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Class 1 & 2 Oral answers ( Part 22)

FUMIGATION
Fumigation in charge to be designated by appropriate authority.
FIC will provide master the following information:
Type of fumigant
Hazards
TLV
Precautions to observe.

Fumigation in port
In port, normally fumigation is done in empty cargo spaces and
accommodations.
It is done by certified fumigator companies.

Preparations
A thorough cleaning of cargo spaces after discharge.
Box beams, stiffeners, deck girders, pipe casings, bilge wells, strum boxes
etc, are cleaned thoroughly from cargo residues.
Cargo spaces to be air tight.
All compartments, accommodations, store rooms to be available to the
fumigators.
They should be opened internally, but outside doors locked.
Food staffs must be removed unless permitted by fumigators.
The ship has been prepared as required by the fumigator.
Watchmen posted to prevent unauthorized boarding.
Warning notices posted on gangway and entrances of the accommodation.
All crews to be landed ashore during the fumigation period.
A complete search to be carried out for any crew or person left onboard and a
certificate is given by master, countersigned by fumigator to this respect.
All blowers, air cons, fans in holds and accommodations to be switched off.
The generators may be shut off for the fumigation period.

Procedures
Fumigation is carried out to disinfest the ship.
Carried out in cargo holds and accommodations.
Strong toxicants are used.
Fumigants are applied as solid or liquid but act as gases.
No pesticides to be applied on human or animal foods without professional’s
advice.
After all preparation and precautions, fumigant is released and the ship kept

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Class 1 & 2 Oral answers ( Part 22)

under gas for at least two hours for empty ship and four hours for loaded ship.
Entry to be made in fumigated spaces in an extreme emergency.
People must be wearing protective equipment, breathing apparatus and
safety harness in case of such an entry.

As per the fumigators, when the ship is disinfested adequately,


Fumigator is to inform master.
With assistance of necessary crew, they will gas free the ship.
Engine personnel to start generator, ventilation fans.
The must be wearing sufficient protective clothing with breathing apparatus.
When the ship is gas free and safe for reoccupy, a test of all spaces to be
made for toxic gases and oxygen content.
A gas free certificate is to be issued by fumigators stating that the ship is free
of toxic gases and safe for re-occupancy.

Fumigation at sea
Done at the discretion of master.
Master to be aware of the flag state regulations regarding transit fumigation.
Done only in cargo spaces, empty or loaded.
It may be done in following occasions:
Fumigation done in port but ship is not gas freed.
Fumigation is done but no clearance certificate is issued.

Preparation
Fumigators to demonstrate and train required ship personnel, at least 2 crews
and one officer.
A trained representative should brief the crews before the operation takes
place.
A thorough cleaning of empty cargo spaces after discharge.
Box beams, stiffeners, deck girders, pipe casings, bilge wells, strum boxes
etc, are cleaned thoroughly from cargo residues.
Cargo spaces to be air tight.
Warning notices to be posted.
Details of fumigants, their properties, hazards are known.
Symptoms of poisoning are known.
First aid and emergency procedures in case of poisoning are known.
Required medicines are on board.
A copy of latest MFAG is onboard.
Necessary gas detection equipments are available.
Protective equipments are available.
Measures taken to ensure E/R, accommodation and other working areas are
free of fumes and prevent leakage of fumigants.

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Class 1 & 2 Oral answers ( Part 22)

Procedures
Fumigation is carried out by fumigators and/ or trained personnel.
Carried out in cargo holds.
Strong toxicants are used.
Fumigants are applied as solid or liquid but act as gases.
No pesticides to be applied on human or animal foods without professional’s
advice.
After all preparation and precautions, fumigant is released and the ship kept
under gas for specified time required by fumigators, generally 1 week.
After ascertaining that the ship is safe to sail and there is no leakage, the FIC
should furnish the master following written statement:
The gas in hold spaces reached certain high concentration to determine any
leakage.
Spaces adjacent to the cargo spaces have been checked and found gas
free.
The ship's representative is fully conversant with the use of gas detection
equipment.
Entry to be made in fumigated spaces in an extreme emergency.
People must be wearing protective equipment, breathing apparatus and
safety harness in case of such an entry.

When the spaces are disinfested sufficiently (after required time as per the
fumigators):
Thorough ventilation of cargo spaces is done.
Cargo holds may be opened few days before arrival port.
A test for the presence of toxic gases is made.
All to be done under supervision of trained personnel.
Protective equipments are to be worn.
Discard of residues of fumigants as per fumigators advice.
A detail entry of all the procedures in deck log book and official log book is
to be made in chronological order.

Preparations and precautions


for loading grain
Prior loading:
Make a pre stowage plan.
Get cargo information from the shipper.
Calculate the stability criteria complies with the requirement of International
grain code.
Planning, calculation and loading to be made for ship's stability at all stages

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Class 1 & 2 Oral answers ( Part 22)

of loading.
Clean and prepare cargo holds for loading grain.
Clean and test cargo hold bilges.
Check weather tightness of hatches.
Check cargo handling gears in good operational condition.
Initial draft survey to be carried out before loading grain.

During loading:
Load grain as per cargo stowage plan.
Follow loading sequences.
Check stresses on hull are within the limit.
Trimming of cargo to be carried out as per loading plan.
Precautions to be taken for grain dust to protect human hygiene and
equipments.
Check cargo for any sort of damage.
Check cargo for infestation.
Check moorings at frequent intervals.

Prior sailing:
Fumigate the cargo using pesticides if required.
All cargo holds to be closed and properly secured.
Prevent entering of sea water during adverse weather condition.
Take proper draft and calculate loaded quantity by final draft survey.
Calculate final state of stability after completion of loading.

During the voyage:


Check humidity and adjust ventilation if required.
Regular sounding of bilges.
Ensure ship's stability is maintained.
Inspect securing arrangements regularly if possible.

Minimum stability criteria


Grain ships
The list due to grain shift must not be greater than 12 degrees.
The residual area between HAC and RAC up to 40 degrees or angle of flooding, whichever is
less, shall not be less than 0.075 m-r.
The initial GM after correction for free surface effect must not be less than 0.30m.

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Class 1 & 2 Oral answers ( Part 22)

In
calculating suitable stability, following assumptions were made:

When the deck head slopes at less than 30 degrees to the horizontal, a void is assumed the depth
of which can be ascertained by formula.
There is a void of average depth 15cm below the hatch cover.
Grain is assumed to move in a prescribed pattern such that the voids change shape and the grain
surface moves 15 degrees to the horizontal.

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Class 1 & 2 Oral answers ( Part 22)

Precautions before proceeding to ice zone


Before proceeding to ice zone, I will check the following items:

Article of agreement and the geographical limit, expiry of article of agreement.

Class certificate, if ship has ice notation.

Check the charter party contract

Insurance coverage – premium may be high.

Instruct C/E:
To check heating system for accommodation, steering gear, bridge windows;
To check viscosity of hydraulic oil for all cranes, winches and boat engines, if necessary,
renew.
Instruct C/Off to check/ indent:
Warm clothing for full complement
Protective gloves
Extra blanket
Spare bulbs for navigation light
Steam hoses
De-icing compounds
Axe, shovels.
Instruct navigating officer to ensure:
Navigational equipments in good working condition
Sufficient charts are available
Gather all information regarding the limits of ice, ice seasons, navigation in ice.

HEAVY LIFT

Required information

I will try to collect information about the heavy lift, such as:

What type of cargo.

The weight of cargo.

Dimensions and size of the cargo.

Cargo will be loaded by ship/shore's lifting gear.

When the cargo is arriving.

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Class 1 & 2 Oral answers ( Part 22)

Destination of cargo.

Where the cargo will be loaded as per shipper's instruction.

Include the heavy lift in cargo plan, considering all the aspects of cargo planning..

Rigging of heavy lift


All gears associated with lifting such as runners, guy pendants, tackles, blocks etc, to be examined
carefully.

Lifting gears and associated equipments to be greased and renewed as necessary.


All other riggings cleared.

Rig wires, blocks etc as per rigging plan.

Rig Preventers and backstays as per the plan.

Topping lift in good condition and securely shackled (moused).

Winches should be in double gear.

Derrick unclamped from mast.

Set tight preventer guys.

Rig extra stays if required

Once clamp removed, take weight on messenger and slowly lower the derrick.

Prior lifting
Check vessel’s stability.

Maximum possible loss of GM in the operation to be calculated.

Maximum possible list and trim during operation to be calculated.

Free surface effects to be considered.

All tanks should be pressed up or empty to avoid free surface effect.

Vessel to be even keel and upright as far as practicable.

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Class 1 & 2 Oral answers ( Part 22)

Rig fenders.

Cast off any barge.


Test the SWL of the lifting gear and associated equipments, it must be below the weight to be
lifted.

Check load density of the hatch/deck area the load being loaded.

Load density must not exceed the value given in stability booklet.

Distribute load on deck using dunnage.

Rails removed.

Barges cast off.

Unnecessary personnel removed.

Lashing arrangement is sufficient. Extra lashing points may be welded.

When lifting

Inform E/Room and galley.

Inform all relevant personnel.

Ensure fore and aft moorings are taut and tended.

Use steadying lines (swing preventers).

Competent winchman.

Communication signals understood. Standard signals as per COSWP to be used.

Only one competent person to signal the whole operation.

Whole operation to be supervised by a responsible officer.

Raise gangway.

The derrick to be plumbed over the weight.

Take weight slowly.

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Class 1 & 2 Oral answers ( Part 22)

Lift the load slowly, swing in the correct position and load on the appropriate position.

Control swing by steadying stays.

Consider emergency action if vessel develops heavy list (more than calculated) during the
operation.

Take proper lashing, considering heavy weather on the voyage.

Best place to load

Best place is where extra strengthening is provided by:

Longitudinals, plate floors.

Solid floors or transeverses.

Examples: along longitudinal center girder, lower hold abaft machinery space.

Load density not to be exceeded.

In the hatch, in preference to on deck because of larger GM.

If the heavy lift exceeds load


density
Spread the load over a large area so that the load density is less than the
maximum load capacity of that area.
Add bearer, thick dunnage and spreaders.

LOAD HEAVY LIFT IN DRY


DOCK
Approval required from dry dock authority.
Same normal precautions for loading heavy lifts.
Preferably load by dock yard crane if available.
Side shores to be added to prevent vessels heeling over.
Consider stress on ship's structure.
Add additional keel block, bilge block, side shores if necessary.
To prevent structure to be overloaded, DB tanks below hold where cargo is

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Class 1 & 2 Oral answers ( Part 22)

being loaded, may be ballasted.

LOADING IMDG CONTAINERS


Check DG note, DG manifests are provided.
Vessel to be given proposed stowage plan.
Check if segregation requirements are met.
Check marking, labeling and placarding of the containers are in good condition.
Damaged or leaked containers will not be accepted.
Keep combustible materials away from sources of ignition.
Stow in places not liable to damage or heating.
Stow in a position so that the contents may be moved/jettisoned in case of any emergency.
Naked lights and smoking is prohibited in or near DG areas.
Fire fighting appliances are kept ready to deal with possible fire.
Protective clothing and SCBA sets to be available.
Bunkering, hot work, use of radar or radio transmitters to be stopped, especially if the cargoes
are explosive type.
If possible, the operation to be in daylight hours. At night, adequate lightings to be provided.
Ambient temperature in relation to the flash point to be taken into account.
Any spillage to be carefully dealt with, taking into consideration the nature of the substance.
Consult EMS and MFAG in case of any accident involving DG.
Once containers are loaded, location od DG containers to be counterchecked with the bay plan.

DOCK REGULATION
FACTORY ACT
The factory and workshop act of 1901 (UK) empowered the Secretary of State to make special
regulation in respect of trades which he considers dangerous.
As a result dock regulations were framed in 1934.
Dock regulations are sometimes called factory act.
It affects us as follows:
Need to comply with.
Requirements of testing derricks, lifting machineries, lashing equipments etc.
Annealing of chains, rings, hooks, shackles.
Requirements of safe means of access to the ship and in holds.
Requirements of lighting in gangway and cargo holds.
Fencing and covering of open hatches.
Requirement of hatch covers and beams to be marked and to keep in good condition.
Hatch covers to be replaced according to markings.
Hatches to be covered when loading or unloading at an intermediate deck.
Beams to be secured when hatch is in use.

Consists of

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Class 1 & 2 Oral answers ( Part 22)

A preamble
6 parts
A schedule – manner of load testing
Prescribed forms

Main contents
Load testing of derricks and permanent attachments

Annual inspection and quadrennial thorough examination of derricks and permanent attachments.

Annual examination of cranes, winches, hoists and accessory gear other than derricks and
permanent attachments.

Annual thorough examination of gears exempted from annealing.

Annealing of chains, rings, hooks, shackles and swivels other than those exempted.

Inspection of wire rope

Means of access

Access to cargo holds

Lighting in cargo spaces

Fencing
Load testing of derricks and permanent attachments
Conducted by competent person (normally shipyard employees, not necessary surveyors)
Carried out new derrick is installed or after a derrick has been repaired or modified

Procedures:

Derricks and attachments examined.


Blocks, shackles, lifting hooks and ropes examined, overhauled/ lubricated.
Test certificates checked.
Winches overhauled.
Appoint efficient watchmen and signaler.
If testing under dead load, hoist load and swing derrick from extremity.
If testing by spring balance, secure balance to strong point, plump derrick and hoist.
First test usually dead load, hence spring, but disadvantage of spring: expensive and more
dangerous, may exceed proof load accidentally.
After test, lower derrick, strip and examine for defects, distortions etc.
A certificate of test will be issued after the test has been satisfactorily conducted.

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Class 1 & 2 Oral answers ( Part 22)

Main contents
Annual inspection and quadrennial thorough examination of derricks and permanent attachments.
By competent person/ authorized by appropriate authority (dock safety authority). Chief Officer /
master / chief engineer / second engineer duly certified.
Superintendent of approve workshop/ shipyard.
Surveyors

12 monthly inspection.
4 yearly thorough examination
A visual inspection, supplemented by other tests eg. hammer test.
To be entered in part-1 of chain register.

Main contents

Annual examination of cranes, winches, hoists and accessory gear other than derricks and
permanent attachments.
Every 1 year.
Entered in part 2 of chain register.

Main contents
Annual thorough examination of gears exempted from annealing.
1 yearly inspection
Entered in part 3 of chain register
Exempted list is given in this part.

Main contents

Annealing of chains, rings, hooks, shackles and


swivels other than those exempted.
½" and smaller – annealing every 6 months.
Other annealing every 12 months or 2 years.
Entered in part four of chain register.

Inspection of wire rope


Once every three months.
Monthly, if rope is broken.
Wires not to be used if any length of 8 diameters of more than 10% of the wire is visibly broken or
the rope shows excessive signs of wear, corrosion or other defects.
The person inspecting considers it unfit for use.

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Class 1 & 2 Oral answers ( Part 22)

Means of access
Gangway or accommodation ladder
Standards of construction
Free from obstruction
Well maintained
Properly Positioned
Safety nets to be rigged
Lighting should be adequate.

Access to cargo holds


Well ventilated
Permanent means of access to be provided
Should maintain standards of construction.

Lighting in cargo spaces


Should be adequately lit
Open and naked lights to be avoided.

Fencing
Openings to be guarded or fenced.
Guard rails to be provided.

Risk assessment
A systematic way to determine and assess risks involved in any type of
routine or emergency operation.
Company to provide suitable and sufficient risk assessments involving risks
related to health and safety.
A continuous process and under constant review.
The risk should be assessed before the work begins on any task for which no
valid risk assessment exists.
Aim is to minimize accidents and ill health onboard ships.
Assessment should include consideration of existing precautions to control
risk such as hot work permit, use of warning signs, restricted access etc.

Pro-forma
A simple pro-forma may be used to record findings of a risk assessment:
Work activity
Hazard(s)
Controls in place
Personnel at risk
Likelihood of harm
Severity of harm
Risk levels

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Class 1 & 2 Oral answers ( Part 22)

Actions to be taken
Administrative details

Elements:
The main elements of risk assessment may be as follows:
Classify work activities.
Identify hazards and personnel at work.
Determine risks.
Decide if risks are tolerable.
Prepare action in plan
Review adequacy of action plan.

Sources
Code of safe working practice details guidelines about risk assessment.
Assessment for various risks involving routine and emergency operation van
be found in SMS manual provided by the company.

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