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Indian Abacus

TM

Starters
Tutor Training Manual

Abacus Mental Arithmetic Education for Brain Skills

LEVEL 1

Published by
Indian Abacus Private Limited,
Global Head Office:
th
th
No. A1 1857, 13 Main Road, 6 Avenue,
Anna Nagar West, Chennai 600 040.
Tamilnadu, India.
First Edition: April, 2013
Patent pending: India & International (US)
Indian Abacus Digital
Indian Abacus Non Digital
Indian Abacus Digital for Tutor
Indian Abacus Non Digital for Tutor

Copyright:
Starters Tutor Training Manual
This publication is copyrighted

All rights reserved by Indian Abacus Private Limited,


No part of this publication should be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any
means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior permission of the owner
and the publisher. This book may not be lent, resold, hired out or otherwise disposed of by way of trade in any form
of binding or cover other than that in which it is published, without the prior consent of the owner / publisher.

ISBN NO.:

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Index

INDEX
Contents

S. No.

Page No

Lesson Plan, Objectives & Important Command

Important Class room activities

Basics in Abacus learning

Instructions regarding training

1st week Lesson plan and Guidelines

2nd week Lesson plan and Guidelines

11

3rd week Lesson plan and Guidelines

14

4th week Lesson plan and Guidelines

17

5th week Lesson plan and Guidelines

20

10

6th week Lesson plan and Guidelines

23

11

7th week Lesson plan and Guidelines

26

12

8th week Lesson plan and Guidelines

29

13

9th week Lesson plan and Guidelines

32

14

10th week Lesson plan and Guidelines

35

15

11th week Lesson plan and Guidelines

38

16

12th week Lesson plan and Guidelines

41

17

Possibilities for Small Friends Addition

44

18

Possibilities for Small Friends Subtraction

45

19

Possibilities for Big Friends Addition

46

20

Possibilities for Big Friends Subtraction

48

21

Possibilities for Combination/Mixed Friends Addition

50

22

Possibilities for Combination/Mixed Friends Subtraction

51

23

Fingering

52

24

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

53

25

Notes

61

Abacus

Lesson Plan
The Indian Abacus Mental Arithmetic Program has a well structured syllabus which must be
learnt as per the guidelines given in the lesson plan this is to maintain the uniformity in the learning
methodology of the Indian Abacus program all over the world.
Objectives
By the end of first term, the child must have learnt:
I.

About Indian abacus

ii.

Basic rules for operating the abacus

iii.

The proper use of fingers and formulae

iv.

To solve 1D 3,4,5R sums with the abacus and 12D 3,4,5R with the abacus

v.

Basic Fingering exercise (1 to 9) based on the formulae

THE TEN COMMANDMENTS:


I.

Those who teach must learn and never cease to learn. At the end of each class, ask yourself
not what you have taught, but what have you learnt.

ii.

Bring the world to your classroom; do not make the textbook and classroom your world.

iii.

Change with the time. Remember, you will age year after year, but your children will never. For they
will always be 5 13 years old.

iv.

Be different. Set your own standards, methods and approach for teaching.

v.

Set the bar higher for yourself and for the children. Never settle for mediocrity. Always demand the
best of yourself and your students.

vi.

Take your work seriously. Instill honesty and truthfulness in your students.

vii.

Never fail to smile and greet the children when you enter the class. Your bad day should not mean
a bad day for 15 or more children.

viii

Do not lose your temper at any cost or scold the children unnecessarily.

ix

Children are like flowers precious and beautiful; never hurt them with your thoughtless words or
deeds.

x.

Understand that each child is unique and gifted in his/her own way. Try not to criticize or condemn
any child who do not get good marks in your tests.

Course Structure (Syllabus covered)


i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.

Addition & Subtraction (sums)


1D 3R,4R,5R 1 & 2D 3R,4R,5R
Formulae Small Friend, Big Friend, Combination (Mixed Friends).
Speed Writing Direct view, Indirect view, Left hand writing.
Basic Exercise +9 to +1 & 9 to 1 based on the formulae
Random writing 1D 10R 10 sets.
Orals 1D 3R, 5R, 8R, 10R (Abacus)

Indian Abacus Tutor Training Manual

Class Room
Activities

Formulae
ADDITION

SUBTRACTION

+9

Direct

...

1 + 10

Direct

...

10 + 1

+8

Direct

...

2 + 10

Direct

...

10 + 2

+7

Direct

...

3 + 10

Direct

...

10 + 3

+6

Direct

...

4 + 10

Direct

...

10 + 4

+5

Direct

...

5 + 10

Direct

...

10 + 5

+4

Direct

+5 1

6 + 10

Direct

+1 5

10 + 6

+3

Direct

+5 2

7 + 10

Direct

+2 5

10 + 7

+2

Direct

+5 3

8 + 10

Direct

+3 5

10 + 8

+1

Direct

+5 4

9 + 10

Direct

+4 5

10 + 9

Important Class Room Activities:


1.

Speed writing:
Speed writing practice is aimed at writing of numbers at a fast pace, neatly and legibly by the children. Speed
writing initially may affect neat and legible handwriting of numbers. But with steady practice, the skill to write
at good speed neatly and legibly is attained. Since practice is a must for every child, children shall write
numbers as per tutors instructions & within a set time. After a month of practice the though children will be
able to write fast neatly & legibly.
In this activity, the children are required to write certain digits repeatedly/continuously within a specified
time, i.e. one minute. As they practice 'speed writing' in class and at home, their writing speed starts
improving, while maintaining / improving the legibility and neatness as well.

Repeated Numbers in write speed writing


I.
Simple
1234567890
II.
Reverse
9876543210
III.
Small Friends
1423324100; 4132231400
IV.
Big Friends
1928374655; 9182736455
V.
Small/Big Friends 1423324100, 1928374655; 4132231400, 9182736455
VI.
Combination
54535251
2.

Basic Exercise:
This activity is mainly performed on the abacus. Basic exercise helps the children to learn to use the
formulae on multiple columns and is very useful for improving the proper use of fingers on the abacus.
Example: 1 + 9 clear, 2 + 9 clear, 3 + 9 clear, 4 + 9 clear, 6 + 9 clear, 7 + 9 clear, 8 + 9 clear, 9 + 9 clear in only
9th & 10th column repeatedly.

3.

Random Numbers: (Listening & writing exercise)


Random numbers call out is the exercise for listening and writing. Tutors call out the numbers randomly to the
children and they are expected to carefully listen and write the same numbers in the fingering/ speed book.
This exercise not only enhances the listening skills but also enables the child to attain the speed of writing as
fast as they hear the numbers called out by the tutors.

Class Room
Activities

4.

Orals:
Call out oral sums is for the students to calculate and give the correct answers. The time to be allotted has
to be properly implemented. Listening to sums called out and doing the same to give answers not only
enhances the listening skills, but also enables the memory to become stronger. Apart from looking & doing
the sums, the hearing sense also adds to establish better memory skills. Ability to do fast & accurate
mental arithmetic calculations and listening to do the called out sums are the reflection of brain skills.

1.

2.

Rules to be followed while conducting oral sums:


I.

Start with ready . End with "that is

II.

Maintain constant speed. 1 Digit < 1 second.

III.

Don't repeat the numbers.

IV.

Mention the same operation only once. Use "PLUS" when numbers have to be added and "MINUS"
when numbers have to be subtracted.

V.

Ask students to write Date & mention number of rows & number of digits in the fingering exercise
Book.

VI.

Draw the symbol (#) if the orals are to be done using the Abacus.

VII.

Mention the formula if it is based on any new formula eg; +9 B/C or mention Rev +9 B/C if it is based
on revisions of previous formulae.

VIII.

After the correction, ask the children to write the answer.

Flash Cards
Flash Card is a handheld tool to project image of an object, letters/words and or numbers. Flash cards can also
be read from a computer with slides projecting at set time intervals. Flash Cards in the education field of
children are used to enhance clarity, comprehension and memory of a learned concept. In primary education
of children, the flash cards are used to teach alphabets & Numbers. In abacus based mental arithmetic, flash
cards used to have the bead images on the one side and the equivalent numbers representing the number
value on the other side. Children are shown bead images and are asked to write the numbers meant for each of
them, thereby the image of the memory of children is strengthened.
Children learning the Abacus based mental arithmetic of Indian Abacus do not need Flash cards practice. Since
the purpose of Flash cards is more than adequately met by the Indian Abacus tool itself. The slider images are
of colour and are visible as cut out images like flash card images. Practice of Abacus calculations using Indian
Abacus is enough. The benefit of Flash cards practice is not needed separately as the tools features colour
images more than adequately met.

3.

Six Step Method to be followed for each formula.


I.

Write formula once.

ii.

Minimum three examples.

iii.

Show.

iv.

Fingering Practice / Fundamentals.

v.

Listening.

vi.

Visualization (Book Practice)

Indian Abacus Tutor Training Manual

Abacus Basics

Basics in Abacus Learning


1.
Correct Sitting Posture:

2.

I.

Sit the space of chair

II.

Do not rest on the back of the chair

III.

Do not press elbows on to table, maintain some distance

Abacus Position:
Before commencing, the abacus must be placed vertically on the left
hand side
I.

Sitting Posture

When working on the abacus


a) Place abacus 4 fingers away from the edge of the table
b) The unit point should be in alignment with your nose

II.

When working out the book exercise,


a) Place abacus below the row which you are doing
b) The unit point should be placed below the sum which you are
doing

3.

Abacus Position

Holding the Pencil:


For Left Handers: Hold the pencil in the left hand. It passes between the
thumb and the index finger and out of ring and the last finger. Allow 2.5 cm
projection at the end of Pencil.
For Right Handers: Hold the pencil with the last 3 fingers of the right hand,
index finger and thumb pointing out. Allow 2.5 cm projection at end of the
Pencil.

4.

Holding the Abacus :


Abacus must be held with thumb and last two fingers of the lefthand.
Pencil Holding

5.

Clearance of Abacus:
When sliders are not in position on the abacus then use the clearance
method; use right hand index and thumb finger to hold the bar on both sides
and sweep the sliders from right to left side.
Short Clearance:
Hold the bar using right hand index and thumb fingers together on either
side of the bar and sweep the sliders from right to left, wherever it is
required .

Abacus Holding

Long Clearance:
Hold the bar using right hand index and thumb fingers together on either
side of the bar and sweep the sliders from right to left in all the columns of
the abacus.
Abacus Clearance

Abacus Basics

Introductory Class
Always start the batch with an introductory class.
1.

3.

Basics of using the abacus


I.

Position the abacus four fingers away from the edge of the table & sit straight in half of the chair

II.

Abacus should be straight and should be aligned with your nose

III.

Always place the abacus below the sum, aligning the 7th column with the sum / five sum set, and
subsequently move the abacus

IV.

Holding the pencil for right handed students and left handed students

V.

Holding the Abacus with left hand

VI.

Clearing the Abacus

Identification of Slider images


I.

Set 1 4, on all the columns using right hand thumb finger Subtract 1 4 on all the columns using
right hand index finger

II.

Set 5 remove 5 on all the columns using the right hand index finger

III.

Set 6 9, on the columns using index and thumb finger of right hand (pinching & pinching away)

IV.

Set 1 9, on the abacus using index and thumb finger of right hand (pinching & pinching away)

Wrong Answers
I.

Do not use eraser in the class. In case of wrong answer, the following rule applies:Strike off the wrong answer twice and then write correct answer below or next to it, e.g. 33 44.

4.

Speed Writing
Speed writing section of the book is used to listen and write randomly called out numbers, oral sums
practice and for speed writing practice of numbers. It is a very important exercise as it enables gaining
speed and writing through coordination of fingers usage with the listening and practice. (Listening will
improve the quality as well.)

5.

Stop Watch
Stop watch is to set time for conducting speed writing and term test. It is also used to check the time
taken while doing mental arithmetic book work. Stop watches are used to measure the speed of the
mental calculation achieved due to the constant practice of abacus mental arithmetic concept. It acts
as a tool to measure the performance of abacus/ mental calculations, since time taken is essential to
attain accuracy.

6.

Listening Exercise Section


This is essential since it provides a number of oral sums (with answers shown for checking ) for listening
practice and test. The sums given are matching with the syllabus of the level though there is an increased
challenge.

Indian Abacus Tutor Training Manual

Training
Instructions

Instructions regarding training:


I.

Eligible tutors should confirm their participation for the next level training in advance as soon as they
receive the training schedule.

II.

Tutors attending the training should be punctual. Late comers will not be allowed in the class room
once the training starts.

III.

Tutors have to attend the training for the level that is due & have to be in touch with the Global Head
office for the details of training schedule.

IV.

Tutors before they attend next levels of the training should have completed all the exercises in the
books provided in that levels training and should submit the same on the day of the next level
training before commencement. They should also be thorough in theory and practice of the
completed level as per the syllabus.

V.

Regular practice for at least 2 hours a day is a must for tutors to attain the required levels of
eligibility.

VI.

Tutors must undergo eligibility test to take the next level training (come prepared)

VII.

Tutors can be called for the same level training again if their performance is not found to be
satisfactory during training.

Eligibility criteria for next level training:


I.

Tutors can take up the training for subsequent levels after completing 10 class sessions of the
previous level.

II.

Ensure that you are thorough with the already completed level so that you can understand and
appreciate the next level training.

III.

Complete both the books provided as soon as possible and get them signed by the franchisee and
submit on the day of the next level training.

IV.

Be prepared to write Global Grading Exam for previous level when you attend the next level training.

Tutor's Global Grading exams:


I.

Global grading exams are conducted for the Tutors throughout the year by the Global office. This
will enable the tutor to assess their capability in their levels. The Tutor is eligible to write the exam
for the completed level.

National, International Competitions for Tutor:


I.

Tutors are eligible to take up the exam after completing the first level training.

II.

It is compulsory to sit in the National / International Tutor competition.

Important General Instructions:


The reputation of the center depends upon the Tutors performance. It is the Tutors duty to work sincerely
and with full commitment. Some of the valuable guidelines which would help the Tutor in improving their
performance are as follows:
I.
II.
III.

Practice makes people perfect, so practice everyday, be punctual. Tutors should be the first one to
come to the class and the last one to leave. So, reach your center at least 15 minutes before class
time.
Give regular report of your batch to your center head or franchisee. If you have any problem regarding a
child or teaching, the center head or your franchisee is always there to help you out. Keep the
communication channels open with the franchisee as well as the parents of your students.
Sort out calmly & patiently the issues put forward to you by the parents.

Instructions
to Tutors

IV.

Make sure that all the students come regularly. If anyone is absent, inquire about his / her absence,
with the parents. Also inform the parent about the date / day and time of the extra class.

V.

Be patient with the student and pay individual attention to every student.

VI.

Give the instructions properly. Do not interrupt while the children are doing their book exercise. Give
them hints but not the answers.

VII.

Always go round the class while teaching. It helps you to observe if the students are operating the
abacus properly. Give homework in writing (use pen) along with the date marked on the page.

VIII. Check the copies regularly and correctly with a pen. Errors unchecked/omissions give a very bad
impression to the parents. Check if the child has responded to the previous corrections.
IX.

Communicate with the parents of all the children who have not completed their homework.

X.

Parents Teacher Meeting is compulsory. Conduct a PTM at the start of every level.

XI.

Do not demoralize the child in the class or in front of the parents. Talk to the parents in the absence
of the child.

XII.

Do not allow the parents inside the classroom while the class is in progress.

XIII. The responsibility for the batch that you are handling is yours. Drop outs of students are primarily
due to the Tutors omissions & in capacity in the class rooms.
Image Flash
Image Flash is the activity which is done to give larger scope for the students to read the Abacus slider
images representing values using which the students could have extended practice and also better
assessment of their skills in reading the values of images at a speed. Flash Cards were used earlier, but with
the advent of Indian Abacus program now the students have scope to view limitless number of images.
With the usage skills to read the constantly changing image values, students experience better challenges
which ultimately enhance their Visio-spatial memory skills, necessary to perform better in doing faster and
accurate mental arithmetic skills by image of Abacus. Speed and accuracy in performing Mental Arithmetic
by image of Abacus indirectly reflect their concentration & memory skills.
The Abacus Tutor during Image Flash session alerts the students to focus on the activity of reading the
values of slider images. The Abacus tutor would after saying Start manipulates the sliders of the tool Indian Abacus Tutors continuously to make the students read the images one after the other and write
down the number-value of each of such images flashed on the Tutor's Abacus and they should write the
number values on their note books. The Tutor actually writes down a series of numbers Single,
double, triple, 4 digits, as the case may be, on a paper first and during the activity she would manipulate
the sliders looking at the numbers she wrote down which the students read and write.
Advantages of Image Flash over the Flash Cards usage:
Limitless numbers could be given for practice & assessment.
Students every time get new set of numbers, as against the Flash Cards which are same all through.
Students follow the Tutor's manipulation of Sliders giving scope to correct the fingering.

Indian Abacus Tutor Training Manual