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Voltaire, Patrie(1752)

Voltaire was one of the most celebrated philosophes during the


Enlightenment, applying reason to ideas.
-People should be citizens of the world and not tyrant patriots who
take from other countries. This view was rejected by nationalists
because nationalists create their own sense of identity

Tsar Nicholas I: Imperial Manifesto on


Poland, March 25, 1832
-This essay was written by the Tsar Nicholas I, the current prime
minister of Russia im guessing. His aim was to restore tranquility
to Poland, which was a part of his empire, by ceasing all rebellion.
However, if you think about it, this was probably how the idea of
Nationalism came to be because the people of Poland were uniting
under their sense of identity
-Good for #1 because it reinterprets the idea of a monarchy, where
a leader has supreme control over the people. Reinforces the idea
of romanticism, which had nationalism as one of the key ideas.
Materials for the Philosophy of the History of Mankind(1784) Gottfried von
Herder

Nothing therefore seems more contradictory to the true end of governments than the endless expansion of
states, the wild confusion of races and nations under one scepter. An empire made up of a hundred peoples
and a 120 provinces which have been forced together is a monstrosity, not a state-body
(First case)
Active human powers are the springs of human history, and, as man originates from and in one race, so his
body, education, and mode of thinking are genetic.

(Romanticism)
The structure of the earth, in its natural variety and diversity, rendered all such distinguishing conditions
inescapable . . Seas, mountain ranges and rivers are the most natural boundaries not only of lands but also
of peoples, customs, languages and empires, and they have been, even in the greatest revolutions in
human affairs, the directing lines or limits of world history. If otherwise mountains had arisen, rivers flowed,
or coasts trended, then how very different would mankind have scattered over this tilting place of nations

Discourse on the Love of the Country(1789)(Price)

It is proper I should desire you particularly to distinguish between love of our country and that spirit of
rivalship and ambition which has been common among nations. What has the love of their country hitherto
been among mankind? What has it been but a love of domination; a desire of conquest, and a thirst for
grandeur and glory, by extending territory, and enslaving surrounding countries?

Addresses to the German Nation(1806) Fichte

-This guy was a German philosopher and reformer who made a speech in the
presence of French takeover of Germany
-they understand each other and have the power of continuing to make themselves understood more and
more clearly; they belong together and are by nature one and an inseparable whole
-Only when each people, left to itself, develops and forms itself in accordance with its own peculiar quality,
and only when in every people each individual develops himself in accordance with that common quality, as
well as in accordance with his own peculiar quality-then, and then only, does the manifestation of divinity
appear in its true mirror as it ought to be; and only a man who either entirely lacks the notion of the rule of
law and divine order, or else is an obdurate enemy thereto, could take upon himself to want to interfere
with that law, which is the highest law in the spiritual world
-Only in the invisible qualities of nations, which are hidden from their own eyes-qualities as the means
whereby these nations remain in touch with the source of original life-only therein is to be found the
guarantee of their present and future worth, virtue, and merit
-Those who speak the language and join together by a bunch of invisible bonds, like similarities,
share a common nationality.

Those who speak the same language are joined to each other by a multitude of invisible bonds by
nature herself, long before any human art begins; they understand each other and have the
power of continuing to make themselves understood more and more clearly; they belong together
and are by nature one and an inseparable whole. ...Only when each people, left to itself, develops
and forms itself in accordance with its own peculiar quality, and only when in every people each
individual develops himself in accordance with that common quality, as well as in accordance with
his own peculiar qualitythen, and then only, does the manifestation of divinity appear in its true
mirror as it ought to be.
This document answers question #1 because it shows the thesis in action; that is, the argument for
turning tyranny into nationalism and the reason for nationalism.

On Nationality(1852) Mazzini

Whichever people, by its superiority of strength, and by its geographical position, can do us an injury, is our
natural enemy; whichever cannot do us an injury, but can by the amount of its force and by its position
injure our enemy, is our natural ally, -is the princely nationality of aristocracies or royal races. The

nationality of the peoples has not these dangers; it can only be founded by a common effort and a common
movement; sympathy and alliance will be its result

This document answers question #1 because it reinterprets the idea of


government, showing that the absolutist policy only causes violence and harm,
while nationalism promotes sympathy and alliance
The map of Europe has to be remade. This is the key to the present movement; herein lies the initiative.
Before acting, the instrument for action must be organised; before building, the ground must be one's own.
The social idea cannot be realised under any form whatsoever before this reorganisation of Europe is
effected; before the peoples are free to interrogate themselves; to express their vocation, and to assure its
accomplishment by an alliance capable of substituting itself for the absolutist league which now reigns
supreme.
This shows that reform must be done, and people must be on their own national grounds
before this action can be put into plan

1.What traditions does nationalism draw upon, alter, or reinterpret?


-Reinterprets the idea of government. Before, the idea of an empire was universal,
but in the 19th century, nationalism created a way for people of similar cultures and

languages to unite with each other. Sure, people loved their country before, but they
also produced hatred for other countries; people have to distinguish between love
for their country and hate for other countries.
-Coming from the end of the French Revolution, where Napolean Bonaparte led an
empire, but ultimately got crushed, the new form of government called Nationalism
aimed to unite the people under a general love for the country without violence.
Start with using Voltaires document because it shows the beginning of the
nationalist movement, where he states that in order for people to love their country,
they have to be citizens of the world, not tyrants who look to cause trouble or harm.
Outline of the Paper/Main Ideas
-Start from post Napolean era, where people were still deciding what kind of
government to enforce
-Nationalism draws upon Romanticism
-Romanticism was a movement that gained strength in the late 18th century
and early 19th century. It focused on validating strong emotion as an authentic
source of aesthetic experience.
-Nationalism alters Absolutism
-No violence between countries
-Striving towards a common goal
-Sure, early Nationalism still had traces of Absolutism in it, but ultimately, it
reformed into a sense of liberal nationalism, where the individual has a say in
government
Romanticism documents
German Nation
Poland takeover thingyImperial Manifesto
-played a role in the national awakening of many central European peoples
Introduction
Thesis: Nationalism draws upon the ideas of Romanticism, while altering the ideas
of Absolutism