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The Basis of Life

Dr Mirna N. Chahine
Week 2
Feb 18th -22nd

1. Matter, Energy, and Life

Matter & Energy


All living things can use MATTER and ENERGY
to their advantage.
MATTER= anything that has a mass and takes
up space.
ENERGY= The ability to do work or cause
things to move

Energy
Work is being done
whenever some
physical force is
being used to move
an object some
distance

Energy means that

birds can fly,


tigers can roar,
wind can blow,
sun can shine,
cars can go fast,
factories can make things,
light bulbs can glow and
your computer can work.

Without energy, there would be nothing: no


life, no movement, no light, nothing

Energy
All objects contain energy in one form or
another
Can take the form of:
Motion
Position
Heat
Light
Sound
Electricity

Kinetic Energy
Potential Energy

Kinetic Energy
The energy an object possesses because
of its motion
ex: Flying bird,
EX: Skiing (slope)

Potential Energy
The amount of energy contained in an
object at rest;
The energy of position;
Stored energy (ex: in chemicals)
Ex: Stretched bow
Ex: Skiing (maintaining
itself at top of the
slope)

Potential Energy
o Potential energy stored within the
chemical bonds of an object

Potential Energy
o Potential energy stored within the
chemical bonds of an object

Kinetic
Energy
vs
Potential
Energy

Kinetic
Energy
vs
Potential
Energy

Kinetic
Energy
vs
Potential
Energy

Kinetic
Energy
vs
Potential
Energy

Potential or Kinetic Energy?

Moving car
Tree branch
Balloon filled with air
Balloon squirting around room

Potential or Kinetic Energy?

Moving car: Kinetic Energy


Tree branch: Potential Energy
Balloon filled with air: Potential Energy
Balloon squirting around room : Kinetic Energy

In conclusion : Energy
never be created
Energy can _______________
never be destroyed
Energy can _______________
only be converted
But ENERGY can_______________
from one form to another

LAW OF CONSERVATION
OF ENERGY

2. The Nature of Matter

Introduction: Matter / Chemistry


In Science, living things are not
composed of pure energy
In Science, living things are also
composed of matter
CHEMISTRY: Basic principles of MATTER
Composition,
Structure,
Properties of matter

Matter

2. The Nature of Matter


2.2. The Structure of an Atom
Neutrons
Protons
Electrons

Elements
Elements
Pure substances that cannot be broken down
chemically into simpler kinds of matter
More than 100 elements (92 naturally
occurring)

Elements
90% of the mass of an organism is
composed of 4 elements (oxygen,
carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen)
Each element unique chemical
symbol:
Consists of 1-2 letters
First letter is always capitalized

Atoms
ATOMS are the simplest particle of
an element that retains all the
properties of that element
Properties of atoms determine the
structure and properties of the
matter they compose

Atoms
The study of chemistry begins with
the basic unit of matter, the atom.

Atoms
Placed side by side, 100
million atoms would
make a row only about 1
centimeter long.

Atoms contain
subatomic particles
that are even smaller.

Atoms
The subatomic
particles that make
up atoms are:
protons
neutrons
electrons

The Nucleus
Central core
Consists of positive
charged protons and
neutral neutrons
Positively charged
Contains most of the
mass of the atom

The subatomic particles


in a helium atom.
4

A: MASS NUMBER

He2

Z: ATOMIC NUMBER
=PROTONS NUMBER

N= A-Z
=NEUTRONS NUMBER
PROTONS NB= ELECTRONS NB

=2
=2
=2

2. The Nature of Matter


2.1. The Structure of an Atom
2.2. Elements may vary in Neutrons but not in
Protons

Elements and Isotopes


A chemical element is a pure substance that consists
entirely of one type of atom.
Isotopes are atoms of the same element that differ in
the number of neutrons they contain.

N= 12-6= 6

N= 14-6= 8

Elements and Isotopes

6 electrons
6 protons
8 neutrons

Because they have


the same number of
electrons, all isotopes
of an element have
the same chemical
properties.
The difference
among the isotopes
is the number of
neutrons in their
nuclei.

2. The Nature of Matter


2.1. The Structure of an Atom
2.2. Elements may vary in Neutrons but not in
Protons
2.3. The positions of Electrons

The Electrons
Negatively charged high energy particles with little
or no mass
Travel at very high speeds at various distances
(energy levels) from the nucleus

Electrons in the same energy level are


approximately the same distance from the
nucleus
Outer energy levels have more energy
than inner levels
Each level holds only a certain number of
electrons

Energy Levels
Atoms have 7 energy levels
The levels are K (closest to the nucleus), L, M, N,
O, P, Q (furthest from the nucleus)
The K level can only hold 2 electrons
Levels L Q can hold 8 electrons (OCTET RULE)

Periodic Table
Elements are arranged by their atomic
number on the Periodic Table
The horizontal rows are called Periods & tell
the number of energy levels
Vertical groups are called Families & tell the
outermost number of electrons

2. The Nature of Matter


2.1. The Structure of an Atom
2.2. Elements may vary in Neutrons but not in
Protons
2.3. The positions of Electrons
2.4. The formation of Molecules/Compounds

Molecules/ Compounds
Molecules are the simplest part of a substance that
retains all of the properties of the substance and
exists in a free state; They are composed by 2 or
more atoms of the same element ex: H2, O2, O3
Compounds are molecules composed by more than
one element ex: CO2, H20, CH4

CO2

O3

H2O

The Formation of
Molecules and Compounds

Chemical Compounds
A chemical compound is a substance formed by
the chemical combination of two or more
elements in definite proportions.

Molecules/ Compounds
Chemical Formula
Water
Table Salt

Hydrochloric Acid
Glucose
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

Molecules/ Compounds
Chemical Formula
Water: H2O
Table Salt: NaCl

Hydrochloric Acid: HCl


Glucose: C6 H12 O6
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

2. The Nature of Matter


2.1. The Structure of an Atom
2.2. Elements may vary in Neutrons but not in
Protons
2.3. The positions of Electrons
2.4. The formation of Molecules/Compounds
2.5. State of a compound: Physical and Chemical
Changes

States of Matter of
the compound
Atoms are in constant motion
The rate at which atoms or molecules in a
substance move determines its state

States of Matter of
the compound
Solid
Molecules tightly linked together in a definite shape
Vibrate in place
Fixed volume and shape
Liquids
Molecules not as tightly linked as a solid
Maintain fixed volume
Able to flow and conform to shape of container
Gas
Molecules have little or no attraction to each other
Fill the volume of the occupied container
Move most rapidly

Stability of atoms
The tendency of elements to combine and
form compounds depends on the number and
arrangement of electrons in their outermost
energy level
Atoms are most stable when their outer most
energy level is filled
Most atoms are not stable in their natural
state
Tend to react (combine) with other atoms in
order to become more stable (undergo
chemical reactions)
In chemical reactions bonds are broken;
atoms rearranged and new chemical bonds
are formed that store energy

Chemical Bonds
The atoms in
compounds are held
together by chemical
bonds.
The electrons that
are available to form
bonds are called
valence electrons.

Chemical Bonds
The main types of chemical bonds are:
ionic bonds
covalent bonds

Ionic Bond
An ionic bond is formed when one or more electrons
are transferred from one atom to another.
These positively and negatively charged atoms are
known as ions.
Because positive and negative electrical charges
attract each other ionic bonds form

Ionic Bond
Sodium atom (Na)

Chemical Bonds
Sodium ion (Cl-)

Sodium ion (Na+)

Sodium atom (Cl)

Protons
Electrons

+11
- 11
10

Protons
Electrons

+17
- 17
18

Charge

+10

Charge

-10

Ionic Bond

Covalent Bonds
They are formed when electrons are shared
between atoms instead of being transferred.

Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

Covalent Bonds
single covalent
bond:
1 pair of e- is shared

double bond
2 pairs of e- are shared

triple bond
3 pairs of e- are shared

2. The Nature of Matter


2.1. The Structure of an Atom
2.2. Elements may vary in Neutrons but not in
Protons
2.3. The positions of Electrons
2.4. The formation of Molecules/Compounds
2.5. State of a compound: Physical and Chemical
Changes
2.6. Water the Essence of Life

The Water Molecule


A water molecule is polar because there is an uneven
distribution of electrons between the oxygen and
hydrogen atoms.
The hydrogen end
of the molecule is
slightly positive
The oxygen end is
slightly negative.

Hydrogen Bonds
Because of their partial positive and negative
charges, polar molecules can attract each
other.

Solutions and Suspensions


A mixture is a material composed of two or more
elements or compounds that are physically
mixed but not chemically combined.
Two types of mixtures can be made with water
solutions
suspensions

Solutions and Suspensions


Solutions
All the components of a solution are evenly distributed
throughout the solution.
-solute: the substance that is dissolved: ex: NaCl
-solvent: the substance in which the solute dissolves: ex: H2O;
Water is the universal solvent

Suspensions
Some materials do not dissolve when placed
in water but separate into pieces so small
that they do not settle out easily.

2. The Nature of Matter


2.1. The Structure of an Atom
2.2. Elements may vary in Neutrons but not in
Protons
2.3. The positions of Electrons
2.4. The formation of Molecules/Compounds
2.5. State of a compound: Physical and Chemical
Changes
2.6. Water the Essence of Life
2.7. Acids, Bases, pH, and Buffers

Acids, Bases, and pH


A water molecule is neutral, but can react to form
hydrogen and hydroxide ions.
H2O H+ + OH-

Acids, Bases, and pH


The pH scale : Chemists devised a measurement system called
the pH scale to indicate the concentration of H+ ions in solution:

The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14.

Acid: is any compound that forms H+ ions in solution; ex: HCl


Base: is a compound that produces OH- ions in solution; ex: NaOH

the lower the pH the stronger the acid


the higher the pH the stronger the base
pH 7.0 is neutral

Buffers
Control of pH is very important for maintaining
homeostasis.
Buffers keep a neutral pH (pH= 7) by neutralizing
small amounts of either an acid or base added to a
solution
Complex buffering systems maintain the pH values
of your bodys many fluids at normal and safe levels
(between 6.5 and 7.5).

2. The Nature of Matter


2.1. The Structure of an Atom
2.2. Elements may vary in Neutrons but not in
Protons
2.3. The positions of Electrons
2.4. The formation of Molecules/Compounds
2.5. State of a compound: Physical and Chemical
Changes
2.6. Water the Essence of Life
2.7. Acids, Bases, and pH
2.8. Chemical reactions

FIVE most important


Chemical Reactions

1- Oxidation- Reduction Reactions


2- Acid base reactions
3- Dehydration synthesis reactions
4- Hydrolysis reactions
5- Phosphorylation reactions

Reduction-Oxidation Reactions
Many of the chemical reactions that help transfer
energy in living organisms involve the transfer of
electrons (reduction-oxidation = redox reactions)
1- Oxidation reaction reactant
loses electron(s) becoming more
positive
2- Reduction reaction reactant
gains electron(s) becoming more
negative

Acid-Base Reactions
They take place when the ions of an acid interact
with the ions of a base;
This occurs in organisms and their environment in
order to protect them from damage

H Cl + Na OH
Hydrochloric
acid

Sodium
Hydroxide

Na Cl + HOH
Sodium
Chloride

Water :
H2O

The End