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2012 WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT

A. WATER BODIES AND CLASSIFICATION

Central Visayas region, Region 7, is located at the central part of the Visayas island
group with a land area of 15,875 km. It is bordered by the Visayan Sea and the province of
Masbate in the north, Mindanao Sea in the south, Negros Occidental in the west and the
island of Leyte in the east. It consists of four (4) provinces, namely: Cebu, Bohol, Negros
Oriental and Siquijor (see figure below). It includes three (3) independent cities namely:
Cebu City, Mandaue City, and Lapu-Lapu City. Cebu City is its regional center.
As of the 2010 Census and Housing Population conducted by the National Statistics
Office, Central Visayas had a population of 6,800,180 making it the 5th most populous of the
country's 17 regions. The census showed an average annual population growth rate of
1.77% from 2000 to 2010, significantly less than the national average of 1.90%. The regions
economic strengths are in exports, tourism, and commerce. It is home to several economic
zones, nationally recognized tourist attractions and facilities as well as shipping and trading
companies.

Figure 1. Map of Central Visayas

As a whole, the region is hilly and mountainous. The flatlands of the region serve as
the land for farming and other cottage industries. The region experiences little or no rainfall
at all because of the mountains that serve as protection against the strong typhoons that
other parts of the country get. But there are times that the region gets affected by strong
typhoons. The land used for farming in the region is not as big as the other regions. Aside
from palay, the farmers also plant corn, sugarcane, abaca, coconut, tobacco and root crops.
They also subsist on fishing because most islands are surrounded by water.
There are also a number of home industries in the region. The people manufacture
bags, fans, placemats and other household things. The food industry includes biscuits and
bread, chicharon and other food items that only the region can produce. It is blest with
beautiful beaches, a plethora of sea life, and areas with natural wonders.

As of December 2005, the EMB Region 7 had classified 19 principal rivers, 11 minor
rivers, and 10 bays. Below is the list of classified water bodies.
Table 1. Regional Water Resources Profile (as of December 2005)
#

Name and Location

A. River or Stream
1
Abatan River - Cortes, Bohol

Class

Boundaries of each classification

A
B
C
A
B
A
B
A
B
C
A
B
D
A
A
A
A
B
AA
A
B

Dorol, Balilihan, Bohol & upstream


Dorol, Balilihan down to Sto. Rosario, Cortes
Kamayaan down to its outlet at Poblacion, Cortes, Bohol
Talaytay, Argao, Cebu going upstream to its headwaters.
Downstream of Talaytay, Argao
Luca and Ginatilan, Balamban going upstream
Cabagdalan, Balamban downward to its exit point at Nangka,
Segment within Apolong and Sagbang and upstream
Batinguel, Dgte. City up to West Balabag and Jawa, Valencia
Taclobo, Dgte. City down to its exit point at Calindagan, Dgte. City
Banga and Conalum Bayawan and upstream
Other segment downstream up to its exit at Poblacion, Bayawan
Whole segment of the river
Whole river system
Whole river system
Exit to Camotes Sea at Cotcot, Compostela going upstream
Malapoc, Danao City going upstream
Guinacot, Danao City and downstream
New Bago, Asturias going upstream
Segment downstream of New Bago
Sandayong Bridge (Bgy. Sapangdaku) going upstream

Downstream of Sandayong Bridge


Upstream of Nagsaha, Guihulngan
Nagsaha, Guihulngan and downstream
Upstream of Cantao-an, Naga
Cantao-an, Naga and downstream
Upstream of Barangay Cawayan, Inabanga
Cawayan, Inabanga and downstream
Exit at Poblacion,Trinidad, Bohol going upstream
Exit to Taon Strait going upstream
Segment within Nueva Fuerza, Carmen and upstream
Villarcayo, Carmen and downstream to Loay, Bohol
Segment within Cantipay, Carmen and upstream
Segment within Cogon, Carmen and below
Whole segment upstream of Tabuan, G-Hernandez
Tabuan, G-Hernandez down to Calma, G-Hernandez
Downstream of Calma and downstream
Whole river system

Argao River-Argao, Cebu

Balamban River- Balamban, Cebu

6
7
8
9
10

Banica River-headwaters in
Valencia, Negros Oriental with exit
in Dumaguete City
Bayawan River-Bayawan, Negros
Oriental
Butuanon River-Mandaue City
Canaway River-Siaton, Neg O
Cawitan River-Siaton NO
Cotcot River-Compostela, Cebu
Danao River-Danao City,

11

Ginabasan River-Asturias, Ceb

12

Guadalupe River-Cebu City

13

15

Guihulngan RiverGuihulngan,Negros Oriental


Guindarohan River-Minglanilla,
Cebu
Inabanga River-Inabanga, Bohol

16
17
18

Ipil River-Trinidad, Bohol


La Libertad, River-Neg.Or.
Loboc River- Loboc, Bohol

19

Luyang River Carmen, Cebu

20

Manaba River-Garcia Hernandez,


Bohol

21

Mananga River-Talisay, Cebu

A
B
A
C
A
C
A
A
A
B
A
C
A
B
C
A

22
23

Matul-id River- Bohol


Ocoy River-Sibulan, Negros
Oriental
Pagatban River-Basay, NO
Panamangan River-Bais City,

A
A
B
B
C

Whole stretch from its exit point to Cogtong Bay going upstream
Malaunay Spillway, Valencia, Negros Oriental and upstream
Downstream of Malaunay Spillway
Whole river system
Whole stretch from its exit point to South Bais bay going upstream

26

Sapangdaku River and its


tributaries -Toledo City, Cebu

A
C

Cantabaco, Toledo City and upstream


Downstream of Cantabaco, Toledo City

27

Siaton River-Siaton, Negros


Oriental
Sicopong River-Sta. Catalina,
Negros Oriental
Sicopong River
Tanjay River-Tanjay, Negros
Oriental

Whole stretch from its exit point to Mindanao Sea at Poblacion, Siaton
going upstream
San Isidro, Sta. Catalina and upstream
Downstream of San Isidro to its exit at Caranoche, Sta. Catalina
Whole river system
Upstream of San Jose Tanjay
San Jose, Tanjay and downtream towards Taon Strait

14

24
25

28
29

A
B
C
A
B

Tyabanan River - Basay, Negros


30 Oriental
B. Shoreline
1
Cansaga Bay-Consolacion,
2
Maribojoc Bay
3
North Bais Bay
4
Silot Bay
5
6
7
8
9
10

South Bais Bay


Coastal Waters Dgte City
Coastal Waters of Danao City
Hilutungan Channel
Mactan Channel-Cebu
Olango Channel

SC
SB
SB
SB
SB
SB
SC
SB
SC
SA
SB

Whole stretch from its exit point to Mindanao Sea at Bal-os, Basay going
upstream
Whole bay area with boundaries to be delineated
Whole bay area
Whole bay area
Whole bay area covering barangays Tayud, Poblacion, and Catarman,
Liloan, Cebu
Whole bay area
Coastal water within the jurisdiction of Dumaguete City
Coastal water within the jurisdiction of Danao City
Whole of the channel
Whole channel
Within the Olango Bird Sanctuary
Outside the Olango Bird Sanctuary

Note that some rivers and bays are classified differently in its upstream, midstream,
and downstream sections. The figure below shows the breakdown of classified water bodies
in Region 7 according to beneficial use.

Figure 2. Breakdown of Classified Water Bodies

Based on EMBs classification, inland water bodies are classified as follows:

1 Class AA (Cebu);
25 Class A (5 in Bohol, 9 in Cebu, and 8 in Negros Oriental);
15 Class B (3 in Bohol, 6 in Cebu, and 6 in Negros Oriental);
10 Class C (3 in Bohol, 4 in Cebu, and 3 in Negros Oriental); and
1 Class D (Cebu).

For coastal and marine waters, one bay is classified as Class SA, seven bays as
Class SB, and three bays as Class SC.

B. WATER QUALITY STATUS


This report provides an overview of the current status of water quality of the region.
This latest update relies on the selected indicators of water quality. Indicators are compared
to accepted environmental guidelines and criteria.
There were five (5) rivers and three (3) coastal waters monitored by EMB 7 for the
year 2012, namely Butuanon River in Mandaue City; Sapangdaku River in Toledo City;

Guadalupe River in Guadalupe, Cebu City; Luyang River in Carmen, Cebu; Guindarohan
River in Minglanilla, Cebu; Hilutungan Channel (East Coast Mactan) in Mactan Island;
Maribojoc Bay (San Jose Drainage) in Tagbilaran City, Bohol; and Coastal waters of
Balamban and Todelo City, a part of Taon Strait, in Balamban, Cebu and Toledo City.
These water bodies are officially classified as follows:
Table 2. Water Bodies Monitored in 2012
Name of River
Butuanon River
Sapangdaku
River
Guadalupe
River

Location
Mandaue City

Luyang River

Carmen, Cebu

Guidarohan
River

Minglanilla,
Cebu
Mactan Island,
Lapu-Lapu City
Tagbilaran City,
Bohol

Hilutungan
Channel
Maribojoc Bay
Coastal Waters of
Balamban
&
Toledo City

Toledo City
Guadalupe,
Cebu City

Balamban and
Toledo City

Official Classification
Class D
Upstream of Cantabaco = Class A
Downstream of Cantabaco = Class C
Upstream of Sandayong Bridge = Class B
Downstream of Sandayong Bridge = Class C
Segment within Cantipay, Carmen and upstream = Class A
Segment w/in Cogon, Carmen and below = Class C
Upstream of Cantao-an, Naga = Class A
Cantao-an, Naga and downstream = Class C
Whole channel = Class SB
Whole bay area = Class SB
Whole Taon Strait = Protected Seascape, Class SA

These water bodies are valuable assets providing pastoral beauty, wildlife habitat
and recreational opportunities to the region. Over the years, water quality in these water
bodies has generally improved substantially with more effective treatment technologies,
better land management practices, and increasingly more stringent water quality regulations.
Nevertheless, there is opportunity for additional improvement.
Butuanon River and Guadalupe River had been monitored since these are inside the
heavily industrialized and densely populated Metro Cebu area. These have extremely high
pollution levels in terms of high BOD5 concentrations, low oxygen levels, and high coliform
cell counts. Monitoring of Butuanon and Guadalupe Rivers were continued to improve the
water quality due to public complaints being biologically dead situated proximate within the
urban center of Mandaue City and Metro Cebu.
Rivers in remote rural areas also show significant pollution levels. Both Sapangdaku
River in Toledo and Luyang River in Carmen are contaminated with fecal coliforms.
Guindarohan River was monitored in 2012 for the purpose of reclassification because of the
current sand and gravel quarrying within the river system.
Aside from the five (5) rivers, for the Beach Watch program, there is monthly
monitoring of Hilutungan Channel specifically in the area of selected Mactan Island Resorts
and Maribojoc Bay specifically near San Jose Drainage area in Tagbilaran City, Bohol. The
Coastal Waters of Balamban, Cebu and Toledo City, which is part of the Taon Strait, was
monitored in 2011 for the purpose of classification/reclassification.

The table below shows the percentage of samples meeting the water quality criteria
for the water bodies monitored by EMB 7 for the year 2012.

Table 3. Status of Water Bodies


Water Body
Percentage of samples meeting water quality criteria (%)
DO
BOD
pH
Total Coliform Fecal Coliform
1. Butuanon River
42
62
100
2. Guadalupe River
100
13
100
3. Luyang River
100
100
100
0
0**
4. Sapangdaku River
100
100
92
5. Guindarohan River
95
100
94
6. Mactan Island Resorts
61
40
(East Coast Mactan)
7. Maribojoc Bay
100
20
6
(San Jose Drainage)
** - based on Class B standard: 200 per 100 mL
*** - based on the National Standards for Drinking Water: <2.20

WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT

A. Inland Waters
1. Butuanon River
a. Description and uses of water body
Butuanon River is a 23-kilometer water body which originates in the mountain
area around Metro Cebu and eventually discharges into Mactan Channel. Approximately
10-kilometer length of the river is crossing Metro Cebu area, most significantly the
heavily industrialized and densely populated areas of Mandaue City. While the water of
Butuanon River in the upstream area still can be used for drinking and for washing
purposes, the middle and downstream portions of the river only is used for industrial
purposes, and is receiving discharges from different sources of pollution.

Figure 3. Butuanon River Watershed and River System

Figure 4. Water Quality Monitoring of Butuanon River

b. Water Quality Monitoring Results and Assessments


Water Quality
Butuanon River is a priority water body for many years. It has been identified to
be designated as Water Quality Management Area (WQMA). Butuanon River is
classified as Class D water body. Monthly water quality monitoring of Butuanon River is
being conducted at eleven (11) sampling stations since the third quarter of 2011 until
2012. The eleven(11) sampling stations include the following: (1) Camboga-ong Bridge,
(2) Butuanon Bridge, (3a) Tingub Bridge, (3) Greenhills Outfall, (4) Pilit Treasure Island,
(5) Old Pilit (HJR Outfall), (6) Canduman Bridge, (7) Bacayan Bridge, and (8) Sta. Lucia
Bridge, (9) Binaliw II, (10) Candurang, Pulangbato, and (11) Kalubihan, Talamban.
However the Kalubihan, Talamban station was no longer sampled for the 2 nd until the 4th
quarter since the identified station dries up when there is no sufficient rain.
The parameters monitored were Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biochemical Oxygen
Demand (BOD5), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), pH, and Temperature, Total Coliform,
Fecal Coliform and heavy metals were monitored. Results of the water quality monitoring
are shown in Table 4.

Table 4. Butuanon River Water Quality Physical and Chemical Characteristics (Class D)
Parameter

Stn
No.

Location

Cambogaong Bridge

6.72

8.19

7.38

Butuanon
Bridge

6.42

7.47

6.96

3a

Tingub
Bridge

7.33

7.89

Greenhills
Outfall

7.38

Pilit Treasure
Island

pH
min

max

DO
ave

std
6.09.0

min

max

ave

std

min

BOD5
max
ave
93.2
223
7

0.2

42

6.09.0

0.3

44

270

7.71

6.09.0

2.1

7.97

7.74

6.09.0

2.2

7.47

8.22

7.74

6.09.0

3.4

Old Pilit (HJR


Outfall)

7.38

8.2

7.84

6.09.0

Canduman
Bridge

7.56

8.16

7.78

6.09.0

Bacayan
Bridge

7.53

8.16

7.71

6.09.0

Sta. Lucia
Bridge

7.75

8.25

7.97

Binaliw II

7.49

8.38

10

Candurung
Pulangbato

7.78

11

Kalubihan,
Talamban

8.07

Stn
No.

Location

std

min

max

TSS
ave
79.5
6

15

25

324

75.6
3

15

18

82

29.9
5

59

16.5
5

15

262

28.7
3

64

13.4
8

15

11

51

20.0
3

43

9.3

15

15

89

24.2
7

2.9

105

11.5
9

15

12

76

25.6
6

3.79

51

6.34

15

143

26.8

3.5

16

5.54

15

17

119

38.4
6

6.09.0

5.38

2.26

15

57

22.8
5

8.00

6.09.0

5.34

2.46

15

68

19.2
4

8.22

7.98

6.09.0

5.46

1.74

15

56

26.2

8.16

8.11

6.09.0

5.59

13

4.27

15

30

9.32

Cadmium
ave
std

< 0.2

Camboga-ong
Bridge

Butuanon Bridge

3a

Tingub Bridge

Greenhills Outfall

Pilit Treasure
Island

< 0.2

Old Pilit (HJR


Outfall)

< 0.2

Canduman Bridge

Bacayan Bridge

Sta. Lucia Bridge

Binaliw II

10

Candurung
Pulangbato

< 0.2

11

Kalubihan,
Talamban

< 0.2

< 0.2
< 0.2
< 0.2

< 0.2
< 0.2
< 0.2
< 0.2

Lead
ave
std

0.10

0.098

0.077

0.095

0.097

0.093

0.095

0.144

0.091

0.108

0.11

min

9.20E+0
7
3.50E+0
8
5.40E+0
6
2.20E+0
7
5.40E+0
5
1.60E+0
6
5.80E+0
4
1.60E+0
6
1.70E+0
5
2.40E+0
5
5.40E+0
5
1.60E+0
6

Parameter
Total Coliform
max
geomean

1.60E+
08
3.50E+
08
1.60E+
07
2.40E+
07
1.60E+
06
5.40E+
07
5.40E+
06
1>
16E+6
5.40E+
05
3.50E+
05
7.00E+
05
1.60E+
06

std

min

1213260
07

5000

3.50E+07

3.50E+08

5000

4.90E+07

9295160

5000

1.70E+06

2297825
1

5000

2.30E+06

929516

5000

3.30E+04

9295160

5000

2.40E+05

559642.7

5000

2.30E+04

1600000

5000

2.40E+05

302985.1

5000

1.70E+05

289827.5

5000

1.70E+05

614817

5000

2.20E+05

1.60E+06

5000

1.60E+06

Fecal Coliform
max
geomean

1.60E+0
8
3.50E+0
8
3.50E+0
6
4.90E+0
6
3.50E+0
5
2.40E+0
7
1.40E+0
6
1.60E+0
7
5.40E+0
5
2.40E+0
5
4.90E+0
5
1.60E+0
6

7483314
8
1309580
09

std
Not more
than 60 mg/L
increase
Not more
than 60 mg/L
increase
Not more
than 60 mg/L
increase
Not more
than 60 mg/L
increase
Not more
than 60 mg/L
increase
Not more
than 60 mg/L
increase
Not more
than 60 mg/L
increase
Not more
than 60 mg/L
increase
Not more
than 60 mg/L
increase
Not more
than 60 mg/L
increase
Not more
than 60 mg/L
increase
Not more
than 60 mg/L
increase

std
-

2439262

3357082

107470.9

2400000

179443.6

1959592

302985.1

201990.1

328329.1

1573358

The following data plots show the parameters DO and BOD 5 for the year 2012. In
order to provide some orientation for the assessment of the data, the values for 100%
DO saturation (typically for unpolluted water bodies), as well as the Class D
requirements for DO (40% DO saturation) and BOD (15mg/L BOD5) are also presented
in the graph.

Figure 5. Average Monthly DO of Butuanon River

.
Figure 6. Average Monthly BOD of Butuanon River

The BOD5 parameter represents the easily biodegradable portion of the water
pollution. Biochemical oxygen demand or B.O.D. is the amount of dissolved oxygen
needed by aerobic biological organisms in a body of water to break down organic
material present in a given water sample at certain temperature over a specific time

period. Only 62% of the data met the water quality criteria for Class D in terms of BOD,
which is 15 mg/L. Likewise, only 42% of the data collected met the criteria for Class D in
terms of DO, which is 3 mg/L. Based on Figure 6, BOD5 result peaked in the month of
May with 49.27 mg/L BOD5, which is three (3) times higher than the Class D criteria.

For the year 2012, the average BOD5 concentration for the Butuanon River is
30.8 mg/L which is 2 times higher than the standard. Comparing this value for the past 3
years, the average BOD5 is much lower than 2011, 2010 and 2009 which were 31.2,
201.0 mg/L, 201 mg/L, and 51.8 mg/L, respectively. The significant drop indicates that
there is great improvement in the water quality of the river.
For the year 2012, the DO, as a correlating parameter of the BOD 5, as well did
not reach levels acceptable to DENR Class D water quality standards of 3.0 mg/L for DO
for the months of April, June and November. Only for the months of February, May, July,
and September were the DO concentrations above the standard 3 mg/L. The lowest
reading was recorded in June and November at 2.55 mg/L.
Pollution Sources and Load Assessments
The following pictures were the middle and downstream portion of the Butuanon
River. Different sources are contributing pollution in the river.

Figure 7. Pollution Source Discharging to Butuanon River

The picture confirms the high pollution during the year. BOD 5 values fluctuating
around 1.0 mg/L and maximum finding of 490 mg/L indicate clearly that the big portion of
pollution is from industrial and domestic effluents. The decrease in the average BOD5
indicates that efforts to improving the water quality of the Butuanon River, such as Adopt
a River/Estero Program, monitoring efforts of EMB, and other similar activities by other
organizations, had effects on the river. However, the EMB 7 still have to enhance their
efforts in monitoring the locators along the river to further reduce BOD 5 concentration of
the river to pass the standard, since it is only those upstream stations that passes the
BOD5 standard of 15 mg/L.

Public Health and Ecosystem Concerns


Butuanon River is a highly contaminated water body which is bordering along
densely populated areas in Cebu City and Mandaue City. There are rivebank areas
downstream which are occupied by informal settlers. For these residents directly
exposed to the river water, health risks are coming from high pollution levels with all
kinds of organic compounds (as summarized by the BOD 5 parameter). In this way, the
poor water quality of Butuanon River is depriving the residents from their quality of life
significantly.
Butuanon River has experienced a general decline in the quality of its surface
water over the last several years due to development, industrialization, and other human
activities. Natural phenomena such as typhoons further exacerbate this decline in water
quality by increasing stormwater pollution loading to the water body. This results in
blackening of its water, negative impacts to human and has limited the use of our water
resources.
From the ecological point of view, the following data plots below are illustrating
the development of BOD5 concentrations in the different sampling stations along
Butuanon River. The plot of BOD5 below shows that the highest BOD5 average for the
year, 544.73 mg/L, was from station # 2 Butuanon Bridge. Comparing it with the 2008
and 2009 highest BOD5 average from station # 1 Camboga-ong Bridge, which were 73.4
mg/L and 168.6 mg/L, respectively, the 2010 average is much higher than the 2008 and
2009 average. The result also indicates the stations # 1 and 2 are the most polluted part
of the Butuanon River.
On the other hand, the most upstream has the lowest BOD 5 of 15.33 mg/L since
lesser pollutant sources are located in that station. However, as compared to the 2009
data, it is higher this year than last year wherein the Sta. Lucia Bridge Station had an
average of 2.07 mg/L BOD5. This confirms that the most polluted part is the downstream
portion of the Butuanon River. This shows that the river is still far from rehabilitation.

.
Figure 8. BOD5 Concentration in Butuanon River per Station

2. Guadalupe River
a. Description and uses of water body
Guadalupe River is a 12-kilometer water body which originates in the mountain
area of Cebu City in Brgy. Sapangdaku and eventually discharges into Mactan Channel.
Approximately 8-kilometer length of the river is crossing Cebu City urban area, most
significantly the heavily densely populated areas of Cebu City. While the water of
Guadalupe River in the upstream area still can be used for drinking, bathing and for
washing purposes, the middle and downstream portions of the river is used as drainage
canal.
b. Water Quality Monitoring Results and Assessments
Water Quality
Guadalupe River has been a priority water body for many years. EMB 7 is
conducting quarterly water quality monitoring of Guadalupe River at four (4) sampling
stations. The four (4) sampling stations include the following: (1) Topaz Bridge, (2)
Sanciangko Bridge, (3) B. Rodriguez Bridge, and (4) Sandayong Bridge. Below are
pictures of the sampling stations. The parameters monitored are Dissolved Oxygen
(DO), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), pH, and
Temperature. Results of the water quality monitoring are shown in Table 5.
Station # 1 - Topaz Bridge

Station # 2 - Sanciangko Bridge

Station # 3 - B. Rodriguez Bridge

Station # 4 - Sandayong Bridge

Figure 9. Sampling Station of Guadalupe River

Table 5. Guadalupe River Water Quality Physical and Chemical Characteristics (Class C)
Stn
No.

Parameter
Location
min

pH
max
ave

std

min

DO
max
ave

std

min

BOD
max
ave

std

min

max

TSS
ave

Tupaz
Bridge

7.268

7.76

7.61

6.5
8.5

Sanciangko
Bridge

6.764

7.78

7.47

6.5
8.5

38

108

79

10

12

37

25.5

B.
Rodriguez
Bridge

7.313

7.82

7.66

6.5
8.5

0.5

35

88

59.25

10

13

34

24

Sandayong
Bridge

7.2

7.77

7.56

6.5
8.5

42

18

10

243

65.25

36

106

70.75

10

25

50

38

The following data plot shows the parameters BOD 5 and DO for the year 2011. In
order to provide some orientation for the assessment of the data, the values for 100%
DO saturation (typically for unpolluted water bodies), as well as the Class C
requirements for DO (60% DO saturation) and BOD (10 mg/L BOD5) are also presented
in the graph.

Figure 10. DO and BOD5 in Guadalupe River

As for the BOD5 parameter, all the recorded data from first to the fourth quarter
2011 are higher than the criteria for Class C of 10 mg/L. Data for 2nd and 3rd quarters
show high BOD5 values of 85 and 68 mg/L, respectively.
For 2011, the average BOD5 concentration for the Guadalupe River is 45. 3 mg/L.
For the year 2012, the average BOD concentration is at 57 mg/L. There is a significant
increase as compared to 2011s average BOD concentration.
The DO, as a correlating parameter of the BOD 5, did not reach level acceptable
to DENR Class C water quality standards of 5.0 mg/L for DO. Results ranged from 0 to 5

std
Not more
than
30mg/L
increase
Not more
than
30mg/L
increase
Not more
than
30mg/L
increase
Not more
than
30mg/L
increase

mg/L. Based on Table 5, Only Station 4 (Sandayong Bridge) reached a DO of 5 mg/L,


the maximum value obtained which is more than the standard 5.0 mg/L. This indicates
that only the upstream portion of the river passes the water quality criteria for Class C.
Both results of BOD5 and DO show that the river is still polluted, thus should be
improved.
The figure below shows the BOD5 concentrations of the four (4) sampling stations
for each quarter for 2012.

Figure 11. Quarterly BOD5 in Guadalupe River

The average DO and BOD5 of Guadalupe River for 2012 is 0.81 mg/L and 56.7
mg/L, respectively. The results this year is less than the results last year for DO. Further,
a significant increase can be observed for BOD5 with last years result at 55.3 mg/L. This
indicates that the quality of river has degraded which requires mitigating plans to
rehabilitate the quality of the river.
Pollution Sources and Load Assessments
The Guadalupe River is contaminated with domestic wastewater since the area is
densely populated and households lack adequate septic tanks and there is no
centralized wastewater treatment facilities for such domestic wastes. The two identified
main reasons for the deterioration of the river water quality are the abundant discharge
of household wastewater and the inadequate disposal practices for solid waste. A further
growing population leads to the development of new residential areas situated along
riverbanks of Guadalupe River. Commercial or industrial pollution sources are not
considered as significant along Guadalupe River.

Public Health and Ecosystem Concerns


Guadalupe River is a highly contaminated water body which is bordering along
densely populated areas in Cebu City. For residents directly exposed to the river water,
health risks are coming from high pollution levels with all kinds of organic compounds (as
summarized by the BOD5 parameter). In this way, the poor water quality of Guadalupe
River is depriving the residents from their quality of life significantly. It should also be
noted that the bigger part of the river is already anaerobic, which shows clearly that the
river is still far from rehabilitation.

3. Luyang River
a. Description and uses of water body
Luyang River is a 20-kilometer water body which originates in the mountain area
in Carmen, Province of Cebu and eventually discharges into the eastern coastline of
Cebu Island. The river encompasses a scarcely populated provincial area. The water of
Luyang River is used for drinking (particularly the upstream) and for washing purposes.
In the downstream portion the river is also receiving wastewater of a chemical industry.
Below are pictures of the Luyang River Watershed and the four (5) sampling stations
along the Luyang River. From Cantipay, Carmen and upstream of the Luyang River is
classified as Class A while from Cogon, Carmen to downstream is classified as Class C.

Luyang River

Figure 12. Luyang River Watershed and River System

Station # 1

Station # 2

Luyang Bridge

Back of Shemberg Biotech

Station # 3

Station # 4

Obayong Bridge

Cantumog Spillway

Figure 13. Luyang River Sampling Stations


Table 6.Luyang River Water Quality Physical and Chemical Characteristics (Class A & C)
Stn
No.

Parameter
Location
min

pH
max
ave

std

min

DO
max
ave

std

min

BOD
max
ave

std

min

max

TSS
ave

std
Not more
than
30mg/L
increase
Not more
than
30mg/L
increase
Not more
than
30mg/L
increase

Luyang
Bridge

7.8
1

7.96

7.90

6.5
8.5

Back of
Shemberg
Biotech

7.8
9

8.02

7.95

6.5
8.5

5.33

2.0

10

34

18.6
7

Obayong
Bridge

7.8
9

8.04

7.96

6.5
8.5

6.00

3.67

10

63

28.0

Cantumog
Spillway

7.7
9

7.95

7.86

6.67

3.0

94

34.0

50

Cantipay

7.8
3

8.03

7.92

6.0

3.33

71

27.6
7

50

6.5
8.5
6.5
8.5

5.33

3.0

10

17

12.0

b. Water Quality Monitoring Results and Assessments


Water Quality
EMB-7 started monitoring of Luyang River in 2005 for the purpose of protecting
the water body for its potential use as water supply for Metro Cebu. Quarterly water
quality monitoring of Luyang River is being conducted at five(5) sampling stations. The
five (5) sampling stations include the following: (1) Luyang Bridge, (2) Back of Shemberg
Biotech, (3) Obayong Bridge, and (4) Cantumog Spillway and (5) Brgy. Cantipay. There
was no sampling during the fourth quarter since the vehicle allotted for the sampling
activity was repaired and is not yet serviceable until early January 2012. The parameters
monitored are Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD 5), Total
Suspended Solids (TSS), pH, Temperature, Total Coliform, and Fecal Coliform. Results
of the water quality monitoring are shown in Tables 6 and 7.

.
Figure 14. DO and BOD5 in Luyang River (Cogon, Carmen and downstream)

.
In terms of BOD5 and DO concentrations, there is generally no significant
pollution levels observed. The BOD5 and DO concentrations for all the stations from the
1st quarter until the 3rd quarter complied with the standards for Class A waters.
Compared to 2011s monitoring, there has been improvement in the quality of the
Luyang River.
The total and fecal coliform was monitored for the month of September and
February however, results cannot be compared with the standards since these values
refer to the geometric mean of the most probable number of coliform organism during a
3-month period.
Table 7. Luyang River Water Quality Bacteriological Characteristics (Class C)
Stn.
No.
1
2
3
4
5

Parameter
Location
Luyang Bridge
Back of Shemberg
Biotech
Obayong Bridge
Cantumog Spillway
Cantipay

min
3.3E+04

Total Coliform
max
ave
2.2E+05
126500

std
5,000

min
7.8E+03

Fecal Coliform
max
ave
2.2E+05
113900

5.4E+04

9.2E+05

487000

5,000

230

2.8E+05

140115

3.3E+04
7.0E+03
7.0E+03

3.5E+05
2.2E+05
3.5E+05

191500
113500
119000

5,000
1,000
1,000

1.3E+04
2.3E+03
4.9E+03

7.9E+04
6.3E+04
2.4E+04

46000
32650
14450

100
100

.
Pollution Sources and Load Assessments
The observed contamination in terms of the total and fecal coliform in the
upstream portion of Luyang River for months of February and September has to be
noted to be alarming particularly when considering the rivers rather rural location.
Pollution sources in the upstream are poultries, piggeries, residents, and small scale
farming (e.g. goat and carabao) present in the area. Most people residing in the area
lives in houses made of wood or nipa and not concrete. It is possible that the
community in the upstream portion do not have enough sanitation facilities does
contaminating the river.
Public Health and Ecosystem Concerns
The water of Luyang River poses health risk to residents who are using the water
directly for drinking without prior treatment. For residents directly exposed to the river

std
-

water, health risks are coming from the coliforms (as summarized by the coliform cell
counts). If ever the water body would be used as water supply for Metro Cebu in large
scale, further measures in order to improve the quality and protect it from further
contamination have to be applied.

4. Sapangdaku River
a. Description and uses of water body
Sapangdaku River watershed is located in the west central side of Cebu Island. It
covers the political jurisdiction of Barangays Daan Lungsod, Dumlog, Sangi, Ilihan,
Canlumampao and Magdugo of the City of Toledo, Cebu. Sapangdaku River is a rather
extensive water body which originates in the mountain area around Toledo and
eventually discharges into the western coastline of Cebu Island. It stretches to about 9
kilometers starting from its mouth in Brgy. Daan Lungsod to its upstream point at Brgy.
Magdugo. It mostly encompasses a scarcely populated provincial area. It has tributary
rivers that pass the Atlas Copper Mining Area mining site like the Hinulawan River and
Ilag River. However, due to the nearby location of the Atlas Copper Mining Area, the
water body is affected by both industrial and domestic discharges. It is classified as
Class A in the upstream of Cantabaco and Class C downstream of Cantabaco.
Below is a picture of the Sapangdaku River System and the four (4) sampling
stations.
Sapangdaku
River System
Toledo City,
Cebu

4
5

Figure 19. Sapangdaku River System

Figure 20. Sapangdaku River Sampling Stations

Table 8. Sapangdaku River Water Quality Physical and Chemical Characteristics (Class C)
Stn
No.

Parameter
Location
min

pH
max
ave

Sangi/
Dumlog
Bridge

7.62

8.22

Magdugo

8.25

Pandong
Bato/Ilag

Buswang
Exit Sigpit
Dam

DO
std

min

max

ave

std

min

BOD
max
ave

std

min

max

TSS
ave

8.0

6.58.5

5.75

1.25

10

22

136

59

8.8

8.4

6.58.5

6.25

2.25

10

21

93

52.2
5

8.17

8.28

8.2
5

6.58.5

5.25

1.75

10

27

76

44.7
5

8.14

8.35

8.2
8

6.58.5

6.25

1.5

10

31

86

49.2
5

b. Water Quality Monitoring Results and Assessments


Water Quality
EMB-7 started monitoring of Sapangdaku River in 2006. Water quality monitoring
is conducted quarterly for the Sapangdaku River. Quarterly water quality monitoring of
Sapangdaku River is being conducted at four (4) sampling stations which are the
following: (1) Sangi/Dumlog Bridge, (2) Magdugo, (3) Buswang exit Sigpit Dam, and (4)
Pandong Bato. The parameters monitored are Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biochemical
Oxygen Demand (BOD5), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), pH, and Temperature. Results
of the water quality monitoring are shown in Table 8.

std
Not more
than 30%
increase
Not more
than 30%
increase
Not more
than 30%
increase
Not more
than 30%
increase

.
Figure 21. DO and BOD5 in Sapangdaku River

In terms of BOD5 and DO, there is generally no significant pollution levels


observed for Sapangdaku River. All samples passed the BOD and DO standards. The
annual average BOD5 was 1.69 mg/L and DO was 5.9 mg/L which passed the standards
for BOD5 and DO standards for Class C which are 10 mg/L and 5 mg/L, respectively.
The BOD5 and DO concentrations did not prove to be an issue in the area.

Public Health and Ecosystem Concerns


For the year 2012, monitoring results shows there is no risk as to the water
quality of the whole river. However, results form the monitoring conducted last year
showed that during the 2 nd quarter, the DO level was below the 5mg/L minimum
standard.

5. Guindarohan River
a. Description and uses of water body
The Guindarohan River watershed is located in the in Minglanilla, Cebu. It is a
rather extensive water body which originates in the mountain area around Naga and
Minglanilla and eventually discharges into the eastern coastline of Cebu Island. It
stretches from its mouth in Brgy. Lower Minglanilla to its upstream point at Brgy. Cantaoan, Naga. It mostly encompasses a scarcely populated provincial area in the upstream
and populated rural area in the downstream portion. It has tributary rivers, the Matun-og
River and Naupa River located in the upstream portion of Guindarohan River. However,
due to the sand and gravel quarrying in the river system, the water body is affected by
both industrial and domestic discharges. It is classified as Class A in the upstream of
Cantao-an, Naga (Station 3 to 7) and Class C downstream of Cantao-an, Naga (Station
1 to 2).
Table 9. Guindarohan River Water Quality Physical and Chemical Characteristics (Class A and C)
Stn
No.
1

Parameter
Location

pH
min

Abuno Bridge

7.18

max
8.08

ave
7.92

std
6.58.5

min
4

DO
max
ave
6

5.18

std
5

min
1

BOD
max
ave
4

2.64

std
10

min
32

max
558

TSS
ave
183.8

std
Not more
than 30%

Tabo-an

6.72

7.94

7.62

6.58.5

200 m
downstream
of JLR outfall

6.91

8.37

7.76

6.58.5

Confluence

6.81

8.40

7.92

Matun-og
River

6.85

8.54

8.03

Cabo-an

6.84

8.44

7.84

Naupa River

6.70

8.52

7.99

6.58.5
6.58.5
6.58.5
6.58.5

increase
Not more
than 30%
increase

5.4

1.8

10

147

3120

1109.8

5.3

2.0

99

415

251.3

50

5.55

2.0

134

1070

350.27

50

5.73

1.73

0.9

122

34.17

50

5.64

1.91

79

1704

415.64

50

5.36

1.55

23

12

50

b. Water Quality Monitoring Results and Assessments


Water Quality
EMB-7 started monitoring of Guindarohan River in 2008 for the purpose of
reclassification. Monthly water quality monitoring of Guindarohan River is being
conducted at seven (7) sampling stations which are the following: (1) Abuno Bridge, (2)
Tabo-an, (3) 200 meters downstream of JLR outfall, (4) Confluence, (5) Matun-og River,
(6) Cabo-an, and (7) Naupa River. The parameters monitored are Dissolved Oxygen
(DO), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), pH, and
Temperature. Results of the water quality monitoring are shown in Table 9.

.
Figure 22. DO and BOD5 in Guindarohan River (Downstream of Cantao-an, Naga)

.
Figure 23. DO and BOD5 in Guindarohan River (Upstream of Cantao-an, Naga)

In terms of BOD5 and DO, there is generally no significant pollution levels


observed, as can be seen in Figure 22 and 23. Water quality monitoring conducted
monthly showed annual average BOD5 of 2.25 mg/L and DO of 5.36 mg/L, which are
lower than the results last year, thus passed the standards for Class A BOD of 5 mg/L
and DO of 5 mg/L and for Class C BOD of 10 mg/L and DO of 5 mg/L.

B. Ground Water
This year, no sampling of ground water was conducted for the Tap Watch
Program.

C. Coastal Waters
1. Mactan Island
a. Description and uses of water body
The eastern coastline of Mactan Island is the famous location of approximately
30 beach resorts, both local and international class. Therefore, the water body is used
for tourism purposes mainly, i.e. SCUBA diving, snorkeling, swimming, bathing, etc. In
this way, the desirable water quality in the area according to DAO 34 would be Class SB.
Monitoring of Mactan Island Beach Resorts is part of the Beach Ecowatch Program of
EMB 7. Below is a picture of the eastern coastline of Mactan Island.

Figure 26. Mactan East Coast Sampling Stations

Table 11. Mactan Island Beach Resorts Water QualityBacteriological Characteristics (Class SB)
Parameter
Stn
No.

Location
min

300m right side CEBU


MARINE RESORT

61

PARKER BEACH

140

PALMERA BEACH

210

4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

PALM BEACH
Tonggo Beach
HADSAN COVE RESORT
KONTIKI
WHITE SAND RESORT
MARIBAGO BLUE WATER
TAMBULI BEACH RESORT
CEBU BEACH CLUB
PORTOFINO

23
240
23
23
49
31
31
31
9.3

Total Coliform
ave
max
(geomean
)
16,000
>16
E+05
>16
E+05
24,000
24,000
16,000
9,200
2,400
2,400
9,200
920
9,200

Fecal Coliform
std

min

max

ave (geomean)

std

1331

1000

40

16,000

916

200

1772

1000

92

1532

200

2349

1000

110

2527

200

2293
2368
174
334
460
354
179
101
218

1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000

23
23
23
23
23
23
23
2
6.8

1557
1367
97
170
249
110
82
48
114

200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200

>16
E+05
>16
E+05
24,000
9,200
920
1,100
1,300
2,400
3,500
920
9,200

b. Water Quality Monitoring Results and Assessments


Water Quality
The following data plot shows the total coliform and fecal coliform cell counts
along the eastern Mactan Island coastline for the year 2012.

.
Figure 24. Total and Fecal Coliform at Mactan Island Resorts

From the plot, it is shown that it was on during the months of April, July and
November wherein the total coliform was above the standard for Class SB which is 1,000
MPN/100 mL. Compared to last years monitoring, it was only in December 2011 that the
total coliform result was above the standards. Based on Figure 27, the lowest total
coliform count was recorded in October with a value of 83 MPN/100 mL. In 2011, the
lowest was 63 MPN/100 mL which was obtained in September.
On the other hand, for fecal coliform cell count, it is also for the months of
January, April, May, June, July, November and December wherein the results exceeded
the fecal coliform standard of 200 MPN/100 mL for Class SB. The highest recorded
result was for the month of July with a result of 41467 MPN/100 mL while the lowest
fecal coliform was recorded on October at 44 MPN/100 mL.
In 2011, the highest recorded result was on December and the lowest recorded
result was in September.
The total and fecal coliform cell counts for this year can be considered alarming
as international tourists surely would not like to hear that the water they are going to
swim at is contaminated with fecal coliform and not complying to the national standards.
The coliform contamination in the area needs to be addressed since the current quality
of the beach is still not complying with the standards in certain months.
The tables below show the total coliform and fecal coliform of each sampling
station per month. This tells us which sampling point has the higher total and fecal
coliform cell counts.
Table 12. Total Coliform (MPN/100mL) in Each Sampling Station per Month
9-Jul

10Sep

2400

3500

>1600E+03

24000

2400

>1600E+03

9200

5400

9200

460

16000

16000

24-Jan

20-Feb

12-Mar

23-Apr

14-May

14-Jun

300m right side CEBU


MARINE RESORT

540

16000

1400

1700

490

PARKER BEACH

1600

350

2400

3500

700

PALMERA BEACH

2200

540

2400

5400

PALM BEACH

1700

350

1700

16000

Tonggo Beach

1600

920

24000

3500

17Oct

14Nov

5-Dec

1100

61

2400

1700

240

140

540

2400

240

210

700

24000

23

2400

940

24000

240

1700

9200

240

HADSAN COVE RESORT

350

KONTIKI
WHITE SAND RESORT
MARIBAGO BLUE WATER
TAMBULI BEACH RESORT
CEBU BEACH CLUB
PORTOFINO

33

33

920

110

33

1600

280

23

1400

9200

23

23

1700

310

49

310

240

240

540

540

170

1600

130

79

1600

920

350

2400

350

2400

170

49

540

2400

31

540

2400

110

1700

540

33

460

2400

49

70

70

240

170

79

350

1600

31

49

9200

920

15

49

920

49

33

920

49

9.3

49

540

23

9.3

240

240

350

9200

70

3500

17

350

920

Table 13. Fecal Coliform (MPN/100mL) in Each Sampling Station per Month
24-Jan

20-Feb

12-Mar

23-Apr

14-May

14-Jun

9-Jul

10Sep

17Oct

14Nov

5-Dec

300m right side CEBU


MARINE RESORT

130

16000

1400

700

490

1300

3500

1100

40

2400

790

PARKER BEACH

1600

350

2400

3500

330

1600000

240

92

540

2400

PALMERA BEACH

1100

110

2400

5400

24000

2400

1600000

240

140

700

7900

PALM BEACH

490

350

1700

16000

9200

3500

9200

23

350

490

24000

Tonggo Beach

1600

220

24000

1700

230

16000

16000

240

490

9200

340

HADSAN COVE RESORT

240

23

23

350

49

33

920

46

23

790

130

KONTIKI

1100

23

23

350

240

170

920

79

79

540

130

WHITE SAND RESORT

230

310

23

240

790

240

1300

170

49

350

790

MARIBAGO BLUE WATER

170

23

23

130

2400

33

790

110

23

68

230

TAMBULI BEACH RESORT

49

70

23

79

33

79

350

70

23

33

3500

CEBU BEACH CLUB

920

9.3

23

540

46

33

920

23

9.3

49

PORTOFINO

23

6.8

79

240

33

9200

70

790

6.8

240

540

Based on the tables above, it can be seen that the higher results of total and
fecal coliform cell counts where the samples collected from Tonggo Beach, Palmera
Beach, Palm Beach,for the month of July, which are over the standards for Class SB.
The highest total coliform result was 1.6 E+06 MPN/100 mL from the Parker and
Palmera Beaches, The highest fecal coliform result was >1.6 E+06 MPN/100 mL from
the Parker and Palmera Beaches as well.
Although the values of the monitoring results this year were not as high as last
year, these values are still very alarming since the highest recorded data are much
higher than the standards, specifically for the Parker and Palmera Beach areas.

.
Figure 25. Total and Fecal Coliform at each Mactan Island Resort

The geometric mean for total Coliform shows that Cebu Marine Resort, Parker
Beach, Palmera Beach, Palm Beach and Tonggo Beach sampling stations did not pass
the water quality criteria for Class SB. In terms of violating the fecal coliform standard for
Class SB of 200 MPN/100 mL for the whole year 2012, only Parker Beach, Palmera
Beach, Palm Beach and Tonggo Beach sampling stations failed (geometric mean data).
This may be attributed to its location that forms a bay wherein considerable stagnant
water develops during low tide and most of these are public beaches.
Pollution Sources and Load Assessments
The contamination with fecal coliforms comes from run-offs from septic tanks and
other domestic sources. In the case of Mactan Island, the resorts and hotels have to be
accountable for this since these are the ones discharging large amounts of effluents.
However, there are also local residents living in the area which may have contributed to
the contamination especially the public beaches such as the Parker, Palmera and Palm
Beaches.

Public Health and Ecosystem Concerns


Fecal coliforms are by far the most significant parameter when it comes to
assessing the quality of recreational water bodies, where there is direct intensive
exposure of the skin. Swallowing of water also cannot be avoided at these areas. So, the
observed fecal coliforms counts have to be assessed as alarming and have to be
mitigated by improved sanitation and wastewater treatment.

2. Maribojoc Bay (San Jose Drainage)


a. Description and uses of water body

The coastline of Tagbilaran City is the Maribojoc Bay. The water body is used for
tourism purposes like swimming, bathing, etc, as well as transportation and fishing. In
this way, the desirable water quality in the area according to DAO 34 would be Class SB.
Monitoring of Maribojoc Bay is part of the Beach Ecowatch Program of EMB7. Monitoring
in this area was done because of the existing drainage canal leading to the bay. Below is
a picture of the coastline of Tagbilaran City.

Figure 25. Maribojoc Bay (San Jose Drainage Area)

Stn
No.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

Table 14. Maribojoc Bay (San Jose Drainage) Water QualityBacteriological Characteristics (Class SB)
Location
Parameter
Total Coliform
Fecal Coliform
min
max
ave
std
min
max
ave
(geomean)
(geomean)
FRONTING BLUEWATER
350
240,000
5067 1000
310
240,000
2,962
BOHOL TROPICS
BOHOL TROPICS NEAR
CONVENTION CENTER
DRAINAGE OUTFALL
DRAINAGE OUTFALL
CONFLUENCE
MR RESTAURANT
CAINGGET PUBLIC
BEACH
TOTOLAN, DAUIS NEAR
POLICE STATION
TAGBILARAN FISH PORT
NEAR TAGBILARAN
PORT
NEAR TAMBLOT
PENSION
NEAR POLICE STATION,
SONGCULAN
TAGBILARAN CITY FISH
PORT
ADJACENT T O
TAGBILARAN PIER
PIER AREA ADJACENT
TO MR SEAFOODS

200

79

54,000

1,741

1000

79

7,000

466

200

24,000
24,000

240,000,000
240,000,000

5,506,226
1,295,530

1000
1000

2,400
1,600

160,000,000
240,000,000

3,949,144
383,132

200
200

5,400
350

3,500,000
17,000

279,759
1,476

1000
1000

5,400
23

3,500,000
4,900

170,654
340

200
200

130

240

177

1000

79

3,500

405

200

24,000

79,000

43,543

1000

49,000

28,862

200

1,300

3,500

2,133

1000

17,00
0
1,300

3,500

2,133

200

3,500

16,000

7,483

1000

3,500

39,000

11,683

200

5,400

3,600

1000

1,300

5,400

2650

200

1,600

54,000

9,295

1000

920

24,000

4700

200

1,700

24,000

6,387

1000

790

13,000

3205

200

2,800

3,500

3130

1000

2,800

3,500

3130

200

2,400

b. Water Quality Monitoring Results and Assessments


Water Quality

std

The following data plot shows the total coliform and fecal coliform cell counts
along the Maribojoc Bay (Tagbilaran City coastline) for the year 2010.

Figure 26. Total and Fecal Coliform at Maribojoc Bay (San Jose Drainage)

From the plot, it is shown that all the months or sampling the total and fecal
coliform cell counts were above the standard for Class SB which is 1,000 MPN/100 mL
and 200 MPN/100 mL. Based on the graph, all results are very much higher compared
to the standards, the highest geometric mean result being obtained in the month of April
with a value of 494,857 MPN/100 mL total coliform and 279,096 MPN/100 mL fecal
coliform. The lowest geometric mean result obtained was 3,903 MPN/100 mL total
coliform and 3,492 MPN/100 mL fecal coliform in August.
Pollution Sources and Load Assessments
The contamination with fecal coliforms comes from run-offs from septic tanks and
other domestic sources. In the case of Maribojoc Bay, the community were the drainage
canal came from have to be accountable for this since these are the ones discharging
wastewater into the canal. However, there are also local residents living in the area
which may have contributed to the contamination.
Public Health and Ecosystem Concerns
The total and fecal coliform cell counts results can be considered alarming as
tourists and the community surely would not like to hear that the water they are going to
swim at and go fishing is contaminated with coliforms and not complying to the national
standards. The coliform contamination in the area needs to be addressed since the
situation had worsened.

C. Water Quality Management

a. Legal and Policy


The wastewater charge system of Section 13 Article 2 of DAO 2005-10 is the
basis of computing payment to the government for discharging wastewater into the water
bodies. The discharge fee is computed based on the net waste load following the
formula prescribed in Rule 13.1. The priority pollutant parameter for its implementation is
BOD or TSS.
Under this permitting system, the Regional office is able to regulate the
discharges from point sources and issues Discharge Permit pursuant to Section 14 of
the same DAO. The water quality standards are based on the Revised Water Usage and
Classification/Water Quality Criteria of 1990 (DAO 34). The effluent standards are still
based on the Revised Effluents Regulation of 1990 (DAO 35).
b. Update on Compliance and Enforcement
A total of water 268 firms had been issued with Discharge Permits, 291 firms had
been inspected/monitored, and 18 new firms were surveyed during the year.
INDUSTRIAL COMPLIANCE STATISTICS FOR 2011
Category
No. of Firms
Firms inspected
257
Firms monitored
34
Firms with renewed Discharge Permit issued
220
Firms with new Discharge Permit issued
48
NOV issued (inspection, monitoring and survey)
43
Programs and activities to control water pollution and protect water bodies are
spearheaded by various government agencies, primarily EMB Region 7. Current
programs implemented by EMB include: Industrial Eco-Watch Program, and Beach EcoWatch Program.
There is strict monitoring of firms along Butuanon River. Cebu City governments
conducts regular clean up of Guadalupe River and there is strong enforcement of
Ecological Solid Waste Management Act.
c. Investment in Sanitation, Sewerage, and Wastewater Treatment
Metropolitan Cebu Water District, through the assistance of USAID had already
identified the possible area in which they will cater for the project on Septage
Management through the installation of a Septage Treatment Plant, as one of their
mandates as a water concessionaire. The MCWD is still awaiting the response of the
LGU, where the STP will be established, for them to start the project up until now since
2011.
Lapu-Lapu City had installed a Sewerage Treatment Facility in the sitio of
Barangay Basak in Lapu-Lapu City, which was designed and constructed by JV Baring
Consultants and Allied Services.

d. Programs on Water Quality Enhancement and Rehabilitation


1. Industrial Ecowatch Program

Monitoring of the five (5) priority sectors identified in CY 2005 under the
Industrial Ecowatch program are still being conducted. These includes five (5)
chicken dressing plants, four (4) beverage plants, five (5) carrageenan plants, five (5)
sugar mills, one (1) piggery farm, and one (1) yeast plant. Environmental
performance rating of these 21 industries will be endorsed to EMB-Central Office for
public disclosure.
Performance indicators and performance rating are based on the following
broad categories:
Performance Indicator

Broad Category

Color Code

Excellent

GOLD

Outstanding

SILVER

Very Good

GREEN

Good

BLUE

Effort not sufficient for compliance

Bad

RED

No effort to comply

Very Bad

BLACK

Efforts beyond legal requirements


Effort level sufficient to comply

2. Beach Ecowatch Program


Twelve (17) priority beach areas in the Region frequently visited by tourists
were monitored. These are located in Mactan Island, namely: Cebu Marine Beach,
Palmera Beach Resort, Palm Beach, Parker Beach, Blue Reef, Hadsan Cove Resort,
Kontiki, White Sands Resort, Maribago Blue Waters, Tambuli Beach Resort, Cebu
Beach Club, and Hilton Punta Engao; and Tagbilaran City, Bohol, namely: fronting
Bluewater Bohol Tropics, Bohol Tropics near Convention Center, San Jose Drainage
Outfall, Drainage Outfall Confluence, and MR Restaurant.
3. Guadalupe River Rehabilitation
The Guadalupe River Management Council is now established under the
Cebu City Rivers Management Council and had been conducting regular meetings.
An action program for the Guadalupe River Rehabilitation for the year 2010, 2020,
and 2030 was already drafted covering the policy/ legislation/ enforcement,
advocacy/ public education, environmental management, research and development
and resources generation, mobilization and management.
On September 18, 2010, an event entitled Cebu Great River Clean Up was
initiated by EMB 7, in which the pilot site was the whole stretch of the Guadalupe
River, including its tributaries / nearby creeks and esteros. On that day, the Adopt-aRiver, Adopt-a-Barangay was launched, which was proposed and initiated by EMB 7
and accepted and supported particularly by the Cebu City Govt., Cebu Uniting for
Sustainable Water, Cebu Chamber of Commerce, Cebu Volunteers for Good
Government, Aboitiz Leaders of Excellence, Rotary Clubs, Zonta Clubs of Cebu,
Metro Cebu Water District, University of San Jose Recoletos, Southwestern
University, University of Cebu, University of the Philippines, St. Theresas College,
Vicsal Development Corp. (Gaisano Metro), Vicsal Foundation, Inc., Cebu Private
Power Corp., Chong Hua Hospital, Qualfon Phils., Inc., Robinsons Land Corp., Lucky
Tableware, and Elizabeth Mall. Among others, the partner companies have donated

cleanup materials to the barangay as their initial concrete support. Nine (9)
barangays were the first recipients of this project.
4. Butuanon River Rehabilitation
The Butuanon River Watershed Management Board (BRWMB) is now reactivated
and had been conducting regular meetings. The Soil and Water Conservation
Foundation, Inc. had initially informed the board of the project they will have for
Butuanon River which is funded and supported by the Coca-Cola Foundation,
Atlanta. The project is entitled Butuanon River Watershed Development Project
which will be formally launched early 2011.
5. Adopt-an-Estero/ Waterbody Program
As of last quarter of 2012, there have been already thirty-two (32)
memoranda of agreement which have been signed for the Adopt-a-Estero/Waterbody
Program. Along with this, the following companies have been already started
implementing their strategic plans in rehabilitating their adopted water bodies.

Name of Company
1. Maritrans
Recycler,
Inc.
(Tabok)
2. Concrete
Solutions,
Inc.
(Canduman)
3. RRDS
Petrochemical
Industries, Inc. (Umapad)
4. Cenapro
Chemical
Corporation (Jagobiao)
5. Treasure Island Industrial
Corporation (Cabancalan)
6. Lami Food Products Corp.
(Tipolo)
7. Cebu
Holdings,
Inc.
(Hipodromo)
8. Greencoil
Industries,
Inc.
(Tabok)
9. Dedon Manufacturing, Inc.
(Canduman)
10. JLR
Construction
and
Aggregates, Inc. Tingub
11. Sunpride Foods, Inc.
12. ABS-CBN Broadcasting Corp.
(Umapad - Canduman)
13. Profood International Corp.
(Maguikay)
14. Socor
Construction
Inc.
(Alang-alang,
Ibabao,
Paknaan
15. Mabuhay Filcement, Inc.
16. Mabuhay Filcement, Inc.
17. Taiheiyo Cement Phils. Inc.

Adopted Waterbodies
Butuanon
Butuanon
Butuanon
Jagobiao Creek
Butuanon
Tipolo
Hipodromo
Butuanon
Butuanon
Butuanon
Butuanon
Butuanon
Butuanon
Butuanon

Sabang River
Lugot River
Luknay

18. JLR
Construction
and
Aggregates
19. Alta Cebu Garden Resort
20. Philippine Mining Services
Company
21. Philippine Mining Services
Company
22. Philippine Mining Services
Company
23. Philippine Mining Services
Company
24. Philippine Mining Services
Company
25. Monde Nissin Corporation
26. Cebu Energy Development
Corporation
27. San Miguel Brewery
28. Tsuneishi Heavy Industries,
Inc.
29. Cebu
Industrial
Park
Development, Inc.
30. Aquilini Renewable Energy
31. Atlas Fertilizer Corporation
32. Carmen Copper Corporation

Guindarohan River
Pilipog-Gabi river
Brgy. Consolacion, Dalaguete Coastal
Waters
Brgy. Poblacion, Alcoy Coastal Waters
Brgy. Pugalo, Alcoy Coastal waters and
Luyang spring
Brgy. Obong, Dalaguete Coastal and
Obong Spring
Brgy.
Mandaue
Toledo
Mandaue
Toledo
Buanoy, Balamban
Casuntingan Butuanon River
Sapangdaku, River
Cantabaco Bay

D. Best Practices and Lessons Learnt in Water Quality Management


More firms within Mactan Economic Zone (MEZ) are tapping their wastewater to
the centralized Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) of MEZ 1 and Aboitiz Land, Inc. The firms
practice recycling of treated wastewater and use if for the flushing of toilets and watering
of plants.
This year, the Metropolitan Cebu Water District with the aid of Asian
Development Bank, had conducted a series of stakeholders workshops on May 18-20
and July 18-20, 2010 for the Mananga-Kotkot-Combado Lusaran River Basins in Central
Cebu, Philippines under the Regional Technical Assistance 6470: Managing Water in
Asias River Basins: Charting Progress and Facilitating Investment, in which one of the
stakeholders who participated is from EMB 7.
In 2010 the EMB 7 personnel have participated in the JICA-funded OrientationWorkshops on Capacity Development Project on Water Quality Management. The
Orientation-Workshops included the following: Development of Industry-Specific Effluent
Standards for Hotels and Restaurants Sector, Finalization of Discharge Permitting and
Wastewater Charge System, Revision of Guidelines for PCO Accreditation and
Compliance Inspection Manual, Water Quality Management Area Action Planning,
Enhancement of Database for the Water Quality Management Information System,
Water Quality Management Implementation Enhancement of Proposed Water Quality
Management Fund Guidelines, Policy Study for Effluent Management, Revised
Procedural Manual for Water Body Classification and Water Quality Modeling using

WASP, and Area Cooperation Arrangement and Public Information in the Three Pilot
Water Quality Management Areas.
E. Challenges
WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES
ACTIVITY
LEVEL OF PRIORITY
1. Controlling Point Sources pollution thru High
the permitting system of the Clean Water Act
2. Toxic contamination thru permitting High
system and enforcement of RA 6969
3. Protection of Groundwater and monitoring Medium
4. Monitoring and data management
High
5. Butuanon River Rehabilitation
High
6. Establishment of a Water Quality High
Management Area
7.
Management,
Classification
and High
Reclassification of Water Bodies
8. Guadalupe River Rehabilitation
High
The EMB Region 7 personnel are task to monitor not only the identified water bodies
in the region but also attending to various industries and other establishments that operate in
the area to ensure compliance. At present, there are only nine (9) field inspectors and two
(2) water quality inspectors under the Pollution Control Division. The load entrusted to each
employee can be extremely daunting.
Aside from the limited personnel resources, EMB 7 personnel need training in
surveillance and monitoring, quality testing and analysis, and data analysis. Training could
help establish a more standardized system of monitoring that will produce credible data and
serve as basis for policy formulation. However, the major constraint is the budget allocated
by the government to the EMB is not even sufficient to sustain water quality management
activities.