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Class 1 & 2 Oral Answers ( Part 1 to 3 )

Action following a damage


Actions will specifically depend on type of accident or damage. Followings are the
main steps in common:

Immediate actions:
Take the con.

Follow emergency procedure as per company emergency procedure manual, which


should include:
Sound general emergency alarm.
Stop Engines.
Announce by PA.
Head count, look for casualty and establish communication.
Close watertight doors.
Activate SOPEP and take preventive actions in case of any oil pollution

Order chief officer for damage assessment.


Water tight integrity of hull and subsequent breaches of same.
Assess rate of flooding
Condition of machinery space.
Check hull for damage.
Visually inspect compartments where possible

Obtain following information from emergency teams:


Details casualties.
Any fire risk
Any other information regarding associate problems.

On the bridge, the command team will do the followings:


Maintained VHF watch.
Exhibit light / shapes and any appropriate sound signals.
Switch on deck lighting at night.
Determine the vessel’s position.
Broadcast urgency or distress massage as required.
Inform the accident with positions and time to the following parties:
Local authorities.
Owners, charterers.
P & I club.
Make an accident report to MPA in the correct format.

Try to minimize immediate danger such as pollution, fire etc.


In case of grounding:
Determine possibility of refloating the ship and take appropriate actions:

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Class 1 & 2 Oral Answers ( Part 1 to 3 )

Calculate height of tide and time of rise and fall.


Reduce draught of ship:
De-ballasting
Jettisoning cargo
Use main engines to maneuver.
Obtain assistance from port authority, coast guard, salvage tugs.

Subsequent legal and commercial actions:


While taking tug assistance, consider:
LOF, if the danger imminent.
Salvage contract if the situation permits.

Use all available means of the ship to refloat the vessel.

Keep all records of incidents and actions. Appropriate records to be entered in:
Deck log book
Movement book
Engine log book
Telegraph recorder
Echo sounder graph.
Used chart
Entry to be made in official log book.
Record of all damage and subsequent actions.

Prepare a statement of fact of all the happenings.

Prepare a note of protest, stating the facts only.

Consider the possibility of proceeding to voyage or deviating to port of refuge.

V/L AGROUND
Immediate actions:
Take the con.
Follow emergency procedure as per company emergency procedure manual, which
should include:
Sound general emergency alarm.
Stop Engines.
Announce by PA.
Head count, look for casualty and establish communication.
Close watertight doors.

Activate SOPEP and take preventive actions in case of any oil pollution.

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Class 1 & 2 Oral Answers ( Part 1 to 3 )

Order chief officer for damage assessment.


Water tight integrity of hull and subsequent breaches of same.
Obtain sounding form all tanks, bilge’s, hold
Condition of machinery space.
Check hull for damage.
Determine which way deep water lies.
Visually inspect compartments where possible
Sound bilge’s and tanks.
Sound around the ship to find possible point of grounding.

Obtain following information from emergency teams:


Details casualties.
Any fire risk
Any other information regarding associate problems.

On the bridge, the command team will do the followings:


Maintained VHF watch.
Exhibit light / shapes and any appropriate sound signals.
Switch on deck lighting at night.
Determine the vessel’s position.
Obtain information on local currents and tides, particularly details of the rise and fall
of the tide.
Broadcast urgency or distress massage as required.
Inform the accident with positions and time to the following parties:
Local authorities.
Owners, charterers.
P & I club.
Make an accident report to MPA in the correct format.

Determine possibility of refloating the ship and take appropriate actions:


Calculate height of tide and time of rise and fall.
Reduce draught of ship:
De-ballasting
Jettisoning cargo
Use main engines to maneuver.
Obtain assistance from port authority, coast guard, salvage tugs.
Subsequent legal and commercial actions:
Try to minimize immediate danger such as pollution, fire etc.
While taking tug assistance, consider:
LOF, if the danger imminent.
Salvage contract if the situation permits.
Use all available means of the ship to refloat the vessel.
Keep all records of incidents and actions. Appropriate records to be entered in:
Deck log book
Movement book

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Class 1 & 2 Oral Answers ( Part 1 to 3 )

Engine log book


Telegraph recorder
Echo sounder graph.
Used chart
Entry to be made in official log book.
Record of all damage and subsequent actions.
Prepare a statement of fact of all the happenings.
Prepare a note of protest, stating the facts only.
If it is possible to refloat the vessel, consider the possibility of proceeding to voyage or
deviating to port of refuge.

Special answer: Actions when vessel aground, as a chief officer.

Actions in case of grounding


From a chief officer's point of view.

On hearing the emergency alarm, I will go to the emergency station in proper rig.

Head count and report to master.

Inform master about any missing person / casualty.

Follow ship's emergency procedure manual for grounding.


Command team: Master
Emergency team: C/O
Back-up team: 2/O
Roving team: C/E
E/R team: 2/E
Detail crew to close all water tight doors, portholes, ventilator flaps and all other water
tight openings to gain reserve buoyancy.

Ensure back-up team prepares lifeboat.

Detail crew to take sounding of all tanks and bilges, especially near grounded areas.

Sound around the ship to find possible point of grounding.

Myself with damage control party move to area of impact to assess damage.

Visually inspect compartments where possible

Estimate the size of the damage, its location, relative position to the water line, area
of the vessel.

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Class 1 & 2 Oral Answers ( Part 1 to 3 )

Keep master updating all the situations and findings.

Calculate the stability of the vessel.

Determine possibility of refloating the ship and take appropriate actions:


Ask bridge about height of tide and time of rise and fall.

Possibility of reducing draught of ship:


De-ballasting
Jettisoning cargo
Deal additional hazards like fire, pollution.

If it is possible to refloat the vessel, have an exact assessment of damage.

Determine the possibility of proceeding to voyage or deviating to port of refuge and


suggest master.

PORT OF REFUGE:
Under what circumstances:

The ship may be damaged due to various reasons such as:


Collision
Grounding
The ship is damaged in such an extent that it is unsafe to continue the voyage.
In the case the voyage to be diverted to the nearest safe port which is called port of refuge.
It is a “justifiable deviation”.
The ship is repaired as necessary at the port and the voyage may be resumed after the ship
becomes seaworthy.

Master’s concern:
Followings to be considered to decide upon port of refuge:

Can the port be reached safely? (Enough fuel, extent of damage).

Are the port authorities friendly/hostile?

Can the vessel enter port and remain in safely?

Repair facilities in the port.

Cost of repairs reasonable?

Can cargo be discharged/stored?

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Class 1 & 2 Oral Answers ( Part 1 to 3 )

Crew repatriation facilities.

Can owner’s representatives enter/leave freely?

Spares/stores readily available?

Can ship’s spares/stores imported easily?

Survey facilities available.

Port free of war, strikes, civil commotion?

Are required charts onboard?

For deciding upon port of refuge, guide to port entry/ owner’s suggestions, underwriter’s
suggestions to be consulted.

After deciding POR:


Inform owner, charterer, agent at original destination and give them the reasons to enter
POR.
Consult with underwriter.
State requirements at POR.
Inform agent at POR.
Inform port authorities.
Contact with P & I club at POR.

While deviating to POR


Inform the owner:

Date, time, position, nature of incident


ROB of D/O, FO, FW onboard.
Present situation onboard
Weather: present and future
Master’s intention to deviate
Name of port of refuge
ETA at port of refuge
Assistance required.

Inform agents at POR:

Name, port of registry


Official No, IMO No

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Class 1 & 2 Oral Answers ( Part 1 to 3 )

Ships particulars (GT, NT, LOA, LBP, Draft)


Reasons for entering
ETA
Amount of cargo and distribution
Details of assistance required

Upon arrival:
Obtain pilot
Enter the ship in customary manner
Obtain pratique

After entry:
Issue note of protest, reserving the right to extend it
Inform owner, charterer of the ship’s safe arrival
Inform Director of Marine if the accident has resulted in loss of life.
Inform underwriter in accordance with tender clause.
Inform P&I agent and underwriter’s surveyor.
If cargo to be discharged, GA adjustor and qualified independent cargo surveyor to be present
before breaking bulk (opening/closing of hatches).
Arrange damage survey by class. If no class surveyors available, make arrangements with
other classification society surveyor, IACS or experienced person (if formers not available) to
have the damage surveyed.
After receiving surveyor’s report/ recommendation, call for tenders with advice from
underwriter representative. In tender, include statement “the lowest or any tender will not
necessarily be accepted”.
Arrange repairs under supervision of surveyor/ underwriter’s surveyor.
After repair, arrange survey. If surveyor is from class, he will issue an interim certificate. If he
is not employed by class, he will issue a certificate of seaworthiness.
A proper record to be kept commencing from the time of deviation to port of refuge. Copies to
send to owner for P&I claims.
Note protest, giving full details of damage and repairs, copies to be dispatched to owner.
The ship can be cleared for resume voyage.

Damage in FO tank as a result


of grounding
In case of a damage in fuel tank, there is possibility of oil spill.

SOPEP to be activated:
Transfer fuel from damaged tank to other tank.
Report to the appropriate authority.
Obtain shore’s assistance to control spillage.

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Class 1 & 2 Oral Answers ( Part 1 to 3 )

Contain by booms/ mooring ropes, if the situation permits, by rescue boat.


Use oil dispersal upon shore’s permission.
Clean up oil if situation permits.

In case of oil spill or FO tank damage, there is a subsequent risk of fire:


Prepare fire fighting teams ready to fight fire.
Remove all combustible materials from the scene.
Fight fire if there is any.

Repair of damage:
Proceed to port of refuge or next port for repair.
Follow port of refuge procedures.
Gas free the tank.
Shift cargo/ combustible materials from adjacent tanks and holds.
Prepare fire fighting equipments to fight probable fire.

Following parties to be
informed when vessel is aground:
Local authorities.
Nearby ships by an urgency message through VHF.
Owners, charterers.
P & I club.
Make an accident report to MPA in the correct format within 24hrs of
accident.

To re-float the vessel:


In case of vessel aground, I will take the following actions to re-float the vessel:
Calculate height of tide and time of rise and fall.
Reduce draught of ship by:
De-ballasting
Jettisoning cargo
Use main engines to maneuver.
Obtain assistance from port authority, coast guard.
Get assistance from salvage tugs.

Actions as a master in case of


collision:
Immediate action:

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Class 1 & 2 Oral Answers ( Part 1 to 3 )

Take over the con.

Sound emergency alarm, call emergency station.

Engine full astern, generally correct action.

Check position.

Instruct C/Off to:


Muster, Head count.
Check casualties.
Make visual inspection of area of impact, estimate size of damage area, position in
relation to W/L.
Check cargo hold bilges and tank sounding to know which compartments are
flooded.
Close all water tight doors and fire doors through ship’s length.
Prepare LSA & survival crafts.
Prepare FFA in case of subsequent fire.
Follow SOPEP in case of pollution.
Asses rate of flooding.
Check ship’s damage stability condition and loss of buoyancy. Refer to damage
stability booklet.
Determine reserve buoyancy, change in GM, trim, list.
As per damage control plan, follow counter measures to control flooding.
Start bilge pumps.
Keep monitoring soundings at regular intervals.
Keep reporting to bridge overall situation.

Without endangering my own ship, I shall:


Render all practicable and necessary assistance to save the other ship, crew and
passengers from danger.
Remain with her until there is no need of further assistance.

Exchange information with the master of the vessel:


Ship’s name, port of registry.
Port of departure, port of destination.

Report the accident to Marine Department within 24Hrs.

Issue Note of protest to hold other vessel responsible and accept from other vessel if
any.

If the ships are interlocked, I will discuss with other ship whether to separate or not,
considering risk of oil spill, spark, fire, sinking etc.

Maintain contact in VHF with other ship.

I’ll verify effect of damage on ship’s stability.

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Class 1 & 2 Oral Answers ( Part 1 to 3 )

I’ll decide whether to abandon or not, considering:


Amount of damage
Risk of fire
Expected time vessel will stay afloat
Weather condition

Dispatch an urgency message, followed by a distress message if required.

If abandonment is not imminent,


Plug in / shoring the damage.

Inform company and keep them updating the situation.

Enter all the actions taken in ship’s log book and OLB.
Subsequent actions:
I’ll decide whether to proceed to voyage or to proceed to port of refuge.

If proceeding to voyage with reduced maneuvering capability, hoist appropriate signal


as per ICS and broadcast radio warnings.

Write a full report describing all events leading to the collision and gather information
for the owner’s lawyers:
Charts in use before and up to the time of collision
Deck and engine room log books, movement book, OLB.
Graphs and prints of course recorder, echo sounder, telegraph.
Statement of crew members witnessed the accident
Full details of two ships
Exact location of collusion
Time (UTC & LT)
Accuracy of bridge/ER clocks
Estimation of speed/courses of vessels at the time of impact
Estimated angle of impact
Point of impact
Weather and tide condition at the time of collision
List of navigation equipments used at the time of collision
Name and positions of other vessels in the vicinity at the time of collision
Retain scrap papers, which have been disposed off during the time of collision

Brief all officers and crews not to make any statement to any person without master’s
permission.

If it is unsafe to proceed to voyage, proceed to port of refuge, following the


appropriate procedures.

If it is impracticable to proceed to POR or next port, consider beaching the vessel if

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Class 1 & 2 Oral Answers ( Part 1 to 3 )

coast is nearer.

Special answer: What is the action in event of a collision as a chief


mate?

Actions in case of collision


From a chief officer's point of view.

On hearing the emergency alarm, I will go to the emergency station in proper rig.

Head count and report to master.

Inform master about any missing person / casualty.

Follow ship's emergency procedure manual for collision.


Command team: Master
Emergency team: C/O
Back-up team: 2/O
Roving team: C/E
E/R team: 2/E
Detail crew to close all water tight doors, portholes, ventilator flaps and all other water
tight openings to gain reserve buoyancy.

Ensure back-up team prepares lifeboat.

Detail crew to take sounding of all tanks and bilges, especially near collided regions.

Myself with damage control party move to area of impact to assess damage.

Estimate the size of the damage, its location, relative position to the water line, area
of the vessel.

Keep master updating all the situations and findings.

Check from the scene and suggest master possible action whether to remain
embedded with the vessel or move away.

Assess the amount of water in the hull and the rate of ingress.

Start pump on the affected areas. Start more pumps with the help of chief chief
engineer.

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Class 1 & 2 Oral Answers ( Part 1 to 3 )

Estimate size of damage, rate of discharge, rate of ingress and calculate the resultant
ingress of water.

Trim the vessel / reduce draft to reduce ingress of water.

Calculate the stability of the ship.

Deal additional hazards like fire, pollution.

If ingress of water beyond control, calculate the time vessel can remain afloat and
suggest master about abandoning the ship.

If ingress in control, suggest master about proceeding to place of refuge.

Damage control plan and


damage control booklet
Provide clear information on
The ship's water tight compartmentation.
Equipments related to maintain the boundaries and effectiveness of the compartmentation
So that, in the event of damage to the ship causing flooding:
Proper precaution can be taken to prevent progressive flooding through openings.
Effective actions can be taken to control progressive flooding.
Recover the ship's loss stability.
Clear and easy to understand.

Includes information directly related to damage control.

Provided in working language of the ship.

Translation to one of the official languages by SOLAS convention.

Damage control plan


Scale: not less than 1 : 200.

Isometric drawings for various purposes.

Includes inboard profile, plan views of each deck and transverse sections to the extent
necessary to show followings:
Watertight boundaries of the ship.
Locations and arrangement of cross flooding systems.
Mechanical means to correct list due to flooding.
Locations of all internal watertight closing appliances.
Locations of internal ramps or doors acting as an extension of the collision bulkhead, their

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Class 1 & 2 Oral Answers ( Part 1 to 3 )

control.
Locations of local and remote controls, position indicators and alarms.
Locations of water tight compartments and water tight closing appliances, which are not
allowed to be opened during navigation.
Locations of all doors in the shell of the ship, position indicators and leakage detection.
Locations of all watertight closing appliances in local subdivision boundaries above the
bulkhead deck and on the lowest exposed weather deck, together with locations of controls
with position indicators, if applicable.
Location of bilge and ballast pumps, their control positions and associated valves.
Pipes, ducts or tunnels, if any, through which progressive flooding has been accepted by
administration.

Damage control booklet:


Information in damage control plan repeated in damage control booklet.

Includes general instruction for controlling the effect of damage such as:
Immediately closing all watertight and weather tight closing appliances.
Establishing the locations and safety of persons onboard, sounding tanks and compartments to
ascertain the extent of damage and repeated sounding to determine rates of flooding.
Cautionary advice regarding the cause of any list and of liquid transfer operations to lessen list
or trim, and the resulting effects of creating additional free surfaces and of initiating pumping
operations to control the ingress of water.
Contains additional details to the information shown on damage control plan, such as:
Location of all sounding devices, tank vents and overflows which do not extend above the
weather deck.
Pump capacities and piping diagrams.
Instruction of opening cross flooding systems.
Means of accessing and escaping from water tight compartments below the bulkhead decks for
use by damage control parties.
Altering ship management and organizations to stand-by and coordinate assistance if required.
Locations of non water tight openings with non automatic closing devices through which
progressive flooding might occurs are indicated.

Contains guidance on the possibility of non structural bulkheads and doors or other
obstructions retarding the flow of entering seawater to cause at least temporary conditions of
unsymmetrical flooding.

If results of the subdivision and damage stability analyses are included, additional guidance
are also provided to ensure that the ship's officers referring to that information are aware that
the results are included only to assist them in estimating the ship's relative survivality.

The guidance to identify criteria on which the analyses were based and clearly indicate that the
initial action conditions of the ships loading extents and locations of damage, permeabilities,
assumed for the analyses may have no correlation with the actual damaged condition of the
ship.

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Class 1 & 2 Oral Answers ( Part 1 to 3 )

Placement onboard
Passenger ships, damage control plan should be permanently exhibited on the navigation
bridge, as well as the ships control room and equivalent.

For cargo ships, the damage control plan should be permanently exhibited or readily available
on the navigation bridge. Also, it should be permanently exhibited or readily available in the
cargo control room.

Lower lifeboat in heavy


weather condition
Preparation
Some steadying method to be used so that the life boat does not land hard
against the ship side.
Prevent the fall blocks to hit ship crew or lifeboat.
Boat crews must wear life jacket, helmet, immersion suit in cold climate for
rescuing operation.
Sea quelling oil may be used to reduce the seas.
Vessel to create a good lee. Wind to be on the opposite bow.
Ship plugs.
Lower lifeboat into the trough of a wave.
On the next rising crest, release the hooks immediately and simultaneously.
Cast off the painter once clear.
Bear off the ship's side with tiller, oars or boat hook.
Engine is started before the release of blocks and kept neutral.
Once lifeboat is underway, tiller put against ship's side and with full throttle
clear off the ship.

Precautions
Rig fenders, mattresses or mooring ropes to prevent the boat from being
staved during an adverse roll.
A cargo net, slung between davits and trailing in the water for crew to hang on
in case the boat capsize alongside. It should not hamper the operation of the
boat.
The painter is rigged and kept tight throughout so as to keep the boat in
position between the falls.
The falls are loosely tied with a line, led to the deck and manned. When the
boat is unhooked, the line line will steady the falls and prevent accidental
contact with the boat crews.
Once unhooked, the blocks should be taken up to avoid injuring the crews in
lifeboat.

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Class 1 & 2 Oral Answers ( Part 1 to 3 )

Use of oil in bad weather


Storm oil may be used to reduce heavy seas.

It prevents seas from breaking.

Reduces hazards of bad weather.

May be used to in heavy seas to:


Turn the vessel.
Lowering life boats.
Rescue persons.
Hove to.
Towing operation.
Crossing a bar.
Vegetable, animal or fish oil may be used.

If not available, lubricating oil may be used.

Fuel oil and crude oil not recommended, as they may congeal or may
cause harm to men in water.

A small amount of oil can quench a comparatively large sea area.

About 200 Liters of oil can quell 4500 m2 sea area.

To be distributed from both bows when heading into wind and seas.

To be distributed from weather side when lying stopped or running


with seas on the quarter.

Should be used gradually.

It may be done by:


Trailing a punctured hose full of oil
Through a punctured canvas bag which have been weighted and filled
with oil soaked cotton.
Flushing through water closets.

Rescuing survivors
Rescue vessel can bring the survivors floating in a craft, by any or several of the
following means.

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Class 1 & 2 Oral Answers ( Part 1 to 3 )

Hoisting the survivors boat with all the personnel.


Boats are not too heavy.
The weight of the boat with the personnel are within the SWL of the hoisting
crane / derrick.
Suitable lifting gears are available.
Lower the vessel's own rescue boat, transfer the survivors and hoist them
aboard.

Scrambling cargo nets and ladders may be rigged. Survivors can climb.

Survivors may not have sufficient energy to climb. In that case they may be
hoisted by:
Canvas slings.
Bosun's chairs.
Cargo baskets.
Whips rove through blocks on davit heads.
Floating stretcher capable of being hoisted, for injured men.

Cargo net may be slung overside between davits, lower end partly submerged.
It is passed through the blocks attached to the davit. It can be hauled onboard.

A side boom or derrick may be swung overside with a net attach to it. Survivors
may cling to it to wait for their turn.

Isolated swimmers may be rescued by careful use of line throwing apparatus,


fired well overhead.

Inflatable life-rafts may be thrown overboard for if for any reason immediate
rescue is impracticable.

On receipt of a distress alert


On receipt of distress alert, I will follow the procedures as per annex 1,2,3, of marine
circular 3/2000:
Watch on VHF CH-16 /2182 KHz or subsequent RT/NBDP frequency for 5 minutes.
If any RCC or does not acknowledge and if no distress traffic in progress, acknowledge
alert by radiotelephony (CH16 or 2182 KHz) if distress call continues. In case of HF
distress alert, transmit relay on HF to coast station.
Inform CS and/or RCC.
If there is distress communication or RCC acknowledgement, consider if vessel able to
assist. In the case, inform RCC or assisting vessel whether any assistance is required.
Enter details in log.

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Class 1 & 2 Oral Answers ( Part 1 to 3 )

Reset system.

View details in flow diagram upon receiving a DSC distress alert

Check distress position and own ship’s position.

If able to provide assistance without endangering own ship and crew:


Proceed to full speed to distress position.
Inform distressed vessel.
Inform search and rescue service that the ship is doing so.

Establish plain language communication as soon as possible and obtain details of


distressed vessel such as:
Identity
Position
Course
Speed
Nature of distress
Type of assistance required.

Provide the distressed vessel my following information:


Identity
Position
Course
Speed
ETA at the scene
Distressed vessel’s bearing and distance.

I will contact RCC / SMC via coast radio station.

I will take required onboard preparations for search and rescue.

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