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- Physics Practical Report 1
- CalibrationOfAVenturiMeterAndFrictionalDissipationInAnAbruptContraction
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A venturi meter is a device for determining fluid velocities based on the pressure

difference between two closely-spaced locations in a pipe, between which the crosssection of the pipe decreases smoothly. For sufficiently high Reynolds number, Re (a

composite parameter that reflects a combination of factors: Re = vd / ), the pressure

difference across the venturi meter is proportional to the square of the flow rate.

Equivalently, the flow rate is expected to be proportional to the square root of the

pressure difference. Thus, a plot of flow rate, Q, vs p should have a slope of 0.5 on a

log-log plot:

Q = K ( p )

0.5

(1)

At smaller Reynolds numbers (smaller flow rates, for a fixed pipe diameter and fluid

temperature), the relationship deviates from the proportionality shown above. As a result,

a plot of Q vs p might be approximately linear on a log-log plot, but with a slope that is

slightly less than 0.5.

Figure 1 shows a schematic of the commercial venturi meter that we will use (a Barco 11/2 inch [manufacturer designation] venturi meter). The upstream pressure tap is at a

stagnation point, and the downstream tap is at the narrowest point in the constriction. For

this laboratory exercise, the meter has been inserted into a 1.5-inch diameter schedule 80

PVC pipe. The objective of the exercise is to calibrate the flow meter, so that the number

read on the output device (a digital volt meter) can be translated directly to the fluid flow

rate in cubic feet per second.

In the system to be calibrated, the two taps of the venturi meter are connected to an

Omega PS26-015DV semiconductor differential pressure transducer. This transducer is,

in turn, connected to a millivolt meter (Omega DP205-S), which shows a millivolt

reading that is proportional to the pressure difference sensed by the transducer. The

number shown on the millivolt meter does not have units; however this number is linearly

proportional to the piezometric (pressure plus elevation) head difference between the

upstream and downstream taps; if the meter is positioned horizontally, the piezometric

head difference equals the pressure difference. Thus, when the semiconductor pressure

transducer and the millivolt meter are used, the relationship in Equation 1 becomes:

Venturi Lab.doc; saved 9/23/2005 4:59:00 PM

Q = K ( M )

0.5

(2)

where M = M M0, and M0 is the millivolt reading when Q = 0. M0 accounts for any

constant offset reading of the millivolt meter when Q = 0.

For this lab, you will collect data for the flow rate and the millivolt reading for at least

five different flow rates corresponding to a meter range of 2.5 to 25 mV. Determine the

flow rate by recording the time required to collect approximately 200 lb of water in the

weighing tank. Record the water temperature (there is a thermometer in the pipeline

which supplies the Barco meter) and use standard tables from your text to determine the

specific weight of water for each test.

Refer to the grading sheet for items to be included in the lab report. You only need to

show one example calculation of Q, but show the results of this calculation for all runs.

Points Possible

Report Section

1. Cover sheet

required

2. Table of Contents

required

3. Lab data sheet

required

4. Introduction

2

3

5. Calculation results for Q (ft /s)

in all five runs

3

6. Example calculation of Q

(one run only)

2

0.5

7. Graph of Q vs (M1)

3

8. Graph of log Q vs log M1

on linear (not logarithmic axes)

a. Graph

3

b. Slope from graph

3

9. Discussion

Compare theory vs. observation

4

TOTAL

30

C:\Adata\CLASNOTE\342\Labs\Venturi Lab.doc

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