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Teachers notes: Practical activities

Introduction
The following notes have been prepared to help teachers plan and conduct the practical activities included in the
Heinemann Chemistry 2 Student Workbook. Each activity is related to the Essential Knowledge in each Area of
Study as well as the set of key skills for Units 14.
The practical activities chosen for inclusion in Heinemann Chemistry 2 Student Workbook provide students with
an opportunity to develop skills that will enable them to investigate and enquire scientifically, apply chemical
understandings and communicate chemical information and understandings.
As a guide, between 10 and 15 hours of class time should be devoted to student laboratory/practical work,
including any work that is assessed. Students may work in pairs, small groups or individually.
Practical activities are fully set out in the Heinemann Chemistry 2 Student Workbook with clear instructions as
well as space for students to answer. This feature means that students have a clear and concise log of a number of
relevant practical activities undertaken during the course, bound together in a comprehensive volume.
Materials required for each individual student or group are listed in the Heinemann Chemistry 2 Student
Workbook on the opening page of each activity. Some materials warranting special attention are also listed here.
Also listed are total amounts of materials required for a group of 20 students working in pairs.
The comments in the Hints and Comments section of the teachers notes are arranged approximately in the order
in which they arise in each activity. Bold question numbers refer to questions in the activity. Suggested answers are
provided for most questions to indicate the direction of the activity and the depth of discussion required.
Each practical activity has been written so that it can be completed within the suggested time frames for this
course. Class sessions are based on a time allowance of 4550 minutes. However, variations in local timetabling
and other constraints need to be considered to make the best possible use of the time available. Some activities lend
themselves to independent student work, while others will be done more efficiently when students are working in
groups.

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Unit 3: Chemical pathways


Area of Study 1: Chemical analysis
Practical activity 1: Analysis of brick cleaner
Text reference: Heinemann Chemistry 2 Student Workbook, pp 3741

Rationale
This experiment gives the student experience in preparing a standard solution; the techniques used in the
experiment are important in volumetric analysis.
Having prepared the standard solution, the student can use it to determine the concentration of concrete cleaner.

Materials
(per group of 20 students working in pairs)
30 g AR grade anhydrous sodium carbonate
(To prepare 250.0 mL of 0.1 M sodium carbonate
solution, 2.65 g of anhydrous solid is required by
each pair of students.)
10 250 mL volumetric flasks
10 small funnels
10 dropping pipettes
10 paper labels or 10 marking pens
electronic balance

3.5 L de-ionised water

10 weighing bottles or 10 watch glasses


10 spatulas
10 wash bottles containing de-ionised water
20 safety glasses

Background knowledge
Students should be familiar with the principles involved in volumetric analysis. An ability to calculate
concentration in mol L1 is required in this experiment.

Hints and comments


Students may need instruction in the cleaning of the volumetric flask before use.
Anhydrous sodium carbonate used to prepare the standard solution may absorb water from the atmosphere on
standing. Best results are obtained by heating the sodium carbonate just prior to use.
The unsuitability of sodium hydroxide as a primary standard can be demonstrated easily by placing a few
sodium hydroxide pellets on a watch glass and leaving them exposed to the air for about 15 minutes. The pellets
soon develop a damp appearance as moisture is absorbed. After a few more hours, a powdery surface coating of
sodium carbonate and sodium hydrogen carbonate appears.

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Answers
Pre-lab exercise
n(Na2CO3) =

m
= 0.250 0.1
106

Therefore m = 0.250 0.1 106 = 2.65 g


1

If 2.65 g is used, then c(Na2CO3) = 0.100 M.

Sodium hydroxide is deliquescent, i.e. it absorbs water vapour when exposed to the air for a few minutes. With
further exposure, the moist pellets become coated with a layer that changes composition as the pellets react
with carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

A primary standard should be pure, have a known formula, and be easy to store without deteriorating or
reacting with the atmosphere.

Small, random errors may arise during the measurement of the mass of the sodium carbonate when making up
the solution to a volume of 250.0 mL; through not having the meniscus on the calibration line of the volumetric
flask; not shaking properly and producing a solution of even concentration.

The accuracy of the standard solution would not be affected.

B. Analysis of brick cleaner


Rationale
Commercial solutions of brick cleaner contain about 33% by mass of hydrochloric acid and hence may
conveniently be analysed by performing an acidbase titration.

Materials
(per group of 20 students working in pairs)
80 mL brick cleaner (obtainable from hardware
stores; commercial concentrated hydrochloric acid
may also be used)
3.5 L de-ionised water
10 250 mL volumetric flasks
10 small funnels
10 20 mL pipettes
10 dropping pipettes
10 white tiles
20 safety glasses

1.5 L of 0.100 M sodium carbonate solution (10.6 g


Na2CO3/Lthe standard solution prepared in Part A
may be used.)
10 dropping bottles of methyl orange indicator
(Dissolve 0.1 g methyl orange in 100 mL water.)
40 100 mL conical flasks
10 10 mL measuring cylinders
10 pipette fillers
10 burettes and stands
electronic balance

Background knowledge
Students should be familiar with the principles involved in volumetric analysis. The percentage of HCl in the
cleaner is likely to be lower than that specified by the manufacturer because of the volatility of hydrogen chloride.

Hints and comments


Students may require instruction in the cleaning of volumetric glassware before use.
Dispensing of the brick cleaner for dilution by the students should be carefully supervised and any spills
immediately neutralised and cleaned up.

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Answers
Risk assessment and management
Material

Hazard

Management

Brick cleaner (conc. HCl)

Corrosive; can cause burns;


irritating to the respiratory system

Handle with care. Wear safety


glasses and a laboratory coat.
Neutralise spills where possible
with powdered sodium carbonate
or immediately wash away with
copious amounts of water.

Methyl orange

May cause irritation to the skin


and eyes; harmful if swallowed

Avoid contact. Wear safety


glasses and a laboratory coat.

4 HCl(aq) + Na2CO3(aq) 2NaCl(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)


8 b Random errors in the measurements of masses, the volume of diluted acid and the volume of sodium
carbonate solution may cause the results of different groups in the class to vary. A more accurate answer
can usually be obtained by averaging the results from several groups.
9 Using powdered weak base, sodium carbonate, surround the spill and then pile solid base onto the spill until it
has been absorbed.
10 a

Volumetric flask: Rinse with water only so that the number of moles of sodium carbonate present does not
alter.

b Burette: Rinse with water, then the solution it is to be used to measure, dilute brick cleaner, so that the
concentration of the dilute brick cleaner does not alter.
c

Pipette: Rinse with water, then the solution it is to be used to measure, dilute sodium carbonate solution, so
that the concentration of the sodium carbonate solution does not alter.

d Conical flask: Rinse with water only so that no additional reactants are present.

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Practical activity 2: Chromatography of a vegetable extract


Text reference: Heinemann Chemistry 2 Student Workbook, pp 4243

Rationale
This experiment demonstrates the use of chromatography for separation and identification of components in
mixtures. Many consumer products originating from plant materials can be analysed by this method.

Materials
(per group of 20 students working in pairs)
34 finely chopped leaves of spinach or silver beet
(frozen spinach is already chopped and works well)
30 mL cyclohexane
20 100 mL beakers
10 mortars and pestles
10 pencils and rulers
10 glass capillaries (melting point tubes)
hair dryer (optional)

150 mL acetone
fine sand
10 600 mL beakers
10 4 cm 6.5 cm strip of thin layer
chromatography plate or chromatography paper
10 spatulas
20 safety glasses

Alternative set-up
350 mL of 9 : 1 mixture of pentane and acetone
10 paperclips

10 250 mL beakers
10 sheets Whatman No. 1 chromatography paper, 2
cm 10 cm

Background knowledge
The experiment assumes that students are familiar with the principles of paper chromatography. The green extract
from the vegetables can be separated into components such as chlorophyll-B (yellow-green), chlorophyll-A (bluegreen), xanthophyll (orange-yellow) and -carotene (yellow).

Hints and comments


If the pigments from the plant matter tend to discolour, add calcium carbonate during grinding; this will
neutralise the acids that cause discoloration (which are released when the cells are crushed).
Alternative set-up: Chromatography paper may be used instead of a thin layer chromatography plate, with a 9 : 1
mixture of pentane and acetone as the solvent. An unfolded paperclip pushed through one end of the paper can
be used to support the paper in the beaker.

Answers
1

To give the best separation of components, the line should be as thin as possible to minimise spreading of
components in the chromatogram. If the component is concentrated, it can be seen more easily and a more
accurate Rf value can be obtained for it.

The presence of carotene in the plant extract can be determined by comparing a chromatogram of the leaf
extract with that of carotene run under identical conditions. If a component has the same Rf value and colour as
carotene then it is likely that the components are identical.

The polarity of the components and the solvent affects their bonding to each other and hence the distance they
move up the plate.

To prevent the extract from dissolving in the solvent and therefore not moving up the plate.

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Practical activity 3: Analysis of available chlorine in household bleach


Text reference: Heinemann Chemistry 2 Student Workbook, pp 4446

Rationale
By performing a direct redox titration, students are able to determine the concentration of hypochlorite ions in a
household bleach and hence find the percentage of available chlorine on a weight for volume (w/v) basis.

Materials
(per group of 20 students working in pairs)
300 mL household bleach, such as White King or
other brand with available chlorine of about 4%
(w/v)
250 mL of 1 M sulfuric acid (Slowly add 50 mL
concentrated H2SO4 to 950 mL of water; stir
throughout.)
10 dropping bottles of starch indicator, freshly
prepared (Make 2 g of starch into a paste with a little
water, then add 100 mL of boiling water.)
10 250 mL volumetric flasks
10 pipette fillers
10 10 mL measuring cylinders
10 small funnels
20 safety glasses

250 mL of 1 M potassium iodide solution (166 g


KI/L)
1.5 L of 0.100 M sodium thiosulfate solution, freshly
prepared (Dissolve 24.82 g Na2S2O3.5H2O and 0.2 g
Na2CO3/L. Use freshly boiled water to make up the
solution and store in a dark place.)
1.5 L de-ionised water
20 20 mL pipettes
30 100 mL conical flasks
10 burettes and stands
10 white tiles

Background knowledge
Students should be familiar with redox titrations. It is suggested that students should first perform simpler titrations
before undertaking this activity.

Hints and comments


It may be more convenient to dispense the 10 mL aliquots of bleach into the students volumetric flasks from a
single outlet.
Old solutions of bleach may contain low concentrations of hypochlorite ions. The ions decompose according to
the equation:
2OCl(aq) O2(g) + 2Cl(aq)
This reaction occurs more rapidly in the presence of ultraviolet light.
There are large differences in the concentrations of available chlorine in different brands of bleach. It is not
necessary to dilute some brands of bleach before titration.
Early addition of starch indicator during the titration of iodine with sodium thiosulfate solution can result in an
intense blue colour that is slow to fade, and makes it more difficult to accurately detect the end point. Starch
should be added to the solution when it is a pale, yellow-brown colour.
Groups of students could be assigned different brands of bleach and the results of their analyses pooled and
discussed amongst the class.

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Answers
Risk assessment and management
Material or procedure

Hazard

Management

Bleach

Corrosive (Check details on


bottle and MSDS provided)

Avoid contact and breathing


vapour. Wear safety glasses and
a laboratory coat.

1 M sulfuric acid

Irritating to the eyes, respiratory


system and skin

Avoid contact. Wear safety


glasses and a laboratory coat.

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Unit 3: Chemical pathways


Area of Study 2: Organic chemical pathways
Practical activity 4: Preparing artificial fragrances and flavours
Text reference: Heinemann Chemistry 2 Student Workbook, pp 9394

Materials
(per group of 20 students working in pairs)
50 mL of the alcohols 1-pentanol (n-amyl alcohol),
methanol and ethanol
50 g salicylic acid
60 semi-micro test-tubes
10 small tongs
20 250 mL beakers
20 safety glasses

50 mL or 50 g of various carboxylic acids in small


plastic dropper bottles: glacial ethanoic (acetic) acid
and decanoic acid
10 dropping bottles of concentrated sulfuric acid
10 semi-micro test-tube racks
10 250 mL beakers of boiling water
10 marking pens
20 pairs of disposable gloves

Rationale
Many natural and artificial flavours and fragrances contain esters. In this experiment, students manufacture esters
and attempt to recognise the odours they produce.

Background knowledge
Students should recall the structure of alcohols and carboxylic acids they enountered in Heinemann Chemistry 2,
Chapter 9. They should realise that many processed foods contain artificial flavours such as those made in this
experiment.
The esters that can be made in this experiment include pentyl salicylate (pineapple), pentyl ethanoate (banana),
methyl salicylate (wintergreen, as in Dencorub), ethyl decanoate (grape) and ethyl ethanoate (fruit flavour).

Hints and comments


Some of the esters, including ethyl ethanoate and methyl salicylate, form rapidly whereas others will need to be
heated for at least 10 minutes.
Teachers may wish to limit the combinations of alcohols and carboxylic acids so that students produce only
those esters with odours that are readily recognised (see Background Knowledge above).
After each experiment, organic wastes should be discarded into an organic wastes container in a fume cupboard.

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Answers
Risk assessment and management
Material or procedure

Hazard

Management

Concentrated sulfuric acid

Extremely corrosive, causes


serious burns; highly toxic.
Harmful by inhalation, ingestion
and through skin contact

Use small quantities; handle with


extreme care and avoid contact;
dilute small spills with water.
Wear gloves, safety glasses and
a laboratory coat.

Glacial ethanoic acid

Strongly corrosive and causes


serious burns. Very harmful if
swallowed

Use small quantities; handle with


extreme care and avoid contact;
dilute small spills with water.
Wear gloves, safety glasses and
a laboratory coat.

Salicylic acid

Harmful by inhalation, ingestion


and through skin absorption.
Irritant

Use small quantities; handle with


extreme care and avoid contact.
Wear gloves, safety glasses and
a laboratory coat.

Decanoic acid

Eye and skin irritant. May cause


respiratory irritation. May be
harmful by ingestion or in contact
with the skin

Handle with care and avoid


contact. Wear gloves, safety
glasses and a laboratory coat.

1-Pentanol

Harmful if swallowed, inhaled or


absorbed through the skin.
Severe skin and eye irritant.
Flammable

Handle with care and avoid


contact. Wear gloves, safety
glasses and a laboratory coat.
Keep bottles firmly stoppered and
keep away from flames.

Methanol

Toxic by inhalation, ingestion or


skin absorption. Flammable

Use small quantities; handle with


extreme care and avoid contact.
Wear gloves, safety glasses and
a laboratory coat. Keep bottles
firmly stoppered and keep away
from flames.

Ethanol

Causes skin and eye irritation.


Flammable

Wear gloves, safety glasses and


a laboratory coat. Keep bottles
firmly stoppered and keep away
from flames.

Esters

Irritating to eyes, respiratory


system and skin

Smell esters produced for a very


short time (12 seconds)

1
Combination

Equation

Name of ester formed

Test-tube A

C5H11OH + CH3COOH CH3COOC5H11 + H2O

1-pentyl ethanoate

Test-tube B

C5H11OH + C6H4(OH)COOH C6H4(OH)COOC5H11 + H2O

1-pentyl saliclyate

Catalyst

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Practical activity 5: Reactions and properties of some organic compounds


Text reference: Heinemann Chemistry 2 Student Workbook, pp 9597

Rationale
In this activity, students observe reactions of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons, haloalkanes, alcohols and
carboxylic acids.

Materials
(per group of 20 students working in pairs)
10 sets of small dropping bottles of:
cyclohexane
cyclohexene
iodine in hexane (a dilute solution; store in a dark
bottle in the dark)
2-chloro-2-methylpropane (t-butyl chloride)
ethanol
0.1 M silver nitrate solution (17.0 g AgNO 3/L)
concentrated sulfuric acid
glacial ethanoic (acetic) acid
0.02 M potassium permanganate solution (5.8 g
KMnO4/L)
2 M nitric acid (124 mL concentrated HNO 3/L)
1 M sulfuric acid (Slowly add 55 mL
concentrated H2SO4 to 945 mL of water; stir
throughout.)
20 g sodium hydrogen carbonate
30 strips of blue litmus paper
10 250 mL beakers
20 stoppers
10 semi-micro test-tube holders
20 dropping pipettes
3 boxes of matches
20 pairs of disposable plastic gloves
20 semi-micro test-tube stoppers

20 g potassium hydroxide

300 mL de-ionised water


20 strips of red litmus paper
80 semi-micro test-tubes
10 semi-micro test-tube racks
10 semi-micro spatulas
20 small watch glasses
10 large beakers containing about 100 mL of hot
water (near boiling)
20 safety glasses
20 pairs of safety glasses

Background knowledge
It is assumed that students are familiar with the reactions of alkanes, alkenes, chloroalkanes, alcohols and
carboxylic acids.

Hint and comments


After each experiment, organic wastes should be discarded into an organic wastes container in a fume cupboard.

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Answers
Test

Observations

Inferences

Equations

Solubility of cyclohexane
and cyclohexene

Two liquid layers formed

Both are insoluble; unable


to form hydrogen bonds
with water; likely to be nonpolar

Burning cyclohexane and


cyclohexene

Cyclohexane burns cleanly


Cyclohexene burns with a
dirty flame

Cyclohexane is fully
oxidised
Cyclohexene is partially
oxidised

Action of iodine on
cyclohexane and
cyclohexene

Cyclohexaneno colour
change
Cyclohexeneimmediate
colour change

Cyclohexaneno reaction
due to single CC bonds
only
Cyclohexene contains C=C
bonds and undergoes
addition reaction to form
new product

Solubility of the
chloroalkane

One layer forms

Soluble; able to form


dipoledipole forms with
water

Action of KOH on the


chloroalkane

White precipitate formed

AgCl is the white


precipitate so the OH must
have substituted for the Cl,
releasing it as Cl and
making it available for
reaction with AgNO3.

Solubility of ethanol in
water; litmus test

Forms one layer; litmus


turned blue

Soluble in water due to


ability for form hydrogen
bonds; neutral

Reaction of ethanol with


ethanoic acid

Sweet-smelling product

Ester formedethyl
ethanoate

CH3COOH(l) + CH3CH2OH
(l) CH3COOCH2CH3(l) +
H2O(l)

C6H10 + I2 C6H10I2

C4H9Cl + OH C4H9OH +
ClAg+(aq) + Cl(aq)
AgCl(s)

Action of MnO4/H+ on
ethanol

Colour changed from


purple to colourless

Ethanol is oxidised and


permanganate is reduced

MnO4(aq) + 8H+(aq) + 5e
Mn2+(aq) + 4H2O(l)
CH3CH2OH (aq) + H2O(l)
CH3COOH(aq) + 4H+(aq) +
4e

Solubility of ethanoic acid


in water; litmus test

Forms one layer; litmus


turned red

Soluble in water due to


ability to form hydrogen
bonds; acidic

CH3COOH(aq) + H2O(l)
CH3COO(aq) + H3O+(aq)

Bubbles of gas formed

Carbon dioxide gas is


formed when an acid reacts
with a hydrogen carbonate

CH3COOH(aq) +
NaHCO3(aq)
CH3COO(aq) + Na+(aq) +
H2O(l) + CO2(g)

Reaction of ethanoic acid


with NaHCO3

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Practical activity 6: Modelling functional groups and organic reactions


Text reference: Heinemann Chemistry 2 Student Workbook, pp 98100

Rationale
This activity allows students to visualise and appreciate the three-dimensional structures of organic compounds,
common function groups and structural isomers.

Materials
(per group of 20 students working in pairs)
10 molecular model building kits

Background knowledge
Students should be able to name and draw the structural formulae of the first ten alkanes and their derivatives that
include the amine, chloro, hydroxyl, carboxyl and ester functional groups.

Hints and comments


Students will work more rapidly and effectively if they draw the structural formula for a molecule before they
construct it.
Molecular model kits that use straws to represent the bonds between atoms may provide a clearer visual
representation of the bonding than do space-filling model kits.

Answers
Students will work more rapidly and effectively if they draw the structural formula for a molecule before
constructing it.
1

covalent bonding

amino, chloro, hydroxyl, carboxyl and ester

Structural isomers have the same molecular formulae but different structural formulae.

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Unit 4: Chemistry at work


Area of Study 1: Industrial chemistry
Practical activity 7: Factors affecting the rate of a reaction
Text reference: Heinemann Chemistry 2 Student Workbook, pp 138140

Rationale
By performing this experiment, students observe that the rate of a reaction varies with temperature and with the
concentration of reactants. The performance of this experiment can be linked to a discussion of the significance of
rates of reaction in industrial processes and in other everyday reactions.

Materials
(per group of 20 students working in pairs)
500 mL of 2 M hydrochloric acid (164 mL 37%
HCl/L)
10 10 mL measuring cylinders
30 100 mL beakers
10 Bunsen burners, tripod stands and gauze mats
10 stopwatches
matches

1.5 L of 0.25 M sodium thiosulfate solution (62 g


Na2S2O3.5H2O/L)
10 100 mL measuring cylinders
10 thermometers, 10110C
10 bench mats
up to 10 black marking pens
20 safety glasses

Background knowledge
Students must be able to calculate the concentrations of solutions after dilution. Demonstrations I1I13 in
Demonstrations for Secondary School Chemistry (edited by Chris Commons and Bob Hogendoorn,
ISBN 0 85859 580 X) can be used to support the development of understanding of the ideas in this experiment.

Hints and comments


Solutions that would be suitable for use in Part B to demonstrate the dependence of reaction rate on concentration
are:
Solution 1: 10 mL Na2S2O3 solution, 35 mL water and 5 mL HCl
Solution 2: 25 mL Na2S2O3 solution, 20 mL water and 5 mL HCl
Solution 3: 40 mL Na2S2O3 solution, 5 mL water and 5 mL HCl
Other suitable solutions can be made by using other volumes of sodium thiosulfate solution and making up the
total volume of the mixture to 45 mL by adding water, before adding the 5 mL of hydrochloric acid.

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Answers
Risk assessment and management
Material

Sulfur dioxide gas

2 M hydrochloric acid

Hazard

Management

Toxic by inhalation; irritating to


the eyes and respiratory system

Avoid breathing gas; work in a


well-ventilated area and dispose
of reaction mixtures in a sink in a
fume cupboard. Wear safety
glasses.

Corrosive

Avoid contact. Wear safety


glasses and a laboratory coat.

The rate of reaction increases as the temperature increases.

At higher temperatures, reacting particles have higher kinetic energy. Not only do they collide with each other
more frequently, but a higher proportion of particles have sufficient energy for bonds to break and new
products to form when they collide.

3
Solution

Concentration of sodium thiosulfate in solution (M)


n(Na2S2O3) = 0.010 0.25 = 0.0025 mol

10 mL Na2S2O3 solution, 35 mL water and 5 mL HCl

c(Na2S2O3) =

0.0025
= 0.050 M
0.050

n(Na2S2O3) = 0.025 0.25 = 0.006 25 mol


25 mL Na2S2O3 solution, 20 mL water and 5 mL HCl

c(Na2S2O3) =

0.00625
= 0.13 M
0.050

n(Na2S2O3) = 0.040 0.25 = 0.01 mol


40 mL Na2S2O3 solution, 5 mL water and 5 mL HCl

c(Na2S2O3) =

0.01
= 0.20 M
0.050

The rate of reaction increases as the concentration of sodium thiosulfate in the initial mixture increases.

With higher concentrations of one or more reactant particles, there are more frequent collisions between
particles and, as a consequence, products are formed more rapidly.

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Practical activity 8: Extent of hydrolysis of two acids


Text reference: Heinemann Chemistry 2 Student Workbook, pp 141142

Rationale
This experiment shows that the extent to which an acid in water is ionised can vary markedly. The experiment can
be used to develop the concept of chemical equilibrium or to support discussion of acidbase equilibria.

Materials
(per group of 20 students working in pairs)
300 mL of 1 M hydrochloric acid (82 mL of 37%
HCl/L)
10 dropping bottles of thymol blue indicator
10 100 mL measuring cylinders
10 test-tube racks
10 250 mL beakers
20 safety glasses

150 mL of 1 M ethanoic (acetic) acid (58 mL


CH3COOH/L)
10 10 mL measuring cylinders
50 test-tubes
10 stirring rods
up to 10 marking pens

Background knowledge
It is assumed that the students are aware that the molar concentration of a solution is the amount of solute per litre
of solution; they should also know the relationship between concentration of H 3O+ ions and pH. An understanding
of the concept of chemical equilibria and the equilibrium constant is also required.

Answers
Risk assessment and management
Material or procedure

Hazard

Management

Irritating to the eyes, respiratory


system and skin

1 M hydrochloric acid

Avoid contact. Wear safety


glasses and a laboratory coat.

1
Test-tube

Solution

pH

1 M HCl

0.1 M HCl

0.01 M HCl

0.001 M HCl

1 M CH3COOH

between 2 and 3

1 M HCl has the higher [H3O+] because it has the lower pH.

The hydrochloric acid solution in test-tube C has a hydrogen ion concentration closest to that of the 1 M
ethanoic acid solution.

HCl(aq) + H2O(l)

H3O+(aq) + Cl(aq)

CH3COOH(aq) + H2O(l)

H3O+(aq) + CH3COO(aq)

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[CH 3COO ]
% hydrolysis of CH3COOH =
100
[CH 3COOH ]
To calculate [CH3COO]:
From experiment, [H3O+] in ethanoic acid = 0.01 M.
Therefore [CH3COO] = [H3O+] = 0.01 M.
So % hydrolysis =

0.01
100 = 1%
1

The equilibrium constant for the hydrolysis of HCl is much greater than the equilibrium constant for the
hydrolysis of ethanoic acid.

Practical activity 9: Determination of two acidity constants


Text reference: Heinemann Chemistry 2 Student Workbook, pp 143145

Rationale
This is a simple, short experiment in which students measure the pH of a solution of ethanoic acid and of a solution
of ammonium chloride. Students then use their measurements to calculate two relevant equilibrium constants.

Materials
(per group of 20 students working in pairs)
300 mL of 0.01 M ethanoic (acetic) acid (Prepare a
solution containing 5.8 mL of CH3COOH per L;
dilute 1 : 10.)
20 100 mL beakers
10 wash bottles containing de-ionised water

300 mL of 0.10 M ammonium chloride (5.35 g


NH4Cl per L)
pH meters (and data collection systems if available)
or 40 cm lengths of narrow range pH papers,
covering pH 36, and several colour charts
20 safety glasses

Background knowledge
Students should be familiar with expressions for equilibrium constants and know the relationship between the pH
value of a solution and the concentration of H3O+ ions in the solution. The accepted value for the acidity constant
of ethanoic acid is 1.7 105 and of the ammonium ion is 5.6 1010. The experiment should yield results close to
these values.

Answers
1

Assuming the pH measured for ethanoic acid is 3.5, [H3O+] = 1 103.5 = 3.2 104 M

CH3COOH(aq) + H2O(l)

H3O+(aq) + CH3COO(aq)

Assume [H3O+] = [CH3COO] = 3.2 104 M


3

[CH3COOH] after ionisation = 0.010 3.2 104 M = 0.009 68 M


Because the concentration of ethanoic acid molecules has changed only slightly, the extent of ionisation is very
slight. At any instant, very few of the ethanoic acid molecules in the solution are ionised. The reaction is
negligible.

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Page 17 of 24

[H 3O ][CH 3COO ]
(3.2 10 4 ) 2
Ka(CH3COOH) =
=
= 1.0 105 M

[CH 3COOH ]
0.010
Two assumptions are used in this calculation: Because the extent of ionisation is slight, we assume that the
initial concentration of ethanoic acid is the same at equilibrium. Also because the [H 3O+] = 3.2 104 M, the
contribution from the self-ionisation of water will be negligible (1 10 7 M) and it is ignored.

NH4+(aq) + H2O(l)
Ka(NH4+) =

[H 3O ][NH 3 ]
[NH 4 ]

Assume that the measured pH was 5.3, so make the same two assumptions as above.
Ka(NH4+) =

H3O+(aq) + NH3(aq)

(1 10 5.3 ) 2
= 1 109.6 = 2.5 1010 M
0.10

Since strong acids are almost completely ionised, a 0.10 M solution of HCl would have a H 3O+ of almost
0.10 M (pH 1.0). The assumptions used in earlier calculations cannot be made for a strong acid because they
depend on only a slight degree of ionisation occurring.

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Unit 4: Chemistry at work


Area of Study 2: Supplying and using energy
Practical activity 10: Calorimetry and enthalpy changes
Text reference: Heinemann Chemistry 2 Student Workbook, pp 187192

A. Calibration of a calorimeter
Rationale
In this experiment, students will develop an understanding of energy transformations and calibrate a calorimeter
that they can use later in thermochemical experiments.

Materials
(per group of 20 students working in pairs)
10 100 mL measuring cylinders
10 DC power supplies
10 thermometers, 1050C, or temperature probes
and data collection systems
10 ammeters
computers and spreadsheet programs (optional)

10 calorimeters (with code numbers for


identification)
50 connecting wires
10 stopwatches
10 voltmeters

Background knowledge
To adequately perform the calculations in this experiment, students require knowledge of energy transformations
and units of energy (joule).

Hints and comments


A simple calorimeter can be made from a polystyrene drinking cup or a vacuum flask. A 23-ohm heating coil
can be made from 3050 cm of nichrome wire.
Temperature probes or 1050C thermometers with 0.1C increments are recommended as they allow more
accurate measurements of temperature.
Meters built into power supplies are generally too inaccurate to be used for this experiment.
Poor electrical connections and incorrectly constructed circuits cause most of the problems encountered with this
experiment. Many students may require help constructing their circuits.

Answers
4

Calibration factor =
=

energy input
change in temperature

VIt
T

Calibration factors of about 450 J C1 are normally obtained.

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5 Electrical energy from the power supply is transformed into the thermal energy of the coil, which is in turn
transformed into the thermal energy of the calorimeter and its contents.
6

A graph for a well-insulated calorimeter would show almost constant temperatures before and after the
heating period. A graph for a poorly insulated calorimeter would show temperature rapidly decreasing after
the heating period.

7 The temperature increase would be greater and the calibration factor would be smaller (approximately halved) if
half the quantity of water were used to calibrate the calorimeter.
8 To measure the enthalpy change of a chemical reaction, 100 mL of solution should be used in the calorimeter.
9 To further reduce the heat loss a sealed lid and heat reflective internal surfaces could be used.

B. Enthalpy changes in chemical reactions


Rationale
By investigating examples of exothermic and endothermic reactions, students develop an understanding of the
changes in energy that occur during reactions. This experiment will also develop the students skills in using a
calorimeter and in performing calculations based on recorded data.

Materials
(per group of 20 students working in pairs)
45 g potassium nitrate powder, coarsely ground
2.5 L of 1.0 M hydrochloric acid (100 mL of
concentrated HCl per L)
20 100 mL measuring cylinders
10 thermometers, 1050C or temperature probes
and data collection systems
20 weighing bottles or 20 watch glasses
20 safety glasses

800 mL of 1.0 M sodium hydroxide solution (40 g


NaOH per L)
4 g magnesium powder
10 calorimeters, previously calibrated if possible
(See Part A and Hints in this experiment.)
10 spatulas
electronic balance

Background knowledge
Students should be familiar with energy transformations, the concept of heat of reaction (H), and with the way in
which a calorimeter is used for thermochemical measurements.

Hints and comments


If a calorimeter is not available, these reactions can be performed in a polystyrene cup fitted with a cardboard
lid.
Temperature probes or 1050C thermometers with 0.1C increments are recommended as they allow more
accurate measurements of temperature.
It is not essential to calibrate the calorimeter. Reasonably good results are obtained by assuming that the energy
released or absorbed is entirely responsible for changes in temperature of the 100 mL of water in the calorimeter
(1 mL of water requires about 4.18 J of heat energy to raise its temperature by 1C).
Hydrochloric acid is in excess in the reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid; calculations should be
based upon the complete reaction of the metal.

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Page 20 of 24

Answers
Risk assessment and management
Material or procedure

Hazard

Management

1.0 M hydrochloric acid

Irritating to eyes, respiratory


system and skin

Avoid contact. Wear safety


glasses and a laboratory coat.

1.0 M sodium hydroxide solution

Corrosive; causes burns

Avoid contact. Wear safety


glasses and a laboratory coat.

Magnesium powder

Highly flammable; irritating to


respiratory system

Avoid contact. Wear safety


glasses and a laboratory coat.
Keep away from naked flames.

Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq) MgCl2(aq) + H2(g)

b NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq) NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)


c

KNO3(s) KNO3(aq)

For exothermic reactions, such as those in Parts A and B, the energy required to break the bonds in the reactants
is lower in magnitude than the energy released when new bonds are formed to make the products. The reverse
is true for endothermic reactions, as in Part C.

During exothermic reactions, the net energy released comes from the conversion of some of the chemical
energy of the reactants into thermal energy. During endothermic reactions, thermal energy is transformed into
chemical energy.

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Page 21 of 24

Practical activity 11: Determination of Faradays constant and Avogadros


number
Text reference: Heinemann Chemistry 2 Student Workbook, pp 193194

Rationale
In this experiment, students use an electroplating cell to collect data that will enable them to calculate values for
two important constants, Faradays constant and Avogadros number. This experiment also provides students with
an opportunity to practise calculations involving electrochemical data.

Materials
(per group of 20 students working in pairs)
900 mL nickel(II) sulfate electrolyte solution (120 g
NiSO4.6H2O, 15 g NH4Cl, and 15 g boric acid/L)
10 nickel (or copper) strips, approximately 3 cm
7 cm
30 100 mL beakers
40 wire leads with alligator clips
10 ammeters
10 DC power supplies
10 marking pens
20 pairs of gloves

10 copper strips or mesh, approximately 3 cm 7


cm
500 mL acetone (propanone) (see Hints for an
alternative to acetone)
paper towelling
10 scourers (plastic kitchen scourers cut into 5 cm
squares) or 10 sheets of emery paper
10 variable resistors (not required if the voltage of
the power supply is continuously variablesee
Hints)
10 stopwatches
20 safety glasses

Background knowledge
Students should be familiar with the use of the formulae Q = It and n(e) = Q/F. They should know how to apply
these formulae when making calculations based on the operation of the electrolytic cell.

Hints and comments


Collect waste acetone in an organic wastes container placed in the fume cupboard. This waste acetone can be
used to wash electrodes when performing some of the other experiments in this Area of Study.
A variable resistor is not required if the voltage of the power supply is continuously variable, in which case the
current can be adjusted by varying the voltage.
Methylated spirits can be used instead of acetone, but the cathode must then be dried by holding it in tongs high
above a Bunsen flame. Do not heat strongly or the copper will form black copper(II) oxide. Since methylated
spirits is flammable, keep containers of the liquid well away from flames.
The mass loss at the anode can be measured instead of measuring the mass gain at the cathode. This avoids the
problems associated with collecting and weighing all the nickel formed at the cathode.
Copper mesh electrodes work well as the nickel metal does not fall off them easily.

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Page 22 of 24

Answer
1

Ni2+(aq) + 2e Ni(s)
Risk assessment and management
Material or procedure

Hazard

Management

Acetone

Highly flammable; irritating to the


eyes

Keep away from naked flames.


Wear safety glasses and a
laboratory coat .

0.1 M nickel(II) sulfate solution

Harmful; possible sensitisation by


contact with skin and by
inhalation

Wear gloves, safety glasses and


a laboratory coat.

Use of electrical equipment

Electric shock and damage to


equipment

Check all connections carefully.

Practical activity 12: Fuel cells


Text reference: Heinemann Chemistry 2 Student Workbook, pp 195197

Rationale
This experiment provides an opportunity to examine the chemistry of fuel cells.

Materials
(per group of 20 students working in pairs)
6 L of 1 M potassium hydroxide solution (56 g
KOH/L)
10 carbon rods which fit into the semi-micro testtubes
20 semi-micro test-tubes
10 fuel cell assemblies, as described in Student
Workbook, p. 195
10 retort stands and clamps
up to 10 air pumps (e.g. fish tank pumps), tubing
and tubing clamps (optional)
10 spatulas
20 pairs of gloves

10 375 mL aluminium soft-drink cans


10 100 mL measuring cylinders
10 DC power supplies
10 low-voltage light globes and holders
10 voltmeters
20 wire leads with alligator clips
20 safety glasses

Background knowledge
Ideally, the experiment will be done after the theory behind the operation of the fuel cell has been discussed in
class.

Hints and comments


This experiment could be performed as a teacher demonstration.
Provide a container for the disposal of waste potassium hydroxide solution.
The apparatus for the hydrogenoxygen fuel cell should be constructed and tested for leaks prior to the
commencement of the laboratory session.

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Page 23 of 24

Answers
1

At anode: 4OH(aq) 2H2O(l) + O2(g) + 4e


At cathode: 2H2O(l) + 2e H2(g) + 2OH(aq)

Overall cell equation: 2H2O(l) + 2e H2(g) + O2(g)


Thus, volumes of hydrogen and oxygen are produced in a 2 : 1 ratio.

At anode: H2(g) + 2OH(aq) 2H2O(l) + 2e


At cathode: 2H2O(l) + O2(g) + 4e 4OH(aq)

The construction of a commercial hydrogenoxygen fuel cell is very different; reactants are supplied
continuously, and sophisticated catalytic electrodes are used.

The aluminium metal of the can is the anode.

At anode: Al(s) Al3+(aq) + 3e


At cathode: O2(g) + 2H2O(l) + 4e 4OH(aq)

In the aluminiumair cell, smaller masses of reactants are required to provide a given quantity of electrical
energy and one of the reactants, air, can be pumped into the cell as required.

A fuel cell is an electrochemical cell in which the reactants are supplied continuously to enable the constant
production of electrical energy. With air as the source of oxygen in the aluminiumair cell, the oxidant is
continuously available. While the laboratory version of the cell uses a soft-drink can as the source of
aluminium, the commercial model employs a replaceable electrode.

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