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Indian Minerals

Yearbook 2011
(Part- II)
50th Edition
QUARTZ & OTHER SILICA MINERALS
(ADVANCE RELEASE)

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA
MINISTRY OF MINES
INDIAN BUREAU OF MINES
Indira Bhavan, Civil Lines,
NAGPUR 440 102
PHONE/FAX NO. (0712) 2565471
PBX : (0712) 2562649, 2560544, 2560648

E-MAIL : cme@ibm.gov.in
Website: www.ibm.gov.in
October 2012

QUARTZ & OTHER SILICA MINERALS

66 Quartz & Other Silica Minerals

he term 'quartz' is often referred to as a synonym


for silica. Silica (SiO2) is one of the ubiquitous
materials in the earth's crust. Quartz, quartz crystals,
quartzite, silica sand, sand (others) and moulding
sand are all coined together in one generic name
'silica minerals'. This is because all these commodities
are essentially crystalline silicon dioxide (SiO2)
with variations mostly related to their crystalline
structure and presence of minor or trace impurities. Silica
occurs in several forms giving rise to different varieties.
Crystalline Varieties
The important varieties of crystalline quartz
are vein quartz (massive crystalline quartz); milky quartz
(white, translucent to opaque); ferruginous
quartz (containing brown limonite and red haematite
and almost opaque); aventurine quartz (containing
glistening flakes of mica or haematite); cat's eye
(opalescent greenish quartz with fibrous structure); rock
crystal (clear, colourless, well-crystallised transparent
quartz); amethyst (clear-purple or violet-blue),
transparent quartz; rose quartz; smoky quartz; etc.
Occurrences of massive crystalline quartz in veins or
pegmatites have been recorded in almost all the states.
Clastic or Granular Varieties
These varieties include sand consisting largely
of unconsolidated quartzose grains (0.06 mm to
2 mm diameter), gravel consisting of largely
unconsolidated coarse quartzose grains or pebbles
(2 mm to 8 mm in diameter), sandstone and quartzite.
The occurrences are reported from Andhra Pradesh,
Bihar, Delhi, Haryana, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya
Pradesh, Rajasthan,Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh,
etc. The silica sand from Naini area in Allahabad
district, Uttar Pradesh is of a very high quality.
Cryptocrystalline Varieties
This group includes chalcedony, agate, jasper,
onyx, flint and chert. These varieties appear noncrystalline (amorphous) in hand specimens,
but under microscope show double refraction which
reveals their concealed crystalline nature. These
varieties are reported from Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh,
Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Madhya
Pradesh, Karnataka and Punjab. The most important
occurrences of agate are in Ratnapur, Rajpipla area and

further west between Tapi and Narmada rivers


in Bharuch district, Gujarat, where it is found as pebbles
in varying sizes associated with clay washed down
by the river flow. Other occurrences of economic
importance are reported from Amravati, Aurangabad,
Buldhana, Chandrapur, Nashik and Pune districts
in Maharashtra; beds of Krishna and Godavari rivers
in Andhra Pradesh; Dumka district in Jharkhand;
Dhar, Mandsaur, Sihore and Shahdol districts in
Madhya Pradesh; and Kachchh district in Gujarat.

RESOURCES
As per the UNFC system as on 1.4.2010 , the
total resources of quartz and silica sand in the
country are estimated at 3,499 million tonnes out of
which 12% i.e. 429 million tonnes are placed under
reserves category while 88% i.e. 3,070 million tonnes
are placed under remaining resources category.
Resources by grades reflect foundry & moulding
grade as 19%, glass grade 14%, ceramic & pottery
grade 11% and ferro-silicon grade as 5%. The
unclassified, others, sodium silicate and not-known
grades account for about 51% of the total resources.
Haryana alone accounts for about 52% resources,
followed by Rajasthan (9.5%), Tamil Nadu (6.5%),
Anadhra Pradesh (6%), Maharashtra (5%), Jharkhand
(4.5%) and Karnataka and Gujarat (3% each)
(Table - 1).
The total resources of quartzite in the country
as per the UNFC system as on 1.4.2010(Provisional)
are estimated as 1,251 million tonnes of which
reserves are about 87 million tonnes and remaining
resources are 1,165 million tonnes . Bulk resources
of about 50% are located in Haryana followed by
Bihar (22%), Maharashtra (7%), Punjab (6.5%),
Odisha (5%) and Jharkhand (3%). Resources of
refractory grade are 37%, ceramic & pottery grade
18% and BF grade 5%. The remaining 40%
resources are of low, unclassified, others and notknown grades (Table - 2).

EXPLORATION & DEVELOPMENT


Exploration for quartz and silica minerals was
conducted by DMG, Rajasthan and DMM, West
Bangal. Details of exploration carried out for
quartz and other silica minerals during 2010-11
are given in Table - 3.

66-2

Table 1 : Reserves/Resources of Quartz & Silica Sand as on 1.04.2010


(By Grades/States)
(In 000 tonnes)
Reserves
Grade/State

Proved
STD111

66-3

By States
Andhra Pradesh
Assam
Bihar
Chhattisgarh
Goa
Gujarat
Haryana
Himachal Pradesh
Jammu & Kashmir
Jharkhand
Karnataka
Kerala
Madhya Pradesh
Maharashtra
Meghalaya
Odisha
Punjab
Rajasthan
Tamil Nadu
Tripura
Uttar Pradesh
West Bengal
Figures rounded off.

33,590
141
16,042
1
563
8,677
144
12,356
438
132,135
60,063
8,042
779

STD121 STD122

Total
(A)

Feasibility
STD211

Pre-feasibility
STD221

Measurred
STD222 STD331

Indicated
STD332

Interred Reconnsaissance Total


STD333
STD334
(B)

35,079

121,173

429,223

185,399

322,454

321,760

58,683

259,116

1,907,994

14,402

15,139
96
38
1,554
15,999
7
116
353
1,778

40,524
6,479
1,594
32,111
20,891
13
11,398
2,828
5,333

158,792
11,464
3,254
130,411
83,175
2,425
22,358
7,781
9,564

46,785
9,022
533
12,935
58,339
38,280
11,869
7,634

23,815
16,023
1,490
23,781
36,249
249
62,210
154,593
4,045

51,528
20,409
5,143
59,764
116,140
1,861
14,649
33,209
19,058

2,176
98
7,328
16,984
116
31,982
-

8,707
65,126
146
12,826
38,301
10
25
39,669
94,307

175,356
57,175
31,245
148,729
302,462
3,508
862,023
190,442
137,053

5,922
11
7,672
220
17
560

3,320
684
46
4
3,809
38
11
2,085
69
10,472
9
14,530
-

35,772
2,121
46
19,256
8,317
7
8,671
2,375
14
10,884
860
27,757
93
3,977
1,022

72,683
2,121
187
35,982
8,363
8
9,238
14,861
38
169
25,326
1,367
170,364
60,166
26,549
1,801

16,664
385
17,133
35,553
99
2
12,402
404
51
29,372
1,161
40,583
29,644
1,946
-

6,242
20
5,110
252,759
989
4,970
1,959
15,172
1,503
13,344
4,892
15,482
11

25,109
620
1,736
11,774
182,478
3,299
8,276
3,354
86
48,391
2,599
23,433
7,523
3,071
11

5,404
56
2,144
27,837
518
205
14,611
47
90
3,202
3,387
225
957
-

10,965
2,999
39,767
1,026
100
30,241
316
355
177
63,385
7,658
95,837
6,290
-

65,867
1,790
24,652
191
18,248
25,629
1,264,473
2,928
3,110
141,342
49,508
77,528
2,191
58,374
6,906
3,836
3,927
73,883
27,150
264
51,590
4,607

6,099
7,672
107
525
-

Total
resources
(A+B)

3,069,808 3,499,031
314,289
167,853
38,568
265,362
576,148
5,628
977,523
461,781
262,657

473,082
179,317
41,822
395,773
659,323
8,053
999,881
469,562
272,220

136,349
209,031
1,790
1,790
24,652
26,773
8,924
9,111
20,004
20,004
64,789
100,771
1,802,868 1,811,231
3,027
3,035
3,110
3,110
147,283
156,521
75,987
90,848
128,096
128,135
2,692
2,861
151,663
176,989
7,083
7,083
72,573
73,940
3,927
3,927
162,104
332,468
168,432
228,598
490
490
79,337
105,886
4,629
6,430

QUARTZ & OTHER SILICA MINERALS

All India: Total


272,972
By Grades
Glass
103,129
Ferro-silicon
4,889
Sodium silicate
1,622
Ceramic and Pottery
96,746
Foundry and Moulding 46,285
Abrassive
2,405
Others
10,844
Unclassified
4,600
Not-known
2,453

Probable

Remaining resources

Table 2 : Reserves/Resources of Quartzite as on 1.4.2010


(By Grades/States)
(In '000 tonnes)
Grade/State

Reserves
Proved
STD111

Remaining resources

Probable

Total
(A)

Feasibility
STD211

Pre-feasibility

STD122

59004

1647

25948

86599

33217

105018

147686

Refractory Grade-I

52958

268

21894

75120

4549

626

11470

Refractory Grade-II

1520

406

485

2411

146

461

Ceramic / Pottery

558

1015

1582

16195

35826

72771

Low

985

1000

1985

468

3863

169

242

1258

1500

Ferro-silicon
B.F.
Others

Indicated
STD332

Inferred
STD333

Reconnaissance
STD334

Total
(B)

Total
resources
(A+B)

STD222
93116

113611

669453

2548

1164649

1251248

829

1067

239474

1730

259745

334865

3183

21490

97836

123116

125527

3599

90702

219093

220675

18

37

8460

12846

14831

692

3034

376

523

4794

4794

606

809

197

275

62822

295

65004

66504

66-4

1079

907

210

2196

9488

757

2025

588

3012

15870

18066

Unclassified

163

86

249

2203

55769

55479

67347

55674

133095

369567

369816

Not-known

1500

58

1558

6418

2080

20935

31130

34053

94616

96174

2114

406

2131

4651

548

1009

7481

4390

5209

295

18932

23583

5270

5270

5270
276333

By States
Andhra Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
Bihar
Chhattisgarh
Haryana
Himachal Pradesh

32

32

146

461

20054

5287

22822

227531

276301

1404

1267

2671

3086

3926

2195

14706

23913

26584

15702

89742

112365

86951

85333

231887

621980

621980

25

16

41

16

16

57

Jammu & Kashmir

1500

58

1558

1558

Jharkhand

1079

174

1253

197

275

38869

39341

40594

Karnataka

390

1011

1401

190

1730

1920

3321

832

832

832

48700

19480

68180

9516

28

1639

11353

22536

90716

Odisha

3629

1151

1783

6563

4204

9834

3744

681

34851

523

53837

60400

Punjab

116

81796

81912

81912

163

86

249

18

18

706

742

991

675

16444

17119

17119

Madhya Pradesh
Maharashtra

Rajasthan
Sikkim
Figures rounded off.

QUARTZ & OTHER SILICA MINERALS

STD121
All India : Total
By Grades

STD221

Measured
STD331

QUARTZ & OTHER SILICA MINERALS

Table 3 : Details of Exploration Activities for Quartz & Quartzite, 2010-11


Agency/
State/
District

QUARTZ
DMM,
West Bangal
Bankura

Location
Area/
Block

Mapping
Scale

Drilling

Area
No. of
(sq km) boreholes

Meterage

Sampling
(No.)

Remarks
Reserves/Resources estimated

Kendua
dihi,
P S Ganga
Jalghatti

1:4545

0.5

08

Two trenches dugged. Inclusion of


minor quartz veins were noticed.
Resources were not estimated.

DMG
Rajasthan
To n k

N/v Tirodi,
Mandolai
etc.
Tq - Todarai
Singh

1:50000
1:10000
1:2000

115
11.5
1.15

Garnetiferrous mica schist of light


grey to brownish grey, highly
foliated comprising of quartz
were located N/v Tordi.

Rajsamand

N/v Tikhi
Tq - Deogarh

1:10000

20

17

Pegmatite bands were identified


which is potential for mineral
quartz.

Jiajury
Quartzite
Block Phase II

655

Thickness of friable quartzite


vary from 40 to 60 m with 85
to 90% SiO2 . Estimated 320.53
million tonnes of quartzite
resources under measured
category with Av. grade of
88.42% SiO 2 , 0.93% Fe 2 O 3 ,
5.12 % Al2O3, 0.13% CaO and
0.11% of MgO.

QUARTZITE
MECL
Assam
Nagaon

PRODUCTION, STOCK &


PRICES
QUARTZ
The production of quartz at 457 thousand
tonnes in 2010-11 decreased by 13% due to non
availability of enviormental clearance to some
mines. There were 87 reporting mines in 2010-11
as against 92 in preceding year. Besides, the
production of quartz was also reported from
46 mines as an associated mineral as against 49
mines in preceding year. The share of public
sector mines, in the total output was about 2%
d u r i n g t h e y e a r. T h e s h a r e o f 1 0 p r i n c i p a l
producers was about 61% of the total output.
Andhra Pradesh continued to be the major
producing state of quartz in the year 2010-11 also
accounting for 43% of the total production
followed by Rajasthan 25%, Jharkhand 16%
Gujarat 8%, West Bengal 3%, Maharashtra 2%,
and the remaining 3% production was contributed

by Chhasttisgarh, Karnataka, Odisha and TamilNadu. About 56% of the production during the
year 2010-11 was reported by nine mines including
3 associated mines having production above ten
thousand tonnes. Seventeen mines including
three associated mines having annual production
between five thousand to ten thousand tonnes
contributed about 25% of the total production.The
remaining was the contribution of 107 mines
including 40 associated mines having annual
production below five thousand tonnes
(Tables - 4 to 7).
The mine-head stocks of quartz at the end of
the year were 335 thousand tonnes as against
247 thousand tonnes in the beginning of the year
(Table - 8).
The average daily labour employed in quartz
mines in 2010-11 was 972 as against 751 in the
previous year. Domestic prices of quartz are
furnished in the General Review on 'Prices'.

66-5

QUARTZ & OTHER SILICA MINERALS


Table - 4 (Concld.)

Table 4 : Principal Producers of Quartz


2010-11
Name & address
of producer

Name & address


of producer

Location of mine
State

Shri Ram Minerals Industries,


C/o Goyar Enterprises, Bagda
Bhawan, Opposite Jyoti Petrol
Pump, Road No. 1,
Vishwakarma Industrial Area,
Jaipur - 302 013,
Rajasthan.

Rajasthan

Shri Vijaya Gimpex Mining


Pvt. Ltd., Shriram Chamber
Kamalapuri Colony , Phase III
Hyderabad-500 073,
Andhra Pradesh.

Andhra
Pradesh

*Dolphin Feldspar Pvt. Ltd,


Kot's court, 4 th Floor,
6-3-1239/2/A, Raj Bhawan Rd.,
Somajiguda, Hyderabad,
Andhra Pradesh.

Andhra
Pradesh

*Sandeep Kumar
M/s Vishwa Karma Minerals,
Chandwa, Dist. - Latehar,
Jharkhand.

Jharkhand

Mh. Mahmood Alam,


At - Itkey, P.O.- Barikhap
Dist. - Latehar
Jharkhand.

Jharkhand

Location of mine
State

District
To n k

MahaboobNagar

MahaboobNagar

Latehar

Latehar

(Conctd.)

District

Dilipsingh P.Solanki,
C/O Latesh H. Pandye,
Pattha Talawadi,
Near Hanuman Mandir ,
Godhra-389 001,
Gujarat.

Gujarat

PanchaMahal

V. B. C. Woods
Distillation Pvt. Ltd,
III Floor, Progressive Towers
Kheiratabad,
Hyderabad- 500 004,
Andhra Pradesh.

Andhra
Pradesh

Medak

P. V. Ramana Reddy,
Chella Chelimala,
P.O.-Dhone
Dist. - Kurnool
Andhara Pradesh.

Andhra
Pradesh

Kurnool

Anandraj Singh,
(Raj Minerals)
8-4-316, Sanath Nagar,
Hyderabad-500 018,
Andhra Pradesh.

Andhra
Pradesh

Medak

B. Sanjeeva Reddy,
H.No. 6-200, Rly. Station Rd.,
Betamcherla-518 599
Dist. - Kurnool
Andhra Pradesh.

Andhra
Pradesh

Kurnool

* Associated mines with felspar.

Table 5 : Production of Quartz, 2008-09 to 2010-11


(By States)
(Qty in tonnes; value in ` '000)
2008-09

2009-10

2010-11(P)

State
Quantity

Value

Quantity

Value

Quantity

Value

430734

75564

528066

95759

456829

82331

139837

22138

182040

29642

197653

31873

1846

258

384

54

655

92

Gujarat

77400

8031

85343

8764

36837

4782

Jharkhand

39434

5607

68331

13420

72413

7034

Karnataka

17500

1289

275

108

10

1889

155

15989

3619

12650

2761

10144

2252

India
Andhra Pradesh
Chhattisgarh

Madhya Pradesh
Maharashtra
Odisha

1500

375

1570

257

120512

23769

154698

29471

114703

22857

Tamil Nadu

10589

9324

6952

7898

7542

9898

West Bengal

6127

1154

15823

3384

14983

3385

Rajasthan

66-6

QUARTZ & OTHER SILICA MINERALS

Table 6 : Production of Quartz, 2009-10 & 2010-11


(By Sectors/States/Districts)
(Qty in tonnes; value in ` '000)
2009-10

2010-11(P)

State/District
No. of mines

Quantity

Value

No. of mines

Quantity

Value

92(49)

528066

95759

87(46)

456829

82331

5191

6823

2(1)

9375

9439

90(49)

522875

88936

85(45)

447454

72892

2 6 ( 11 )

182040

29642

31(14)

197653

31873

Anantapur

15

65

10

Khammam

451

68

48

Krishna

445

67

193

29

Kurnool

1695

236

25333

2661

7(5)

105218

17657

7(6)

103125

17117

Medak

40978

6259

27250

4689

Nalgonda

2600

481

2383

441

3(6)

7146

1353

2(8)

17200

3320

Ranga Reddy

5134

810

Visakhapatnam

8579

1716

7199

1354

Vizianagaram

14905

1802

9723

1435

384

54

655

92

384

54

655

92

85343

8764

36837

4782

85343

8764

36837

4782

9(3)

68331

13420

9(3)

72413

7034

Deoghar

1590

223

1925

221

Dumka

7527

941

5807

900

Hazaribagh

(1)

1174

229

(1)

785

124

Jamtara

(1)

5126

589

(1)

6370

764

Latehar

4(1)

18218

1944

4(1)

51793

4022

Ranchi

30

Saraikala-Kharsawan

20136

6947

Singhbhum (East)

14530

2543

5733

1003

(1)

275

108

(1)

10

(1)

275

108

(1)

10

2(1)

1889

155

Balaghat

1(1)

1559

124

Chhatarpur

330

31

India
Public sector
Private sector
Andhra Pradesh

Mahaboobnagar

Nellore

Chhattisgarh
Jashpur
Gujarat
Panchamahal
Jharkhand

Karnataka
Bengaluru
Madhya Pradesh

(Conctd.)
66-7

QUARTZ & OTHER SILICA MINERALS


Table - 6 (Concld.)
2009-10

2010-11(P)

State/District
No. of mines

Quantity

Value

No. of mines

Quantity

Value

Maharashtra

12650

2761

10144

2252

Bhandara

12552

2749

10008

2233

Chandrapur

98

12

136

19

1(1)

1570

257

1(1)

1570

257

33(33)

154698

29471

22(26)

11 4 7 0 3

22857

Ajmer

8(9)

24823

4218

7(12)

18230

3476

Alwar

260

52

110

22

3(19)

11055

1430

1(13)

4492

630

359

90

166

42

4(5)

9962

1849

2(1)

2172

198

Sikar

4718

743

930

233

Sirohi

4090

614

1396

227

Jaipur

7853

1178

5545

832

Pali

350

140

To n k

90213

18980

81662

17197

Udaipur

1015

177

Tamil Nadu

6952

7898

10(1)

7542

9898

Coimbatore

1092

218

Dharmapuri

230

173

Dindigul

632

568

141

39

Karur

1055

211

448

90

Madurai

469

301

2830

1615

Nammakal

3474

6427

3455

6981

Salem

Tiruvarur

(1)

668

1173

We s t B e n g a l

15823

3384

14983

3385

Bankura

13305

2795

8650

1687

Birbhum

1076

301

1091

417

Purulia

1442

288

5242

1281

Odisha
Sundergarh
Rajasthan

Bhilwara
Chittorgarh
Rajsamand

Figures in parentheses indicate number of associated mines of quartz with felspar, mica, silica sand and asbestos.
* Reported labour and/or production of felspar.

66-8

QUARTZ & OTHER SILICA MINERALS

Table 7 : Production of Quartz, 2009-10 & 2010-11(P)


(By Frequency Groups)
(Qty in tonnes)
No. of mines

Production for
the group

Production group

Percentage in
total production

Cumulative
percentage

2009-10

2010-11

2009-10

2010-11

2009-10

2010-11

2009-10

2010-11

92 (49)

87 (46)

528066

456829

100.00

100.00

Up to 500

34 (23)

40 (22)

9552

6426

1.81

1.41

1.81

1.41

501-1000

9 (10)

6 (7)

14220

9656

2.69

2.11

4.50

3.52

1001-5000

29 (12)

21(11)

85862

72480

16.26

15.86

20.76

19.38

10(2)

14( 3)

93162

113549

17.64

24.86

38.40

44.24

10 (2)

6(3)

325270

254718

61.60

55.76

100.00

100.00

All Groups

5001-10000
10001 & above

Figures in parentheses indicate number of associated mines of quartz, felspar, mica, silica sand and asbestos.

Table 8 : Mine-head Stocks of Quartz


2010-11(P)
(By States)
(In tonnes)
State

At the beginning
of the year

At the end
of the year

India

246785

335347

146018

203375

114

Gujarat

3948

3979

Jharkhand

2384

3584

Karnataka

11947

13812

170

9347

5786

2629

584

945

75431

94660

Tamil Nadu

40

2605

West Bengal

477

297

Andhra Pradesh
Chhattisgarh

Madhya Pradesh
Maharashtra
Odisha
Rajasthan

year. Besides, the production of silica sand was also


reported as an associated mineral by four mines
during the year. Ten principal producers accounted
for about 62% of the total production. The share of
public sector in the total production was 4% in
2010-11, same as in the preceding year.
Gujarat was the leading producing state and
accounted for 39% of the total production during
the year, followed by Andhra Pradesh(37%),
Maharashtra (9%), Rajasthan(6%), Uttar Pradesh
(4%), Jharkhand (3%) and Karnataka (1%). The
remaining one percent production was the
contribution of Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
About 60% production of silica sand was
contributed by 9 silica sand mines and one
associated mine, each producing more than
50 thousand tonnes annually. About 37% was
contributed by 50 silica sand mines and two
associated mines, each producing five thousand
to fifty thousand tonnes. The remaining 3%
output was contributed by 55 silica sand mines
and one associated mine, each producing less than
5,000 tonnes annually (Tables 9 to 12).

SILICA SAND
The production of silica sand at 3.08 million
tonnes in 2010-11 increased by about 21% over
the previous year due to increase in demand from
cement plants.Gujarat, the major producing state,
reported increase of about 160% in comparison
with the previous year.
During the year under review, there were
114 reporting mines as against 132 in the preceding

Mine-head stocks of silica sand at the end of


2010-11 were 4,996 thousand tonnes as against
of 3,260 thousand tonnes at the beginning of the
year (Table 13).
The average daily employment of labour in
2010-11 was 1,938 as against 2,392 in the previous
year. Domestic prices of silica sand are furnished
in the General Review on 'Prices'.

66-9

QUARTZ & OTHER SILICA MINERALS

Table 9 : Principal Producers of Silica Sand


2010-11
Name & address
of producer

Location of mine
State

N. G. Mahida
At & P.O. -Bhilod-393 135,
Dist. Bharuch
Gujarat.

Bharuch

Kumaraswamy
Silica Mines,
Momidi P.O.,
Chillakur - Mandal,
Distt. Nellore,
Andhra Pradesh.

Andhra
Pradesh

Nellore

Sanghi Industries Ltd,


Post - Sanghipuram
Dist. Kachchh,
Gujarat-370 511.

Gujarat

Kachchh

Bhavani Minerals
At &P.O. - Bhilod-393 135
Tehsil - Valia,
Dist. Bharuch,
Gujarat.

Gujarat

Bharuch

D. Sundra Rami Reddy


P.O.-Chinthavaram
Dist. Nellore,
Andhra Pradesh.

Andhra
Pradesh

Nellore

Name & address


of producer

Location of mine
State

District

Gujarat

Table - 9 (Concld.)

District

Bundi Silica Sand Supply Co.


Kanhaiyalal Ghatiwala,
Rishabh Bhavan, New Colony
Gumanpura,
Dist. Kota - 324 007,
Rajasthan.

Rajasthan

Bundi

Nishita Mines & Minerals


6/160, East Street,
Gudur, Dist. Nellore
Andhra Pradesh

Andhra
Pradesh

Nellore

Y. Janaki Rama Reddy


Village and Post -Varagali
Mandal:-Chillakur,
Dist. Nellore,
Andhra Pradesh.

Andhra
Pradesh

Nellore

Mohd. Sher Khan Pathan


S/o Gulbaz Khan
Vill- Banesti
P.O. - Sawa,
Dist. Chittorgarh
Rajasthan.

Rajasthan

Chittorgarh

Southern Silica Mines


7/105, Mitta Palem Street
Gudur, Dist. Nellore,
Andhra Pradesh.

Andhra
Pradesh

Nellore

(Conctd.)

Table - 10 : Production of Silica Sand, 2008-09 to 2010-11


(By States)
(Qty in tonnes; value in ` '000)
2008-09

2009-10

2010-11(P)

State
Quantity

Value

Quantity

Value

Quantity

Value

2836804

366083

2545988

408559

3081468

342351

1251780

61684

958934

64205

1132270

61541

Gujarat

368720

32025

465530

40569

1210046

80626

Jharkhand

120170

38772

91597

32818

85236

29275

Karnataka

107266

12961

109468

15206

39272

4900

46965

17112

33988

20220

14215

10993

40

341866

92503

271517

90831

264191

69427

7381

1845

2800

700

398540

82051

418311

103878

194073

57274

12009

3396

10476

5688

12526

5211

182067

23729

183367

34444

129639

23104

India
Andhra Pradesh

Kerala
Madhya Pradesh
Maharashtra
Odisha
Rajasthan
Tamil Nadu
Uttar Pradesh

66-10

QUARTZ & OTHER SILICA MINERALS

Table 11 : Production of Silica Sand, 2009-10 and 2010-11


(By Sectors/States/Districts)
(Qty in tonnes; value in ` '000)
2009-10

2010-11(P)

State/District
No. of mines
India
Public sector
Private sector

Quantity

Value

No. of mines

Quantity

Value

132(4)
5
127(4)

2545988
106925
2439063

408559
29883
378676

11 4 ( 4 )
7
107(4)

3081468
129169
2952299

342351
34316
308035

Andhra Pradesh
Kurnool
Nellore
Prakasam

50
5
44
1

958934
3477
948459
6998

64205
673
62972
560

42(1)
3
39(1)
-

11 3 2 2 7 0
2652
1129618
-

61541
423
61118
-

Gujarat
Bharuch
Kachchh
Sabarkantha
Surat
Surendranagar

14(1)
9(1)
1
1
1
2

465530
406026
29615
5651
30
24208

40569
36777
360
1837
4
1591

16(1)
12(1)
1
1
1
1

1210046
992039
194677
4095
105
19130

80626
72393
5815
1353
13
1052

1(1)
1(1)

91597
91597

32818
32818

1(1)
1(1)

85236
85236

29275
29275

20
3
4
8
5

109468
13250
24760
44540
26918

15206
1193
2823
8778
2412

15
4
7
4

39272
3567
18250
17455

4900
393
2792
1715

Kerala
Alappuzha

7
7

33988
33988

20220
20220

6
6

14215
14215

10993
10993

Maharashtra
Ratnagiri
Sindhudurg

15
6
9

271517
11791
259726

90831
3479
87352

13
5
8

264191
27196
236995

69427
5823
63604

Odisha
Sundergarh

1
1

2800
2800

700
700

9(2)
1
4
1
1(1)
1
(1)
1
-

4 1 8 3 11
6088
108025
79977
139591
17764
4030
62836
-

103878
974
16478
39909
36852
3535
790
5340
-

7(1)
1
2
1
1(1)
1
1

194073
6023
4960
99235
76220
2645
4990

57274
829
843
34732
18960
662
1248

4
2
2

10476
3254
7222

5688
3351
2337

6
3
3

12526
3459
9067

5 2 11
3253
1958

11
9
2

183367
177266
6101

34444
33278
1166

8
6
2

129639
122390
7249

23104
22260
844

Jharkhand
Sahibganj
Karnataka
Gulbarga
Haveri
Udupi
Uttar Kannad

Rajasthan
Alwar
Bharatpur
Bundi
Chittorgarh
Dausa
Bikaner
Sikar
Karauli
Sawai Madhopur
Tamil Nadu
Kanchipuram
Villupuram
Uttar Pradesh
Allahabad
Chitrakut

Figures in parentheses indicate number of associated mines with agate, kaolin & quartz.

66-11

QUARTZ & OTHER SILICA MINERALS

Table 12 : Production of Silica Sand, 2009-10 & 2010-11 (P)


(By Frequency Groups)
(Qty in tonnes)
No. of mines

Production for
the group

Production group

Percentage in
total production

Cumulative
percentage

2009-10

2010-11

2009-10

2010-11

2009-10

2010-11

2009-10

2010-11

132(4)

11 4 ( 4 )

2545988

3081468

100.00

100.00

18(1)

2165

3223

0.09

0.11

0.09

0.11

All Groups
Up

to

500

501

to 1000

3743

4826

0.15

0.16

0.24

0.27

1001

to 3000

26

21

53511

38511

2.10

1.25

2.34

1.52

3001

to 5000

18(1)

10

71732

40712

2.82

1.32

5.16

2.84

5001

to 10000 3 2 ( 1 )

14

234386

95634

9.20

3.10

14.36

5.94

10001 to 15000

110051

61185

4.32

1.99

18.68

7.93

15001 to 25000

12

11

234753

200972

9.22

6.52

27.90

14.45

20(2)

324262

777906

12.74

25.24

40.64

39.69

50001 and Above 1 2 ( 2 )

9(1)

1511385

1858499

59.36

60.31

100 .00

100.00

25001

to 50000

Table 13 : Mine-head Stocks of Silica Sand


2010-11 (P)
(By States)
(In tonnes)
State

India
Andhra Pradesh
Gujarat

At the beginning
of the year

At the end
of the year

3260050

4995834

2284966

2245585

358318

2202484

Jharkhand

17993

22777

Karnataka

64343

59044

Kerala

27365

9744

242234

187495

570

570

185882

184006

158

46

78221

84083

Maharashtra
Odisha
Rajasthan
Tamil Nadu
Uttar Pradesh

There were 12 reporting mines during the


y e a r a n d 1 4 i n t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r. B e s i d e s ,
production of quartzite was reported by one
associated mine in the current year and
4 associated mines in the preceding year. During
2010-11, five principal producers accounted for
about 84% production. Entire output of quartzite
was reported from mines operated in the private
sector.
Bihar was the leading producing state in
2010-11 contributing about 54% production,
followed by Jharkhand (21%), Karnataka (9%),
AndhraPradesh (6%), Odisha & Rajasthan (4% each)
and Maharashtra (2%) (Tables-14 to 16).
Mine-head stocks of quartzite at the end of
the year 2010-11 were 24 thousand tonnes as
against 38 thousand tonnes at the beginning of
the year. (Table-17).

QUARTZITE
Production of quartzite at 118 thousand
tonnes in 2010-11 increased by 5% as compared
to that in the previous year .

The average daily employment of


labour during the year under review was 183
as against 285 in 2009-10. Domestic prices of
quartzite are furnished in the General Review on
Prices'.

66-12

QUARTZ & OTHER SILICA MINERALS

Table 14: Principal Producers of Quartzite, 2010-11


Location of mine
Name & address of producer
State

District

Khalsa Stone Works,


Albert Road,
Jamalpur, Munger,
Bihar.

Bihar

Munger

Bharat Mining Company,


Post - Sunder Nagar,
Dist. Singhbhum East
Jharkhand.

Jharkhand

SinghbhumEast

Janardan Singh
At:-Shitalpur,
P.O. -Dariyapur,
Dist. Munger,
Bihar.

Bihar

Munger

Shivanandi.Mamadapur
Vill. -Saundatti,
Ditt. Belgaum,
Karnataka-591 126.

Karnataka

Belgaum

Sunrise Stone Works


At - Sujawalpur,
P.O. - Shankarpur
Dist. Munger,
Bihar.

Bihar

Munger

Table 15 : Production of Quartzite, 2008-09 to 2010-11


(By States)
(Qty in tonnes; value in ` '000)
2008-09

2009-10

2010-11(P)

State
Quantity

Value

Quantity

Value

Quantity

Value

97458

31459

11 2 6 5 2

37377

11 8 1 7 9

35422

595

89

122

18

7717

4309

33760

13027

56394

20855

63350

19785

50

50

Jharkhand

2014

201

10737

2147

24658

5242

Karnataka

5500

1513

7437

2054

11200

2667

Maharashtra

1054

264

2481

620

2455

614

47451

13149

29886

11093

4608

2354

7034

3208

5545

582

4191

451

India
Andhra Pradesh
Bihar
Chhattisgarh

Odisha
Rajasthan

66-13

QUARTZ & OTHER SILICA MINERALS

Table 16 : Production of Quartzite, 2009-10 & 2010-11


(By Sectors/States/Districts)
(Qty in tonnes; value in ` '000)
2009-10

2010-11(P)

State/District
No. of mines
India
Private sector
Andhra Pradesh
Cuddaph
Srikakulam
Vizianagaram
Bihar
Munger

Quantity

Value

14(4)
14(4)
2
2
3
3

11 2 6 5 2
112652
122
122
56394
56394

37377
37377
18
18
20855
20855

1
1
1
1
2
2

50
50
10737
10737
7437
7437

(1)
(1)
4(3)
2
(2)
1
1
(1)
1
1

2481
2481
29886
23692
1336
2581
477
1800
5545
5545

Chhattisgarh
Rajnandgaon
Jharkhand
Singhbhum (East)
Karnataka
Belgaum
Maharashtra
Bhandara
Odisha
Jharsuguda
Keonjhar
Mayurbhanj
Sonepur
Sundergarh
Rajasthan
Sawai Madhopur

No. of mines

Quantity

Value

12(1)
12(1)
4
2
1
1
3
3

11 8 1 7 9
118179
7717
83
2218
5416
63350
63350

35422
35422
4309
12
1318
2979
19785
19785

8
8
2147
2147
2054
2054

1
1
1
1

24658
24658
11 2 0 0
11200

5242
5242
2667
2667

620
620
11 0 9 3
9965
200
253
63
612
582
582

(1)
(1)
2
1
1
1
1

2455
2455
4608
4590
18
4191
4191

614
614
2354
2352
2
451
451

Figures in parentheses indicate associated mines of pyrophyllite and quartz.

Table 17: Mine-head Stocks of Quartzite


2010-11 (P)
(By States)

SAND (OTHERS)

(In tonnes)
State

At the beginning
of the year

At the end
of the year

India

38342

23697

Andhra Pradesh

4372

10189

Bihar

9325

4239

555

Jharkhand

1918

1822

Karnataka

1687

2100

490

199

19995

5148

5712

4478

Chhattisgarh

Maharashtra
Odisha
Rajasthan

The production of sand (others) at 1.92 million


tonnes in 2010-11decreased by 11% as compared
to that in the previous year due to lower demand.
There were thirteen reporting mines in
2010-11 as against twelve in the previous year.
The Singareni Collieries Co. Ltd, having ten mines
in Andhra Pradesh contributed 87% production
of sand (others). Twelve percent production was
from three mines of Western Coalfields Ltd located
in Chandrapur district of Maharashtra. The
remaining one percent was reported as an
associated mineral by a private sector limestone
mine located in Jaintia Hills district of Meghalaya
(Tables - 18 to 20).
All mines were captive in nature and contract
labour was employed by the producers.
Mine-head stocks at the end of 2010-11 was
263 thousand tonnes as against 318 thousand
tonnes at the beginning of the year (Table - 21).

66-14

QUARTZ & OTHER SILICA MINERALS

Table 18 : Producers of Sand (Others), 2010-11


Location of mine
Name & address of producer
State

District

Singareni Collieries Co.Ltd,


P.O. Kothagudam Collieries,
Bhadrachalam Road,Station,
S. C. Railway,
Dist.- Khammam-507 101,
Andhra Pradesh.

Andhra Pradesh

Adilabad
Karimnagar

Western Coalfields Ltd,


Sasti Colliery,
P.O. - Sasti,
Dist. Chandrapur,
Maharashtra.

Maharashtra

Chandrapur

Cement Manufacturing Company Ltd,


Lumshnong,
P.O. - Khliehriat,
Dist-Jaintia Hills,
Meghalaya-793 200.

Meghalaya

Jaintia Hills

Table 19 : Production of Sand (Others), 2008-09 to 2010-11


((By States)
(Qty in tonnes; value in ` '000)
2008-09

2009-10

2010-11(P)

State
India
Andhra Pradesh
Maharashtra
Meghalaya

Quantity

Value

Quantity

Value

Quantity

Value

1808185

106971

2159405

101399

1916366

103969

1338315

55406

1763495

75083

1673137

90600

469870

51565

395910

26316

233009

11734

10220

1635

Table 20 : Production of Sand (Others), 2009-10 & 2010-11


(By Sectors/States/Districts)
(Qty in tonnes; value in ` '000)
2009-10

2010-11(P)

State/District
No. of mines
India

Quantity

Value

No. of mines

12

2159405

101399

12

2159405

Andhra Pradesh

10

Adilabad

Karimnagar
Vijaynagaram

Public sector
Private sector

Maharashtra
Chandrapur
Meghalaya
Jaintia Hills

Quantity

Value

13(1)

1916366

103969

101399

13

1906146

102334

(1)

10220

1635

1763495

75083

10

1673137

90600

616903

28609

736668

45855

1135693

45928

936469

44745

10899

546

395910

26316

233009

11 7 3 4

395910

26316

233009

11734

(1)

10220

1635

(1)

10220

1635

66-15

QUARTZ & OTHER SILICA MINERALS

Table 21: Mine-head Stocks of Sand (Others), 2010-11 (P)


(By States)
(In tonnes)
State

At the beginning of the year

India

At the end of the year

317948

262849

Andhra Pradesh

199320

168300

Maharashtra

118628

94549

AGATE
The production of agate was 19 tonnes in
2010-11 as compared to 11 tonnes during the
preceding year. There was only a single private
sector mine of agate which was situated in Bharuch
district of Gujarat (Tables - 22 to 24).

Mine-head stocks of agate at the end of


2010-11 was 25 tonnes as against 57 tonnes at the
beginning of the year (Table -25).
The average daily employment of labour
was 11 in 2010-11 as against 3 in the previous
year.

Table 22 : Producer of Agate 2010-11


Location of mine
Name & address of producer

Almiya I. Saiyad,
16, Vyapar Bhawan,
Himmatnagar,
Gujarat.

State

District

Gujarat

Bharuch

Table 23 : Production of Agate, 2008-09 to 2010-11


((By States)
(Qty in tonnes; value in ` '000)
2008-09

2009-10

2010-11(P)

State

India
Gujarat

Quantity

Value

Quantity

Value

Quantity

Value

11

19

10

11

19

10

Table 24 : Production of Agate, 2009-10 & 2010-11


(By Sectors/States/Districts)
(Qty in tonnes; value in ` '000)
2009-10

2010-11(P)

State/District

India
Private sector
Gujarat
Bharuch

No. of mines

Quantity

Value

No. of mines

Quantity

Value

11

19

10

11

19

10

11

19

10

11

19

10

66-16

QUARTZ & OTHER SILICA MINERALS

Table 25 : Mine-head Stocks of Agate, 2010-11 (P)


(By States)

JASPER
No production of jasper was reported

(In tonnes)
State
India
Gujarat

At the beginning
of the year

At the end
of the year

57
57

25
25

during 2009-10 and 2010-11. The only mine which


reported production in 2008-09, wound up its
operation due to lack of demand (Table - 26).

Table 26 : Production of Jasper, 2008-09 to 2010-11


((By States)
(Qty in tonnes; value in '000)
2008-09

2009-10

2010-11(P)

State

India
Rajasthan

Quantity

Value

Quantity

Value

Quantity

99

51

99

51

MINING
Mining for silica minerals is carried out by
manual opencast method. Quartz produced in the
form of lump along with other associated minerals
is invariably hammered to pieces and manually
sorted before it is despatched to the consuming
industries. It is sometimes crushed and marketed.
Glass sand is generally screened and washed to
remove all the deleterious constituents for its use
in glass industry.
APMDC owns two crushing plants located at
Mahaboobnagar district in Andhra Pradesh with
crushing capacity of 45 tonnes and 1,000 tonnes
a month, respectively. Besides, Maharashtra
Minerals Corp. Ltd has a 50,000-tonnes per
year beneficiation plant at Phondaghat in
Sindhudurg district. The plant has advanced
technology in washing both by water and
chemicals and further grading it in required
fractions.

HEALTH HAZARDS
Respirable silica is still a cause of major
concern to miners and consumers since many
minerals especially, industrial sand and gravel
contain crystalline silica, There is a potential
threat of workers getting subjected to "silicosis"
in quartz, silica sand and gravel mines
Occupational safety measures & regulations to

Value

monitor the levels of crystalline silica in these


m i n e s a r e m a n d a t o r y. I n t h e U S A , t h e
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
(OSHA) listed "crystalline silica" as one of their
top five priorities for formulation of necessary
rules. The OSHA, on the basis of significant
information put out by International Agency
f o r R e s e a r c h o n Ev a l u a t i o n o f C a n c e r, h a s
declared that any material containing more than
0.1% crystalline silica should indicate its
carcinogenic hazard.

USES
Quartz, quartzite and silica sand are used in
various industries like glass, refractory, foundry,
ceramic, cosmetic, electrical, abrasives, paints, etc.
The primary use of silica is in the manufacture of
virtually all types of glasswares, ceramics and
ceramic glazes. Other major uses are in metallurgy,
(where silica is used as a refractory, foundry
mould, fluxes and as a source of silicon for
the production of silicon metal and ferro-silicon
and other ferro-alloys), silicon carbide
manufacture, chemical & construction sectors
and as a natural abrasive. Known for its
piezoelectric properties, high quality quartz
crystal is used in electronic devices, multiple
telephone lines, depth-sounding devices, range
finders, chronometers, etc.

66-17

QUARTZ & OTHER SILICA MINERALS

Sand is also used as a fireproofing material,


for sandstowing in mines, soundproofing
material and as a filler. Silica sand is also used to
maintain or increase the permeability of oil and
gas-bearing formations; its application as a filler
in acid proof cements, putty, paints, epoxy
& polyester resins is inevitable. Besides, it is
widely used in horticulture, as a filtration medium,
and for ornamental purposes as well. Silica
flour is used as a filler in plastic and rubber
products.
Flint and chert are used in abrasives and tubemill lining. Besides, chert is used in crushed
form as aggregate for concrete and road surfacing.
Rounded pebbles of chalcedony are used as
balls in ball mill for finer crushing and grinding
f e l s p a r, c a l c i t e a n d b a r y t e s . T h e d i ff e r e n t
cryptocrystalline varieties of transparent and
translucent chalcedony are valued as
semiprecious stones and are carved out into a
variety of ornaments and used for making different
ornamental wares or articles of decoration.
Agate pieces after cutting and polishing are
sold as semiprecious stones. Big pieces are used
in making mortars and pestles for laboratory use.
Agate cut into requisite shapes is also used as
fulcra of scientific balances and in making edges,
planes and bearings of precision instruments.

INDUSTRY &
SPECIFICATIONS
In India, quartz, quartzite and silica sand are
used mainly in glass, foundry, ferro-alloys and
refractory industries and also as building
materials. According to its suitability for different
purposes, it may be named as building sand,
paving sand, moulding or foundry sand, refractory
sand or furnace sand, filter sand, glass sand and
grinding & polishing sand.

containers, bottles, amber glass containers, clear


flint glass, vacuum bottles and other glasswares.
It is reported that a large fraction of the
requirement of flat glass, container glass, glass
fibre and glass tablewares is being produced by
about 100 large- scale producers Most of them
are located in Gujarat,Mumbai, Kolkata,
Bengaluru and Hyderabad. There are more than
600 medium and small cottage-scale industries.
The production during 2009-10 and 2010-11 of
bottle glassware was 896,636 tonnes and
795,881 tonnes(up to Dec. 2010), respectively.
The natural silica sand is the preferred
material in glass industry, but in some cases where
the glass plants are located far away from silica
deposits, crushed quartz is also used. For use in
glass industry, the silica sand must be uniform in
chemical composition, size and shape of grains.
Uniform grain size promotes even melting in the
glass tank. The sand should not be coarser than
20 or 30 mesh and finer than 100 to 120 mesh. As
a general rule, the grains should be angular rather
than rounded, because angular grains melt more
readily than the rounded ones.
For glass manufacturing, the silica sand
should be fairly free from contaminations of clay
materials, pebbles, etc. Silica sand usually
contains iron oxide, calcium oxide, potassium
oxide and sodium oxide in small amounts. Iron is
the most objectionable impurity because it imparts
colouration to the glass. The common permissible
limits of iron oxide in silica sand for use in the
manufacture of different types of glass are as
follows:
Glass type
Optical glass
Flint or soda-lime glass

Fe2O 3 %
0.005-0.008
0.02-0.05

Plate glass

0.1-0.2

Glass

White bottles or window glass

0.2-0.5

Main use of silica minerals is in the


manufacture of different types of glasses, i.e. glass

Dark bottle glass

0.5-0.7

66-18

QUARTZ & OTHER SILICA MINERALS

BIS has laid down specifications for glass


making sands vide IS:488-1980(Second Revision,
Reaffrimed 2008).
Chromium compounds, alumina, lime and
magnesia are the other deleterious impurities. Chromium
compounds are undesirable because these compounds
impart more colouration to the glass than iron. Alumina
tends to decrease transparency and makes the batch
more difficult to melt. The maximum quantity of
alumina permissible in sand is 1.5 percent. The
maximum permissible limit for lime and magnesia is
about 0.05% and for alkalies it is 0.01% or less.

Ceramic
The Ceramic Industry in India ranks fifth in
the world in terms of production of ceramic tiles.
Ceramic industry comprises ceramic tiles,
sanitaryware and crockeryware items. These
products are manufactured both in large- and
small- scale sectors. In organised sector, there
were 16 units for ceramic tiles with an installed
capacity of 2.1 million tonnes per year, 16 units
for potteryware with 43,000 tpy installed capacity
and 7 units for sanitaryware with 1,43,000 tpy
capacity in the country (Table - 27).

Table 27 : Ceramic Industry


2009-10
Industry

Unit

Ceramic Tiles

million sq m

Potteryware

tonnes

Sanitaryware

tonnes

No. of Units

2010-11(e)

Production

No. of Units

Production

16 + 200
SSI Units

340.00

16 +200
SSI Units

391.00

16 + 1200
SSI Units

72956

16 + 1400
SSI Units

80000

7 + 210

431475

7 + 200

480000

SSI Units

SSI Units

Source: Ministry of Commerce & Industry, Department of Industrial Policy & Promotion, Annual Report, 2010-11.

In the small-scale sector, there were over


210 units of sanitaryware with capacity of
53,000 tpy and over 1400 plants of potteryware
with a capacity of 3 lakh tpy.
Ceramic whiteware contains about 40% silica,
besides other constituents except for bone china in
which it is not used at all. The silica serves to provide
whiteness, renders the ceramic body to dry easily and
provides compatability between the body and the glass
to prevent crazing or peeling. Main source of silica for
this application is silica sand. In addition, silica flour is
used in formulation of ceramic body for enamels and
frits. Silica flour produced by fine grinding of quartzite,
sandstone or lump quartz is used in enamels. The
silica flour normally contains more than 97.5% SiO2,
less than 0.55% Al2O3 and less than 0.2% Fe2O3. Purity
and small particle size (BS mesh-200) are fundamentally
important for silica in manufacture of ceramics. BIS has
prescribed the specifications of quartz for ceramic
industry vide IS: 11464-2011 (First Revision).

Foundry
The Indian foundry industry is the largest
in the world. This industry is well established
in the country and is spread across a wide
spectrum consisting of large, medium, small
and tiny sector. A special feature of domestic
foundry industry is its geographical clustering
i.e. Coimbatore cluster is famous for pump
sets castings, Kolhapur and Belgaum cluster
for automotive castings, Rajkot cluster
for diesel engine castings and Batala and
Jalandhar cluster for machinery parts and
agriculture implements.
A large number of foundries in both
ferrous and non-ferrous sectors are functioning
in the organised sector in the country. Most of
the foundry units use moulding sand having
40 to 65 A.F.S. (American Foundrymen's Society)
numbers.

66-19

QUARTZ & OTHER SILICA MINERALS

Silica sand is used in both foundry cores


and moulds because of its resistance to thermal
shock. Silica content of 85% is used in iron
casting. In steel foundries, silica content should
be at least 95%. BIS has laid down specifications
of high silica sand for use in foundries vide IS:
1987-2002 (Second Revision, Reaffirmed 2007).
Natural moulding sand contains variable
amount of clay which acts as a bond between
the sand grains. These sands, therefore,
possess strength, plasticity and refractoriness to
varying extent depending upon the clay minerals
present. When it contains more clay, it is
blended with river sand, which is relatively clayfree so as to get the optimum properties desired
in the sand mixture.
Washed grains shall be mostly sub-angular
to rounded shape. As far as possible, the sand
shall be free from gravel. As per IS:3343-1965
(Reaffrimed 2008), natural moulding sand for use
in foundries shall be of three main grades, namely,
A, B and C with respect to clay content.

specifications of silica flour for use in foundries


vide IS: 3339-1975( Reaffirmed 2008).

Refractory
Quartz and quartzite are used in the
manufacture of refractory silica bricks. However,
recently these bricks are being replaced by basic
linings of magnesite, dolomite or natural types
such as bauxite, etc. in LD basic oxygen and
electric furnaces. Silica reacts readily with basic
slag and is therefore unsuitable in the basic steel
making process. Nevertheless, silica bricks
continue to be used in coke ovens, ceramic kilns,
glass tank crowns and as blast furnace chequers
in some steel mills. Silica bricks have excellent
load resistance capacity at high temperature. For
the manufacture of refractory bricks, silica mineral
should be free from aluminosilicates (felspar, mica,
etc.), as aluminosilicates adversely affect
refractoriness of the bricks. Silica rock (raw
material) should be hard, having high bulk density
and low porosity.

Fluxes
Grade

Clay (%)

5 to 10

10 to 15

15 to 20

Refractoriness of the natural moulding sand


based on sintering temperature range should be
as follows:

Massive quartz, quartzite, sandstone and


unconsolidated sands are the main sources of
silica that get used as flux in smelting base metal
ores where iron and basic oxides are slagged as
silicates. Silica is also used to balance the lime
and silica ratio of the blast furnace mix. The silica
content for this purpose must be as high as 90%
with minor amounts of impurities like iron and
alumina up to 1.5% maximum. BIS has laid down
IS: 13676-1993(Reaffirmed 2008) for quartzite for
iron making in blast furnance.

Grade A - 1350 to 1450 oC

Ferro-silicon and Other Alloys

Grade B - 1200 to 1350 oC


Grade C - 1100 to 1200 oC
Washed sand grains are required to be subangular to rounded shape.
Silica flour is particularly used in the steel
foundry in dressing for moulds and cores and
also as essential ingredient in the moulding
sand mixtures. It is also used to obtain elevated
temperature strength, high density and resistance
to metal penetration in cores. Silica flour is
produced by crushing, washing and grading
high- grade quartz/quartzite rocks or white
silica sand or other deposits sufficiently pure to
get the desired material.BIS has laid down

Ferro-silicon contains about 75-90% silicon


and minor amounts of iron, carbon, etc. It is
estimated that for the manufacture of one tonne
ferro-silicon of 70-75% grade, about 1.78 tonnes
quartz is required besides other raw materials
like coke, iron scrap, etc. Quartz is the major source
of silica in the manufacture of ferro-silicon.
Occasionally, quartzite is also used. However,
use of quartzite is restricted as it contains
higher alumina and iron and more likely that it
would break down in the furnace. Lump silica in
the size range from 3/4 to 5 inches are generally
preferred. Ferro-silicon is produced by smelting
a mixture of quartz, metallic iron (steel scrap
and turnings) and a reducing agent like coke,
charcoal or wood chips.

66-20

QUARTZ & OTHER SILICA MINERALS

Quartz suitable for ferro-silicon production


should have more than 98% SiO 2 , less than
0.4% Al 2O 3 and not more than 0.2% each of Fe2O 3,
CaO and MgO. Phosphorus or arsenic should
not be present in quartz. If Al 2O 3 is more than
the prescribed limit, it affects reduction in the
electric furnace. Alkali has a tendency to
promote a sticky slag which contaminates the
products. If higher iron (more than 0.3%)
is present in quartz, the fusion in the furnace
takes place at lower temperature and affects
reduction process. Another important factor is
that quartz should have good thermal stability

at 1200 o C or more. BIS has laid down IS:


13054-1991(Reaffirmed 2008) for use of quartz/
quartzite for production of ferro-alloys.
As per Indian Ferro Alloys Producers'
Association, 35 units having a capacity of
205,750 tpy were established for the production
of ferro-silicon. However, presently only 20 units
are in operation with a total capacity of 145
thousand tpy. The production of ferro-silicon
was estimated at around 117 thousand tonnes in
2010-11 List of principal producers of ferro-silicon
is furnished in Table - 28.

(Table -28 Concld.)

Table 28 : Principal Producers of


Ferro-silicon

Name of the plant

Installed
capacity (tpy)

Name of the plant

Installed
capacity (tpy)

Sandur Manganese & Iron Ore Ltd,


Vyasankere, Bellary,

24000

Karnataka. (closed)
Ferro Alloys Corp. Ltd,
(Ferro Alloys Division),
Vizianagaram,
Andhra Pradesh.
Navbharat Ferro-alloys Ltd,
Paloncha, Dist. Khammam,
Andhra Pradesh.
VBC Ferro Alloys Ltd,
Medak,
Andhra Pradesh.
GMR Technologies & Ind. Ltd,
Ravivalasa, Dist. Srikakulam,
Andhra Pradesh.

72500
( To t a l )

NA

Kerala.
9300

Indsil Electrosmelts Ltd,

NA

Pallabhari, Dist. Pallakad,


Kerala.
19000

Indian Metals & Ferro Alloys Ltd,


Therubali, Dist. Cuttack,

53000

Odisha.
25000
( To t a l )

The Silical Metallurgic Ltd,

10560

Puducherry.

Akshay Ispat & Ferro Alloys Ltd,


Namchi Distt., South Sikkim,
Sikkim.

6000

Hindustan Malleables & Forgings Ltd,


Dhanbad,
Jharkhand.

1800

Anjaney Ferro-alloys Ltd,


Mihijam, Dist. Dumka,
Jharkhand.

Sri Laxmi Electro Smelters (Pvt.) Ltd,


Erumathala, Aluva,

Snam Alloys Ltd,

12000

Village Kariamanickam,
Puducherry.
V.S.K. Ferro-alloys Ltd,

3000

Thuthipet,
Puducherry.
Hindustan ferro-Alloys,

NA

Hamirpur,

(Contd.)

Uttar Pradesh.

66-21

3200

QUARTZ & OTHER SILICA MINERALS

Silico-manganese, a combination of 60-70%


manganese, 10-20% silicon and 20% carbon,
substitutes low carbon ferro-manganese in
steel industry. The production of silico-manganese
including medium and low carbon silicomanganese was estimated at 1,299 thousand tonnes
in 2010-11. The details of silicon ferro-alloys are
also discussed in the review on 'Ferro-Alloys'.

Silicon Metal
A high purity quartz containing about
99.80% SiO2 , without any other contaminant, is

used in the production of silicon metal. The


production of silicon metal is similar to that for
ferro-silicon except that no iron is added. The
alumina and iron contents are specified to be
below 0.1% each with calcium and phosphorus
contents each restricted to 0.005 percent. For
production of one tonne of silicon metal, about
2.6 tonnes silica is consumed. Specifications of
silica minerals to be used in different industries
are given in Table - 29.

Table 29 : BIS Specifications of Silica Minerals for various Industries


Mineral
Industry consumed

Glass

Silica
sand

Foundry Silica
flour

Iron
(BF)

BIS

Physical

No.

specifications

IS: 488
1980
(Second
Revision;
Reaffirmed
2008)

IS:3339
1975
(First
Revision;
Reaffirmed
2008)

Quartzite IS:13676
-1993
(Reaffirmed
2008)

Lumpy, Hard,
Non-friable of
size -150 to
+10 mm

Chemical Specifications
Grade

Special Gr.

SiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 CaO MgO


(%) (%) (%) (%) (%)
99

Remarks

TiO 2
(%)

P
(%)

0.020
(min)

0.10

For manufacturing
high-grade colourless
glass, viz, crystal
glass, tableware and
decoratedware.

Gr. I

98.0 0.04
(min) (max)

0.10
(max)

For manufacturing
decolourised glassware,
viz, containerware,
lampware, etc.

Gr. II

97.5 0.07
(min) (max)

0.10
(max)

For manufacturing
glassware where slight
tint is permissible.

Gr. III

97%
0.2
(max) (max)

For manufacturing of
decolourised and some
coloured glasses.

98.0
(min)

100% silica flour


should pass through
150-micron I.S.
sieve and atleast
95% through
75-micron sieve.
The fusion
temperature should
be >1700 oC.

96-98

2-4

After prescribed
thermal stability
test on -25+19 mm
material, +19 mm
fraction should be
more than 55% and
-5 mm fraction
should be less than
5%.

(Contd.)

66-22

QUARTZ & OTHER SILICA MINERALS


(Table -29 Concld.)
Mineral
Industry consumed

BIS

Physical

No.

specifications

Banded -doHematite
Quartzite

Note:

-do-

Chemical Specifications
Grade

SiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 CaO MgO


(%) (%) (%) (%) (%)
48-50

1.0 50(max)52
(Fe)

Remarks

TiO 2
(%)

P
(%)

After prescribed
tumbling test on
+5 mm material,
+5 mm fraction
should be more than
90%.

In addition, BIS has prescribed following specifications: - silica for paint industry (IS : 67 - 1998; Second
Revision; Reaffirmed 2002), High-silica sand for use in foundries (IS : 1987-2002; Second Revision), Quartz
& quartzite for production of ferro-alloys (IS : 13054-1991; Reaffirmed 2003).

CONSUMPTION

POLICY

The consumption of quartz and silica sand


was estimated at 1.45 million tonnes in 2010-11.
Major consuming industries were glass (36%),
cement (19%), ferro-alloys (17%), foundry (9%),
fertilizer (7%). and ceramic(6%). Other industries
such as iron & steel, alloy steel, insecticide,
refractory, abrasive, etc. consumed the remaining
6%.

Foreign Trade Policy (FTP) for 2009-2014 and


the amended Export and Import Policy
incorporated in the FTP freely allows the import
of quartz and quartzite lumps and powder as also
silica sand and quartz sands under headings 2505
and 2506. However, the exports of silica sands
and quartz sands under heading 2505 are
restricted and permitted under licence. The export
of river sand to Maldives is permitted, subject to
'No Objection Certificate' by CAPEXCIL within the
annual ceiling of 1,185,455 tonnes for 2011-12.

The consumption of quartzite was estimated


around 273 thousand tonnes out of which
iron and steel industry consumed about 63%,
followed by ferro-alloys (18%), refractory (17%)
and cement (2%).
The estimated consumption of moulding sand
in 2010-11 was 64,800 tonnes. Major consuming
industries were foundry (64%), followed by iron
& steel (29%) and mining machinery (6%).
The total ferro-silicon consumed by various
industries in 2010-11 was estimated at
42,900 tonnes. Major consuming industries were
iron & steel (85%), alloy steel (10%) and foundry
(5%). Besides, reported consumption of ferrosilico-magnesium was 13 tonnes in foundry
industry in 2010-11.Estimated consumption of
ferro-chrome-silicon was 460 tonnes in alloy steel
industry (Tables - 30 to 35).

SUBSTITUTION
In order to reduce the potential threat
of "silicosis," a variety of materials are used
as substitutes for silica. Basic and neutral
refractories (including magnesite, mag-chrome,
dolomite and high alumina bricks) have replaced
silica in a large number of applications. Chromite,
olivine and zircon are alternatives to foundry
sands. Garnet and to a lesser extent, olivine are
used in sand blasting to avoid the risk of silicosis.
Wollastonite is more favoured than free silicon
for use in the ceramic industry, again due to the
risk of silicosis. In electronic industry, replacement
of natural quartz crystal by cultured quartz crystal
is increasing steadily.

66-23

QUARTZ & OTHER SILICA MINERALS

Table 30 : Reported Consumption of Quartz/Silica Sand, 2008-09 to 2010-11


(By Industries)
(In tonnes)
Industry
All Industries
Alloy steel
Cement
Ceramic
Ferro-alloys
Fertilizer
Foundry
Glass
Iron & steel
Others (Abrasive,
asbestos, chemical,
dry cell battery, electrical, paint,
pesticide, refracatory and rubber)

2008-09

2009-10(R)

2010-11(P)

1457600
14500(10)
280500(14)
71500(38)
218400(33)
105800(4)
129900(32)
574900(52)
13500(1)
48600 (75)

1451500
14500(10)
278100(14)
76300(38)
208300(35)
105800(4)
136400(33)
569900(52)
13500(1)
48700(75)

1453100
14500(10)
271100(14)
86800(38)
244200(36)
105800(4)
138100(33)
529900(52)
13500(1)
49200(77)

Figures rounded off. Data collected on non-statutory basis.


Figures in parentheses denote the number of units in organised sector reporting* consumption.
(*Includes actual reported consumption and/or estimates made wherever required).

Table 31: Reported Consumption of Quartzite, 2008-09 to 2010-11


(By Industries)
(In tonnes)
Industry

2008-09

All Industries
Cement
Ferro-alloys
Foundry
Iron & steel
Pelletisation (Iron & steel)
Refractory
Sponge iron

2009-10 (R)

2010-11(P)

273600

278600

273400

17600(2)

1100(2)

5400(2)

50300(11)

45300(12)

48000(12)

800(4)

800(4)

800(4)

148600(20)

173700(22)

171400(22)

2400(1)

2400(1)

2400(1)

53800(13)

55200(13)

45300(13)

100(1)

100(1)

100(1)

Figures rounded off. Data collected on non-statutory basis.


Figures in parentheses denote the number of units in organised sector reporting* consumption.
(*Includes actual reported consumption and/or estimates made wherever required).

Table 32 : Reported Consumption of Moulding Sand, 2008-09 to 2010-11


(By Industries)
(In tonnes)
Industry
All Industries
Foundry
Iron & steel
Mining machinery
Others (Sugar & textile)

2008-09

2009-10(R)

2010-11(P)

59900
54300(15)
1400(4)
4100(3)
100(7)

66000
41700(14)
20100(6)
4100(3)
100(7)

64800
41700(14)
18900(6)
4100(3)
100(7)

Figures rounded off.


Data collected on non-statutory basis.
Figures in parentheses denote the number of units in the organised sector reporting* consumption.
(* includes reported companies and/or estimates, whenever required).

66-24

QUARTZ & OTHER SILICA MINERALS

Table 33 : Reported Consumption of Ferro-Silicon,


2008-09 to 2010-11
(By Industries)
(In tonnes)
Industry
All Industries
Alloy steel
Electrode

2008-09

2009-10 (R)

2010-11 (P)

42200

41900

42900

4000(7)

4100(7)

4100(7)

++(2)

++(2)

++(2)

++(1)

++(1)

2100(20)

2200(21)

2200(21)

36100 (17)

35600(20)

36600(20)

Ferro-alloys
Foundry
Iron & steel

WORLD REVIEW
Basically, silica is abundant in the earth's crust.
Sand and gravel reserves of the world are large. Quartzrich sand and sandstone are the main sources of
industrial silica sand which occurs throughout the world.
Reserves of natural quartz crystal suitable for
electronics or optical use in the world are limited. The
world's dependence on these reserves will continue to
decline because of the increased usage of cultured
quartz crystal as an alternate material. Electronic
applications accounted for the most industrial uses of
quartz crystal, followed by optical application.
All quartz crystals used for electronics were
cultured. The world production of industrial silica sand
and gravel by principal countries is given in Table - 36.

Figures rounded off. Data collected on non-statutory


basis.Figures in parentheses denote the no of units in
organised sector reporting* consumption.
(*Includes actual reported consumption and/or estimates
made wherever required).

Table 34 : Reported Consumption of


Ferro-Silicon-Magnesium, 2008-09 to 2010-11
(By Industries)

Table 36: World Production of


Sand and Gravel (Industrial), 2008 to 2010
(By Principal Countries)
(In '000 tonnes)
Country

2008 (e)

2009 (e)

World: Total (rounded)

121000

106000

121000

Australia

5300

5200

5300

Belgium

1800

1800

1800

Canada

1990

1300

1171

Chile

1400

1400

1400

Czech Republic

1000

1364

1400

France

5000

5000

5000

Germany

8190

6450

7000

India*

1700

1700

1800

Iran

2000

1500

1500

Italy

13800

13800

9800

Japan

4500

3500

3078

Mexico

2780

2770

2480

Norway

1500

1500

1500

Poland

4000

4385

2730

South Africa

3650

2310

2910

Spain

5000

5000

5000

Turkey

1200

1250

4000

UK

5600

5600

3760

USA

30400

25000

29900

Other countries (rounded)

20200

15200

19900

(In tonnes)
Industry
All Industries
Foundry

2008-09

2009-10 (R)

2010-11 (P)

13

13

13

13 (2)

13 (2)

13 (2)

Figures rounded off. Data collected on non-statutory


basis. Figures in parenthesis denote the number of units
in organised sector reporting* consumption.
(*Includes actual reported consumption and/or estimates
made wherever required).

Table 35 : Reported Consumption of


Ferro-Chrome-Magnesium, 2008-09 to 2010-11
(By Industries)
(In tonnes)
Industry
All Industries
Alloy steel

2008-09
460
460 (1)

2009-10 (R)
460
460 (1)

2010-11 (P)
460
460 (1)

Figures rounded off. Data collected on non-statutory


basis. Figures in parenthesis denote the number of units
in organised sector reporting* consumption.
(*Includes actual reported consumption and/or estimates
made wherever required).

2010 (e)

Source: Mineral Commodity Summaries, 2010 to 2012.


* For India's production of silica minerals during 2008-09,
2009-10 and 2010-11, Tables - 5 , 10, 15, and 19 of this
Review may be referred. Besides, sand is also produced as a
minor mineral for use in building construction applications.

66-25

QUARTZ & OTHER SILICA MINERALS

FOREIGN TRADE
Exports
Exports of quartz and quartzite (natural)
decreased considerably to 203,363 tonnes in
2010-11 from 256,421 tonnes in the previous
year. Out of total exports, quartz comprised
165,532 tonnes (81%) and quartzite 37,831 tonnes
(19%). Exports were mainly to Japan (23%), UAE
& Bangladesh (13% each) and Vietnam (12%).
Exports of silica sand increased to 12,267 tonnes
in 2010-11 from 7,478 tonnes in 2009-10. Exports
were mainly to Japan (41%), France (9%) and
Kenya & Qatar (5% each). Exports of sand
(excluding metal bearing) decreased substantially
to 10,305 tonnes in2010-11 from 26,932 tonnes in
the previous year. Exports were mainly to Sudi
Arabia (31%), Tunisia (19%) and Oman (9%).
Exports of agate (uncut) registered a downward
trend with 9,448 tonnes in 2010-11 as against
39,090 tonnes recorded in the previous year. China
(49%) , USA (15%) , Germany (11%) and Italy(10%)
were the main buyers in 2010-11. Exports of agate
(cut) increased substantially to 675 thousand
carats in 2010-11 from 125 thousand carats in the
previous year. Exports of flint increased to 1,688
tonnes in 2010-11 from 940 tonnes in 2009-10.
Exports of silicon decreased to 165 tonnes in
2010-11 from 536 in the previous year. Exports
were mainly to UAE, People's Rep.of Congo, Hong
Kong and Liberia (Tables - 37 to 45).

China was the main supplier. Imports of agate


(uncut) were 637 tonnes in 2010-11 as compared
to 39 tonnes in 2009-10. Imports were mainly from
China. Imports of agate (cut) were 3 thousand
carat in 2010-11, mainly from China and Italy.
Imports of silicon were 32,055 tonnes as compared
to 24,245 tonnes in 2009-10, mostly from China
(Tables - 46 to 54).
Table 37 : Exports of Quartz And Quartzite
(By Countries)
2009-10

2010-11

Country

All Countries

Qty
(t)

Value
(`'000)

Qty
(t)

Value
(`'000)

256421

1092657

203363

1208710

Japan

41782

336939

47522

467239

Vietnam

15638

118830

24196

177159

UAE

33694

92392

25711

72779

Malaysia

32828

90498

8414

70694

Bangladesh

32500

75194

26031

62594

Italy

8245

65099

8141

56405

Germany

5336

32365

4516

36370

Israel

5226

27154

6310

33972

Nigeria

670

3588

4752

29134

Bhutan

35749

40828

21227

27931

Other countries 44753

209770

26543

174433

Table 38 : Exports of Quartzite (Natural)


(By Countries)

Imports
Imports of quartz and quartzite (natural) were
496 tonnes in 2010-11 as compared to 823 tonnes
in 2009-10. Out of the total imports in 2010-11,
those of quartz were 412 tonnes and mainly from
Sri Lanka, Spain and UK while quartzite imports
were 84 tonnes as compared to 337 tonnes in the
preceding year. The imports were mainly from
Sri Lanka. Imports of silica sand increased
substantially to 93,741 tonnes in 2010-11 from
15,384 tonnes in the previous year. Egypt, UAE,
Jordan and Bhutan were the main suppliers.
Imports of sand (excluding metal bearing) sharply
decreased to 22 thousand tonnes in 2010-11 from
493 thousand tonnes in 2009-10. Imports were
mainly from Nepal and Pakistan. Imports of flint
sharply decreased to 25 tonnes in 2010-11 as
compared to 862 tonnes in the previous year.

2009-10

2010-11

Country

All Countries

66-26

Qty
(t)

Value
(`'000)

Qty
(t)

Value
(`'000)

54283

261454

37831

275779

Vietnam

9497

69724

9579

78092

Japan

7713

41082

7699

45789

Italy

6608

52268

5641

42058

670

3588

4072

25302

Israel

2229

15354

2644

20706

Germany

1752

4262

951

9936
9182

Nigeria

Spain

163

1224

754

Thailand

1727

11569

460

8497

Bangladesh

3360

9157

2118

4785

USA

208

2207

120

3916

Other countries 20356

51019

3793

27516

QUARTZ & OTHER SILICA MINERALS

Table 41 : Exports of Sand


(Excl. Metal Bearing)
(By Countries)

Table 39 : Exports of Quartz (Natural)


(By Countries)
2009-10

2010-11

Country

2009-10
Qty
(t)

Value
(`'000)

Qty
(t)

Value
(`'000)

202138

831203

165532

932931

34069

295857

39823

421451

6141

49106

14617

99067

UAE

33659

92185

25416

71580

Chinese Taipei/
Taiwan

Malaysia

32704

90202

8266

69888

Bangladesh

29140

66037

23913

Bhutan

22464

26818

Germany

3584

Iran

All Countries

2010-11

Country
Qty
(t)

Qty
(t)

Value
(`'000)

26932

88278

10305

124563

117

8874

3199

60146

364

27651

Tunisia

100

4108

1937

9558

57809

Oman

198

1158

925

5344

20629

27309

Qatar

189

1884

322

2898

28103

3565

26434

UAE

228

1509

606

2380

1133

8159

2664

22391

Canada

230

2228

Thailand

1654

7156

2500

19139

Nigeria

171

943

489

2121

Italy

1637

12831

2500

14346

Egypt

45

1861

Other countries 35953

154749

21639

103517

74

569

175

1713

Other countries 25855

69233

2013

8663

Japan

All Countries

Value
(`'000)

Saudi Arabia
Vietnam

Korea, Rep. of

Table 40 : Exports of Silica Sand


(By Countries)
2009-10

Table 42 : Exports of Agate Uncut


(By Countries)

2010-11

2009-10

Country

2010-11

Country
Qty
(t)

Value
(`'000)

Qty
(t)

Value
(`'000)

7478

30073

12267

145497

Japan

421

7664

5026

93322

China

Korea, Rep.of

165

1217

448

5810

34

204

565

Singapore

France

Kenya

Qty
(t)

Value
(`'000)

Qty
(t)

Value
(`'000)

39090

8750

9488

15421

100

300

4637

4953

USA

19046

3131

1451

3486

5094

Italy

946

1476

280

4842

Germany

10

306

1070

1463

1082

4722

Hong Kong

66

47

1127

64

260

633

3986

Australia

18587

1519

123

686

Vietnam

12

143

416

3634

Malta

12

481

Thailand

220

4105

180

3261

Japan

25

181

160

459

Malaysia

35

136

188

2675

UK

53

2137

778

347

125

583

529

2239

Chinese Taipei/
Taiwan

100

296

6402

15761

2920

15912

Other countries

1268

1110

164

647

All Countries

Qatar

Kuwait
Other countries

All Countries

66-27

QUARTZ & OTHER SILICA MINERALS

Table 45 : Exports of Silicon


(By Countries)

Table 43 : Exports of Agate Cut


(By Countries)
2009-10

2009-10

2010-11

Country
Qty
Value
Qty
('000 carat) (`'000) ('000 carat)
All Countries

2010-11

Country
Qty
(t)

Value
(`'000)

Qty
(t)

Value
(`'000)

All Countries

536

28455

165

23005

Hong Kong

14

10843

26

6153

3724

++

36

41

2927

2013

Value
(`'000)

125

19774

675

51501

233

153

23424

49

6136

394

10908

Germany

4463

17

4660

Italy

1288

59

4454

France

1709

14

2415

Congo, Peoples
Rep. of

54

2731

29

2007

China

26

996

1340

Liberia

17

740

22

1394

Spain

++

80

854

Singapore

1034

698

Sri Lanka

343

11

842

++

49

10

578

Nepal

31

664

626

176

547

402

32

4644

1623

414

13098

20

1883

Hong Kong
USA

Turkey
UAE
Finland

Australia
Turkey
Japan
Other countries

Iran
Other countries

Table 46 :Imports of Quartz and Quartzite


(Natural)
(By Countries)

Table 44 : Exports of Flint


(By Countries)
2009-10

2010-11

2009-10

Country
Qty
(t)

Value
(`'000)

Qty
(t)

Value
(`'000)

940

2653

1688

6320

Djibouti

588

1428

1064

4034

Saudi Arabia

161

722

233

895

South Africa

81

602

UAE

106

471

Sudan

162

477

27

128

Ethiopia

26

112

Bangladesh

151

77

Nepal

++

28

25

All Countries

Other countries

2010-11

Country
Qty
(t)

Value
(`'000)

Qty
(t)

Value
(`'000)

823

11964

496

8699

Sri Lanka

352

3112

225

2932

Germany

143

4083

21

1576

Italy

19

768

42

1230

Spain

115

1112

141

1191

UK

223

54

1111

USA

251

10

510

Belgium

143

128

160

1432

++

17

++

22

840

++

All Countries

China
UAE
Other countries

66-28

QUARTZ & OTHER SILICA MINERALS

Table 47 : Imports of Quartzite (Natural)


(By Countries)
2009-10

Table 50 : Imports of Sand


(Excl. Metal Bearing)
(By Countries)

2010-11

Country

All Countries

Qty
(t)

Value
(`'000)

Qty
(t)

Value
(`'000)

337

4199

84

2510

Italy

19

768

34

1186

Germany

++

19

++

678

Sri Lanka

309

2846

50

646

566

Other countries

2009-10

Sri Lanka
Spain
UK
Germany

2010-11

Qty
(t)

Value
(`'000)

Qty
(t)

Value
(`'000)

486

7765

412

6189

43

266

175

2285

115

1112

141

1191

147

54

1111

143

4064

21

899

251

10

510

Belgium

143

128

China

44

159

1333

++

17

++

14

449

++

UAE
Other countries

Qty
(t)

Value
(`'000)

493454

177268

22379

28609

492839

165822

19744

17562

Belgium

486

6730

594

7372

Pakistan

2003

1584

China

56

15

1089

124

4617

377

Switzerland

14

305

Netherlands

265

France

55

Other countries

43

Germany

USA
Italy

Value
(`'000)

Nepal

Country

All Countries

Qty
(t)
All Countries

Table 48 : Imports of Quartz (Natural)


(By Countries)
2009-10

Table 51 : Imports of Flint


(By Countries)
2009-10

All Countries

Hong Kong

Table 49 :Imports of Silica Sand


(By Countries)

Other countries

Qty
(t)

Value
(`'000)

Qty
(t)

Value
(`'000)

862

5413

25

202

124

1567

25

202

738

3846

2010-11

Country

All Countries

2010-11

Country

China

2009-10

2010-11

Country

Qty
(t)

Value
(`'000)

Qty
(t)

Value
(`'000)

15384

287033

93741

413702

Egypt

275

584

50178

91860

Italy

2562

69450

3120

43291

China

411

9042

2468

37903

Table 52 : Imports of Agate Uncut


(By Countries)
2009-10

2010-11

Country
Qty
(t)

Value
(`'000)

Qty
(t)

Value
(`'000)

39

3354

637

15193

11

2584

594

13692

Norway

141

3664

2124

34404

Bhutan

4753

34982

3729

32763

12

277

23191

China
Thailand

22

999

USA

59

286

Brazil

13

216

26

711

Spain
UAE
Saudi Arabia
Jordan
USA
Other countries

37

1347

18223

20952

672

2949

2938

20383

1858

5305

6789

17199

895

24503

506

17043

3780

135195

3389

74713

All Countries

66-29

Other countries

QUARTZ & OTHER SILICA MINERALS

Table 53 : Imports of Agate Cut


(By Countries)

2009-10

2010-11

Country
Qty

Value

Qty

Value

('000 carat)

(` '000)

('000 carat)

(` '000)

All Countries

++

1400

16464

USA

++

1028

++

15422

Italy

429

China

327

++

351

++

233

++

52

++

21

++

Hong Kong
Indonesia
Other countries

Table 54 : Imports of Silicon


(By Countries)
2009-10

2010-11

Country
Qty

Value

Qty

Value

(t)

(` '000)

(t)

(` '000)

All Countries

24245

2186037

32055

3523172

China

22762

2031858

28375

3087166

99

8971

1558

175100

France

229

27827

630

81532

Australia

524

45242

333

46201

Hong Kong

163

14724

127

14107

Norway

142

18650

75

11752

UK

15

2214

92

10264

USA

1457

76

10051

Chinese Taipei/Taiwan

3056

9014

38

3372

124

15443

262

28666

661

62542

Vietnam

Unspecified
Other countries

66-30

QUARTZ & OTHER SILICA MINERALS

FUTURE OUTLOOK
In India, quartz, quartzite and silica sand are
used mainly in glass, foundry, ferro-alloys,
refractory industries and also as building
materials. According to its suitability for different
purposes, it may be named as building sand,
paving sand, moulding or foundry sand, refractory
sand or furnance sand and glass sand etc.
However, the main use of silica minerals is in
manufacture of different types of glasses, natural
silica sand being the preferred material in the glass
industry.
The demand for quartz, silica sand, moulding
sand and quartzite is increasing over the years to
cater to the requirement of ferro-silicon, silicomanganese, silico-chrome, silica refractories, glass
and for moulding and casting purposes. The
requirements of these products are linked up
directly with iron and steel industry including

alloy steel production. Further, setting up


foundries and enhancing their capacities are also
linked with metallurgical industry.
As per the report of the Sub-Group on 12th
Plan, Planning Commission of India,the domestic
demand of quartz and silica minerals is estimated
at 3.15 million tonnes by 2011-12 and at 4.85 million
tonnes by 2016-17 at 9% growth rate.
The total resources of quartz and other silica
minerals are 4,750 million tonnes as on 1.4.2010.
There are very good prospects of increasing the
export of quartz and silica minerals to the
neighboring countries.
In Haryana silica sand is available but due to
environmental constraints mining is stopped.The
Report has recommended that these constraints
may be solved amicably in consultation with
MoEF.

66-31