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CLASS 1 & 2 ORAL ANSWERS ( PART 14)

Approaching buoy at Japan


Japan is in region-B.
First buoy will normally be a safe water mark as a landfall buoy.
Lateral marks will be region-B, red to starboard and green to port while following
conventional direction.

NORTH cardinal buoy ahead at 000ºT


course
It is already in danger area.
Helm to hard over (port or starboard).
Go in reciprocal course immediately.
Call master, if the buoy is not on the chart.
After about two miles, alter course about 045°T.
Pass the buoy abeam.
Resume the original course.

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CLASS 1 & 2 ORAL ANSWERS ( PART 14)

EAST cardinal buoy ahead at 045ºT


course
Alter course to starboard.
Pass the buoy safe distance (about 2 cables) on port side.
Resume course after the buoy is cleared.

Buoys region
Their are two buoys regions: A and B.
In the two regions, colors and lights of lateral marks are reversed.
In region A, green buoys to starboard and red to port, when following conventional
direction.
In region B, green to port and red to starboard.

Region-A:
Europe, Asia (Except Japan, Korea, Philippines), Australia, Africa.

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CLASS 1 & 2 ORAL ANSWERS ( PART 14)

Region-B:
North and South Americas, Japan, Philippines, Korea.

Special mark
Marks not preliminarily intended to assist navigation.
Indicates a special area or feature.
Exact nature is obtained from the appropriate nautical documents.

Can be used for:


Ocean data acquisition system (ODAS) buoys.
Traffic separation marks where use of conventional channel may cause confusion.
Spoil ground marks.
Military exercise zone marks.
Cable or pipeline marks.
Recreation zone marks.
Channel between a channel such as limits of a deep water route in a normal route.

Color:
Yellow color.

Topmark:

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CLASS 1 & 2 ORAL ANSWERS ( PART 14)

Single X shape.
Yellow in color.
Optional.

Shape:
Optional.
Not to conflict with navigational marks.

Light:
Yellow light.
Rhythm may be any, other than used used for cardinal, isolated danger or safe water
marks.

Symbols used in admiralty charts:

Photogr
aphs:
Special mark. Special mark (can)

Isolated danger mark


Marked, erected or moored on or above a danger of limited extent.
Has navigable water around it.

Can be used for


Dangers of limited extend such as a wreck, rock.

Color:
Black with one or more broad horizontal red band.

Topmark:

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CLASS 1 & 2 ORAL ANSWERS ( PART 14)

Two black spheres, one above the other.

Shape:
Optional.
Not conflicting with lateral marks.
Preferably pillar or spar.

Lights:
White light.
Group flashes 2.

Symbols used in admiralty charts:

Photographs:

Isolated danger mark.

Safe water mark


Indicates navigable water all around it.
May be used to mark centerline of a channel.
May be used for a mid channel buoy.
May be used as a landfall buoy.
May indicate the best point of passage under a fixed bridge.

Topmark:
Red spherical topmark is used, if the buoy is not spherical.
Fitted whenever practicable.

Colour
They will always be red and white vertical stripes.

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CLASS 1 & 2 ORAL ANSWERS ( PART 14)

Shape
Safe water buoys are either spherical, pillar or spar buoys, with a red ball as a
topmark.

Light
White lights are used in any of the following rhythm:

Iso. Isophase or equal period of light and darkness.


Oc. Occulting or duration of light is more than duration of darkness.
LFl.10s. A long flash (at least 2 sec) every 10 seconds.
MoA. Flashes the Morse code for the letter A, one short then a long flash.

Admiralty chart symbol:

New danger mark


Used to indicate a newly discovered hazard to navigation.
The danger is not yet shown on charts or included in sailing directions.
The danger is not yet sufficiently promulgated by notices to mariners.
The term covers naturally occurring obstructions such as sandbanks or rocks.
It may be also man made dangers such as wrecks.

Marking:
One or more cardinal or lateral marks may be used.
If dangers are especially grave, at least one of the marks are duplicated.

Light:
A quick or very quick light if lit.
If cardinal mark, it will exhibit white light.
If lateral mark, it will exhibit red or green light.

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CLASS 1 & 2 ORAL ANSWERS ( PART 14)

Racon:
A racon of morse code D, showing a signal length of one nautical mile may be
used.

Preferred channel mark


A modified lateral mark.
Used where a channel splits into a major and a minor channel, to a same
destination.
This system does not provide for a preferred channel mark where the channels
rejoin.
These have both red and green coloring, but the main color is that for the
major channel.
The coloring for the minor channel is only a stripe.

Colors:
Red and green colors used for preferred channel marks.
In region-A, a preferred channel to starboard is indicated by a port hand red
color buoy with a green band.
In region-B, a preferred channel to starboard is indicated by a port hand green
buoy with a red band.

Topmark:
Optional.
Port hand marks (Preferred channel to starboard) carry can shape topmark.
Starboard hands (Preferred channel to port) carry cone shape.

Light:
When exhibited, red and green lights are used.
These buoys use Fl(2+1)R and Fl(2+1)G .

Admiralty chart symbol:

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CLASS 1 & 2 ORAL ANSWERS ( PART 14)

Preferred channel Preferred channel Preferred channel Preferred channel


to stbd to port to stbd to port
Region-A (Unlit) Region-B (Lit)

Photograph:

Preferred channel Preferred channel


to port (Region-A) to port (Region-B)

Lateral marks
Used for a well defined channel.
Used in conjunction with conventional direction of buoys.
Indicate port and starboard sides of the route to be followed.

Lateral marks in Region-A


Colour

If you are following the conventional direction, you will have green buoys to
starboard and red buoys to port.

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CLASS 1 & 2 ORAL ANSWERS ( PART 14)

Port hand mark Starboard hand mark

Shapes

Port hand: Can, pillar or spar.

Starboard hand: Conical, pillar or spar.

Topmark:

Port hand: Single red can.

Starboard hand: Single green cone, point upward.

Starboard
Port hand
hand
topmark
topmark

Retroreflector
Port hand: Red band or square.

Starboard hand: Green band or triangle.

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CLASS 1 & 2 ORAL ANSWERS ( PART 14)

Port hand Starboard hand


retroteflector retroreflector

Lights:
Red buoys will have red lights, green buoys green lights.
May have any rhythm other than composite group flashing.

Admiralty chart symbols:

Lateral marks in Region-B


Colour

If you are following the conventional direction, you will have red buoys to
starboard and green buoys to port.

Starboard hand
Port hand mark
mark

Shapes

Port hand: Can, pillar or spar.

Starboard hand: Conical, pillar or spar.

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CLASS 1 & 2 ORAL ANSWERS ( PART 14)

Same as region-A.

Topmark:

Port hand: Single green can.

Starboard hand: Single red cone, point upward.

Starboard
Port hand
hand
topmark
topmark

Retroreflector

Port hand: Green band or square.

Starboard hand: Red band or triangle.

Port hand Starboard hand


retroteflector retroreflector

Lights:
Red buoys will have red lights, green buoys green lights.
May have any rhythm other than composite group flashing.
Same as region-A.

Admiralty chart symbols:

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CLASS 1 & 2 ORAL ANSWERS ( PART 14)

LANBY
Large Automatic Navigational Buoy
A very large light-buoy.
Used as an alternative to a light-vessel
Used to mark offshore positions important to the mariner.
Lanbys vary in size up to a displacement of 140 tonnes and a diameter or
height of 12 m.
Radiobeacons, racons or radar reflectors may be fitted to them.
Full details of lanbys are given in Admiralty List of Lights.

Conventional direction of
buoys
Local direction
Direction taken by the mariner when approaching a harbor, river, estuary or other
waterway from seaward.

General direction
Determined by the buoys authorities.
Based whenever possible on the principle of following clockwise direction
around continents.
Usually given in Admiralty Sailing Directions and, if necessary, indicated on
charts by appropriate symbol.

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CLASS 1 & 2 ORAL ANSWERS ( PART 14)

Various rhythms of light


Flashing:
Duration of light is less than duration of darkness.

Symbol: Fl

Example: Fl 10s (Flashing, 10 sec. )

Occulting:
Duration of light is more than the duration of darkness.

Symbol: Oc

Example: Ocl 10s (Occulting, 10 sec. )

Isophase:
Duration of light and darkness are equal.

Symbol: Iso

Example: Iso 10s (Isophase, 10 sec. )

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