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Book on thermodynamics

© All Rights Reserved

100%(2)100% found this document useful (2 votes)

441 views642 pagesBook on thermodynamics

© All Rights Reserved

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Contents

2.2.6 Shaft

2.2.7 Combustor

2.2.8 Afterburner

2.2.9 Primary Nozzle

2.2.10 Fan Nozzle

2.2.11 Bypass Duct

2.2.12 Bypass Mixer

2.2.13 Exhaust for a Power-Generation Gas Turbine

2.3 Cycle Analysis

2.3.1 Ramjet

2.3.2 Turbojet

2.3.3 Turbofan

2.3.4 Turboprop

2.3.5 Power-Generation Gas Turbine

2.4 Summary

3.1 Introduction

3.1.1 Variable Specic Heats

3.2 Component Losses

3.2.1 Diffuser

3.2.2 Compressor

3.2.3 Fan

3.2.4 Turbine

3.2.5 Propeller

3.2.6 Shaft

3.2.7 Combustor

3.2.8 Afterburner

3.2.9 Primary Nozzle

3.2.10 Fan Nozzle

3.2.11 Bypass Duct

3.2.12 Bypass Mixer

3.2.13 Power Turbine Exhaust

3.2.14 Summary of Nonideal Effects and Simple Parameter Models

in Components

3.3 Cycle Analysis

3.3.1 General Approach

3.3.2 Examples

3.4 Use of Cycle Analysis in Preliminary Design

3.5 Summary

59

59

61

63

65

66

67

68

70

71

78

91

113

119

124

134

134

134

135

135

137

141

141

143

144

145

146

147

150

151

152

153

154

155

155

156

182

182

4 Diffusers

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Subsonic

4.2.1 External Flow Patterns

4.2.2 Limits on Pressure Rise

4.2.3 Fanno Line Flow

209

209

210

210

211

214

Index

adiabatic ame temperatures, 61, 146, 449, 453, 454,

455, 483

enthalpy and, 454

fuel ratios and, 450, 455

stoichiometric condition and, 450, 453, 455

See also specic components

aeroderivative, 31

afterburners, 19, 90, 146, 166, 167168, 440, 445,

462463

chemistry and, 450

efciency and, 146147

enthalpy and, 451452

fuel ratios and, 63

ideal, 61

ideal characteristics of, 4647

ignition of, 449

isobaric processes in, 61

materials in, 447

objective of, 19, 445

pressure ratios and, 147

ramjets and, 446

screech, 447

stoichiometric condition and, 450

thermodynamics of, 451

thrust-TSFC and, 168, 445

turbofans and, 25, 98102, 106108, 112, 113

turbojets and, 19, 84

airfoils, 51, 331332, 378. See also propellers;

compressors; turbines

altitude, 83, 258259, 264

area changes

friction and, 608, 610

heat addition and, 610

See also specic components

atmosphere, standard, 527

blades, 141

angle of, 56, 58

attachment methods, 279

camber, 281

cascade, 277

chord, 281

cooling of, 142, 428

data for, 332

disk and, 277, 279

materials in, 277279

resonance and, 281

rotor, 51, 277, 407

631

See also compressors; impellers; mixers; specic

components

boundary layer

compressors and, 137

diffusers and, 135136, 209

See also separation

Brayton cycle, 10

intercooling and, 14

regeneration and, 13

Buckingham Pi theorem, 261, 461, 620

burners, 88, 118, 145, 440

adiabatic ame temperature and, 61, 146

CFD method for, 440

chemistry and, 450

component matching and, 483

counter-ow, 374

design criteria for, 440441

dimensional analysis and, 461

drag and, 456, 459

efciency and, 145146, 461, 462, 483

enthalpy and, 451452

exit pressure from, 157

exit temperatures from, 7576

Fanno line ow and, 456, 457, 461

ame speed, 448

ame holders. See ame holders

ame stability, 447

friction and, 456, 458

fuel mass-ow rate, 60, 146

fuel ratios and, 61, 447, 462, 483

fuel types, 463

gas velocities and, 448

generalized ow method, 461

geometries of, 441

heat addition and, 458

heating value method, 60, 146

ideal, 59

ideal characteristics of, 4647

ignition, 449

imperfect combustion and, 145

materials for, 445

modeling of, 488

percent air, 450

performance maps for, 461

pressure losses and, 145, 146, 456, 483

pressure ratios, 146, 157, 445, 461, 462

primary, 59, 6162, 145

Rayleigh line ow, 456, 461

632

burners (cont.)

starting and, 448

temperature ratios and, 60

types of, 441

See also adiabatic ame temperature; afterburners;

ameholders

bypass air, 2021

bypass duct, 151, 471

frictional losses, 151152, 471

ideal, 66

ideal characteristics of, 4647

pressure ratio and, 152

split-ratio, 151

bypass mixer, 67, 152, 471

adiabatic ows and, 68, 153

bypass ratio and, 68

enthalpy and, 68, 153

frictional losses and, 153

ideal characteristics of, 4647

mixing losses and, 153

pressure ratio, 153

stagnation pressure and, 67

bypass ratio, 22, 26, 5355, 56, 68

CFD. See computational uid dynamic methods

closed-form equations, 46, 487

combustors. See burners

component matching, 134, 481

burners and, 483

closure equations for, 484, 487

compressors and, 482

dynamic-transient responses, 499

modeling and, 491

power generation gas turbines and, 486

solution procedures for, 492

turbines and, 481, 483

component modeling, 487

burners and, 488

component matching and, 491

compressors and, 488

diffusers and, 489

nozzles and, 489

shafts and, 489

turbines and, 489

components

cycle analysis and, 47, 155

ideal characteristics of, 47

non-ideal effects in, 154

simple parameter models, 154

See also specic components

compressible ow, 591. See also specic components

compressors, 5355, 137

boundary layer and, 137

component matching and, 482

diffusers and, 135136, 137, 209

efciency in, 138, 139

efciency, polytropic, 139

enthalpy and, 138

Index

ow direction and, 137

friction and, 138

ideal, 51

ideal characteristics of, 4647

modeling of, 488

off-design performance, 137138

peak design condition, 140

pressure ratios and, 12, 5152, 55, 138141

specic heats and, 138

small stage efciency, 139

compressors, axial ow, 276

auxilliary functions of, 276277

basic premise of, 276

best efciency point, 302303

blade attachment, 279

blade deection, 347, 351

blade drag and, 335, 343344

blade heights and, 283, 285, 296

blade incidence, 51, 307, 342

blade lengths and, 336, 339

blade lift and, 335, 349

blade loading, 288, 341

blade pitch, 281

blade tip, 277

blade tip-hub ratios, 280, 289, 316

blade tip, pressure losses and, 279280

blades, forces on, 340

boundary layer and, 281

camber-chord ratio, 281

cascades, 288, 346

centrifugal compressors and, 276

CFD methods, 320, 321, 332, 350

constant reaction, 318

deection coefcient, 334

deviation, 285, 352

differential analysis and, 316

diffusers and, 281283

dimensional analysis and, 299

efciency and, 281, 283, 287, 299, 301303, 307,

332, 342345, 346, 347, 349

efciency, best efciency point, 302303

empirical approaches and, 346, 351

exit guide vanes, 280

experimental data on, 301

fan blades and, 277279

ow coefcient and, 334, 342, 343345, 347

free vortex, 317, 323

geometry of, 277

history of, 276

high pressure, 280

incompressible ow, 288

inlet guide vanes, 280

low pressure, 280

Mach numbers and, 293

mapping conventions, 302

mass ow, corrected, 299302

materials in, 277279

maximum pressure coefcient, 306

Index

mean line control volume approach, 286

multiple spool engines and, 280281, 312

operating line, 302

percent reaction, 287, 289, 294, 342, 343

performance, by stages, 331

performance maps, 299

pressure changes in, 283

pressure coefcient, 305

pressure ratios, 276, 277, 281, 287, 289, 299,

300301, 302, 307

pressure ratio limits, 306

pressure ratios, by stages, 299

radial equilibrium and, 316

rotational speed and, 290, 299301, 302

rotor blades, 277

separation and, 281

single stage energy analysis, 286

single stage performance predictions, 354

solidity parameter, 281, 346347

speed, corrected, 299302

stator vanes, 277, 307, 312

streamline analysis method, 320

surge, 283, 299, 301303, 306

testing, 301

thermodynamic efciency and, 276

trends, 300

TSFC and, 276

turbines and, 406407, 409

variable stators, 307

velocity polygons and, 283, 287, 289, 332

compressors, centrifugal, 374

blade geometries, 377

blade number, 386

blade stresses, 392

cross over, 377

diffusers, 375378, 394, 396

dimensional analysis and, 390

durability of, 374

efciency, 374, 383, 385, 391, 392393, 395

geometry of, 374

impellers, 378380, 391, 392, 396397

incompressible ow, 381

inducers and, 375

Mach numbers and, 396397

mapping conventions for, 390

percent reaction and, 381, 396

performance maps, 390

pre-swirl, 375, 379, 383, 385

pressure ratios and, 381, 384, 386, 390391,

395

resonance and, 395

rotors and, 380

scroll and, 376377

separation and, 395

single stage energy analysis, 380

slip factor, 382, 385, 386, 392

surge and, 390, 391

swept blades, 377, 392

633

swirl free, 378

vaned diffusers, 394

velocity polygons and, 378, 386

computational uid dynamics (CFD) method, 209,

227, 231232, 276, 320, 321, 332, 350, 440

cycle analysis, 10

example problems of, 156

general approach of, 155

ideal, 46

non-ideal, 134

de Laval, Carl, 5

diffusers, 48, 135, 209, 380, 394

additive drag and, 227, 229, 232

adiabatic processes and, 209

area changes and, 215, 216

area ratios and, 210211, 212213, 214, 225, 226,

227228

boundary layers and, 135136, 209, 210, 214, 230

CFD method and, 216, 227, 231232

compressors and, 135136, 137, 209, 281283

conical ramps and, 220

conical shocks and, 220

critical condition, 227

enthalpy and, 135, 209, 211

external ow patterns, 210

Fanno line ow and, 214, 215, 216, 236

free stream air, 209

friction and, 215

ideal, 48

ideal characteristics of, 4647

incompressible ow, 213

internal area of, 225

internal diffuser recovery factor, 217

isentropic processes and, 209, 211, 213

lambda shocks, 226

Mach numbers and, 210, 212, 213, 216217,

218220, 221223, 224

mass ow ratio, 227

modeling of, 489

non-ideal, 135

normal shocks and, 216, 217

objectives of, 209

oblique-conical shocks and, 220

oblique-planar shocks and, 218, 227

oblique shocks and, 225, 226, 232

off-design operation of, 227

one-dimensional ow method, 215

operation modes of, 226

performance map of, 235

pressure coefcient, 211, 213

pressure losses and, 209, 210, 214, 215, 217

pressure ratios and, 213, 214, 217, 235

pressure recovery factor, 135137, 209, 210, 236

pressure rise limits, 211

separation and, 210, 211212, 213

sonic condition, 232

spikes, 220

634

diffusers (cont.)

starting and, 232

subcritical condition, 227

subsonic conditions, 210

supercritical condition, 227

supersonic conditions, 216

vaned, 394

vaneless, 375376

viscous effects and, 211, 214

See also inlet

disks, 277, 411. See also impellers

drum, 51, 277, 407

efciency

polytropic, 139143

See also specic components

engines

aircraft-frame matching, 508

comparisons of types, 32

complexity of, 46

ideal models of, 69

types of, 16

enthalpy, 560

of formation, 451

Euler, Leonhard, 4

fan nozzle

efciency, 150

ideal, 65

non-ideal, 150

fan pressure ratio, 54, 141

Fanno line ow, 214, 215, 216, 236, 456, 457,

461, 471, 597, 600

fans, 53, 100, 141, 276

blade design and, 141

efciency, 141

ideal, 53

ideal characteristics of, 4647

non-ideal, 141

polytropic efciency, 141

pressure ratio, 55

See also compressors

ameholders, 146, 441, 446, 456, 460

friction, 138, 215, 456, 471, 597

area changes and, 608, 610

burners and, 458

generalized method for, 458

heat addition and, 609, 610

impellers and, 393

turbines and, 408

See also Fanno line ow; specic

components

fuels

properties, 463

ratio, 61

types of, 463

gas dynamics, 591

gas generator, 482

Index

gases, ideal, 591

equations for, 591

gas constant, 591

generalized 1-D ow, 607

heat addition

area changes and, 610

friction and, 609, 610

heating value, 60, 146, 452

hydraulic pumps, 288, 381

hydraulic turbines, 418

impellers, 58, 375378, 385390, 396397

blade design, 394

blade number, 393

blade shapes, 392

boundary layer and, 393

compressors and, 378380

eye diameters, 392

frictional effects, 393

geometries of, 391

Mach numbers and, 392

shock waves and, 389390

splitter blades and, 394

See also blades; disks; centrifugal compressors

incompressible ow, 288, 381, 418, 618

inlet, 69

ideal characteristics of, 4647

water spray injection system, 82

See also diffusers

inverse engine design, 182, 511

isentropic processes, 595. See also specic

components

iteration methods, 585

progressive, 585

successive substitution method, 588

JANAF tables, 134, 452

jet-wakes, 137138, 142

kerosene, 450

mass ow

corrected, 260, 299, 390, 425, 462

matching of components, 481. See also specic

components

materials

afterburner, 447

burner, 445

compressor, 279

fan, 279

nozzle, 244

turbine, 429

materials, thermal limits of, 74, 427

method of characteristics, 249

mixers, 67, 152, 471, 605

drag and, 475

materials for, 471

mixing process, 473

Index

pressure losses and, 471

See also bypass mixer, by pass duct

multiple spool engines, 18, 78, 91, 499

burners and, 448

compressors and, 312

critical speeds, 314

mechanical implementation of, 314

off-design operation and, 312

power and, 314

three spooled, 315

turbines and, 407

turbofans and, 20, 22

Newton, Isaac, 4

nozzles, 63, 65, 147, 150, 244

adiabatic processes and, 6365, 147

afterburners and, 446

altitude and, 258259, 264

area ratios, 245

choked, 149150, 233234, 245246,

252254

converging, 150, 245246, 259

converging-diverging, 150, 161163, 247, 259

converging-diverging, variable, 258, 262, 263,

490

corrected mass ow, 260

dimensional analysis and, 260

efciency and, 148149, 150, 245

engine performance and, 256

equations for, 244, 245

exit area, xed, 262, 490

exit pressure, 147

fan, 65, 150, 245

xed-converging, 261, 490

xed minimum area, 263, 490

ideal, 63, 65

ideal characteristics of, 4647

iris type, 258259

isentropic processes and, 6365

lambda shocks and, 249

Mach numbers and, 260, 261, 262, 263

mass ow and, 149, 260262

materials used in, 244

modeling of, 489

overexpanded, 248249

performance maps for, 260

performance of, 245

performance trends, 261

plug type, 258260

pressure losses and, 148

pressure ratios and, 245, 256

schedules, 262264

shock diamonds, 249

sonic conditions, 149

sonic line, 251

specic heats and, 245246, 262

underexpanded, 247

See also fan nozzles; thrust reversers;

vectoring

635

Ohain, Hans von, 6

Papin, Denis, 4

percent reaction, 618. See also specic

components

performance maps, 482

burners, 461

compressors, axial, 299

compressors, centrifugal, 390

diffusers, 235

nozzles, 260

turbines, 425

performance measures, 41

power generation gas turbines, 30, 119

component matching and, 486

compressor pressure ratio, 124

exhaust, 68, 153, 486

fuel ratios and, 499

inlet, 119, 486, 490

load system, 486

modeling of, 490, 491, 495

power of, 120

shaft loading and, 491

specic fuel consumption and,

121122

thermal efciency of, 121122

power generation measures, 42

power turbine exhaust, ideal, 68

non-ideal, 153

pressure ratios. See specic components

propellers, 55, 143

advance ratio, 144

efciency and, 143144

xed blades and, 144

ow direction, 143

ideal, 56

ideal characteristics of, 4647

Mach numbers and, 58, 144

nonideal, 143

power coefcient, 58, 144

reversible pitch, 265

schedules for, 56

stresses on, 56

thrust and, 144

thrust coefcients and, 58

work coefcient and, 57

variable blades, 144

propulsion performance measures, 41

propulsive efciency, 41

pumps, 286, 288, 381, 384

slip and, 384

ramjets, 16

afterburners and, 446

ideal, 71

Rankine cycle, 1516

Rankine-Hugoniot equations, 602

Rayleigh line ow, 456, 461, 598, 600

Regula Falsi method, 585

636

resonance, 281, 395, 412

rotational inertial effect, 499

Schlieren photographs, 249

screech, 446447

separation, 136, 137, 154, 209, 288, 301, 304, 395.

See also boundary layers

SFC. See specic fuel consumption

shadowgraphs, 249

shafts, 59, 144

bearings, 144

efciency and, 144145

friction and, 144

ideal, 59

modeling of, 489

squeeze lm dampers, 144

shocks, 216

normal, 600

oblique-planar, 601

oblique conical, 220

See also specic components

single stage turbomachine energy analysis, 613

specic fuel consumption (SFC), 42

power generation gas turbines and, 121

turboprops and, 28, 116

specic heat, 591

ratio, 591

values for, 593, 594

variable, 593

stagnation pressure, 591

bypass mixer and, 67

stagnation properties, 591

stagnation temperature, 591

standard conditions, 47, 527

starting an inlet, 232

starting an engine, 449

steam topping cycle, 15

stoichiometry, 7476, 447, 450, 453, 455. See also

fuels, ratios

successive substitutions method, 588

superposition analysis, 216

Taylor-Maccoll ow, 227

thermodynamic efciency. See specic components

thrust

equations, 34

reversers, 265

See also thrust specic fuel consumption

thrust specic fuel consumption (TSFC), 41

afterburners and, 168

by-pass ratio, 174

See also specic engine types

thrust-weight ratios, 26, 41

TSFC. See thrust specic fuel consumption

turbines, 54, 101

blade cooling and, 142

choking, 142

component matching and, 481, 483

Index

efciency and, 142143

efciency, polytropic, 142143

enthalpy and, 142

ideal, 55

ideal characteristics of, 4647

modeling of, 489

nonideal, 101

peak values, 142

pressure ratios and, 5556, 142143

specic heats, 142

See also power generation gas turbines

turbines, axial ow, 406

aerodynamics and, 406, 409

blade cooling and, 406, 409, 410, 427,

428

blade heights and, 411

blade manufacture, 430

blade materials, 429

blade slip, 408

blade thicknesses, 411

blade tip clearance, 409

blades, 427

blades, passage areas between, 409

blades per stage, 412

cascades, 408

choke line, 426

compressors and, 406407, 409

conguration of, 407

dimensional analysis, 425

efciency and, 406, 409, 412, 426

frictional losses and, 408

geometry of, 407

high pressure, 407

hydraulic turbines, 418

impulse turbines, 419

incompressible ow in, 418

low pressure, 407

mapping conventions, 425

mass ow, corrected, 425, 426, 427

materials in, 406, 410, 427

multiple spool engines and, 407

operating line, 426

percent reaction, 417, 418, 419, 420

performance, 419

performance maps, 425

pressure ratios, 409, 417, 420, 426

reaction turbines, 419

resonance and, 412

separation, 409, 410

shocks, 409

shrouding, 411

single stage energy analysis, 416

solidity factor, 408

speed, corrected, 425

stages, number of, 410

streamline analysis method, 433

temperatures in, 409, 410

thermal limits, 427

Index

thermodynamic efciency, 427

turning angles, 410

velocity polygons, 413, 419

viscous shear, 409

turbofans, 20, 25, 91, 471

afterburners and, 25, 98102, 106108

bypass ratios, 53, 93, 94, 9598, 105106

compressor pressure ratio, 93, 9496, 105

efciency of, 22

fan exhausted, 20, 25, 38, 91102

fan mixed, 24, 25, 102108

fan total pressure ratio, 9498

fuel economy, 25

high bypass and, 406

ideal, 91

ideal thrust, 93, 94, 98, 102, 103105, 107, 108,

111, 113

ideal TSFC and, 93102, 105, 108111,

113

Mach numbers, 94, 9899, 103105

mass ow and, 105

mixed-exhausted comparisons, 108

nonafterburning, 9298, 102106

pressure ratios and, 108

turbojets, compared, 108

turbojets, 17

afterburners and, 84

altitude and, 83

compressor pressure ratio, 8184, 8687

fuel economy, 25

ideal, 78

ideal thrust, 81, 8991

ideal TSFC and, 8687, 8991

637

inlet temperatures, 8283

Mach numbers and, 8384

mass ow and, 81

nonafterburning, 79

ramjets and, 84, 8687

turbofans, compared, 108

turbomachines

fundamentals of, 613

history of, 3

turboprops, 27, 40, 113, 374

compressor pressure ratio, 116

gearboxes, 27, 56, 58, 374

ideal, 58

ideal thrust for, 113116, 119

ideal TSFC and, 116, 119

reversible pitch propellers, 265

specic fuel consumption and, 116

work coefcient for, 115116, 119

turboshafts, 29, 374

UDF. See unducted fan

unducted fan (UDF), 29, 58, 113

V2 rocket, 8

vectoring, thrust, 267

velocity polygons

compressors and, 283, 289, 332, 378, 386

turbines and, 413, 419

See also specic components

Whittle, Sir Frank, 6

windmills, 3

wind tunnels, 231232, 234, 508

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