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Class 1 & 2 Oral answers ( Part 17 )

Lashing of heavy lift container


Do an FSA for container lashing parted, with master, chief engineer

and bosun.

Ascertain the possibility of re lashing the container, considering cost

benefit assessment.
Consult securing manual for guideline.
Brief crews about the operation and necessary precautions.
Prepare adequate equipment for operation.
Reduce ship's speed and alter course to suit the present sea
condition so that there is least rolling/pitching.
Rig life line for crew's movement.
Send crews on deck, under the supervision of chief officer.
Keep life buoys, rescue boats ready for immediate launching.
Maintain efficient communication with the working group.
Crews should be on protective clothing.
Immobilize cargo movement (shoring, wedges), double up lashing.

Class 1 & 2 Oral answers ( Part 17 )

FSA for container lashing parted

Topic Identificatio Assessment of Risk control Cost benefit Recommendation for
n of hazards risks options assessment decision making.

Environ Strong wind. Class Heave

Causing list/heel, 1 & 2 Oral answersCrew
to, reduce ( Partmember
17 ) able to get Minimum environment
ment man overboard. speed, create access to deck. injury to crew member.
WetnessFollowingCrew member
is a typical may Life
example forline, life of a container
an FSA Protect risk from injury.
lashing parted.
(Slippery slip on deck, jacket, safety
deck) resulting personnel shoe, safety belt
injury.. with line.
Heavy wave Damage to ship Alter course to Minimal sea spray.
and swell, structure and other reduce sea
shipping cargo, damage to spray.
spray. other lashing.
Cold Reduce working Proper clothing Save time.
temperature. efficiency. and efficient
between bridge
and deck.

Ship Damage to Affects Heave to. Protect seaworthiness of Minimum ship damage.
structure, ship seaworthiness. vessel.
side railing,
bulwark, Watertight To shut and seal Enhance seaworthiness.
ventilators, integrity. ventilators.
deck house, Ingress of water Pump out from Delay damage to ship's
cargo gears, into tank - reduced tanks, increase structure.
machinery. stability. stability.
Risk of sinking. Close any Protect damage to ship's
opening. machinery.

Cargo Damage Damage to other Immobilize cargo Protect cargo from Minimum cargo damage
adjacent cargoes and movement damage. and injury.
cargoes. personnel (shoring,
injury. wedges), double
up lashing.
Damage to Personnel injury Protect other cargo from
cargo itself. due to cargo from damage.
the container.
Loose objects. Structural damage, Broadcast the Any injury prevented or
injury to to crew, matter through may occur.
safety of navigation VHF or
hampered. INMARSAT.
Broken Injury to crew.
Other lashing Injury to crew.

Human Poor planning. Injury / loss of life. Crew briefing, Save time. No human error.
error Poor safety safety aspect, Save life from weather
knowledge. Time delay. duties assigned and cargo.
Injury from for the Know the procedure of
cargo / heavy Confusion. operation. operation.
weather, Appropriate
weather Injury. clothing, proper
swept gear.
overboard. Sufficient
Slow communication.
response. Check for
Crew member securing manual
slipping on for guideline.
deck. Adequate
equipment for
operation. 3

Equipm Walkie talkie Loss of Communication Less chances of Sufficient equipment.

ent damage due communication. equipment to equipment failure.
Class 1 & 2 Oral answers ( Part 17 )

Process of the actions taken before any disaster occurs.
A rational and systematic for assessing risks associates with any activities
Costs and benefits of different actions is also evaluated.
It enables a balance to be drawn between the various technical and operational
issues, including the human element and between safety and costs.
Interim guidelines were adopted in 1997 and IMO Member States have been
invited to carry out trials and report back to IMO.

FSA consists of five steps.

Identification of hazards: A list of all relevant accident scenarios with

potential causes and outcomes.
Assessment of risks: Evaluation of risk factors.
Risk control options: Devising regulatory measures to control and reduce the
identified risks.
Cost benefit assessment: Determining cost effectiveness of each risk control
Recommendations for decision-making: Information about the hazards,
their associated risks and the cost effectiveness of alternative risk control
options is provided.

In simple terms, these steps can be reduced to:

What might go wrong? = Identification of hazards (a list of all relevant

accident scenarios with potential causes and outcomes)

How bad and how likely? = Assessment of risks (evaluation of risk factors);

Can matters be improved? = Risk control options (devising regulatory

measures to control and reduce the identified risks)

What would it cost and how much better would it be? = Cost benefit
assessment (determining cost effectiveness of each risk control option);

What actions should be taken? = Recommendations for decision-making

(information about the hazards, their associated risks and the cost
effectiveness of alternative risk control options is provided).

Class 1 & 2 Oral answers ( Part 17 )

About FSA
Application of FSA may be particularly relevant to proposals for regulatory
measures that have far reaching implications in terms of costs to the maritime
industry or the administrative or legislative burdens that may result.

FSA is a structured and systematic methodology, aimed at enhancing maritime

safety, including protection of life, health, the marine environment and property,
by using risk and cost/benefit assessment.

It can be used as tool to help in the evaluation of new regulations or making a

comparison between existing and possibly improved regulations, with a view to
achieving a balance between the various technical and operational issues
including the human element, and between safety and costs.

This is achieved by providing a clear justification for proposed regulatory

measures and allowing comparison of different options of such measures to be
made. This is in line with the basic philosophy of FSA in that it can be used as
a tool to facilitate a transparent decision-making process. In addition, it
provides a means of being proactive, enabling potential hazards to be
considered before a serious accident occurs.

FSA represents a fundamental change from what was previously a largely

piecemeal and reactive regulatory approach to one which is proactive,
integrated, and above all based on risk evaluation and management in a
transparent and justifiable manner thereby encouraging greater compliance
with the maritime regulatory framework, in turn leading to improved safety and
environmental protection.

FSA is highly technical and complex. But it does offer a way forward and a
means of escaping from the dilemma of the past in which action was too often
put off until something went wrong - with the result that the actions taken often
owed more to public opinion and political considerations than they did to
technical merit.

Class 1 & 2 Oral answers ( Part 17 )

FSA for bulk carrier safety

One area where FSA is already being applied is bulk carrier safety. (View

In December 1998, the Maritime Safety Committee, IMO's senior technical

body, agreed to a framework setting out project objectives, scope and
application, namely:
To inform IMO's future decision-making regarding measures to improve the
safety of bulk carriers.
To apply FSA methodology to the safety of dry bulk shipping.
To secure international collaboration and agreement.

More about FSA from IMO web site

Class 1 & 2 Oral answers ( Part 17 )

Approaching a fog bank

Inform master about restricted visibility.

Inform engine room.
Post extra look out.
Verify vessel's position.
St-by engine, reduce speed.
Switch on radars.
Start fog signal and switch on navigation lights.
Comply with rule-19 if involved in risk of collision in fog.
If necessary, in shallow water, anchor the vessel for improvement of