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LECTURE #2

Phase & Time-Shift

Complex Exponentials

10/30/2014

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10/30/2014

READING ASSIGNMENTS

This Lecture:

Chapter 2, Sects. 2-3 to 2-5

Appendix B: MATLAB

Next Lecture: finish Chap. 2,

Section 2-6 to end

10/30/2014

LECTURE OBJECTIVES

Define Sinusoid Formula from a plot

Relate TIME-SHIFT to PHASE

Introduce an ABSTRACTION:

Complex Numbers represent Sinusoids

Complex Exponential Signal

z(t ) Xe

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jt

4

SINUSOIDAL SIGNAL

A cos( t )

FREQUENCY

AMPLITUDE A

Radians/sec

or, Hertz (cycles/sec)

Magnitude

(2 ) f

PHASE

1 2

T

f

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from the FORMULA

5 cos(0.3 t 1.2 )

Determine period:

T 2 / 2 / 0.3 20 / 3

Determine a peak location by solving

( t ) 0

Peak at t=-4

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5 cos(0.3 t 1.2 )

Use T=20/3 and the peak location at t=-4

20

3

10/30/2014

TIME-SHIFT

In a mathematical formula we can replace

t with t-tm

x(t tm ) A cos( (t tm ))

Peak value of cos((t-tm)) is now at t=tm

10/30/2014

TIME-SHIFTED SINUSOID

x(t 4) 5 cos(0.3 (t 4)) 5 cos(0.3 (t (4))

10/30/2014

Equate the formulas:

A cos( (t tm )) A cos( t )

tm

and we obtain:

or,

10/30/2014

tm

10

Measure the period, T

Between peaks or zero crossings

3 steps

Compute phase: f = - tm

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11

.01sec

1

T 10period

100

2T 02.01 200

tm 0.00125 sec

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12

10/30/2014

13

PHASE is AMBIGUOUS

The cosine signal is periodic

Period is 2

A cos( t 2 ) A cos( t )

unchanged

if tm

tm2

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, then

( 2 )

2 tm T

14

COMPLEX NUMBERS

To solve: z2 = -1

z=j

Math and Physics use z = i

Complex number: z = x + j y

y

10/30/2014

Cartesian

coordinate

system

15

10/30/2014

16

COMPLEX ADDITION =

VECTOR Addition

10/30/2014

z3 z1 z2

(4 j 3) (2 j5)

(4 2) j ( 3 5)

6 j2

2003, JH McClellan & RW Schafer

17

Vector Form

Length =1

Angle = q

Common Values

j has angle of 0.5

1 has angle of

j has angle of 1.5

also, angle of j could be 0.5 1.5 2

because the PHASE is AMBIGUOUS

10/30/2014

18

Relate (x,y) to (r,q)

r x y

2

1 y

Tan x

Most calculators do

Polar-Rectangular

x

x r cos q

y r sin q

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19

Eulers FORMULA

Complex Exponential

Real part is cosine

Imaginary part is sine

Magnitude is one

e

re

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jq

cos(q ) j sin(q )

jq

r cos(q ) jr sin(q )

2003, JH McClellan & RW Schafer

20

COMPLEX EXPONENTIAL

j t

cos( t ) j sin( t )

q t

Angle changes vs. time

ex: 20 rad/s

Rotates 0.2 in 0.01 secs

e

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jq

cos(q ) j sin(q )

21

Real Part of Eulers

General Sinusoid

So,

cos( t ) e{ e

j t

x(t ) A cos( t )

A cos( t ) e{ Ae

j ( t )

j j t

e{ Ae e

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}

22

j j t

A cos( t ) e Ae e

Evaluate:

x(t ) e 3 je

Answer:

x(t ) e ( 3 j )e

e 3e

10/30/2014

j t

j 0.5 j t

j t

3cos( t 0.5 )

23

COMPLEX AMPLITUDE

General Sinusoid

j

jt

Complex AMPLITUDE = X

z(t ) Xe

jt

X Ae

x(t ) eXe

10/30/2014

jt

eAe

jt

24

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