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Contents
2.2.6 Shaft
2.2.7 Combustor
2.2.8 Afterburner
2.2.9 Primary Nozzle
2.2.10 Fan Nozzle
2.2.11 Bypass Duct
2.2.12 Bypass Mixer
2.2.13 Exhaust for a Power-Generation Gas Turbine
2.3 Cycle Analysis
2.3.1 Ramjet
2.3.2 Turbojet
2.3.3 Turbofan
2.3.4 Turboprop
2.3.5 Power-Generation Gas Turbine
2.4 Summary

3 Non-ideal Cycle Analysis


3.1 Introduction
3.1.1 Variable Specic Heats
3.2 Component Losses
3.2.1 Diffuser
3.2.2 Compressor
3.2.3 Fan
3.2.4 Turbine
3.2.5 Propeller
3.2.6 Shaft
3.2.7 Combustor
3.2.8 Afterburner
3.2.9 Primary Nozzle
3.2.10 Fan Nozzle
3.2.11 Bypass Duct
3.2.12 Bypass Mixer
3.2.13 Power Turbine Exhaust
3.2.14 Summary of Nonideal Effects and Simple Parameter Models
in Components
3.3 Cycle Analysis
3.3.1 General Approach
3.3.2 Examples
3.4 Use of Cycle Analysis in Preliminary Design
3.5 Summary

59
59
61
63
65
66
67
68
70
71
78
91
113
119
124
134
134
134
135
135
137
141
141
143
144
145
146
147
150
151
152
153
154
155
155
156
182
182

Part II Component Analysis


4 Diffusers
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Subsonic
4.2.1 External Flow Patterns
4.2.2 Limits on Pressure Rise
4.2.3 Fanno Line Flow

209
209
210
210
211
214

Index

adiabatic processes, 4650, 592593


adiabatic ame temperatures, 61, 146, 449, 453, 454,
455, 483
enthalpy and, 454
fuel ratios and, 450, 455
stoichiometric condition and, 450, 453, 455
See also specic components
aeroderivative, 31
afterburners, 19, 90, 146, 166, 167168, 440, 445,
462463
chemistry and, 450
efciency and, 146147
enthalpy and, 451452
fuel ratios and, 63
ideal, 61
ideal characteristics of, 4647
ignition of, 449
isobaric processes in, 61
materials in, 447
objective of, 19, 445
pressure ratios and, 147
ramjets and, 446
screech, 447
stoichiometric condition and, 450
thermodynamics of, 451
thrust-TSFC and, 168, 445
turbofans and, 25, 98102, 106108, 112, 113
turbojets and, 19, 84
airfoils, 51, 331332, 378. See also propellers;
compressors; turbines
altitude, 83, 258259, 264
area changes
friction and, 608, 610
heat addition and, 610
See also specic components
atmosphere, standard, 527
blades, 141
angle of, 56, 58
attachment methods, 279
camber, 281
cascade, 277
chord, 281
cooling of, 142, 428
data for, 332
disk and, 277, 279
materials in, 277279
resonance and, 281
rotor, 51, 277, 407

631

stator, 51, 277, 407


See also compressors; impellers; mixers; specic
components
boundary layer
compressors and, 137
diffusers and, 135136, 209
See also separation
Brayton cycle, 10
intercooling and, 14
regeneration and, 13
Buckingham Pi theorem, 261, 461, 620
burners, 88, 118, 145, 440
adiabatic ame temperature and, 61, 146
CFD method for, 440
chemistry and, 450
component matching and, 483
counter-ow, 374
design criteria for, 440441
dimensional analysis and, 461
drag and, 456, 459
efciency and, 145146, 461, 462, 483
enthalpy and, 451452
exit pressure from, 157
exit temperatures from, 7576
Fanno line ow and, 456, 457, 461
ame speed, 448
ame holders. See ame holders
ame stability, 447
friction and, 456, 458
fuel mass-ow rate, 60, 146
fuel ratios and, 61, 447, 462, 483
fuel types, 463
gas velocities and, 448
generalized ow method, 461
geometries of, 441
heat addition and, 458
heating value method, 60, 146
ideal, 59
ideal characteristics of, 4647
ignition, 449
imperfect combustion and, 145
materials for, 445
modeling of, 488
percent air, 450
performance maps for, 461
pressure losses and, 145, 146, 456, 483
pressure ratios, 146, 157, 445, 461, 462
primary, 59, 6162, 145
Rayleigh line ow, 456, 461

632
burners (cont.)
starting and, 448
temperature ratios and, 60
types of, 441
See also adiabatic ame temperature; afterburners;
ameholders
bypass air, 2021
bypass duct, 151, 471
frictional losses, 151152, 471
ideal, 66
ideal characteristics of, 4647
pressure ratio and, 152
split-ratio, 151
bypass mixer, 67, 152, 471
adiabatic ows and, 68, 153
bypass ratio and, 68
enthalpy and, 68, 153
frictional losses and, 153
ideal characteristics of, 4647
mixing losses and, 153
pressure ratio, 153
stagnation pressure and, 67
bypass ratio, 22, 26, 5355, 56, 68
CFD. See computational uid dynamic methods
closed-form equations, 46, 487
combustors. See burners
component matching, 134, 481
burners and, 483
closure equations for, 484, 487
compressors and, 482
dynamic-transient responses, 499
modeling and, 491
power generation gas turbines and, 486
solution procedures for, 492
turbines and, 481, 483
component modeling, 487
burners and, 488
component matching and, 491
compressors and, 488
diffusers and, 489
nozzles and, 489
shafts and, 489
turbines and, 489
components
cycle analysis and, 47, 155
ideal characteristics of, 47
non-ideal effects in, 154
simple parameter models, 154
See also specic components
compressible ow, 591. See also specic components
compressors, 5355, 137
boundary layer and, 137
component matching and, 482
diffusers and, 135136, 137, 209
efciency in, 138, 139
efciency, polytropic, 139
enthalpy and, 138

Index
ow direction and, 137
friction and, 138
ideal, 51
ideal characteristics of, 4647
modeling of, 488
off-design performance, 137138
peak design condition, 140
pressure ratios and, 12, 5152, 55, 138141
specic heats and, 138
small stage efciency, 139
compressors, axial ow, 276
auxilliary functions of, 276277
basic premise of, 276
best efciency point, 302303
blade attachment, 279
blade deection, 347, 351
blade drag and, 335, 343344
blade heights and, 283, 285, 296
blade incidence, 51, 307, 342
blade lengths and, 336, 339
blade lift and, 335, 349
blade loading, 288, 341
blade pitch, 281
blade tip, 277
blade tip-hub ratios, 280, 289, 316
blade tip, pressure losses and, 279280
blades, forces on, 340
boundary layer and, 281
camber-chord ratio, 281
cascades, 288, 346
centrifugal compressors and, 276
CFD methods, 320, 321, 332, 350
constant reaction, 318
deection coefcient, 334
deviation, 285, 352
differential analysis and, 316
diffusers and, 281283
dimensional analysis and, 299
efciency and, 281, 283, 287, 299, 301303, 307,
332, 342345, 346, 347, 349
efciency, best efciency point, 302303
empirical approaches and, 346, 351
exit guide vanes, 280
experimental data on, 301
fan blades and, 277279
ow coefcient and, 334, 342, 343345, 347
free vortex, 317, 323
geometry of, 277
history of, 276
high pressure, 280
incompressible ow, 288
inlet guide vanes, 280
low pressure, 280
Mach numbers and, 293
mapping conventions, 302
mass ow, corrected, 299302
materials in, 277279
maximum pressure coefcient, 306

Index
mean line control volume approach, 286
multiple spool engines and, 280281, 312
operating line, 302
percent reaction, 287, 289, 294, 342, 343
performance, by stages, 331
performance maps, 299
pressure changes in, 283
pressure coefcient, 305
pressure ratios, 276, 277, 281, 287, 289, 299,
300301, 302, 307
pressure ratio limits, 306
pressure ratios, by stages, 299
radial equilibrium and, 316
rotational speed and, 290, 299301, 302
rotor blades, 277
separation and, 281
single stage energy analysis, 286
single stage performance predictions, 354
solidity parameter, 281, 346347
speed, corrected, 299302
stator vanes, 277, 307, 312
streamline analysis method, 320
surge, 283, 299, 301303, 306
testing, 301
thermodynamic efciency and, 276
trends, 300
TSFC and, 276
turbines and, 406407, 409
variable stators, 307
velocity polygons and, 283, 287, 289, 332
compressors, centrifugal, 374
blade geometries, 377
blade number, 386
blade stresses, 392
cross over, 377
diffusers, 375378, 394, 396
dimensional analysis and, 390
durability of, 374
efciency, 374, 383, 385, 391, 392393, 395
geometry of, 374
impellers, 378380, 391, 392, 396397
incompressible ow, 381
inducers and, 375
Mach numbers and, 396397
mapping conventions for, 390
percent reaction and, 381, 396
performance maps, 390
pre-swirl, 375, 379, 383, 385
pressure ratios and, 381, 384, 386, 390391,
395
resonance and, 395
rotors and, 380
scroll and, 376377
separation and, 395
single stage energy analysis, 380
slip factor, 382, 385, 386, 392
surge and, 390, 391
swept blades, 377, 392

633
swirl free, 378
vaned diffusers, 394
velocity polygons and, 378, 386
computational uid dynamics (CFD) method, 209,
227, 231232, 276, 320, 321, 332, 350, 440
cycle analysis, 10
example problems of, 156
general approach of, 155
ideal, 46
non-ideal, 134
de Laval, Carl, 5
diffusers, 48, 135, 209, 380, 394
additive drag and, 227, 229, 232
adiabatic processes and, 209
area changes and, 215, 216
area ratios and, 210211, 212213, 214, 225, 226,
227228
boundary layers and, 135136, 209, 210, 214, 230
CFD method and, 216, 227, 231232
compressors and, 135136, 137, 209, 281283
conical ramps and, 220
conical shocks and, 220
critical condition, 227
enthalpy and, 135, 209, 211
external ow patterns, 210
Fanno line ow and, 214, 215, 216, 236
free stream air, 209
friction and, 215
ideal, 48
ideal characteristics of, 4647
incompressible ow, 213
internal area of, 225
internal diffuser recovery factor, 217
isentropic processes and, 209, 211, 213
lambda shocks, 226
Mach numbers and, 210, 212, 213, 216217,
218220, 221223, 224
mass ow ratio, 227
modeling of, 489
non-ideal, 135
normal shocks and, 216, 217
objectives of, 209
oblique-conical shocks and, 220
oblique-planar shocks and, 218, 227
oblique shocks and, 225, 226, 232
off-design operation of, 227
one-dimensional ow method, 215
operation modes of, 226
performance map of, 235
pressure coefcient, 211, 213
pressure losses and, 209, 210, 214, 215, 217
pressure ratios and, 213, 214, 217, 235
pressure recovery factor, 135137, 209, 210, 236
pressure rise limits, 211
separation and, 210, 211212, 213
sonic condition, 232
spikes, 220

634
diffusers (cont.)
starting and, 232
subcritical condition, 227
subsonic conditions, 210
supercritical condition, 227
supersonic conditions, 216
vaned, 394
vaneless, 375376
viscous effects and, 211, 214
See also inlet
disks, 277, 411. See also impellers
drum, 51, 277, 407
efciency
polytropic, 139143
See also specic components
engines
aircraft-frame matching, 508
comparisons of types, 32
complexity of, 46
ideal models of, 69
types of, 16
enthalpy, 560
of formation, 451
Euler, Leonhard, 4
fan nozzle
efciency, 150
ideal, 65
non-ideal, 150
fan pressure ratio, 54, 141
Fanno line ow, 214, 215, 216, 236, 456, 457,
461, 471, 597, 600
fans, 53, 100, 141, 276
blade design and, 141
efciency, 141
ideal, 53
ideal characteristics of, 4647
non-ideal, 141
polytropic efciency, 141
pressure ratio, 55
See also compressors
ameholders, 146, 441, 446, 456, 460
friction, 138, 215, 456, 471, 597
area changes and, 608, 610
burners and, 458
generalized method for, 458
heat addition and, 609, 610
impellers and, 393
turbines and, 408
See also Fanno line ow; specic
components
fuels
properties, 463
ratio, 61
types of, 463
gas dynamics, 591
gas generator, 482

Index
gases, ideal, 591
equations for, 591
gas constant, 591
generalized 1-D ow, 607
heat addition
area changes and, 610
friction and, 609, 610
heating value, 60, 146, 452
hydraulic pumps, 288, 381
hydraulic turbines, 418
impellers, 58, 375378, 385390, 396397
blade design, 394
blade number, 393
blade shapes, 392
boundary layer and, 393
compressors and, 378380
eye diameters, 392
frictional effects, 393
geometries of, 391
Mach numbers and, 392
shock waves and, 389390
splitter blades and, 394
See also blades; disks; centrifugal compressors
incompressible ow, 288, 381, 418, 618
inlet, 69
ideal characteristics of, 4647
water spray injection system, 82
See also diffusers
inverse engine design, 182, 511
isentropic processes, 595. See also specic
components
iteration methods, 585
progressive, 585
successive substitution method, 588
JANAF tables, 134, 452
jet-wakes, 137138, 142
kerosene, 450
mass ow
corrected, 260, 299, 390, 425, 462
matching of components, 481. See also specic
components
materials
afterburner, 447
burner, 445
compressor, 279
fan, 279
nozzle, 244
turbine, 429
materials, thermal limits of, 74, 427
method of characteristics, 249
mixers, 67, 152, 471, 605
drag and, 475
materials for, 471
mixing process, 473

Index
pressure losses and, 471
See also bypass mixer, by pass duct
multiple spool engines, 18, 78, 91, 499
burners and, 448
compressors and, 312
critical speeds, 314
mechanical implementation of, 314
off-design operation and, 312
power and, 314
three spooled, 315
turbines and, 407
turbofans and, 20, 22
Newton, Isaac, 4
nozzles, 63, 65, 147, 150, 244
adiabatic processes and, 6365, 147
afterburners and, 446
altitude and, 258259, 264
area ratios, 245
choked, 149150, 233234, 245246,
252254
converging, 150, 245246, 259
converging-diverging, 150, 161163, 247, 259
converging-diverging, variable, 258, 262, 263,
490
corrected mass ow, 260
dimensional analysis and, 260
efciency and, 148149, 150, 245
engine performance and, 256
equations for, 244, 245
exit area, xed, 262, 490
exit pressure, 147
fan, 65, 150, 245
xed-converging, 261, 490
xed minimum area, 263, 490
ideal, 63, 65
ideal characteristics of, 4647
iris type, 258259
isentropic processes and, 6365
lambda shocks and, 249
Mach numbers and, 260, 261, 262, 263
mass ow and, 149, 260262
materials used in, 244
modeling of, 489
overexpanded, 248249
performance maps for, 260
performance of, 245
performance trends, 261
plug type, 258260
pressure losses and, 148
pressure ratios and, 245, 256
schedules, 262264
shock diamonds, 249
sonic conditions, 149
sonic line, 251
specic heats and, 245246, 262
underexpanded, 247
See also fan nozzles; thrust reversers;
vectoring

635
Ohain, Hans von, 6
Papin, Denis, 4
percent reaction, 618. See also specic
components
performance maps, 482
burners, 461
compressors, axial, 299
compressors, centrifugal, 390
diffusers, 235
nozzles, 260
turbines, 425
performance measures, 41
power generation gas turbines, 30, 119
component matching and, 486
compressor pressure ratio, 124
exhaust, 68, 153, 486
fuel ratios and, 499
inlet, 119, 486, 490
load system, 486
modeling of, 490, 491, 495
power of, 120
shaft loading and, 491
specic fuel consumption and,
121122
thermal efciency of, 121122
power generation measures, 42
power turbine exhaust, ideal, 68
non-ideal, 153
pressure ratios. See specic components
propellers, 55, 143
advance ratio, 144
efciency and, 143144
xed blades and, 144
ow direction, 143
ideal, 56
ideal characteristics of, 4647
Mach numbers and, 58, 144
nonideal, 143
power coefcient, 58, 144
reversible pitch, 265
schedules for, 56
stresses on, 56
thrust and, 144
thrust coefcients and, 58
work coefcient and, 57
variable blades, 144
propulsion performance measures, 41
propulsive efciency, 41
pumps, 286, 288, 381, 384
slip and, 384
ramjets, 16
afterburners and, 446
ideal, 71
Rankine cycle, 1516
Rankine-Hugoniot equations, 602
Rayleigh line ow, 456, 461, 598, 600
Regula Falsi method, 585

636
resonance, 281, 395, 412
rotational inertial effect, 499
Schlieren photographs, 249
screech, 446447
separation, 136, 137, 154, 209, 288, 301, 304, 395.
See also boundary layers
SFC. See specic fuel consumption
shadowgraphs, 249
shafts, 59, 144
bearings, 144
efciency and, 144145
friction and, 144
ideal, 59
modeling of, 489
squeeze lm dampers, 144
shocks, 216
normal, 600
oblique-planar, 601
oblique conical, 220
See also specic components
single stage turbomachine energy analysis, 613
specic fuel consumption (SFC), 42
power generation gas turbines and, 121
turboprops and, 28, 116
specic heat, 591
ratio, 591
values for, 593, 594
variable, 593
stagnation pressure, 591
bypass mixer and, 67
stagnation properties, 591
stagnation temperature, 591
standard conditions, 47, 527
starting an inlet, 232
starting an engine, 449
steam topping cycle, 15
stoichiometry, 7476, 447, 450, 453, 455. See also
fuels, ratios
successive substitutions method, 588
superposition analysis, 216
Taylor-Maccoll ow, 227
thermodynamic efciency. See specic components
thrust
equations, 34
reversers, 265
See also thrust specic fuel consumption
thrust specic fuel consumption (TSFC), 41
afterburners and, 168
by-pass ratio, 174
See also specic engine types
thrust-weight ratios, 26, 41
TSFC. See thrust specic fuel consumption
turbines, 54, 101
blade cooling and, 142
choking, 142
component matching and, 481, 483

Index
efciency and, 142143
efciency, polytropic, 142143
enthalpy and, 142
ideal, 55
ideal characteristics of, 4647
modeling of, 489
nonideal, 101
peak values, 142
pressure ratios and, 5556, 142143
specic heats, 142
See also power generation gas turbines
turbines, axial ow, 406
aerodynamics and, 406, 409
blade cooling and, 406, 409, 410, 427,
428
blade heights and, 411
blade manufacture, 430
blade materials, 429
blade slip, 408
blade thicknesses, 411
blade tip clearance, 409
blades, 427
blades, passage areas between, 409
blades per stage, 412
cascades, 408
choke line, 426
compressors and, 406407, 409
conguration of, 407
dimensional analysis, 425
efciency and, 406, 409, 412, 426
frictional losses and, 408
geometry of, 407
high pressure, 407
hydraulic turbines, 418
impulse turbines, 419
incompressible ow in, 418
low pressure, 407
mapping conventions, 425
mass ow, corrected, 425, 426, 427
materials in, 406, 410, 427
multiple spool engines and, 407
operating line, 426
percent reaction, 417, 418, 419, 420
performance, 419
performance maps, 425
pressure ratios, 409, 417, 420, 426
reaction turbines, 419
resonance and, 412
separation, 409, 410
shocks, 409
shrouding, 411
single stage energy analysis, 416
solidity factor, 408
speed, corrected, 425
stages, number of, 410
streamline analysis method, 433
temperatures in, 409, 410
thermal limits, 427

Index
thermodynamic efciency, 427
turning angles, 410
velocity polygons, 413, 419
viscous shear, 409
turbofans, 20, 25, 91, 471
afterburners and, 25, 98102, 106108
bypass ratios, 53, 93, 94, 9598, 105106
compressor pressure ratio, 93, 9496, 105
efciency of, 22
fan exhausted, 20, 25, 38, 91102
fan mixed, 24, 25, 102108
fan total pressure ratio, 9498
fuel economy, 25
high bypass and, 406
ideal, 91
ideal thrust, 93, 94, 98, 102, 103105, 107, 108,
111, 113
ideal TSFC and, 93102, 105, 108111,
113
Mach numbers, 94, 9899, 103105
mass ow and, 105
mixed-exhausted comparisons, 108
nonafterburning, 9298, 102106
pressure ratios and, 108
turbojets, compared, 108
turbojets, 17
afterburners and, 84
altitude and, 83
compressor pressure ratio, 8184, 8687
fuel economy, 25
ideal, 78
ideal thrust, 81, 8991
ideal TSFC and, 8687, 8991

637
inlet temperatures, 8283
Mach numbers and, 8384
mass ow and, 81
nonafterburning, 79
ramjets and, 84, 8687
turbofans, compared, 108
turbomachines
fundamentals of, 613
history of, 3
turboprops, 27, 40, 113, 374
compressor pressure ratio, 116
gearboxes, 27, 56, 58, 374
ideal, 58
ideal thrust for, 113116, 119
ideal TSFC and, 116, 119
reversible pitch propellers, 265
specic fuel consumption and, 116
work coefcient for, 115116, 119
turboshafts, 29, 374
UDF. See unducted fan
unducted fan (UDF), 29, 58, 113
V2 rocket, 8
vectoring, thrust, 267
velocity polygons
compressors and, 283, 289, 332, 378, 386
turbines and, 413, 419
See also specic components
Whittle, Sir Frank, 6
windmills, 3
wind tunnels, 231232, 234, 508