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Class 1 & 2 Oral Answers ( Part 3)

Rescuing survivors
Rescue vessel can bring the survivors floating in a craft, by any or several of the following
means.

Hoisting the survivors boat with all the personnel.


Boats are not too heavy.
The weight of the boat with the personnel are within the SWL of the hoisting crane /
derrick.
Suitable lifting gears are available.
Lower the vessel's own rescue boat, transfer the survivors and hoist them aboard.

Scrambling cargo nets and ladders may be rigged. Survivors can climb.

Survivors may not have sufficient energy to climb. In that case they may be hoisted by:
Canvas slings.
Bosun's chairs.
Cargo baskets.
Whips rove through blocks on davit heads.
Floating stretcher capable of being hoisted, for injured men.

Cargo net may be slung overside between davits, lower end partly submerged. It is
passed through the blocks attached to the davit. It can be hauled onboard.

A side boom or derrick may be swung overside with a net attach to it. Survivors may
cling to it to wait for their turn.

Isolated swimmers may be rescued by careful use of line throwing apparatus, fired well
overhead.

Inflatable life-rafts may be thrown overboard for if for any reason immediate rescue is
impracticable.

On receipt of a distress alert


On receipt of distress alert, I will follow the procedures as per annex 1,2,3, of marine circular
3/2000:
Watch on VHF CH-16 /2182 KHz or subsequent RT/NBDP frequency for 5 minutes.
TU UT

If any RCC or does not acknowledge and if no distress traffic in progress, acknowledge alert by
radiotelephony (CH16 or 2182 KHz) if distress call continues. In case of HF distress alert,
transmit relay on HF to coast station.
Inform CS and/or RCC.
If there is distress communication or RCC acknowledgement, consider if vessel able to assist.

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Class 1 & 2 Oral Answers ( Part 3)

In the case, inform RCC or assisting vessel whether any assistance is required.
Enter details in log.
Reset system.

TU View details in flow diagram upon receiving a DSC distress alert UT

Check distress position and own ship’s position.

If able to provide assistance without endangering own ship and crew:


Proceed to full speed to distress position.
Inform distressed vessel.
Inform search and rescue service that the ship is doing so.

Establish plain language communication as soon as possible and obtain details of distressed
vessel such as:
Identity
Position
Course
Speed
Nature of distress
Type of assistance required.

Provide the distressed vessel my following information:


Identity
Position
Course
Speed
ETA at the scene
Distressed vessel’s bearing and distance.

I will contact RCC / SMC via coast radio station.

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Class 1 & 2 Oral Answers ( Part 3)

I will take required onboard preparations for search and rescue .


TU UT

Distress frequencies
VHF
DSC: CH-70
Radio telephony: CH-16 (156.80 MHz)

MF
DSC: 2187,5 KHz
Radio telephony: 2182 KHz
NBDP:

HF
DSC Radio Telephony NBDP
4207.5 4125 4177.5
6312 6215 6268
8414.5 8291 8376.5
12577 12290 12520
16804.5 16420 16695

Flow diagram
The Sub-Committee on Radiocommunications and Search and Rescue (COMSAR), at
its fourth session (12 to 16 July 1999), decided that digital selective calling (DSC) relays
of distress alerts on all shipborne DSC equipment should be reduced.

The sub-committee prepared a procedure for responding to VHF/MF and HF distress


alerts, given in flow diagrams 1 and 2.

The flow diagram to be displayed on the ship's bridge as A4 size posters. It also
prepared the following guidance.

TU Flow diagram-1: For VHF and MF DSC alerts UT

TU Flow diagram-2: For HF DSC alerts UT

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Class 1 & 2 Oral Answers ( Part 3)

Flow diagram-1

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Class 1 & 2 Oral Answers ( Part 3)

Flow diagram-2

Onboard preparations and


proceeding for search and rescue:
Post extra look out.

Inform C/E to st-by engine, but at full sea speed.

Inform owner/ charterer about the deviation.

Note down deviation time, position and ROBs.

Assign duties to officers.


Instruct C/O to prepare:
Ship’s hospital to receive casualties and prepare stretchers, blankets, foods, medicines.
Prepare rescue boats and ready for immediate launching.
Prepare rescue boat crews and check communication.
Extra life jackets, life buoys, buoyant life lines, line throwing apparatus readily available.
Rig guest warp, accommodation ladder, scrambling nets and life lines running from bow to
astern at the water edge on both sides.
Prepare crane/derricks with cargo nets for recovery of survivors.

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Class 1 & 2 Oral Answers ( Part 3)

Test search lights, signaling lamps, torches.


Instruct 2 nd officer to:
P P

Plot both vessels’ positions and establish course to rendezvous at maximum speed and update
ETA.
Plot other vessels within the search vicinity together with their respective movements.
Change over to manual steering.
Plot search pattern .
TU UT

Keep continuous radar watch.


Track all vessels in the vicinity.
Instruct 3 rd officer to:
P P

Contact RCC via CRS


Maintain communication radio watch and update distress information.
Monitor weather report.

Search patterns
Search pattern will depend on the followings:

Size of area to be searched.


Type of distressed craft.
Size of distressed craft.
Meteorological visibility.
Cloud ceiling.
Type of sea conditions.
Time of day.
Arrival time of datum.

Normally three basic search patterns are used. Namely:

TU Parallel sweep search UT

TU Expanding square search UT

TU Sector search UT

Parallel sweep search (PS)


Used to search a large area when survivor's location is uncertain.
May be used with single or multiple vessels.
Commence search point (CSP) is one of the corners of the search area.
CSP may be a corner of a sub area if a large area is to search.
It is ½ track space inside the rectangle from each of the two sides forming the rectangle.
Orientation is generally in the estimated direction of drift of the search object.

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Class 1 & 2 Oral Answers ( Part 3)

Parallel sweep search by one ship:

Parallel sweep search by two ships:

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Expanding square search (SS)


Most effective when location of object is known to be within close limit.
CSP (Commence search point) is always datum.
First leg usually oriented into the wind.
Suitable for use by a single vessel or boat.
Used when searching for persons in water.
Search object with no leeway.

Sector search (VS)


Most effective when location of search object is accurately known.
Search area to be small.
Used to search a circular area.
Center is datum position.
Datum may be marked by dropping a suitable marker, such as a life buoy.
Search radius is normally 2 - 5 n. miles for vessels.
Each turn is 120°, normally to starboard.
Second search leg is 30º off from the first leg.
CSP (Commence search point) is one side of the circular search area.

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Class 1 & 2 Oral Answers ( Part 3)

Upon receiving a distress alert 30 miles off


Check distress position and own ship’s position.
If able to provide assistance without endangering own ship and crew:
On receipt of distress alert
Listen on VHF CH-16 for 5 minutes.
If RCC does not acknowledge, acknowledge alert by radiotelephony (CH16).
Inform CS and/or RCC.
Enter details in log.
Reset system.

Establish plain language communication as soon as possible and obtain details of distressed
vessel such as:
Identity
Position

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Class 1 & 2 Oral Answers ( Part 3)

Course
Speed
Nature of distress
Type of assistance required.

Provide the distressed vessel my following information:


Identity
Position
Course
Speed
ETA at the scene
Distressed vessel’s bearing and distance.
I will contact RCC / SMC via coast radio station.

I will take required onboard preparation for search and rescue.


TU UT

If I cannot find any survivor after going to the scene, I will report to RCC and conduct a search .
TU UT

Onboard preparations and


proceeding for search and rescue:
Post extra look out.

Inform C/E to st-by engine, but at full sea speed.

Inform owner/ charterer about the deviation.

Note down deviation time, position and ROBs.

Assign duties to officers.


Instruct C/O to prepare:
Ship’s hospital to receive casualties and prepare stretchers, blankets, foods, medicines.
Prepare rescue boats and ready for immediate launching.
Prepare rescue boat crews and check communication.
Extra life jackets, life buoys, buoyant life lines, line throwing apparatus readily available.
Rig guest warp, accommodation ladder, scrambling nets and life lines running from bow to
astern at the water edge on both sides.
Prepare crane/derricks with cargo nets for recovery of survivors.
Test search lights, signaling lamps, torches.
Instruct 2 nd officer to:
P P

Plot both vessels’ positions and establish course to rendezvous at maximum speed and update
ETA.

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Class 1 & 2 Oral Answers ( Part 3)

Plot other vessels within the search vicinity together with their respective movements.
Change over to manual steering.
Plot search pattern .
TU UT

Keep continuous radar watch.


Track all vessels in the vicinity.
Instruct 3 rd officer to:
P P

Contact RCC via CRS


Maintain communication radio watch and update distress information.
Monitor weather report.

Conduct a search
A search to be conducted if upon arrival:
Search object is not found
No persons are found
Any number of persons are missing.

Procedures:
Report to RCC.
If my vessel is not OSC , follow instructions of OSC and maintain communication with OSC .
TU UT TU UT TU UT

Establish datum by taking consideration the drift distance and drift direction.
Determine search area.
Obtain search plan from SMC .
TU UT TU UT

Prepare a search plan if plan from SMC is not available.


TU UT TU UT

Conduct search.
Plot datum.
Identify datum with a marker buoy.
Maintain communication with RCC.
Maintain communication with other ships participating in the search.
Maintain record of all the events chronologically.
Rescue the survivors when found.

IAMSAR
Definitions:
SC (SAR Coordinator):
Country's top SAR manager.
Develops SAR and SAR training policies.
Establishes RCCs and Rescue Sub Centers.
Provides for, arranges and manages SAR facilities of the country.

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Class 1 & 2 Oral Answers ( Part 3)

SMC (SAR Mission Coordinator):


Appointed for and oversees each SAR each SAR operation under guidance of SC(SAR TU

Coordinator) . UT

Normally this duty is undertaken by the head of RCC.

Duties of SMC
Obtain all data on emergency.
Ascertain type of emergency equipment carried by distress craft.
Obtain update on weather /sea conditions.
Locate shipping in search areas.
Plot search areas and methods.
Maintain radio listening watch.
Allocate radio frequencies.
Designate OSC and CSS.
TU UT

Dispatch delivery of survival supplies to survivors.


Maintain record of events.
Record results of searched areas.
Monitor SAR units engaged eg. helicopter flying hours, etc.

OSC (On scene coordinator):


Person coordinates SAR facilities working at the scene.
Designated by SMC.
The person in charge of the first facility to arrive on scene normally assume OSC
function unless SMC arranges relief.

Who can be an OSC:


When two or more SAR facilities conduct operations together, the SMC should designate
an OSC.
If this is not practicable, facilities involved should designate, by mutual agreement, an
OSC.
This should be done as early as practicable and preferably before arrival within the
search area.
Until an OSC has been designated, the first facility arriving at the scene should assume
the duties of an OSC.
When deciding how much responsibility to delegate to the OSC, the SMC normally
considers the communications and personnel capabilities of the facilities involved.

Duties of OSC
Co-ordinate operations of all SAR facilities on-scene.
Obtains the search action plan from the SMC.
Plan the search or rescue operation, if no plan is otherwise available.
Modify the search action or rescue action plan as the situation on- scene dictates,
keeping the SMC advised.
Co-ordinate on-scene communications.
Monitor the performance of other participating facilities.

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Class 1 & 2 Oral Answers ( Part 3)

Ensure operations are conducted safely, paying particular attention to maintaining safe
separations among all facilities, both surface and air.
Make periodic situation reports (SITREPs) to the SMC.
Maintain a detailed record of the operation:
On-scene arrival and departure times of SAR facilities, other vessels and aircraft
engaged in operation
Areas searched
Track spacing used
Sightings and leads reported
Actions taken
Result obtained.
Advise the SMC to release facilities no longer required.
Report the number and names of survivors to the SMC.
Provide the SMC with the names and designations of facilities with survivors aboard.
Report which survivors are each facility.
Request additional SMC assistance when necessary (for example, medical evacuation
of seriously injured survivors).

SITREP (SAR Situation report)


The standard SITREP format may be found in IAMSAR Vol-3, appendix D.
SITREP should include but not be limited to:
Weather and sea conditions
The results of search to date
Any actions taken
Any future plans or recommendations.

Rescuing survivors in water


Lower rescue boat.
Approach from lee side of the survivor.
Throw a life buoy with a strong buoyant life line to the survivor.
Pull him near boat and haul him carefully.
If the person is unconscious, rescue crew (with immersion suit, if required) to enter sea.
Rescue person to carry the rescue quoits, the open end to be on the rescue boat to haul
the person and prevent him from drifting from the rescue boat.
In the way survivors to be rescued one by one.

BAD WEATHER MANEUVERS


Following options are available to the master, in case of bad weather:

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Class 1 & 2 Oral Answers ( Part 3)

TU Head to sea UT TU Anchoring UT

TU Stern to sea UT TU Altering course UT

TU Heave to UT

Head to sea, or wind and sea on fine bow, at reduced speed:


Most suitable for deep draft vessels.
Leeward drift is minimized (vessel is liable to sustain considerable pounding).
Weather is allowed to pass over the vessel.
The speed is considerably reduced.
It affects the period of encounter of the oncoming wave formation and subsequently
reduces pounding.
Course and speed to be altered to remove possibility of hogging, sagging and
synchronism.
Situation becomes uncomfortable when violent pitching results in ‘racing propellers’,
puts excessive stress on engines.
Absolute control of rudder power is essential.
Power should be reduced to minimum necessary to maintain steerage way and avoid
undue stress on machinery.
Two steering motors to be operational.
Critical rpm to be avoided.

Stern to sea, at reduced speed, running before the wind:


When bad weather overtakes vessel, she will find herself running before the wind.
Preferable to take a course with wind on the quarter rather than stern, which may
cause ‘pooping’ .
TU UT

Vessel will not move as violently as a vessel head to sea.


Speed adjustment together with long period of encounter will probably reduce wave
impact without any great delay.
A distinct danger with stern to sea is when the vessel required to turn across the wave
front is ‘broach to’ .
TU UT

Heaving to, preferably on the lee of an island:


Necessary when due to the stress of the weather the voyage is required to be
temporarily discontinued.
The vessel is maneuvered so as to ride the sea in the most favorable position.
Problems may be encountered associated with crew fatigue or damage to cargo for a

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Class 1 & 2 Oral Answers ( Part 3)

lengthy period of time.


Most effective when taken advantage of a lee of an island or land mass.
Action will depend on the type and form of the vessel.
A reduction of speed will probably be the earliest action to reduce motion of the
vessel and avoid cargo shift.
Power not to be reduced to an extent of stalling the main engine or revolutions are
critical.
If it is decided to stop the vessel, sufficient sea room should be available.
Heavy rolling can be expected.
There is risk of synchronism and cargo shift.
TU UT

Vessel needs to have a good water tight integrity and adequate GM.

Anchoring in shallow waters:


Used when the vessel in shallow water.
Employed to prevent blown down to a lee shore.
Two anchors may be used.
Engines can be used to reduce stress on the cable.
Anchor will reduce the rate of drift.
If grounding is not prevented, refloating may be assisted by heaving on the cables.

Altering course to avoid bad weather:


To be used before encountering bad weather.
Take an alternative route to destination.
Take evasive actions to be away from bad weather.
Likely to result in more distance.
If alteration is not well planned or substantial, bad weather may suddenly change
direction and vessel may be caught into it.

Definitions
Apparent period
The apparent period of wave is the time interval between the
passage of two successive crests relative to a shipborne observer.
It is sometimes called period of encounter.

Synchronism
Occurs when rolling or pitching period is equal or nearly equal to the
apparent period of wave.
TU UT

Synchronism may be synchronized rolling or synchronized pitching .


TU UT TU UT

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Class 1 & 2 Oral Answers ( Part 3)

Panting
Tendency of the bow plating and to a lesser extent the stern plating
to work in and out when the ship is pitching.
Fore and aft regions of the vessel are extra strengthen by thicker
plating, panting beams and stringers, reduced frame spacing in
designed to withstand panting stress.

Backing
Change of true wind direction to an anti-clockwise direction.

Veering
Change of true wind to a clockwise direction.

Following and quartering seas


Following seas
Occurs when vessel running before the sea.
Sea comes from the stern.
The ship encounters various dangerous phenomena.

Quartering seas
Occurs when vessel running before the sea.
Sea comes from the quarter.
The ship encounters various dangerous phenomena.

In a following or quartering sea, following dangerous phenomenon


may occur:

TU Pooping UT TU Parametric rolling UT

TU Surf riding UT Combination of various


TU

dangerous phenomenon UT

TU Broach to UT

TU Successive wave attack UT

TU Synchronous rolling UT

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Class 1 & 2 Oral Answers ( Part 3)

Pooping
Breaking of rising wave over the stern in poop deck area.
Develops when bad weather is directly from stern.
Vessels with less freeboard may suffer from popping.
Occurs when a vessel falls into the trough of a wave and does not
rise with it.
It may occur if the vessel falls as the wave is rising.
Causes following wave to break over the stern or poop deck areas.

Result:
May cause considerable damage to stern area.
Damage to propeller and rudder due to severe buffeting.
Engine room can be flooded if the openings which face aft are not
properly secured.

Corrective actions:
Occurs when velocity of sea is equal to or greater than ship's speed.
Alter course and head sea.

Surf riding
Occurs when a ship situated on a stiff forefront of high wave in a
following or quartering sea.
Vessel and waves have equal velocities.
Vessel may be accelerated.
Vessel rides on advancing wave slope.
This phenomenon is called surf riding.

Result:
Vessel slewed violently ( broach-to ).
TU UT

Vessel heeled over and swamped.

Action:
Critical speed for surf riding is considered 1.8√L knots.
Reduce ship speed to less than 1.8√L knots to prevent surf riding.
(L= ship's length).

Broach to
May occur when a ship is surf ridden in a following or quartering sea.
The vessel is slewed violently.

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Class 1 & 2 Oral Answers ( Part 3)

Ship heels suddenly and unexpectedly to a large angle.

Result:
Positive stability disappears to the existing angle of heel.
Vessel may cause a vessel to capsize due to sudden change of heel
and heading.

Action:
Reduce speed below 1.8√L knots.
A marginal zone (1.4√L to 1.8√L) below critical speed may cause a
large surging motion (broach to). Speed to be reduced below 1.4√L in
the case.

Synchronous rolling
Large rolling motions may be excited when natural rolling period of a
ship coincides with the encounter wave period.
It may happen in following and quartering sea.
It happens when natural roll period is longer due to marginal
transverse stability.

Parametric rolling
Occurs in a following or quartering sea.
Occurs when encounter wave period is approximately half of the
natural rolling period of the ship.
Occurs particularly if initial metacentric height height is small and
natural roll period is very long.
Unstable and large amplitude roll motion takes place.
May occur in head and bow seas.

Result:
Unstable and large rolling motion takes place.

Action:
Reduction of speed.

Combination of various dangerous


phenomenon
May occur in a following or quartering sea.

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Class 1 & 2 Oral Answers ( Part 3)

Various detrimental factors may affect ship's dynamic behavior.

These factors are:


Additional heeling moment due to deck water.
Water shipping and trapped on deck.
Cargo shift.
The factors may be occur with other dangerous phenomenon.

They may create extremely dangerous combination to capsize the


ship.

Successive wave attack


Occurs when ship's speed component in the wave direction is nearly
equal to the wave group velocity.
It is equal to the half of phase velocity of the dominant wave
component.
The ship is attacked successively by high waves.
Expectable maximum wave height can reach almost twice of
observed wave height.
May be evident when average wave length is larger than 0.8L,
significant wave height is larger than 0.04L.

Result:
Reduction of intact stability.
Synchronous rolling.
Parametric rolling.
Combination of various dangerous phenomena.
Vessel may capsize.

Action:
Reduce ship speed to go out of dangerous zone.
Combination of appropriate speed reduction with slight course
change.

Synchronized rolling:
Synchronized rolling to be determined immediately.
Occurs when the period of roll is equal or nearly equal to the apparent
TU

period of encountered wave.


UT

A very dangerous and undesirable condition.


Successive waves tend to increase the angle of roll of the vessel, thereby
produce danger of capsize.
More dangerous in small vessels or vessels with low stability.
Most dangerous when a beam sea is experienced and the ship reaches a

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greater maximum inclination at each trough and crest of wave.


Danger of cargo shift.
Danger of damage to vessel.

To determine synchronized rolling:


Vessel rolling heavily.
There is no period of lull, rolling angle is almost same or increasing in every
roll.
Vessel is encountered by the same phase of wave almost all the times.

Corrective actions:

Change apparent period of waves by:


TU UT

Alteration of course
Alteration of speed
Change vessels rolling period by changing GM
By ballasting
By deballasting
Shifting of ballast, FO, FW etc and changing transverse position of G.

U Definitions
Apparent period
The apparent period of wave is the time interval between the passage of two
successive crests relative to a shipborne observer.
It is sometimes called period of encounter.

Synchronism
Occurs when rolling or pitching period is equal or nearly equal to the
apparent period of wave.
Synchronism may be synchronized rolling or synchronized pitching.

Panting
Tendency of the bow plating and to a lesser extent the stern plating to work
in and out when the ship is pitching.
Fore and aft regions of the vessel are extra strengthen by thicker plating,
panting beams and stringers, reduced frame spacing in designed to
withstand panting stress.

Backing
Change of true wind direction to an anti-clockwise direction.

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Class 1 & 2 Oral Answers ( Part 3)

Veering
Change of true wind to a clockwise direction.

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