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Name: Nurul Nadiah Binti Bakri

Matrix: 4111024961
Semester : 4/14/34
Lecturer: Prof. Madya Ir. Muhidin Arifin


Name: Alia Aishah Binti Abd Aziz

Matrix: 4112029921
Semester: 4/14/34
Lecturer: Prof. Madya Ir. Muhidin Arifin

Executive Summary

Nowadays, emphasis is being increasing placed on finding the alternative energy

sources since we are running out of fossil-based source such as petroleum and gas.
One of these alternative energy sources is solar energy. This source of energy has
unlimited potential as the sun will continue to shine for very long time. In order to
commercialize the solar energy, the efficiency of absorbing the solar energy needs to
be improved. The project is concentrated in designing the system which will track the
position of the sun direct to the solar panel. So the solar panel can get better source of
sun shine and will improve the efficiency of the output voltage. To produce such
system, future research need to be conducted on the current technology which to
enhance the concept of solar tracking system. In this project, the system is equipped
with photo transistor sensors, dc gear motor, switches and a microcontroller chip. The
heart of the system is the controller itself. It will interface the input and the output of
the system as well as processing the information obtained from the input. Knowledge
of programming is important and the program will be downloaded to the
microcontroller in other to run the system. For the prototype fabrication, the author is
concentrating on the mechanism used and tracing the position of the sun from the
sunrise until the sunset. DC motor equipped with gear and Perspex as the base of

prototype are used as part of solar module mechanism in order to move the solar
panel. Testing has been done on the prototype so that the efficiency and reliability can
be improved.




1.0 Introduction
Nowadays, renewable energy source plays important role in humans life due
to the existing energy resources such as petroleum had been reduced. The new sources
of energy have been found which include wind energy hydropower and solar energy.
There are many ways and technology to produce electricity including by using natural
resources like petroleum, gas and diesel. But all the resources will be depleted and
also effected the environment. So, people starts doing research and development on
the alternative energy. The solar energy is the one that receive most attention. It is
practical and environmentally friendly in producing electricity. The solar energy also
offers endless supply and most importantly it is free.

1.2 Objective of Project

The objective of the dual axis solar tracking system project are to meet to following

To design and construct a four axis solar tracking system

To build a microcontroller solar array that actively tracks the sun to maximum
solar panel output.

To build a sensor to locate the sun's position at any aligning.

1.3 Problem Statement

The solar energy has been started to be commercialized since the need of
alternative energy sources. The current solar tracking system is in stand-still mode
regardless the position of the sun. The efficiency of the output voltage from the panel is
low. To overcome the problem, the active solar tracker has been introduces where the
system can follow the suns track from its rising to its setting. It will keep solar panel
facing the sun all the time so that the system can get better input from sun shine.

1.4 Project Scope

This project involves both hardware and software implementation. As for the
hardware, designing and construction of mechanical structures are needed while for
software implementation is to develop the source code for the microcontroller using
microC PRO.

The system also consists of a mechanical design and circuit development. The
tracker system will follow sun movement from east to west. The movement controlled
by the dc motor that using 12 volt supply.



2.0 Project Risk

Risk also knew as danger or hazard. Risk is inevitable in an organization
when undertaking projects. However, the project manager needs to ensure that risks
are kept to a minimal. Risks can be mainly divided between two types, negative
impact risk and positive impact risk.
Not all the time would project managers be facing negative impact risks as
there are positive impact risks. Once the risk has been identified, project managers
need to come up with a mitigation plan or any other solution to counter attack the risk.

Risk identification

Quantitative risk assessment

Risk response planning

Risk monitoring and control

In this project, the risk can come from..

Risk Identification

Supervisors face numerous challenges concerning recognizing and naming the

dangers that happen when undertaking ventures. These dangers could be determined
through organized or unstructured conceptualizing or procedures. It's critical to
comprehend that dangers relating to the undertaking must be taken care of by the task
administrator and different stakeholders of the venture.
Dangers, for example, operational or business dangers will be taken care of by
the significant groups. The dangers that frequently affect a task are supplier hazard,
asset hazard and plan hazard. Supplier danger would allude to dangers that can
happen on the off chance that the supplier is not meeting the course of events to
supply the assets needed.
Asset danger happens when the human asset utilized as a part of the task is
insufficient or not gifted enough. Plan danger would allude to dangers that can happen
if the expenses are more than what was planned.

Risk Quantification

Utilizing the framework, the undertaking chief can arrange the danger into
four classes as Low, Medium, High and Critical. The likelihood of event and the
effect on the undertaking are the two parameters utilized for setting the danger as a
part of the lattice classifications. As an illustration, if a danger event is low (likelihood
= 2) and it has the most elevated (effect = 4), the danger can be arranged as 'High'.








Figure 2.1: Categories of Risk

Risk Response

With regards to hazard administration, it relies on upon the venture supervisor

to pick techniques that will decrease the danger to insignificant. Venture chiefs can
pick between the four danger reaction techniques, which are laid out underneath.

a. Dangers can be evaded

b. Pass on the danger
c. Take remedial measures to lessen the effect of dangers
d. Recognize the danger

Risk Monitoring and Control

Dangers can be observed on a consistent premise to check if any change is

made. New dangers can be recognized through the consistent checking and surveying

Risk Management Process

Taking after are the contemplations concerning danger administration process:

Each person involved in the process of planning needs to identify and

understand the risks pertaining to the project.

Once the team members have given their list of risks, the risks should be
consolidated to a single list in order to remove the duplications.

Assessing the probability and impact of the risks involved with the help of a

Split the team into subgroups where each group will identify the triggers that
lead to project risks.

The teams need to come up with a contingency plan whereby to strategically

eliminate the risks involved or identified.

Plan the risk management process. Each person involved in the project is
assigned a risk in which he/she looks out for any triggers and then finds a
suitable solution for it.



The project took place in duration of almost one year. The first step before the
project implementation is to review the project scope and research area. In this case,
the field of tracking the sun light radiation is reviewed thoroughly in order to establish
the Microcontroller Based Solar Tracking to perform the specified task. Then, the
next task is to design the mechanical structure and circuitry of the robot which is to be
built. At the same time, studies on programming PIC18F452 microcontroller to the
hardware is also been done. Then, if all the design has been finalized, the
implementation of the hardware and the circuitry takes place.

Figure 3.1: Project Overview

Mechanical Design
Mechanical design is one of the major phases in the development of the solar
tracking system. This part contributes to what the solar panel control would look like.
The skeleton of the panel is designed and constructed in this phase. Few sketches
have developed and one of the best had been chosen. The purpose of the skeleton is to
provide a place to mount the electronics component such as DC motor, Sensor (LDR)
and Solar cell.
Electrical component
When beginning the electrical design for the tracking system, a TOP/DOWN
approach was used to break the project into separate tasks. Taking the project as a
whole, it involves reading voltages from a sensor array, then comparing these voltages
digitally to determine the direction the array must move to align itself with the sun. To
perform this movement a motor circuit is needed to receive output from the controller
and step the motors accordingly. The following sections of this chapter outline the
methods and designs used to implement this system. During the time that the sun is

up, the system must follow the suns position in the sky. This must be done with an
active control, timed movements are wasteful. It should be totally automatic and
simple to operate. The operator interference should be minimal and restricted to only
when it is actually required. The major components of this system are as follows:

Light Sensors (CdS).


DC Motor




Light Sensors
DC Motor
Solar panel plate





For having good and smooth operation on project, engineer must have some
characteristics such as great planning. Not only big and expensive project need the
plan, but in average and simple project need it. The planning will show every detail of
each project we handle, regardless whenever issue or problem occurs engineer can
easily find the way to fix it. From the planning and technical report also will show the
ability of engineers complete project within the given time.

SYSTEM, MAY 2011, Faculty of Electrical Engineering Universiti Teknologi

3. John D. Finnerty Ph.D, Project Financing: Asset-Based Financial

Engineering , JOHN WlLEY & SONS, INC 3rd Edition