CH CH3 + HCl ----- CH3 CH CH3 + H2O
I
OH
(ii)
(1) O H group in this group is much more polar than that in alcohol.

(2) O H group in phenol is directly attached to the sp 2 C of benzene which acts


as an electron withdrawing group. So, in resonance structure of phenol the oxygen
of OH is +ve, which increases the polarity of O H bond.
(3) In alkoxide ion the ve change is localized on oxygen while in phenoxide ion,
the charge is delocalized. So, phenoxide ion is more stable (resonance establised)
(2) Write the reaction of Williamsons synthesis of 2-ethoxy-3methylpentane starting from ethanol
and 3-methylpentan-2-ol.
Ans:- (i) H3C CH2 CH CH CH3 ----Na--- H3C CH2 CH - ONa
I
I
I
I
CH3 OH
CH3 CH3
3 methylpentan-2ol
(ii)
(iii)

C2H5OH ------------P,Br2-------

C2H5Br

H3C CH2 CH ONa + C2H5Br ---------- H3C CH2 CH CH OC2H5


I
I
I
I
CH3 CH3
CH3 CH3

Chapter 12 ALDEHYDES, KETONES AND CARBOXYLIC


ACID
ALDEHYDES: Compounds in which the carbonyl group (>C=O) is bonded to a
carbon & hydrogen atom. (R-CHO)
KETONES: Compounds in which the carbonyl group (>C=O) is bonded to 2 Catoms.
CARBOXYLIC ACID: Compounds in which the carbonyl group (>C=O) is bonded
to O-atom.
(R-COOH)
STRUCTURE OF CARBONYL GROUP:-

The carbonyl C-atom is sp2 hybridised forming 3 sigma bonds & remaining
electron in p-orbital forms pie bond with O-atom. The O-atom has 2 L.p. The
bond angle is 120 degree (trigonal coplaner).
The C O double bond is polar with net dipole moment & are more polar than
ethers.
PREPARATION OF ALDEHYDE:11. From acyl chloride (acid chloride) or Rosenmind reaction.
O
CHO

H2

Cl

Pd /
BaSO4

12. From nitrile or Stephen reaction.


RCN + SnCl2 + HCl
RCH=NH

H3O+/H O

RCHO

13. From esters.


1. DIBAL-H

CH3(CH2)9 --- C --- OC2H5


14.

2. H2O

CH3(CH2)9 --- C --- H

From hydrocarbons.
1. By oxidation of methylbenzene :=
[i] use of chromyl chloride (CrO2Cl2) or Etard reaction :::)
CH3
CH (OCrOHCl2)2
+ CrO2Cl2
CHO
[ii] Use of chromic oxide (CrO3) :::)
CH3
+ CrO3 + (CH3CO)2O
CHO

273278K

CH(OCOCH) 2

+C2H5OH

H 3O +
2. By side chain chlorination followed by hydrolysis :=
CH3

CHCl 2

CHO

Cl2 / hv

373K

H2O

3. By Gatterman Koch reaction :=


CHO

CO\HCl
Anh. AlCl3 / CuCl3
PREPARATION OF KETONES:
From acyl chlorides .
2R C Cl + R2Cd

2R C R + CdCl2

From nitriles.
NMgBr

CH3CH2 C-- N

+ C6H5MgBr

CH3CH2 C
C 6H 5
H30+/H2O

C6H5 -- C
C6H5

From benzene or substituted benzene or Friedal crafts acylation


reaction.

C Ar / R

+ Ar/R COCl
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ALDEHYDE & KETONES:(ii) Boiling point:: B.P of aldehyde & ketones are higher than hydrocarbons &
ethers of comparable masses due to weak molecular association in
aldehydes & ketones arising due to dipole-dipole interaction . But the
B.P are lower than alcohols of similar molecular masses due to absence
of intermolecular H-bonding.
(iii) Solubility:: Lower members are soluble in water due to intermolecular Hbonding but solubility decreases with increasing molecular mass.
3.

Test To Distinguish Aldehydes And Ketones

(i)

Tollens test:

Aldehydes give this test but ketones do not.


+

RCHO + 2[Ag(NH3)2] + 3OH


RCOO + 2H2O +4NH3 +2Ag
Tollens reagent : Tollens reagent is Ammonical Silver nitrate solution
(ii)

Fehlings Test: Aldehydes give this test but aromatic aldehydes and ketones do not.
Fehlings reagent- Fehling solution A(aq. Copper sulphate solution) and Fehling
solution
B(alkaline sodium potassium tartarate or Rochelle salt)
+2.

RCHO + 2Cu
+ 5OH
RCOO + 3H2O + Cu2O (Red brown ppt.)
Haloform (Indoform) test: Aldehydes and ketones having methyl ketones CH3CO group
give this test. Compounds containing CH3CH(OH) group give this test of ethanol.
X2/NaOH
R CO CH3
R COONa + CHX3 (X=Cl, Br,I)
(Haloform)

Reaction due to hydrogen

Aldol condensation :

Given by aldehydes and ketones containing atleast one H- atom


2CH3CHO
CH3-CH-CH2-CHO
H20
CH3- CH - CH-CHO
Dil.NaOH
OH
-H2O aldol condensation product
Aldol

Ba(OH)2
2CH3COCH3

CH3

CH3-C-CH2-COCH3

-H2O
(CH3)2- C= CH-COCH3

OH

Cross Aldol condensation: Aldol condensation is carried out between


two different or ketenes

2CH3CH0+CH3CH2CHO

CH3CH =CHCHO+CH3-CH2-CH = CH(CH3)CHO +CH3CH=CH(CH3)CHO +CH3CH2CH= CHCHO

Other reactions:
1.

Cannizzaros reaction: this is a disproportion reaction


given by only aldehydes having no -H atom. Ketones do not give this
reaction

2.

Electtrophilic substitution reaction:


both Aldehydes and ketones . in this
and meta-directing group.

Given by
O group acts as a deactivating

CARBOXYLIC ACID
1. Structure of carboxylic group: carboxyl C-atom is less electrophilic than
carbonyl C-atom because of resonance.

Preparation of carboxylic acid:


1. From primary Aldehydes and alcohols:
Alk. KMnO 4
RCH2OH

RCOOH
+

H 3O
2.

From alkyl benzene:

aromatic carboxylic acid are


prepares by this method. Entire side chain is oxidized to the carboxyl
group irrespective to the of its length. Test group is not affected.
CH 2CH2CH3

CHO

COOH

H3O

KMnO4-KOH

3.

From nitriles and amides:


H2O/dil

RCN

H20

R-CO-NH2

HCL

H20/dil
CH3CONH2
4.

RCOOH

HCL
CH3COOH + NH3

From Grignard reagent:


RMgX + O

R-COOMgX

RCOOH + Mg(OH)X

5.

From alkyl halides and hydrides:


H20

RCOOH + Cl

RCOCl
-

H20

RCOOH + HCl RCOOH

(C6H5CO) 2O
6.

2C6H5COOH

From esters:
COOC2H5

COOH

+
NaOH
CH3CH2CH2COOC2H5

C2H5OH

CH3CH2CH2COONa + C2H5OH

Basic
hydrolysis

Physical properties:
1. Boiling point: have higher
7.

boiling point than Aldehydes and


ketones and even alcohols of comparable molecular mass due to more
extensive
association
of
carboxylic
acid
molecules
through
intermolecular H-bonding, which is not broken completely even in
vapour phase as most of them exist as dimer in the vapour phase and in
aprotic solvents.
2. Solubility: decreases with increased mass
1. Acidic nature: cleavage of O-H bond
2RCOOH+2Na
2R-COO-Na+
+ H2
+
R-COOH +NaOH
RCOONa
+ H2 O
RCOOH + NaHCO3
RCOO-Na+ + H2O + CO2
2. Cleavage of C-OH bond:
i.
Formation of anhydride:
2RCOOH
ii.

RCOOCOR

Esterification :
RCOOH +ROH

RCOOR

+ H 2O

iii.

Reaction with PCl5,PCl3 and SOCl2


PCl5
RCOCl + PCl3 + HCl
PCl3
RCOOH
RCOCl +H3PO4
SOCl2
RCOCl +SO2 +HCl

iv.

Reaction with ammonia:


CH3COOH + NH3

CH3COO-NH4+

CH3CONH2

Substitution reaction in the hydrogen part:


1. Hell Volhard Zelinsky reaction-

Halogenations at the position of carboxylic acid having an - H atom to


give halogen carboxylic acid
Cl2/P(Red)
R-CH2-COOH
RCH-COOH
X
(X=Cl,Br)

2.Ring substitution-

Electrophilic substitutionin which the


cooh group acts as deactivating and m-directing group

COOH
Conc. HNO3

NO2Conc. H2SO4
MARK QUESTIONS

ONE
(i)

COOH
+

Write the structural formula of


(a) 1-phenylpentan-1-one

Ans: - (a)

(b) 3-oxopentanal

(ii)

O
O
II
II
(b) H-C-CH2-C-CH2-CH3
Give the I.U.P.A.C names of the following compound

Ans: - 2-ethylcyclopent-3enecarboxylic acid


(iii)
Give chemical test to distinguish between phenol and benzoic acid.
Ans:- Test
Phenol
Benzoic Acid
NaHCO3 Test:
No Reaction.
With effervescence CO2
Add a few drops of
is evolved.
aq. sol. (saturated) of
C6H5COOH + NaHCO3 --
NaHCO3.
C6H5COONa + H2O + CO2
(iv)
Why do acryl chlorides have lower boiling point than corresponding acids ?
Ans:- Acyl chlorides do not have intermolecular H-bonding while corresponding
acids have H-bonding.
(v)
Complete the following reactions and name the major products
(a) CH3CHO
------------
(b) CHCl3 + C2H5NH2 + 3KOH(alc)
-------------

OH
O
I
II
Ans:-(a) CH3CHO ------- CH3-CH-CH2-C-H (3-Hydroxy butanal or aldol)
(b) CHCl3 + C2H5NH2 + 3KOH (alc.) --------- C2H5NC + 3KCl + 3H2O
Ethyl isocyanides
(vi)
How will you convert Ethanol to Acetaldehyde?
O
II
Ans:- CH3CH2OH --------- CH3-C-H + H2
Ethanol
Acetaldehyde
(vii) Arrange the following in increasing order of acidic character :
HCOOH, CH2ClCOOH , CF3COOH , CCl3COOH
Ans:- HCOOH < CH2ClCOOH < CCl3COOH < CF3COOH
(viii) Write the IUPAC name of the compound :
CH3-CH-CO-CH-CH3
I
I
CH3
CH3
Ans:- 2,4 Dimethylpentan-3-one

(ix)
Name two important uses of formalin
Ans:-1. Used as preservative for biological specimens.
2. Used for preparation of Bakelite.
(x)
Write the structure of phenyl-2-(phenyl) ethanoate.
Ans:-

5 Marks Questions
1. Identify the unknown organic compounds. (A) to (E) in the following series of
chemical reactions

2. An organic compound (A) having molecular formula C9H10O forms an orange red ppt (B) with
2,4 DNP reagent. Compound (A) gives a yellow ppt (C) when heated in the presence of Iodine
and NaOH along with a colourless compound (D). (A) does not reduce Tollens reagent or
Fehlings sol. Nor does it decolourise bromine water. On drastic oxidation of (A) with Chromic
acid, a carboxylic acid (E) of molecular formula C7H6O2 is formed. Deduce the structure of the
organic compounds (A) to (E).

3. A compound (A) with molecular formula, C5H11O, on oxidation forms compound (B) with
molecular formula, C5H10O. The compound B gives iodoform test but does not reduce ammonical
silver nitrate. (B) on reduction with amalgamated Zinc & HCl gives compound (C) with molecular
formula C5H12. Identify A, B & C. Write down the chemical reaction involved.

5. (a) (i) Ketones are less reactive towards nucleophiles than aldehydes.
(ii) Benzoic acid is stronger acid than ethanoic acid.
(iii) Which acid is stronger- Phenol or Cresol? Explain.
Ans.(a)
(i)
(ii)

The Alkyl group in Ketones decreases the positive charge on the Carboxyl carbon due
to + I effect, makes > C= O less polar than Aldehyde and decreasing the attacking
tendency of the nucleophile.
(ii) Phenyl group in Benzoic acid has weak +R effect and thus destablises the
Carboxylate anion, makes it a stronger base. +I effect of Methyl group in Acetic acid is
still greater than +R effect of Phenyl group. This further destabalises the Acetate ion
comparatively, makes it a stronger base than Benzoic acid. So, acetic acid is weaker
than Benzoic acid.

Cresol is a weaker acid than Phenol because +I effect of R group at the ortho and para position
increases electron density on the Benzene nucleus, decreasing stability of ArO- ion making it a
stronger base as O-H bond becomes less polar. Hence, substituted Phenol is less acidic than
Phenol.

Unit-13 Organic Compounds containing nitrogen


Points to be remembered:-

1. Alkyl or Aryl derivatives of ammonia


10 Primary amine
R-NH2
20 Secondary amine
R2NH
0
3 Tertiary amine
R3-N
2. IUPAC nomenclature
Alkane amine in place of e of alkane for secondary and tertiaryN-alkyl or
N<N-dialkyl alkanamium.
3. Structure is pyramidal
4. Preparation
(a)Reduction of nitro compounds
H2/ Pd or Ni or Pt
Sn + HCl
Ar-NO2
Ar-NH2
Ar-NH2
(b)Ammonolysis of alkyl halides
R-X + NH3
R-NH2 + NH4X
0
0
If Alkyl halide is in excess 2 and 3 Amines can be prepared
(c)Reduction of nitrites
R-C

H2 /Ni

R-CH2-NH2

(d)Reduction of amides
R-CONH2
R-CONH2

R-CH2-NH2
R-CH2-NH2

LiAlH4

(F)Hoffman bromamide degradation reaction


R-CONH2 + Br2 + 4NaOH
R-NH2 + Na2CO3 + 2NaBr
+ 2H2O
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES:
5.(a)Boiling point increase with the increase in molecule weight. Primary and
secondary amines have higher boiling point than the tertiary amines of same
molecular weight due to possibility of intermolecular hydrogen bonding in
(b)Solubility: - lower members are readily soluble in water due to Hbonding.Solubility in water decreases and in organic solvent increase with
increase in molecular weight. As the alkyl group predominates over the amino
group thus less tendency of H-bond with water.
6. Basic characters of amines
R-NH2 + H2O
R-N+H3 + OHLarger value of kb or smaller the value of pkb stronger is the base.
In gases phase basis strength is as follows:
Tertiary amine > secondary > primary > ammonis
Because of the presence of electron release alkyl group which stabilizes
ammonium cations and makes nitrogen unshared or lone pair of electron
available for sharing.
In solution
Secondary > tertiary > primary
Stabilization due to: electron-releasing effect of alkyl group
: salvation trough H-bonding
: steric factor/hindrance
(C2H5)2NH > (C2H5)3N > C2H5NH2 > NH3
(CH3)2NH > CH3NH3 > (CH3)3N > NH3
Aryl/Aromatic amines are weaker than aliphatic amines and
ammonia.
Resonance stabilization of aryl amines makes unshared electron pair on
nitrogen less available for protonation.
In case of substituted aniline electron-releasing groups like -0CH3,
-CH3 etc increases basic strength
Whereas electron with drawing groups like NO 2,-SO3,-COOH,-X decreases
basic strength.
E.g. increasing basic strength
7. Alkylation:
+R-Br
+R-Br
R-NH2
8. Acylation:

-HBr

R2NH

-HBr

R3N

R-NH2 + RC-Cl
acid chloride
R-N-H2 + Cl C-R

R-N-C-R + HCl
R-N-C-R + HCl

H O
C6H5-N-C-R + RCOOH
H O

C6H5-N-H

+ R-C-O-C-R
H
O
O
acid anhydride
RNH2 + C6H5COCl
RNHCOC6H5 +HCl
BENZOYL CHLORIDE
9. Carbylamines reaction (isocyanide test):
HEAT
R-NH2 + CHCl3 + 3KOH
R-NC +3KCl +3H2O
alkyl carbylamines
10. Reaction with nitrous acid:
R-NH2 + `HNO2NaNO2+H
Cl
+HCl

[R-N2+Cl-]
H2O

ROH

+N2

NaNO2+2HC
C6H5N2+Cl- + NaCl + 2H2O
l
273-278 K
11. Reaction with arylsulphonyl chloride (Hinsbergs test):
O
O
C6H5-NH2

Ar-S-Cl + H-N-C2H5

Ar-S-N-C2H5 + HCl

O
SULPHONAMIDE)
Benzenesuphonylchloride
O

O(NO

Ar-S-Cl + H-N-C2H5
O

Ar-S-N-C2H5 + HCl

C2H5

O C2H5
(N,N-

DIETHYLBENZENESULPHONAMIDE)
12. Electophilic substitution:
a) Bromination
NH2
Br
NH2
Br2/H2O

ETHYLBENZENE

Br
3HBr

Br
(2,4,6-TRIBROMOANILINE)
O
NH2

H-N-C-CH3
NH2

H-

O
N-C-CH3

OH- OR H+

Br
PYRIDI
NE

CH3CO
OH

Br
Br

b) Nitration:
NH2
NO2

NH2

NH2

NH2

HNO3, H2SO4

+
NH2

288K
(CH3CO)2O

NHCOCH3
HNO3, H2SO4

+
NHCOCH3
OH- OR H+

288K
NH2
PYRIDI
NE

(D) FRIEDAL CRAFT REACTON


Aniline does not undergo this reaction due to salt formation with AlCl3,
the Lewis acid
:
NH2
NH2AlCl3

+AlCl3

DIAZONIUM SALTS

( RN+2X-)

Preparation by diazotization.
C6H5NH2 + NaNO2 + 2HCl

C6H5N2Cl + NaCl + 2H2O

1. Reaction involving displacement of nitrogen.


(a) Replacement by halide or cyanide ion
Sand Meyer Reaction:
ArCl + N2
CuCl/HCl
ArN+2XArBr + N2
CuBr/HBr
ArCN + N2
CuCN/KCN

Gatterman Reaction:

ArCl + N2 +CuX
Cu/HCl

ArN+2X-

ArBr + N2 +CuX
Cu/HBr
(b) Replacement of iodine ion:
ArN+2Cl- + KI
ArI + KCl + N2
( c) Replacement by Fluoride ion :
ArN+2Cl- +HBF4
ArN+2 BF-4
(d) Replacement By H :
H3PO2 + H2O
+
ArN 2Cl
ArH + N2 +H3PO3 +HCl

Ar-F + BF3

CH3CH2OH
ArH +N2 +CH3CHO + HCl
(e) Replacement by Hydroxyl group:
ArN+2Cl- + H2O
ArOH + N2 + HCl
(f)
Replacement by --NO2 group:
+
+
N2ClN2BF-4
NO2
NaNO2
+ HBF4

+ N2 + NaBF4
Cu
Flouroboric acid

2. Reaction involving retention of Diazo Group


Coupling reaction:
OHN+= NCl- + H-

N=N-

-OH

OH

p-hydroxyozobenzene
(Orange dye)

-N =NCl +

H-

OH--NH2

-N=N--

NH2+
P-Amioazobenzene

+H2O
(Yello
w dye)

Very Short Answer type Questions


(1mark)
Q.1.How will you convert aniline to benzoic acid?
Ans.
N2+ClNH2

ANILINE
CN

COOH

Q.2.What product is obtained by Hoffman degradation of m-bromobenzamide?


Ans. m-bromoaniline is obtained
Q.3.What happen when benzonitrite is treated with LiAlH4?
Ans. Benzylamine is obtained
CN
CH2NH2
LiAl

Q.4.What for are quaternary ammonia salts widely used?

+H2O+C

Ans. Quaternary ammonium salts are used as detergents.

Q.5.How is aniline converted into flourobenzene ?


+
N2 Cl
NH2
F
HONO+HQ
0-5oc

N 2BF4

HBF4
LiAl

Aniline
benzenediazonium chloride
Flourobenz
Q.4.Arrange in increasing orderof their basic strength
(a)C2H5OH, (CH3)2NH, C2H5NH2.(Increasing order of b.p.)
(b)C6H5NH2,(C2H5)2NH,C2H5NH2.(INCREASING ORDER OF SOLUBILITY IN WATER)
Ans.
(a). (CH3)2NH< C2H5NH2< C2H5OH.
(b). C6H5NH2<(C2H5)2NH<C2H5NH2.
Q.5.Explain (a).coupling reaction.
(b). Sandmeyers reaction.
Ans.(a). Benzene diazonium chloride couples with electron rich aromatic
compounds like phenols and amines to give azocompounds. The azo
compounds contains N=N- bond and the reaction coupling reaction.
C6H5N2+Cl- + C6H5OH
C6H5-N=N-C6H5-0H (p)
p-HYDROXYAZOBENZENE
(b)When benzene diazonium salts is treated with cuprous chloride or cuprous
bromide at roomtemrature, chlorobenzene or bromobenzene is formed .this
reaction is known as sandmeyers reaction.
C6H5N2+Cl- +
CuCl/HCl
C6H6Cl + N2

Short Answer type Questions


(3mark)
Q1.(a) Give possible explanation for each of the following:(i) the presence of a base is needed in the ammonolysis of alkyl halides.

(ii)aromatic primary amines cannot be prepared by Gabriel phtaliminde


synthesis
(b)Write the IUPAC name of CH3-N-C-CH3 C2H5
(a)
(i) To remove the HX produced during the rn.
(ii)
Aryl halides do not undergo nucleophilic substitutionWITH
POTASSIUM PHTHALIMIDE.
(b) N-Ethyl-N-methylethanamide.
2.Account for the following :(i) Pkb of aniline is morethan that of methylamine.
(ii) Ethylamine is soluble in water whreas aniline is not.
(iii) Methylamine in water reacts with ferric chloride to precipitate hydrated
ferric oxide.
Ans- (i) aniline has an electron withdrawing phenyl group so it is the weaker
base than ammonia. Methyl group in methylamine is electron donating group
so it is stronger base than ammonia.
(ii)ethyl group in ethylamine is comparatively a small group and causes no
hindrance in formation of hydrogen bonding and hence it is soluble in water.
(iii) methylamine behaves like aqueous ammonia and in similar way it
precipitates metal as hydroxides from metal salts
CH3NH2 + H2O CH3N+H3OH- 3CH3NH3+OH- + FeCl33(CH3NH3)+Cl+ Fe(OH)3
Ques) arrange the following
(i)
in decreasing order of the pKb value:
C2H5NH2, C6H5NHCH3,(C2H5)2NH AND CH3NH2
(ii)
in decreasing order of basic strength: C6H5NH2, C6H5N(CH3)2,
(C2H5)2NH and CH3NH2
(iii)
in increasing order of basic strength:
(a)
aniline,p-nitroaniline and p-toylidine
(b)
C6H5NH2,C6H5NHCH3,C6H5CH2NH2
Ans) (i) C6H5NH2>C6H5NHCH3>C2H5NH2>(C2H5)2NH
(ii) (C2H5)2NH>CH3NH2>C6H5NH2>C6H5N(CH3)2
(iv)
(a) p-nitroaniline<aniline<p-toulidine
(b)C6H5NH2<C6H5NCH3<C6H5CH2NH2
Q-4 Give plausible explanation of each of the following:
i)
Why are amines less acidic than alcohols of comparable molecular
masses?
Why primary amines are having higher boiling point than tertiary amines?
ii)
Why aliphatic amines are having stronger bases than aromatic amines?
iii)
(i)Amines are less acidic than alcohols of comparable molecular masses
because the anion formed is not is not stabilized enough due to presence of
unshared electro pair on the nitrogen atom.
iv)
R-NH2
RNH- + H+
v)
(ii) In primary amines , nitrogen bears two hydrogen atoms whereas in
tertiary amines nitrogen bears no hydrogen atom hence the hydrogen bonding
is more prominent. This is why primary amines have higher boiling point than
amines.

vi)
(iii) In aromatic amines, aryl group has an electron withdrawing Phenyl
group on the nitrogen atom. It decreases electron density on nitrogen atom
and makes it a weaker base than ammonia.

CHAPTER-14 BIO MOLECULES


POINTS TO BE REMEMBERED:1. CARBOHYDRATES:-There are optically active poly hydroxyl aldehydes or
ketones or the compounds which produce such units on hydrolysis they have
general formula Cx(H )y.
2. CLASSIFICATION On the basis of them behaviours on hydrolysis they are
classified as:
(a).Monosaccharide:- The carbohydrates which cannot hydrolysied further .
Eg. Glucose , Fructose.
(b).Oligosaccharides:- The carbohydrates which give 2 to10 monosaccharids
units on hydrolysis. Eg. Sucrose, maltose.
( c).Polysaccharides:- The carbohydrates which give large number of
monosaccharides on hydrolysis. Eg. Starch, cellulose.
3. SUGARS: - The carbohydrates which are sweets in taste are called
sugar .eg. Sucrose, lactose.
4. NON SUGARS: - The carbohydrates which are not sweets in taste.eg.
Starch, celloluse.
5. REDUCING SUGAR:- Sugars which reduse fehling solution and tollens
regent.
Eg. Glucose, fructose.
6. NON REDUCING SUGER:-which do not reduce Fehling or tollens reagent.
Eg;-sucrose.

Structure of Glucose
7. CYCLIC STRUCTURE OF GLUCOSE:The straight chain structure of glucose is unable to explain the following
reaction.
(a) It does not give the2, 4-DNP test, Schiff test and doesnt form
hydrogensulphide addition product with NaHSO3.
(b)The pentaactate of glucose does not react with NH2OH indicating the
absence of CHO-group.

(c) It exits in two different crystalline and forms .They are called
anomers.They differ in optical rotation .They have different melting
point.
HAWORTH STRUCTURE

- D Glucose

- D Glucose

8. STARCH:- Main storage polysaccharide of plants has two components


amylase and amylopectin.
9. PROTIENS: - Protiens are long polymers of amino acids linked by peptide
bands. They are essential for proper growth and maintaince of body.
10. AMMINOACIDS:- It contain amino and carboxylicacid functional group.
R-CH-COOH
|
NH2
11. ESSENTIAL AMMINO ACID:-Amino acid which cannot be synthesized in
the body and are obtained from diet.eg.Valine, Lysine.
12. NON-ESSENTIAL AMINO ACID:- The amino acid which can be
synthesized in the body are called non essential amminoacid.eg.Glysine,
serine, proline.
13. ZWITTER ION: - In aqueous solution the carboxyl group can lose a proton
and amino group can accept a proton, giving rise a dipoler ion called as zwitter
ion.

14. CLASSIFICATION:(A) FIBROUS PROTEIN:1. Polypeptide chains run parallel or antiparllel & held together by
hydrogen and disulphide bonds.
2. Generally in soluble in water. Eg-collagen, myorin, fibroin.
(B) GLOBULAR PROTIEN:1. Chains of polypeptide coil around to give spherical shape.
2. Usually soluble in water. E.g. Insulin, hemoglobin.
15. DENATURATION OF PROTEIN: - The proteins in its native form, when
subjected to physical change like temperature, PH etc undergoes uncoiling
and loses its biological activity. This is called denaturation of proteins.

The secondary and tertiary structures are destroyed, only primary structure
retained.
eg: coagulation of egg while on heating.
16. VITAMINS:The organic compound required in the diet in small amounts
to perform specific biological function and is not synthesized by our body.
17. CLASIFICATION: - ON THE BASIS OF THEIR SOULIBLITY IN WATER OR FAT.
(a)FAT SOLUBLE VITAMIN: - They are insoluble in water but soluble in fat.eg
vitaminA, B, E, K.
(b)WATER SOLUBLE VITAMIN: - Vitamin B & C
Vitami
Source
n
A
CARROT, BUTTER & MILK

deficiency

YEAST, LIVER, GREEN VEGETABLE

disease
XEROPHTHAL MIA,
NIGHT BLIDNESS
BERI-BERI

CITRUS FRUIT.AMLA

SCURVY

SUNLIGHT ,FISH
EGG YALK

RICKETS

18. NUCLEIC ACIDS: - These are bimolecules which are long chain polymers
of nucleotides. They are DNA& RNA.
19. COMPOSITION O F NUCLEIC ACID: - They are made-up of a pentane
sugar (B-D-2 dexoyribose in DNA d B-D-ribose in RNA), phosphoric acid and
nitrogen containing heterocyclic compound. (BASE)
(a) DNA: - Base adenine (A), Thymine (t), guanine (g) and cytosine(C).
(b)RNA:- Contain adenine(A),guanine(G),cytosine(C)and Uralic(U).
20. ENZYMES: - Enzyme are bio-catalyst and are generally globular protein
e.g. zymase, maltase.
VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTION
(1 marks)
Q.1 what are reducing sugar?
A.1 The sugar which reduces Fehling solution and tollens regent .eg.glucose.
Q.2 Name the deficiency diseases resulting from lack of vitamin A and
C?
A.2 Xerophthalmia & scurvy.
Q.3 What is name given to the linkage which hold together to
monomeric units in polysaccharide?
A.3 Glycosidie linkage.
Q.4 Name the enzyme which convert sucrose into glucose and
fructose?
A.4 Invertase.
Q.5What are the components of starch?
A.5 Amylase and amylopectin..
Q.6 Why is cellulose in our diet not nourishing?

A.6 Our body does not have enzyme which help in digestion of cellulose.
Q.7 Name the purines present in DNA?
A.7Adenine and guanine.
Q.8Why vitamin C cannot be stored in our body?
A.8 It is water soluble & readily excreted in urine.
Q.9Give two examples of non- essential amminoacid?
A.9
Glycine and alamine.
Q.10 What are different types of RNA found in the cell?
A.10
1.m. RNA 2. t. RNA 3.r. RNA
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTION
(2 marks)
Q.1STATE two difference between globular protein and fibrous
protein?
A.1.(a)They are -helix structure. While they have -pleated structures.
(b)They are soluble in water while they are insoluble in water.
Q.2What are essential amino acids? Give two examples.
A.2 The amino acid which cannot be synthesized in the body we get
from our
Diet e.g. Valine and leuline.
Q.3 What is glycogen? How is it different from starch?
A.3 It is a polysaccharide found in all animal cells mainly in muscles
and liver. Carbohydrates are stored in animal body as glycogen where in plant
body as starch.
Q.4How are vitamins are classified? Name the vitamin responsible
for the
cogulation of blood.
A.4Vitamins are classified on the basis of their solubility as fat soluble and
water soluble. Vitamin K
Q.5 What are nucleic acids? Mention their two important function.
A.5 They are polymers of nucleotides having ribose or deoxyribose sugar,
hetrocyclic base like A,G,C,T and U and phosphoric acid.
Q.6 What is difference between DNA &RNA on the basis of bases they
contain?
A.6 Both have two bases derived from purine, adenine and guanine and two
bases from pyramidine, thymine and cytocine but in RNA there is Uralic in
place of thymine of DNA.
Q.7 (a). Which forces are responsible for the stability of x-helix? (b).
What is denaturation of protein?
A.7
a. Hydrogen bonding
b. When 2 &3 degree structure are ruptured then the proteins are said
to be denatured. It is done by heating or change in pH.
Q.8
Where does the water present in the egg go after boiling the
egg?
A.8 When egg is boiled the water present in the egg is used in denaturation
of protein
through H-bounding.In this the globular protein in the egg
changes to rubber like insoluble mass
Q.9What are the enzymes? Give two examples.
A.9 The enzymes are biocatalyst . Eg maltose and urease.

Q.10 What is difference between nucleoside and a nucleotide?


A.10
A nucleotide contain only two basic components of nucleic acid
pentose sugar and nitrogenous base .But nucleotide contain all three
components phosphoric acid group,pentosesugar and nitrogenous base.
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTION
(3 marks)
Q.1Define the following as related to proteins
A.Peptide linkage
B. Primary structure
C.Denaturation
A.1A. Peptide linkage: - The bond formed by condensation reaction between
amminoacid in protein and polypeptide is called peptide linkage.
B. Primary structure:- The sequence in which amminoacid are linked with each
other in polypeptide chain forms primary structure .
C. Denaturation:- The process in which 2&3 degree structure of protein are
destroyed but 1 degree structure remain as the same is called denaturation.
Q.2 What are essential and non-essential amminoacid? Give two
examples of each type.
A.2 Essential amminoacid: - Those amminoacid which are not synthesized in
the body.
Eg. Valine, leucine.
Non-essential amminoacid: - those amminoacid which are produced in
our body.
Eg.glycine,alaine.
Q.3 Enumerate the reaction of D-glucose which can not be explained
by it open chain structure?
A.3 Open chain structure can not be explained by following reasons:a. Despite having the aldehydegroup, glucose does not give suhiffs test . 2,
4-DNA test
b. Glucose does not react with NaHSO3 to form addition product.
c. The pent acetate of glucose does not react with NH2OH showing the
absence of CHO group.
Q.4 Define the following and give one example of each?
(a) ISOELECTRIC POINT (b) MUTAROTATION (c) ENZYMES
(a) ISOELECTRIC POINT:- The PH at which no net migration of amminoacid
take place under the influence of an applied electric field is called isoelectric
point.
Ex-Amminoacid exits as zwitter ion at PH 5.5 to 6.3
(b) MUTAROTATION:- Spontaneous change in optical rotation when an optical
active substance is dissolved in water. e.g. -D-glucose when dissolved in
water, its optical rotation changes from 111 to 52.5 degree.
(C) ENZYMES: - They are biological catalyst which catalises specific
biochemical reaction.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

UNIT 15 POLYMERS
Points to be remembered:Polymers Polymer is a very large molecule having high molecular mass 10 3
to 107 g/mol. They are formed by joining together repeating simple unit.
Polymerizations- The process of formation of polymers from respective
monomers is called polymerization.
CLASSIFICATION OF POLYMERS
1) Based on source
a) Natural found in plants and animals e.g proteins, cellulose,
starch, rubber.
b) Semi-synthetic Derived from naturally occurring polymers by
chemical modifications e.g cellulose acetate, cellulose nitrate.
c) Synthetic These are prepared in laboratories .They are also
called man made polymers. e.g Nylon, polythene, PVC , BunaS.
2) Base on structure
a) Linear polymers They consists of long and straight chain of
repeating units e.g polythen,PVC.
b) Branched chain They contain linear chain having some
branches. e.g. amylopectin, glycogen.
c) Cross linked polymers They have strong covalent bond
between various linear polymer chains e.g Bakelite,
melamine.
c) Based on mode of Polymerization:-

(i) Addition Polymers: - These are formed by the repeated addition of monomer
molecules having multiple bonds. e.g. polythenes, polypropene, polystyrene.
(ii) Condensation Polymers: - These are formed by repeated condensation
reaction of different bi-functional or tri-functional monomers with the
elimination of small molecules like water, HCl, NH 3, etc. e.g.: Polythene,
Bakelite, nylon.
(d) Based on molecular forces:(i) Elastomers: - Forces of interaction between polymer, chain is weakest. e.g.:
Natural rubber, neoprene.
(ii) Fibres: - Strong hydrogen bonds are present between the polymers chain
.e.g.: Nylon, Bakelite.
(iii) Thermoplastics: - They are linear or slightly branched chain molecule
capable of repeated softening of heating and hardening on cooling. E.g.:
Polythene, PVC, polypropene.
(iv) Thermosetting Polymers: - They are cross linked or heavily branched
molecules which on heating undergo extensive cross linking and become
infusible. e.g.: Bakelite.
(e) Based on growth of polymerization:- Depending upon the mechanism of
polymerization polymers are classified as
(i) Addition Polymer OR Chain Polymer:They follow mostly free radical mechanism. The process starts with phenyl
free radical formed by peroxide which adds with the double bond of ethene to
form larger free radical. This step is called Chain Initiating Step. This reacts
with another molecule to form bigger radical. This is Chain Propagation Step.
This reacts with another radical to form polymerized product. This is called the
Chain Terminating Step.
CHAIN INITIATING STEP:
2C6H5C-O*
2*C6H5
O
Phenyl Radical

C6H5-C-O-O-C-C6H5
O
O
Benzoyl peroxide
*
C6H5 + CH2=CH2
CHAIN PROPAGATION:
C6H5CH2-*CH2 + CH2=CH2
CHAIN TERMINATING:
C6H5-(CH2-CH2)n-CH2-*CH2
+
C6H5-(CH2-CH2)-CH2-*CH2

C6H5-CH2-*CH2
C6H5-(CH2-CH2)n-CH2-*CH2
C6H5-(CH2-CH2)-CH2-CH2
C6H5-n(CH2-CH2)-CH2

Polythene
(ii) Condensation Polymers or Step Growth Polymers:-They are formed
by gradual steps.
Some Important Polymers:
NAME OF
POLYMERS
Polythene

MONOMERS

Ethane

STRUCTURE

-(CH2-CH2)n-

USES

Insulating wire ,

Teflon

CF2=CF2

-(CF2-CF2)n-

Terylene or
Daeron

CH2OH
|
CH2OH
+
HOOC-COOH
H2N-(CH2)6-NH2
+
HOOC-(CH2)4COOH

-[O-CH2-CH2-O

Nylon-6,6

Nylon-6

O
H
C
H2C
|
CH2
H2C
CH2

Buna-S

-n[C-

|
-C=O

dustbin, toys
Oil seal &
gaskets.
Ropes, tyre
cord ,Safely belts,
sarees & dress
materials

O
-[N-(CH2)6-N-C=O
|
|
H
O H
-n[-C--(CH2)4
O
H
||
|
-[C-(CH2)5-N]n-

Socks, ropes ,
bristle for brushes

Tyre cord, Fabrics,


Ropes

CH2CH2=CHCH=CH2
+

Floor tiles, foot


wears
-[CH2-CH=CH-CH2-CHCH2]n-

-CH=CH2
Buna-N

Natural Rubber
Neoprene

CH2=CHCH=CH2
+
CN
|
CH2=CH2
CH2=C-CH=CH2
|
CH3
Cl
|
CH2-C-CH=CH2

-[CH2-CH=CH-CH2-CH2CH]n
|
CN

Oil seal tank


lining

CH3
|
-[CH2-C=CH-CH2]nCl
|
-[CH2-C=CH-CH2]n-

Used for tyres


Conveyor belts,
gasket.

Nylon-2-Nylon-6

H2NCH2COOH
Glycine
+
H2N-(CH2)5COOH
Amino caproic
acid

O
-[C-CH2-NH-CO(CH2)5NH]n-

Biodegradable
Polymer

RUBBER:1.
Natural Rubber: - It is a linear polymer of isoprene. It is prepared from
rubber latex.
CH3
CH3
|
|
CH2=C-CH=CH2
-[CH2-C=CHCH2]nIsoprene
Natural rubber
2.
Vulcanization of Rubber:- Natural rubber is soft , soluble in non-polar
solvents. To improve its physical properties it is vulcanized. The process of
heating raw rubber with sulphur and additive to make it hard, more resistant
and elastic is called Vulcanization of rubber. Sulphur form cross- links at the
reactive site of double bonds.
3.
Synthetic Rubber:- These are obtained by polymerization of butadiene or
its derivative are called Synthetic rubber. e.g. Buna-S, Buna-N.
4.
Biodegradable Polymers: - The polymers which are decomposed by the
micro-organism into simple molecule are called Biodegradable Polymers. They
do not pollute the environment. e.g. PHBV, Nylon-2-nylon-6.

HO-CH-CH2-COOH + HOCH-CH2-COOH
CH3
CH2
CH3
3-Hydroxy butanoic acid
3 hydroxy pentanoic acid
-[O-CH-CH2-C-O-CH-CH2-C]nCH3
O
CH2
O
CH3
PHBV

Very Short Answer type Questions


(1mark)

Q1: What is polymerisation?


Ans: The process of formation of polymers from respective monomer is called
Polymerisation.

Q2: Is (-NH-CHR-CO-)n, a homopolymer or a copolymer?


Ans: It is a homopolymer because it is obtained from a single monomer.
Q3: Write the name and structure of one of the common initiators used in free
radical addition polymerisation?
Ans: Benzoyl peroxide (C6H5CO-O-O-CO-C6H5).
Q4: Write the structures of monomer used in the preparation of
i. Teflon
ii.
PVC.
Ans: (i) CF2=CF2
(ii) CH2=CHCl.
Q5: What are the monomers of bakelite?
Ans: Phenol and formaldehyde HCHO.
Q6: Write the equation used for the synthesis of neoprene.
Ans:
nH2C=CCl-CH=CH2
(H2C-CCl=CH-CH2-)n
Q7: What is mean by vulcanisation of rubber?
Ans: The process of heating natural rubber with sulphur to improve its
properties.
Q8: What are homopolymer?
Ans: The polymers formed by the polymerisation of a single monomeric
species are called homopolymer.
Q9: On the basis of forces between their molecules in a polymer to which class
does Nylon -6,6 belong?
Ans: It belongs to the class of fibres.
Q10: Write the chemical equation for the preparation of terylene.
Ans:
nHO-CH2-CH2-OH + nHOOC-------_______-COOH

-(O-CH2-CH2-O-OC-

-COO)n--

Short Answer type Questions

(2mark)
Q1: What are natural and synthetic polymers? Give two examples of each
type.
Ans: Polymers of high molecular mass obtained from plants and animals are
called natural polymers.
Ex. Cellulose, starch.
Polymers prepared in laboratories are called synthetic polymers.
Ex. Nylon, PVC, Buna-S etc.
Q2: Explain the difference between Buna-N and Buna-S.
Ans: Buna-N is copolymer of 1,3 butadiene & acrlonitrile.
Buna-S is copolymer of 1,3 butadiene & styrene.
Q3: What are biodegradable polymers? Give two examples.
Ans: Polymers which are decomposed by the micro-organism. eg. PHBV &
Nylon-2, Nylon-6.
Q4: In which classes, the polymers are classified on the basis of molecular
forces?

Ans: On the basis of molecular forces they are classified as


1 Elastomers natural rubber
2 Fibres nylon-6,6
3 Thermoplastics Polythene
4 Thermosetting plastics- Bakelite.

Short Answer type Questions

(3mark)
Q1) What are the synthetic and natural polymers? give two examples?
Ans:-polymers of high molecular mass obtained from plant and animals are
called natural polymers e.g.;-cellulose and starch.
Polymers prepared in the laboratories are called synthetic polymers e.g:Nylon, Buna-S and PVC.
q2) Explain the difference between Buna-N and Buna S.
Ans:-Buna n is copolymers of 1,3 butadiene and acrlonitrile Buna-s is
copolymers of 1,3 butadiene and styrene.
Q3) what are biodegradable polymers? give two examples.
Ans:- polymers which are decomposed by micro-organism dg:- PHBV and
nylon -2 and nylon-6.
Q4) In which the polymers are classified on the basis of molecular forces?
Ans- on the basis of molecular forces they are classified as
1. Elastomers ------ natural rubber
Fibres------- nylon-6 and 6
2. Thermoplastics----- polythene
3. Thermosetting plastics-----Bakelite.
Q5) write the structural formula for the monomers of the following polymers;
(i)
Nylon-,6,6
(ii) Natural rubber
Ans: (i) Nylon-6,6: Adipic acid HOOC-(CH2)4 COOH Hexamethylene diamine
H2N-(CH2)6-NH2
(ii) Natural rubber: isoprene CH2C-CHCH2CH3
Q6) what is the step growth polymerisation give 1 example for it
Ans: It is a process in which isomers undergo condensation polymerisation
step wise.
Ex: Nylon and Terylene are step growth polymers.
Q7) Write the chemical equation for the synthesis of glyptal Mention one
use of it.
Ans:
+

HOCH2-CH2OH

{-O-CH2-CH2OOC

HOOC
COOH
Phthalic acid
ethylene glycol
Glyptal
It is used in the manufacture of paints and lacquers.
Q8) Comment on the natural difference b/w thermoplastics and
thermosetting polymers

CO }-

Ans: Thermoplastics have less intermolecular forces of attraction because


they are not cross linked and become soft on heating and can be moulded.
Thermosetting polymers have strong forces of attraction due to cross
linkage. They do not become soft on heating.
Q9)(a) How does vulcanization change the character of NATURAL RUBBER
(b)Why 66 and 6 put in the name NYLON-66AND NYLON -6!
Ans:(a) Natural rubber become more hard and elastic on vulcanization due to
formation of cross linkage with sulphur.
(b) Nylon-6,6 is a polymer of adipic acid and Hexamethylene diamine, both the
monomers has 6 carbon atom each Nylon-6 is polymer on caprolactum which
contain 6 carbon atom.
Q10) write the chemical reaction involved in the synthesis of Bakelite.
Ans:
OH
OH
CH2OH
+
HCHO
Phenol
Formaldehyde
O-hydroxy
benzyl alcohol
OH
+
CH2OH

-H2O
OH
-CH2-

OH

OH

-CH2CH2
OH

Polymerisation
-CH2-

CH2
-CH2-

-CH2 CH2

-CH2-

-CH2-

OH
OH
Bakelite
(2) Write the name and structure of the monomers of the following polymers.
(a) Buna-S (b) Buna-N (c) Dacron.
Ans. Buna-s 1, 3 butadiene CH2=CH-CH=CH2
Styrene C6H5 CH=CH 2
(b)Buna-n
1,3butadiene CH2=CH-CH=CH2
Acronitrile CH2=CH-CH
(c)Dacron
ethylene glycol HO-CH2-CH2O+
Terephthalic acid
HOO---COOH
(3) What are biodegradable polymers? GiveOan example and write its
preparation.

Ans. The polymers which get decomposed by micro organisms. e.g: PHBV and
Nylon-2, nylon-6.
Preparation of Nylon-2-nylon-6:O
HOOC-CH2-NH2 + HOOC-(CH2)5NH2 ------- [-C-CH2-NH-CO-(CH2)5-NH-]
Glycerine
amino caproic acid
nylon-2-nylon-6
(4) How does the presence of double bond in rubber molecules influences their
structure and reactivity?
Ans. The natural rubber is cis-1,4 polyisoprene. The double bonds located b/w
C2 & C3 of isoprene uniprene units. The cis-configuration about double bonds
do not allow chains to come closer for effective attraction due to weak
intermolecular forces of attraction .That is why the natural rubber has a coiled
structure and shows elasticity.
(5) How can you differentiate between addition & condensation polymerisation
. Give one example of each?
Ans.
ADDITION
CONDENSATION POLYMERISATION
POLYMERISATION
1.It takes place in unsaturated 1.It takes place in monomer having multi
monomer
functional groups
2. Loss of small molecules like 2. Loss of small molecules likeH2O,NH3,
HCl, H2O, NH3 does not take
NaCl takes place.
place .
e.g: Formation of nylon-6,6 terylene
e.g: Formation of polythene &
polypropene
(6) What are monomers? Write monomers of PHBV, nylon-6, 6. Give there
uses.
Ans. The simplest molecules which combine to give polymers are called
Monomers.
PHBV: -3-hydroxybutanoic acid & 3-hydroxy pentatonic acid
Nylon-6, 6:- Hexamethylene diamine adipic acid.
Uses: 1.PHBV is used in specialty packaging, and in controlled release of drug.
2. Nylon-6, 6 is used in making sheets, bristles for brushes and in textile
industry.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Unit-16

CHEMISTRY IN EVERYDAY LIFE

POINTS TO BE REMEMBERED
1. DRUGS Drugs are chemical of low molecular masses, which interact with
macromolecular targets and produce a biological response.
2. CHEMOTHERAPY- The use of chemicals for therapeutic effect is called
chemotherapy.
3. CLASSIFICATION OF DRUGS
(a)
ON THE BASIS OF PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECT-drugs for a particular type
of problem as analgesics-----for pain relieving.
(b)
ON THE BASIS OF DRUG ACTION-Action of drug on a particular biochemical
process.
(c)
ON THE BASIS OF CHEMICAL ACTION-Drugs having similar structure .egsulpha drugs.
(d)
ON THE BASIS OF MOLECULAR TARGETS- Drugs interacting with
biomolecules as lipids , proteins.
4. ENZYMES AS DRUG TARGETS
(i)
CATALYTIC ACTION OF EN ZYMES(a)
enzymes have active sites which hold the substrate molecule .it can be attracted by
reacting molecules.
(b)
Substrate are bonded to active sites through hydrogen bonds , ionic bonds ,Vander
Waal or dipole dipole interactions.
(ii)
DRUG- ENZYME INTERACTIONS(a)Drug complete with natural substrate for their attachments on the active sites of
enzymes .They are called competitive inhibitors.
(b)Some drugs binds to a different site of the enzyme called allosteric sites which changes
the shape of active sites.
5. ANTAGONISTS- The drugs that binds to the receptor site and inhibit its natural
function.
6. AGONISTS-Drugs mimic the natural messenger by switching on the receptor.
7. ANTACIDS-These are compounds which neutralize excess acid of stomach.egAluminium hydroxide, Magnesium hydroxide.

8. ANTI HISTAMINES-The drugs which interfare with the natural action of


histamines and prevent the allergic reaction. eg-rantidine,tegarnet, avil.
9. TRANQULIZERS-The class of chemical compounds used for the treatment of
stress,mild or even severe mental diseases. Eg-idardil, iproniagid,luminal,second
equaqnil.
10. ANALGESICS-They reduce pain without causing impairment of consciousness,
mental confusion or some other disturbance of the nervous system.
Eg-aspirin,seridon,phenacetin.
11. ANTIMICROBIALS-They tend to prevent/destroy or inhibit the pathogenic action of
microbes as bacteria,virus,fungi etc.They are classified as
(i)ANTIBIOTICS-Those are the chemicals substances which are produced by microorganisms.
Eg-Pencillin, ofloxacin.
NARROW SPECTRUM ANTI-BIOTICS-These are effective mainly against gram positive
or gram negative bacteria. Eg-Penicillin,streptomycin.
BROAD SPECTRUM ANTI-BIOTICS-They kill or inhibit a wide range of microorganisms.
eg- chloramphenicol,tetracydine
(ii)ANTISEPTICS OR DISINFECTANT-These are which either kill/inhibit the growth of
micro-organisms
Antiseptics are applied to the living tissuses such as wounds,cuts,ulcers etc. egfuracine,chloroxylenol & terpinol(dettol).Disinfectant are applied to inanimate objects
such as floors , drainage , system.
Eg- 0.2% solution of phenol is an antiseptics while 1% solution is an disinfectant.
12. ANTIFERTILITY DRUGS- These are the chemical substances used to control the
pregnancy.They are also called oral contraceptives or birth control pills.
Eg-Mifepristone, norethindrone.
13. ARTIFICIAL SWEETNING AGENTS-These are the chemical compounds which give
sweetening effect to the food without adding calorie.
They are good for diabatic people eg- aspartame, saccharin,alitame,sucrolose.
14. FOOD PRESERVATIVES- They prevent spoilage of food to microbial growth.eg-salt,
sugar, sodium benzoate.
15. CLEANSING AGENTS(i) SOAPS- They are sodium or potassium salts of long chain fatty acids.They are
obtained by the soapnification reaction , when fatty acids are heated with aqueous sodium
hydroxide.
They do not work well in hard water.
(iii)
TOILETS SOAP-That are prepared by using better grade of fatty acids and
excess of alkali needs to be removed .colour & perfumes are added to make
them attractive.

(iv)

MEDICATED SOAPS- Substances of medicinal value are added.egButhional,dettol.


16. SYNTHETIC DETERGENTS-They are cleaning agents having properties of soaps
,but actually contain no soap.They can used in both soft and hard water .They are(i)ANIONIC DETERGENTS-They are sodium salts of sulphonated long chain alcohols
or hydrocarbons.eg-sodium lauryl sulphonate. They are effective in acidic solution.
CH3(CH2)CH2OH CH3(CH2)10CH2OSO3H
(lauryl
alchol)
+
CH3(CH2)10CH2SO3 Na
(sodium lauryl sulphonate)
(ii)CATIONIC DETERGENTS- They are quarternary ammonium salts of amines with
acetates , chlorides, or bromides.They are expensive used to limited extent.egcytyltrimethylammoniumbromide
(iii)NON-IONIC DETERGENTS- They do not contain any ions. Some liquid dishwashing
detergents which are of non-ionic type .
17. BIODEGREDABLE DETERGENTS-The detergents which are linear and can be
attacked by micro-organisms are biodegradable.
Eg-sodium 4-(1-dodecyl)benzene\ sulphonate.
18. NON-BIODEGREDABLE DETERGENTS-The detergents which are branched and
cannot be decomposed by micro-organisms are called non-biodegdradable.eg-sodium 4(1,3,5,7 tetramethyloctl)-benzene sulphonate.It creates water pollution.
VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTION
(1 marks)
Q-1 Define the term chemotherapy?
Ans-1 Treatment of diseases using chemicals is called chemotherapy.
Q-2 Why do we require artificial sweetening agents?
Ans-2 To reduce calorie intake.
Q-3 What are main constiuent of dettol?
Ans-3 Choloroxylenol & Terpinol.
Q-4 What type drug phenaticinis?
Ans-4 It is an antipyretics.
Q-5 Name the drug that are used to control allergy?
Ans-5 Antihistamines.
Q-6Why is the use of aspartame limited to cold food and drinks?
Ans-6 It is unstable at cooking temperature and decompose.
Q-7What are tranquilizers? Give an example?
Ans-7 They are the drug used in stress , mild severe mental disease.
Q-8 What type of drug chloramphenicol?
Ans-8 It is broad spectrum antibiotic.
Q-9Why is biothional is added to the toilet soap?
Ans-9It acts as antiseptics.

Q-10 What are food preservatives?


Ans-10 The substances that prevent spoilage of food due to microbial growth. eg- sodium
benzonate.
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTION
(2 marks)
Q-1 Mention one important use of the following(i) Equanil
(ii)Sucrolose
Ans-1 (i) Equanil- It is a tranquilizer.
(ii) Sucrolose-It is an artificial sweetener.
Q-2 Define the following and give one example(i)Antipyretics
(ii)Antibiotics
Ans-2 (i) Antipyretics- Those drugs which reduce the temperature of feveral body are called
Antipyretics.
Eg - Paracetamol
(ii) Antibiotics-The drugs which prevent the growth of other micro-organisms. Eg- Pencillin.
Q-3 Name the medicines used for the treatment of the following(i) Tuberculosis
(ii) Typhoid
Tuberculosis- Sterptomycin
Typhoid- Cholororophenicol
Q-4 What are tincture of iodine?
Ans-4 2-3% iodine solution of alcohol water is called tincture of Iodine. It is a powerful
antiseptics and is applied on wounds.
Q- 5 What are artificial sweetening agent? Give two examples?
Ans-5 The substances which give sweetening to food but dont add calorie to our body .
Eg- Saccharin , alitame.
Q-6 How are synthetic detergents better than soaps?
Ans- 6 (i)Detergents can be used in hard water but soaps cannot be used.
(ii) Detergents have a stronger cleansing action than soaps.
Q-7 What are sulpha drugs? Give two examples?
Ans-7 A group of drugs which are derivatives of sulphanilamide and are used in place of
antibiotics are called sulpha drugs.
Eg- sulphadizine, sulphanilamide.
Q-8 What forces are involved in holding the active sites of the enzymes?
Ans-8 The forces are involved in holding the active sites of the enzymes are hydrogen
bonding , ionic bonding , dipole-dipole attractions or Vander waals force of attractions.
Q-9 Describe the following giving an example in each
case- (i) Edible colours
(ii) Antifertility drugs
(i)
Edible colours- They are used for dying food.
Eg- saffron is used to colour rice.
(ii)
Antifertility drugs- Those drugs which control the birth of the child are called
Antifertility drugs.
Q-10 Give two examples of organic compounds used as antiseptics?

Ans-10 Phenol(0.2%) , iodoform


SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTION
(3 marks)
Q-1 What are Biodegredable and non-biodegdredable detergents? Give one example of each.
Ans-1 Detergents having straight hydrocarbon chain and are easily decomposed by microorganisms are called Biodegredable detergents.The detergents having branched hydrocarbon
chain and are not easily decomposed by micro-organisms are called Non-Biodegredable
detergents.
Q-2 What are barbiturates? To which class of drugs do they belong? Give two examples.
Ans-2 Derivatives of barbituric acid are called barbiturates.They are tranquilizers . They
also act as hypnotics. eg- luminal , seconal.
Q-3 What is the use of
(i) Benadryl (ii) sodium benzoate (iii) Progesterone
Ans-3 (i) Antihistamines
(ii) Preservatives
(iii) Antifertility drug
Q-4 Identify the type of drug(i) Ofloxacin (ii) Aspirin (iii) Cimetidine
Ans- 4 (i) Antibiotic (ii) Analgesics & Antipyretics
(iii) Antihistamines & antacid
Q-5 Describe the following with suitable example(i) Disinfectant (ii) Analgesics
(iii) Broad spectrum antibiotics
(i)
Disinfectant- chemicals used to kill the micro-organisms can applied on non
living articles.
(ii)
Analgesics- They are the drugs which are used to relieve pain . eg Aspirin ,
Ibuprofen.
(iii)
Broad spectrum antibiotics- They kill the wide range of gram positive and
gram negative bacteria.
Eg- Chloramphenicol , ofloxacin.

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BIOMOLECULES
Carbohydrates: These are optically active poly hydroxyle or ketones
or molecule which provide such unit on hydrolysis.
Classification of Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are classified into three classes depending on well
behaviour towards hydrolysis:
Monosaccharide:-The carbohydrates which cannot hydrolysied
futher. Eg: glucose, fructose.
Oligosaccharides: The carbohydrates which have 2 to 10
monosaccharides units on hydrolysis. Eg: sucrose,cellulose.
Polysaccharides: the carbohydrates which give large no. of
monosaccharides on hydrolysis. Eg: starch,cellose
Sugar: The carbohydrates which are sweet in taste are called
sugar. Eg: sucrose ,lactose
Non-Sugars:The carbohydrates which are not sweet in
taste.Eg:starch,cellose.
Reducing Sugar: Sugars which reduce fehling solution and
tollens reagent. Eg: glucose, fructose.
NON Reducing Sugar: which do not reduce Fehling or tollens
reagent. Eg: sucrose.
CHO
H

OH

OH

OH

OH

CH2COOH

Structure Of Glucose
Cyclic Structure Of Glucose:
The straight chain structure of glucose is unable to explain the
following reaction.
1. It does not give the 2,4-DNP test, Schiff test and dosent
form hydrogensulphide addition product with NaHSO3.
2. The penta acetate of glucose does not react with NH2Oh
indicating the absence of CHO group.
3. It exist in two different crystline and forms. They are
called anomers. They differ in optical rotation. They have
different melting point.
CH2OH

Starch: Main storage polysaccharide of plants has two components


amylase and amylopectin.

Protiens: Protiens are long polymers of amino acids linked by peptide


bands.they are essential for proper growth and maintaince of body.
Amino Acids: It contains amino and carboxylicacid functional group
R-CH-COOH
NH2
Essential Amino Acids: Amino acid which cannot be synthesized in
the body and are obtained from diet.eg:Valine,Lysine.
Non-Essential Amino Acid: The amino acid which can be synthesized
in the body are called non essential amino
acid.eg:glysine,serine,praline.
Zwitter Ion:In aqueous solution the carboxyl group can lose a
protone and amino group can accept a protone,giving rise a dipoler
ion called as zwitter ion.
NH3+----CH----COOR
Classification:
1. Fibrous Protein:
Polypeptide chains run parallel or antiparalle and held
together by hydrogen and disulphide bonds.
Generally in soluble in water.eg:collagen,myorin,fibroin.
2. Globular Protien:
Chains of polypeptide coil around to give spheical shape.
Usually soluble in water.eg:insulin,haemoglobin.
Denaturation Of Protein: The proteins in its native form, when
subjected to physical change like temperature,PH etc undergoes
uncoiling and loses its biological activity. This is called denaturation
of proteins.
The secondary and tertiary structure are destroyed, only primary
structure retained.eg:coagulation of eggs while on heating.

Vitamins:The organic compound required in the diet in small


amounts to perform specific biological functions and its not
synthezised by our body.
Classification: On the basis of their souliblity in water or fat.
(a)
Fat Soluble Vitamin: They are insoluble in water
but soluble in fat.eg: vitamin A,B,E,R.
(b) Water Soluble Vitamin: Vitamin B & C.
VITAMINS
A
B
C
D

SOURCE

DEFICIENCY
DISEASE
CARROT,BUTTER &
XEROPHTHAL
MILK
MLA,NIGHT
BLINDNESS
YEAST,LIVER,GREEN BERI-BERI
VEGETABLE
CITRUS FRUIT,AMLA SCURVY
SUNLIGHT,FISH,EGG RICKETS
YALK

Nucleic Acids:These are bimolecules which are long chain polymers


of nucleotides.They are DNA & RNA.
Composition Of Nucleic Acid: they are made-up of a pentane sgar (BD-2 dexoyribose in DNA d B-D-ribose in RNA), phosphoric acid and
nitrogen containing
(a) DNA: Base adenine
(A),Thymine(t),guanine(g),and cytosine(C).
(b) RNA: Contain adenine(A), guanine(g),
cytosine(C)and Uralic(U).
Enzymes:enzyme are bio-catalyst and are generally lobular potein eg:
zymase,maltase.

VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

Q1 What are carbohydrates?


ans- These are optically active poly hydroxyle or ketones or molecule
which provide such unit on hydrolysis.
Q2 Name the deficiency disease resulting from lack of vitamin C and
D?
ans- SCURVY and RICKETS.
Q3 what are the name given to the linkage which hold together to
monomeric units in polysaccharide?
Ans-Glycosidie linkage.
Q4 Name the enzyme which convert sucrose into glucose and
fructose?
Ans-Invertase
Q5 What are the components of starch?
Ans-Amylase and amylopectin.
Q6 Why is cellulose in our dite not nourishing?
Ans-Our body does not have enzyme which help in digestion of
cellulose.
Q7 Name the purines present in DNA?
Ans-Adenine and Guanine.
Q8 Why vitamine C cannot be stored in our body?
Ans-It is water soluble and readily excreated in urine.
Q9 Give two examples of non-essential ammino acid?
Ans-Glycine and alamine
Q10 What are different types of RNA found in the cell?
Ans-1.m.RNA 2.t.RNA 3.r.RNA.