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# Signal Processing First

LECTURE #2
Phase & Time-Shift
Complex Exponentials

10/30/2014

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10/30/2014

## 2003, JH McClellan & RW Schafer

This Lecture:
Chapter 2, Sects. 2-3 to 2-5

## Appendix A: Complex Numbers

Appendix B: MATLAB
Next Lecture: finish Chap. 2,
Section 2-6 to end
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## 2003, JH McClellan & RW Schafer

LECTURE OBJECTIVES
Define Sinusoid Formula from a plot
Relate TIME-SHIFT to PHASE
Introduce an ABSTRACTION:
Complex Numbers represent Sinusoids
Complex Exponential Signal

z(t ) Xe
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## 2003, JH McClellan & RW Schafer

jt
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SINUSOIDAL SIGNAL

A cos( t )
FREQUENCY
AMPLITUDE A
or, Hertz (cycles/sec)

Magnitude

(2 ) f

PHASE

1 2
T
f

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## PLOTTING COSINE SIGNAL

from the FORMULA

5 cos(0.3 t 1.2 )
Determine period:

T 2 / 2 / 0.3 20 / 3
Determine a peak location by solving

( t ) 0
Peak at t=-4
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## 2003, JH McClellan & RW Schafer

5 cos(0.3 t 1.2 )
Use T=20/3 and the peak location at t=-4

20
3

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## 2003, JH McClellan & RW Schafer

TIME-SHIFT
In a mathematical formula we can replace
t with t-tm

x(t tm ) A cos( (t tm ))

## Then the t=0 point moves to t=tm

Peak value of cos((t-tm)) is now at t=tm
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## 2003, JH McClellan & RW Schafer

TIME-SHIFTED SINUSOID
x(t 4) 5 cos(0.3 (t 4)) 5 cos(0.3 (t (4))

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## PHASE <--> TIME-SHIFT

Equate the formulas:

A cos( (t tm )) A cos( t )
tm

and we obtain:
or,

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tm

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## SINUSOID from a PLOT

Measure the period, T
Between peaks or zero crossings

3 steps

## Measure time of a peak: tm

Compute phase: f = - tm

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.01sec
1
T 10period
100

2T 02.01 200

tm 0.00125 sec

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## 2003, JH McClellan & RW Schafer

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PHASE is AMBIGUOUS
The cosine signal is periodic
Period is 2

A cos( t 2 ) A cos( t )

unchanged

if tm
tm2
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, then

( 2 )

2 tm T

## 2003, JH McClellan & RW Schafer

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COMPLEX NUMBERS
To solve: z2 = -1
z=j
Math and Physics use z = i

Complex number: z = x + j y
y

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Cartesian
coordinate
system

15

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## 2003, JH McClellan & RW Schafer

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z3 z1 z2
(4 j 3) (2 j5)
(4 2) j ( 3 5)
6 j2
2003, JH McClellan & RW Schafer

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## *** POLAR FORM ***

Vector Form
Length =1
Angle = q

Common Values
j has angle of 0.5
1 has angle of
j has angle of 1.5
also, angle of j could be 0.5 1.5 2
because the PHASE is AMBIGUOUS
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## POLAR <--> RECTANGULAR

Relate (x,y) to (r,q)

r x y
2

1 y
Tan x

Most calculators do
Polar-Rectangular

x
x r cos q
y r sin q

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## 2003, JH McClellan & RW Schafer

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Eulers FORMULA
Complex Exponential
Real part is cosine
Imaginary part is sine
Magnitude is one

e
re
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jq

cos(q ) j sin(q )

jq

r cos(q ) jr sin(q )
2003, JH McClellan & RW Schafer

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COMPLEX EXPONENTIAL

j t

cos( t ) j sin( t )

## Interpret this as a Rotating Vector

q t
Angle changes vs. time
Rotates 0.2 in 0.01 secs

e
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jq

cos(q ) j sin(q )

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## cos = REAL PART

Real Part of Eulers
General Sinusoid
So,

cos( t ) e{ e

j t

x(t ) A cos( t )

A cos( t ) e{ Ae

j ( t )
j j t

e{ Ae e
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}
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## REAL PART EXAMPLE

j j t

A cos( t ) e Ae e

Evaluate:

x(t ) e 3 je

x(t ) e ( 3 j )e

e 3e
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j t

j 0.5 j t

j t

3cos( t 0.5 )

## 2003, JH McClellan & RW Schafer

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COMPLEX AMPLITUDE
General Sinusoid

## x(t ) A cos( t ) eAe e

j

jt

Complex AMPLITUDE = X

z(t ) Xe

jt

X Ae

x(t ) eXe

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jt

eAe

jt

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