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Class 1 & 2 Oral Answers ( Part 25 )


Gross tonnage
It is a measurement of the overall size of a ship determined in accordance with
merchant shipping (Tonnage) regulation.
It is the total volume of all enclosed spaces and all accommodation and cargo spaces.
It is calculated by the following formula:
GT = K1V where:
V = total volume of all enclosed spaces in cubic meters.
K1=0.2 + 0.02 Log10V

Net tonnage
It is a measurement of the total earning capacity of a ship determined in accordance
with merchant shipping (Tonnage) regulation.
It is the total volume of only all cargo spaces.
It is calculated by the following formula:
NT = K2Vc (4d/3D)2 + K3 (N1 + N2/10) where:
Vc = total volume of all cargo spaces in cubic meters.
K2=0.2 + 0.02 Log10Vc
K3 = 1.25 (GT+10000)/10000 GT = Gross tonnage
D = moulded depth and d = moulded draft, amidships, in meters.
N1 = number of passengers in cabins with not more than eight berths.
N2 = number of other passengers.

Ton and tonne:

Ton is the gross tonnage of a ship.
Tonne is the metric ton, measurement of a unit of weight, equals to 1000kg.


Steering gears: testing and drills

Within 12h before departure, ship's steering gears to be checked and tested by ship's crew.

Test shall include, where applicable, the operation of the followings: Main steering gear
Auxiliary steering gear
Remote steering gear control system
Steering position located on the navigation bridge.
Emergency power supply.
Rudder angle indicators in relation to the actual angle of rudder.
Remote steering gear control system power failure alarms
Steering gear power unit failure alarms.
Automatic isolating arrangements and other automatic equipment.

Class 1 & 2 Oral Answers ( Part 25 )

Checks and tests shall include: Full movement of rudder according to the required capability of
steering gear.
Visual inspection for the steering gear and its connecting linkage.
Operation of the means of communication between the navigation bridge and steering gear

For short voyages, the director may waive the requirements and only weekly tests/checks may accept.

Dates of checks carried out must be recorded.

Emergency steering drills: once in every three months in order to practice emergency steering

This drill shall include: Direct control within the steering gear compartment.
Communication procedures with the navigation bridge.
Operation of alternative power supplies.

Date and details of emergency drills carried out must be recorded.

Updated: June 20, 2003


Anti exposure suit and immersion suit

Definition (Regulation-3)

Anti exposure suit: A protective suit designed for the use by rescue boat crews and marine evacuation
system parties.

Immersion suit: A protective suit which reduces the body heat loss of a person wearing it in cold

Requirements (Regulation-7, section-3)

To comply with LSA code specifications (sec-2.3, 2.3).

Should be of appropriate size.

Shall be provided for every person assigned to crew the rescue boat or assigned to the marine
evacuation system party.

If the ship is constantly engaged in warm climate, the administration may exempt the ship from the

Class 1 & 2 Oral Answers ( Part 25 )

Life buoys
Requirements (Regulation-32)

Length in meters Minimum number of lifebuoys

Under 100 8
100 and under 150 10
150 and under 200 12
200 and over 14

Specifications (Regulation-7.1, sec-2.1, LSA code)

Outer diameter not more than 800 mm

Inner diameter not less than 400 mm
Constructed of buoyant material.
Mass not less than 2.5 kgs ( MOB not less than 4 kgs )
Support 14.5 kg of iron for 24 hours in fresh water.
Withstand a drop into water from a stowage position to water line in light condition or 30 meter
whichever is greater.
Fitted with a grab line not less than 9.5 mm in diameter. Grab line secured at 4 equidistant points.
Length not less than 4 times the outside diameter.
Painted international orange / highly visible color.
Readily available on both sides of vessel. At least one at stern. No permanent securing.
At least one buoy on each side fitted with buoyant life line ( 2 x stow height or 30 meter)
At least ½ the no of life buoys with SI lights ( 2 hours )
At least 2 with smoke floats ( 15 minutes )
Marked in roman - ship's name and port of registry.

Fire drill
MSA CH-2(2), reg-15, b(ii).3.

Performance of crew members assigned to fire fighting duties shall be evaluated by conducting
onboard training and drills.
Areas require improvement should be identified.
Competency in fire fighting skills to be maintained.
Operational readiness of fire fighting organization to be maintained.

MSA CH-3, reg-19, 3.4

In fire drills, due consideration to be given to regular practice in various emergencies that may occur,
depending on the type of cargo.
Fire drill to include the followings: Reporting to station and preparation for duties as per muster list.
Starting of fire pump, using at least two require jets water to show the system in proper working order.
Checking fire men's outfit and other personal rescue equipments.
Checking of relevant communication equipments.
Checking the operation of water tight doors, fire doors, fire dampers and main inlets and outlets of
ventilation systems.

Class 1 & 2 Oral Answers ( Part 25 )

Checking the necessary arrangements of subsequent abandoning of the ship.

Equipments used in fire drills to be brought back to its fully operational condition. Any faults and
defects discovered during the drill to be remedied as soon as practicable.

Regulation-30, sec-2

In passenger ships, fire drills to take place weekly.

Entire crew need not to be involved.
Each crew members must participate in a fire drill each month.
Passengers are encouraged to attend these drills.