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4th Ballast Water Management Summit


11-12.4 2011, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

How to Choose and Integrate Best


System that Fulfills Your Requirements
Henrik Bachr
VP Consulting & Engineering
Elomatic Oy

www.elomatic.com

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Objectives of the presentation


General overview of BW treatment technologies, system selection and
installation considerations
Focus on retrofits;
- the choise of system is more challenging in retrofits
- many key considerations are applicable for NBs just as well.
- in NBs however this is one system out of several to be designed and
installed, the degrees of freedom are higher, shipyard responsibility
Neutral approach, no supplier preference nor technology ranking

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A multidisciplinary
consultancy &
engineering company
Finnish, privately
owned
Abt. 650 employees
11 Offices in 5
countries

Marine

Mechanical
design

Process
industry

CADMATIC
3D
software

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Marine
From conceptual development to detail design of all disciplines
From cruise vessels to working craft

From newbuildings to conversions and


retrofits
Our clients include shipowners,
operators shipyards, equipment
suppliers and many more in the
maritime cluster

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Contents
1. General considerations and challenges
2. BWT technology
3. Vessel specific considerations and
indicators
4. The process of choosing solutions
5. The role of design & engineering
6. Installation aspects
7. Conclusions

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Why do we need BW treatment? What is behind the


convention ?

S.Saesmaa/ Finnish Environmental Institute

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General considerations and challenges


Each ship is unique and should be dealt with as such
This is a must; investments are inevitable (return on investments?)
What makes the BW treatment system topic so special
Amount of ships to be dealt with; up to 70.000
Number of questions mark concerning the convention and
interpreatations + regional/local requirements (US)
Technology, installation and operational challenges
This is no rocket science

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General considerations and challenges


Special vessels; practical solutions for a.o. barges, semisubmersibles, dredgers
etc. are needed
Industry tendency; leave the retrofit to the last minute to be sure of what to do
and a (false) expectation for a broader competition and thus lower prices
Critical issues;
- equipment supply

Ships to be converted
Year

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

No of ships

1700

3000

3000

6000

6000

16000

Tankers > 100.000 tdw existing

- engineering capacity
- installation capacity

abt. 1400

NB's

abt. 500

Bulkers > 100.000 tdw existing

abt. 750

NB's

abt. 700

Abt. 20 retrofits/day during the coming years

2018

2019

14000 14000

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The BWM Convention Regulation B-3


Built

BW m

< 2009

15005000

< 2009

<1500
>5000

2009

<5000

2009
< 2012

>5000

2012

>5000

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

D1/D2

2016

D2

D1/D2

D2
D2
D1/D2

D2
D2

First intermediate or renewal survey after the


anniversary date of delivery of ship, whichever first

D-1 standard; BW exchange

Source TraFi

D-2 standard; BW treatment

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BW treatment technology
Abt. 50 manufacturers of BW technologies on the market
11 systems are approved under the IMO G8 (no active substances)
27 systems have basic approval according to G9 (active substances)
18 systems have final G9 approval
Type approval by flag administration 12 systems at least
Additional 3 applications for basic and final approval which could not be handled
in MEPC 61 will be handled in MEPC 62 (July 11 -15, 2011) and additional
applications and approvals are expected during 2011
MEPC 62 will focus on ships with BW capacity > 5000 m3
MEPC 62 will approve guidelines for other methods as well as upscaling of
systems

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BW treatment technology
Physical pretreatment and solid/liquid separation
- Mechanical filtration (28)
- Hydrocyclone (3)
- Chemical enchantment (coagulation/flocculation)
Disinfection

Residual control

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BW treatment technology

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Source IMO

G9

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G9

Source IMO

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+ RWO CleanBallast, Unitor BWTS

Source IMO

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BW treatment technology
Combinations of technologies are also adopted
Supplier focus on various capacity ranges (100 7000 m3/h, even >10.000m3/h)
Serial or parallel installation to increase capacity
Modular solutions/distributed equipment
Operational modes
- ballasting, ballasting & discharging, filter bypass on deballast, during voyage
- neutralization of chemicals prior discharge
Operational costs
- major factor for most systems; power (large consumers are eg. elctrolytic and
advanced oxidation processes)
- chemical systems; chemicals

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Installations and experience


Abt. 350 systems sold/installed
Abt. 200 vessels, mostly NBs
Retrofits limited, abt. 10 % of the sold/installed systems
Retrofits include ao. car carriers, bulkers, tankers, passenger vessels,
container vessels, special craft
Several systems (suppliers) have accumulated running hours and some
experience have been gained

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Which BWT solution for my ship ?


The ideal objective: max benefit to lowest
(overall) cost
Each ship is individual
There exists no standardized general best
solution
A thorough system comparison and
consequence analysis is the starting point

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General considerations in selecting BWT solutions


Ship type & size
Tanker , bulker, container, car
carrier , passenger etc.

Trading pattern, routes


World wide traffic, short sea shipping,
regular line service, operating areas
(seas)

Performance, ballast needs


Capacity and flow rate requirements
Technical aspects
Physical, material
Economical aspects
Initial capex, operational costs

Compliance!

Operational aspects
Reliability, safety, service
requirements

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Technical/operational considerations and key aspects


Performance considerations
Required time to be effective

Capacity
Ballast pumping and treatment rates

Existing BW system
No of systems, integration
Power requirements
Additional need, existing capacity

Technology
Footprint , weight, gas safe
equipment
Corrosion
Tanks, material selection

Installation aspects
Alterations in existing structures
Component location flexibility

Maintenance
Crew training and workload
Accessibility

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Technical issues
Examples of technical matters needed to be worked out in close cooperation
between all parties
- bypass options (emergency if the BWT inoperable)
- backflushing filters
- vent lines from the BWT system (termination on deck or in the engine
room spaces depending on gas to be ventilated)
- ballast pump capacity and powering requirement (av. 30 40 % increase
in demand)
- use of alternative piping materials (class issue)
- corrosion risks (material issues, coatings)
- sampling ports
- Safe Return to Port issues

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Technical issues cont.


Special tanker considerations
- fore and aft BW systems
- pipes from BW tanks adjacent to cargo tanks not into the engine room
- on deck installations currently under discussion (pump head requirements
increase)
- limitations of electrical components in the cargo pump room (except for
explosion free lights) pre/ post 2007, zone 1 (IEC 60092 502)
- possibility to re-class hazardous area from pre to post 2007 standards
- BW pump capacity, 10.000 m3/h or more

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Automation, control and monitoring


- BWT system requirements
- automation and control equipment for monitoring and adjusting treatmant
dosages and/or intencities
- a continuous self-monitoring function during the period in which the system
is in operation
- recording of functioning and failure + data storage
- alarms
- audible and visual alarm signals in all stations from which BW
operations are controlled in case of system failure
- visual alarm whenever the BWT systemis in operation for purposes of
cleaning, calibration, or repair
- by pass alarm in case of emergency bass pass activation

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Automation, control and monitoring


- control system location options
- local panel
- ECR
- CCR
-

integration to existing automation and/or BW systems,


- operation and control
- alarms

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The solution evaluation process


Score sheet

System

Operation Principle
Score scale: 0-10,
10 being the best

Filter

Filter

Filter

Electro-

UV

UV

Cl

lysis

Score sheet

Performance and capacity

Filter Filter Filter

Operation Principle
Score scale: 0-10,
10 being the best

Weight factor

System

D
Electro-

UV

UV

Cl

lysis

Weight factor

Dimensions and modularization

Purification

Size of the 250-334 m3/h u

0,4

Filter min. particle size (m)


Disinfection performance (technology)

0,1
0,3

4
9

8
9

6
7

10
9

Footprint of 250-334 m3/h

0,6

Size for 2000m3/h unit [m3

0,4

Zoo plankton [per/ m3] (limit 10)

0,2

Footprint of 2000 m3/h unit

0,6

0,8

0,1

Photyplankton [per/ml] (limit 10)

0,2

Modularization

Vibrio Cholerae [per/100ml] (limit 1)

0,1

10

Weight in operation [kg]


Total Size Subscore

Escherichia coli [per/100ml] (limit 250)


Intestinal Enterococci [per/100ml]
(limit 100)

0,1
0,1

6
6

10
10

6
6

6
6

7,3

9,7

6,9

7,9

20,2

11,3

12,8

15,4

8,5

0,5

0,3

0,8

Total Size Score


Equipment cost

Total

Equipment cost []

0,8

Process
Flow rate per unit and maximum flow

0,5

installation cost

Energy consumption (kw/m3)

0,6

10

Installation time

Chemical consumption (mg/l)

0,7

10

10

10

installation time

Pressure loss [bar]

0,5

10

Operational costs

Working pressure

0,1

operational costs

Ex-class

0,3

Reliability

Supply water (l/min)

0,1

Support network

0,8

22,7

18,8

17,8

23,6

References

0,6

31,5

certificate/imo compliance

0,5

Total
Total Technology Subscore

Installation cost

30

28,5

24,7

Total Reliability Subscore


Total Reliability Score

11,3

7,5

9,7

10,5

7,5

48

36

34

47,5

Lead time
Lead time
TOTAL SCORE

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The solution evaluation process

Low cost, limited


performance

High cost

Value for money

Good quality, expensive

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The retrofit process


Solution & consequence
evaluation, comparisons,
preliminary (basic) design

Individual contracts
Turn key (yard or supplier)

Supplier selection

EPCM

Basic design & eng.


Planning
Procurement
Logistics
Detail design
General ,
Technical,
Operational
considerations

Installation
Testing &
Commissioning

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The role of design & engineering


A ship specific optimum solution requires a deep cooperation
between shipowner, BWT supplier and the design &
engineering party
The design role include
- basic system arrangement and equipment location
- integration to existing systems and tie in points
- necessary modifications to the existing vessel
- maintenance access as well as installation access and
routes (component size, existing hatches, working openings)
- classification & flag authority issues and approvals
- general naval architecture issues
The detail design can commence once all approvals are in
place

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The role of design & engineering cont.


Only a thorough design can guarantee a
good result; the more you design and plan
the more you will control and influence
(=reduce) costs and avoid surprises.
3D design may be an advantage

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Supporting design tools laser scanning


What is laser scanning?
Measuring method to get 3D data (accuracy 0,1 5 mm)
Point cloud created by laser scanner
Point cloud edited to engineering format as a 3D model
Why laser scanning?
When documentation is poor or only old system drawings
are available
Ensures the present as built status with high accuracy
Creates an ideal basis for the retrofit design
Enables use of todays design tools
Need for ship visits is reduced
Design errors are reduced
New components can be delivered as prefabricated units

Laser scanning point cloud

3D Basic model

Potential to reduce total costs


Retrofit design model

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Supporting tools laser scanning cont.

Example of a recent laser scanning raw data (contains also numerical information)

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Installation considerations
Out of service - drydocking or alongside
- Justified in combination with a scheduled
drydocking
- When large working/transportation
openings are needed in the hull
- When new hull overboard penetrations are
needed
- Preparatory and finalization work can be
done while in service in order to minimize
down time
- Advantages; infrastructure, logistics, labor
& material in case of surprises
- Disadvantages; loss of earnings (unless
streamlined with a scheduled drydock)

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Installation cont.
In operation
- Possible if a drydock is not needed; several
retrofits carried out prove that
- Requires extensive planning
- A high degree of prefabrication is needed
- Logistics may be a challenge and needs strict
management (depending on trading pattern)
- Solutions to enable the minimizing of hot work
- Special solutions should be considered (pipe
couplings etc.)
- The design is in a key position
- Disadvantage; poor coverage against
surprises (material, special workforce etc.)

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Alternatives to ballast solutions


Why ballast?
Immersion (propeller, bow), trim (optimum running condition, avoid
slamming), load distribution (strength), stability, anti-heeling
Ballast free and alternative designs
- Various concepts have been developed/are under development
- Reduced ballast need (simpler BWT system)
- Storm only ballast
- Flow-through designs (VLCC:s)
- Ballast free designs through special hull form

DNV/ Making Waves

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Conclusions
The BW convention is expected to enter into force within a reasonable future
There is no general best solution each ship is individual
There is a number of proven technologies on the market
A thorough pre-design/evaluation study pays off
Retrofit installations including logistics needs to be planned in detail with high
priority
Design capacity, equipment supply and installation capacity may become critical

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Thank you for listening


Q&A

henrik.bacher@elomatic.com