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Annals of Physics

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/aop

external magnetic field: Complete solution for

the center of mass and trapped states

Boris Atenas, Luis A. del Pino, Sergio Curilef

Departamento de Fsica, Universidad Catlica del Norte, Avenida Angamos 0610, Antofagasta, Chile

highlights

Lagrangian Formulation for an electric dipole in a magnetic field.

Motion of the center of mass and trapped states.

Constants of motion: pseudomomentum and energy.

article

info

Article history:

Received 29 April 2014

Accepted 11 August 2014

Available online 20 August 2014

Keywords:

General physics

Electric dipole

Lagrangian formulation

abstract

We study the classical behavior of an electric dipole in the presence

of a uniform magnetic field. Using the Lagrangian formulation, we

obtain the equations of motion, whose solutions are represented

in terms of Jacobi functions. We also identify two constants of

motion, namely, the energy E and a pseudomomentum C . We obtain

a relation between the constants that allows us to suggest the

existence of a type of bound states without turning points, which

are called trapped states. These results are consistent with and

complementary to previous results.

2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

In the present day, many specialists study the world at the molecular scale. Nanotechnology is

slowly exploring molecular rotors, and applications of this concept are extensive. Using electric fields,

Corresponding author.

E-mail addresses: scurilef@ucn.cl, scurilef@gmail.com (S. Curilef).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aop.2014.08.007

0003-4916/ 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

606

molecules can change in orientation and/or remain controlled [13]. Molecular-level devices can be

obtained from the conversion of energy into controlled motion; nevertheless, it is difficult to repeat

this process using a mechanical molecular motor, although it is common in biological systems. For

the time being, it is expected that the physical principles at the scale of a molecular engine can be

identified by applying rotor dynamics in two dimensions. These rotors are modeled as electric dipoles

in electric or magnetic fields.

The primary goal of the present work is to describe the motion of a classical electric dipole in the

presence of an external magnetic field, perpendicular to the dipoles plane of motion. This system

has been approached from various perspective by several authors [47]. However, the trajectory of

the center of mass and the conditions for the existence of trapped states in terms of the constants of

motion have not been fully studied. In this article, we describe in detail the solution of the equations

of motion in the coordinates of the relative motion and the center of mass, which we derive from the

Lagrangian formulation of the problem. The relation between the constants of motion, which permits

the existence of trapped states, is established.

As previously discussed, a model of rigid and non-rigid dipoles is considered, constraining the

motion of the center of mass to a direction that is perpendicular to the magnetic field [7]. The motion

of the relative coordinate into the plane is defined by the direction of the magnetic field and a direction

perpendicular to the motion of the center of mass. It is possible to show that for certain values of the

characteristic parameters defined in the problem, there is a functional relation between two constants

of motion that allows the existence of trapped states [4]; this relation has not yet been analytically

established. In other words, an interval of values is found for the constant of motion where solutions

are possible and its trend of these solutions is well defined for certain limiting values. These states are

called classical bound states embedded in a continuum. The quantum analogue is also discussed [7].

In addition, equations and constants of motion are found for the model of an electric dipole

in an external magnetic field, and a preliminary discussion of the existence of trapped states is

introduced [4]. In addition, a model of two interacting particles is discussed [6], and special trajectories

are found in this model for several initial conditions of the velocity, direction, charges and values of the

magnetic field. The distance between particles may vary, but the conditions constrain the motion to a

plane perpendicular to the field and to a fixed distance between particles. Furthermore, the classical

dynamics of two interacting particles becomes an interesting problem where the challenge is to find

solutions that are fully analytical [47].

These solutions could significantly impact the future of the applications and construction to

molecular motors, as they describe the overall behavior of a dipole from a classical perspective. This

paper is organized as follows: In Section 2 we present the theoretical basis of the system, deriving the

equations and constants of motions. In Section 3 the solution of the equation of motion is obtained

for the center of mass coordinates. In Section 4 we address the conditions that lead to trapped states,

as mentioned above. Finally, in Section 5, we offer some concluding remarks.

2. Basic definitions and equations of motion

In the present model [4], we consider two charges in the presence of a uniform magnetic field. The

as follows: B = A.

We assign to the particle

magnetic field is obtained from a vector potential A,

1(2) the charge e1 (e2 ), the position

r1 (

r2 ), the velocity

r 1 (

r 2 ) and the mass m1 (m2 ). The Lagrangian

formulation leads to the following expression:

L(

r1 ,

r2 ;

r 1 ,

r 2 ) =

1

2

m1

r 1 +

1

2

m2

r 2

e1

c

(r1 ) r 1

A

e2

c

(r2 ) r 2

A

e1 e2

|r2 r1 |

(1)

where is the dielectric constant of the medium in which the motion of charges occurs. We define

using the symmetric gauge as follows:

the vector potential A

(ri ) =

A

1

2

ri ,

B

for i = 1, 2,

(2)

607

is the uniform magnetic field. Now, we consider the following change of variables:

where B

r = r2 r1 ,

=

R

(3)

m1

r1 + m2

r2

m1 + m2

(4)

where

r is the relative position and R

Eqs. (2)(4) into Eq. (1), we obtain the following function:

, r ; R, r ) =

L(R

1

2

+

MR

e1 e2

1 2

e1 + e2

R R

r

B

2

|r |

2c

e2 m1 e1 m2

2cM

R r + r R

B

2cM 2

B

r

r ,

(5)

where = m1 m2 /M is the reduced mass and M = m1 + m2 is the total mass of the dipole. Hereafter,

we consider a rigid dipole composed of an internal coupling that holds the two charges together and

ensures that the Coulomb interaction between the charges is constant. Then, one of the particles

carries charge +e, whereas the other carries charge e, the masses are equal m1 = m2 and a is the

fixed length of the dipole. Thus, the Lagrangian is

, r ; R, r ) =

L(R

1

2

+

MR

1 2

e2

e

R r + B r R .

r +

+

B

2

a 2c

(6)

, r ; R, r ) = PR R + pr r L(R, r ; R, r ),

E (R

(7)

L

r

r =

where p

is the relative conjugate momentum and PR =

center of mass. It is additionally found, for the energy, to be:

, r ; R, r ) =

E (R

1

2

+

MR

L

,

R

e2

1 2

r

.

2

a

(8)

The other constant of motion that appears from the analysis is called pseudomomentum [4,6,8],

R + ec A r ,

C = PR + qA

(9)

m2

M

R,

1

B

2c

A

2c

2c

center of mass and the relative coordinates, for q = 0 is given by

C = PR +

e

2c

r

B

(10)

by considering the definition of the conjugate momentum for the center of mass, the constant of

motion C yields

+

C = M R

e

c

r .

B

(11)

By combining Eqs. (8) and (11), we can express the energy in terms of only the relative variable and,

the relation between E and C :

E =

2

1 2

1

e

2 e

r +

C B r .

2

2M

c

ka

(12)

Up to this point, this result corresponds to the general motion of the rigid dipole in a constant magnetic

field.

608

then

Now, if we restrict the motion of the particles to a plane perpendicular to the magnetic field B,

the pseudomomentum C becomes perpendicular to the magnetic field. This choice allows us to define

unit vectors in suitable directions; these are, e C , parallel to the vector C and e B , parallel to the vector

Additionally, we can define a third unit vector

B.

e = e C e B

(13)

The expressions for

r and R,

= cos e + sin e C ,

(14)

(15)

eB

where is the angle between the vectors

r and e , = ar , = Ra , dtd = c dd , c = Mc

, is the

cyclotron frequency. The pseudomomentum is also defined as a dimensionless constant as follows:

= |C |/M c a. If we define Eq. (8) in terms of the dimensionless units introduced before, then

2

2

d

1 d

= + c ,

d

d

(16)

where = M

, = 22e 3 , = 22E2 and by considering Eqs. (14) and (15), we obtain

c

c M a

c a M

2 2 cos + 1 + 2 c .

(17)

= 0, we

By taking the time derivative of the previous equation and dismissing the trivial solution

obtain

+ 2 sin = 0,

with 2 = ,

(18)

where the time derivative is in terms of the dimensionless time . We emphasize that Eq. (18) coincides with the equation of motion of a nonlinear pendulum whose general solution is [9]:

= 2 arcsin[sn(( )| )]sgn(cn(( )| )),

= 2sgn0 k dn(( )| ),

02 +4 2 k20

(19)

where = 1k , k =

, k0 = sin 20 , 0 , 0 are the initial angular velocity and the initial

2

orientation of the dipole, respectively, and the sgn(x) function is defined as

sgn(x) =

x 0,

x < 0.

(20)

Furthermore, we must take into account some additional definitions; these are the Jacobi functions

[10]

sn(x|k) = sin(am(x|k)),

cn(x|k) = cos(am(x|k)),

(21)

and am(x|k) is the inverse of an incomplete elliptic function [10] of the first kind, with

am(x|k)

x=

0

(1 k2 sin2 ( ))

(22)

609

The set of equations (19) is valid for any value of the parameter and the value of this parameter

classifies the motion of the dipole into two possible states: if 1, the dipole has sufficient energy

to rotate and, if > 1, the dipole oscillates around equilibrium. For the latter case, it is suitable, from

the numerical point of view, to reformulate the set of equations (19) as a function of the parameter k,

which takes values in accordance with 0 k 1:

= sgn0 [ 0 ] + sn1

k ,

k

k0

= 2 arcsin[ksn(|k)],

= 2sgn0 k cn(|k).

(23)

The angle and the angular velocity are periodic functions with the following period:

T =

2 K ( )/

4K (1/ )/

1,

> 1,

(24)

3. Motion of the center of mass

The law of motion that satisfies the position of the center of mass can be found by integrating Eq.

(15), with the aid of Eqs. (19) and (23), and is written as follows:

1 = 2 sn(| )cn(| ),

2 = 1 + 2sn2 (| ),

(25)

(26)

where 1 and 2 are the components of the velocity of the center of mass in the directions e and e C

respectively. Eq. (25) is easily integrable, so

d(dn(x| ))

dx

d1

d

= 2 sn(x| )cn(x| ),

sgn0 d(dn(| ))

= 4

E0 2

sgn0

1 = 10 4

E0 2

(27)

where 10 is the initial condition for 1 , and the parameters 0 and E0 are: 0 = sn1 (k0 | ) and

2

E0 = 0 + 4 2 k20 , respectively. The solution of Eq. (26) can also be obtained from the primitive of

the function sn2 (x| ) [11] as 12 [x E (am(x| ))], where E (x| ) is an incomplete elliptic function of

the second kind:

sgn0

2

2 = 20 + 2

( 1)( 0 ) + 2 { 0 + E (am(0 | )) E (am(| ))} . (28)

E0 2

Eqs. (27) and (28) represent the general laws of motion for the position of the center of mass regardless

whether the dipole possesses enough energy to rotate, namely, for any value of . To clarify the

formulation, we rephrase Eqs. (27) and (28) for > 1 as a function of k as follows:

1 = 10 2

2 = 20 +

k sgn0

sgn0

(29)

610

Consider two sets of initial conditions that correspond to limiting cases of the integrals of motion.

Case 1: (Fixed dipole): 0 = 0, 0 = 0, k = 0

The set of equations (29) becomes the set

1 = 10 ,

2 = 20 + ( 1) ( 0 ) ,

(30)

which represents a free motion of the fixed dipole in the direction defined by C . We can

distinguish two possibilities depending on the value of . This is, if > 1, the motion is

parallel to C . If < 1, the motion is antiparallel to C , which is the same trajectory observed

by Curilef et al. [5] and Troncoso et al. [6]. For a direct derivation of this last sentence, see

Appendix. The resting system corresponds to the marginal case where = 1.

Certainly, the marginal case is quite unexpected. Charges are at rest in the relative

coordinate. Therefore, only the Coulomb force is present. By contrast, the center of mass

moves perpendicular to the direction of the constant of motion C . Indeed, such a motion of

the center of mass is additionally perpendicular to the relative vector between particles, thus

both particles move on straight lines with the same velocity. This fact permits the appearing,

by the Lorentz force, of an electric force which cancels out the Coulomb interaction between

charges. Besides, all vectors involved in this motion are perpendicular among them and

coincide with the definition of the basis given by Eq. (13). Alternatively, we remark that

the combination of the parameters corresponds to a motion that occurs in the minimum of

the effective potential that can be derived from Eq. (12). Thus, the system with both charges

constrained by the fixed distance naturally move, on straight lines with the same velocity,

with an energy level that exactly coincides with the minimum of the effective potential.

In this case, the chosen basis becomes meaningless because the vectors eC and e are not

defined. The new basis is 0 , eB 0 and eB , with 0 = 0. Thus, k =

the set of equations (19) become the set

0

2

, = 0 and

= 0 ,

= 0 ,

(31)

which represents a rotation with constant angular velocity for the relative variable that is

one of the special trajectories identified in [6].

Now, by inserting the set of equations given in Eq. (31) into Eq. (15) and performing the subsequent

integration, we can write:

= 0 +

(0 ) .

(32)

In the limit 0 0, Eq. (32) corresponds to Case 1. In other words, the center of mass moves freely

in the direction perpendicular to the constant orientation of the dipole.

4. Trapped states

Trapped states exhibit the property of having a mean velocity equal to zero [4,7]. For the variable

of the center of mass, Eqs. (27) and (28) mean:

1 ( ) 10 = 0,

2 ( ) 20 = 0,

= 2 sgn0 k( ) + 0 .

(33)

611

Fig. 1. The pseudomomentum (from Eq. (11)) is depicted as a function of from Eq. (34).

The first equation of (33) is immediately satisfied because of the periodicity of Jacobi functions. The

second is satisfied only if

=12

=12

K ( ) E ( )

1,

2 K ( )

K (k) E (k)

K (k)

> 1,

(34)

where E (x) is the complete elliptic integral of the second kind. The condition for the existence of

trapped states is included in Eq. (34). As concluded previously in [4], trapped states can only exist if

1, which is the same result as in (34).

Case 1: 1 represents rotating dipoles Eq. (34) has nonnegative solutions (Fig. 1) if = 0, = 0.

Eq. (32) represents a trapped motion. In the spatial reference system centered on the initial

position of the center of mass, the previous equation is a curve that forms a sort of cardioid

(see Fig. 2).

Case 2: > 1

Eq. (34) may possess positive solutions if 0 k < kmax , kmax 0.9. By analyzing Eq. (34)

in terms of k 0 and preserving the terms of order k2 ; 1 k2 and Eqs. (29) can be

converted into the following:

1 10 2

2 20

sgn0

sgn0

2

k(cos cos 0 ),

k2 (sin(2) sin(20 )).

(35)

The approximation for k 0 that leads to Eq. (35) defines a Lissajous figure with = 2

centered in a suitable system of reference. However, if we repeat the calculation numerically

for higher values of k, surprisingly, we obtain a nearly identical figure. As stated above, the

orbits for all values of the parameter k are very similar.

In order to show a graphical example for the functions obtained from Eq. (35), we define

the following normalized coordinates for the center of mass

1 10

,

Max(1 10 )

2 20

=

,

Max(2 20 )

1N =

2N

(36)

612

Fig. 2. The normalized orbit of the center of mass. K = 0, = 0, which form a cardioid.

Fig. 3. The normalized path of the center of mass (of the dipole) for the initial conditions given by 0 = 0. Orbits for two values

of k are compared. The path for small k (namely, k = 0.01) is represented by a solid line, and the case k = 0.85 is represented

by red points. It is apparent that the two curves nearly coincide.

where Max(x) means the maximum value of the variables x. Thus, in Fig. 3 we depict 1N

versus 2N , with 0 = 0.

5. Concluding remarks

In summary, the present study supports and generalizes previous analyzes discussed in the

literature, which can be considered as particular cases of the present analysis.

The Lagrangian function is first explicitly written in terms of particle coordinates, but after a suitable change of variables we write the Lagrangian in terms of center of mass and relative coordinates.

All subsequent analysis is performed using these coordinates. Thus, the motion of the center of mass

is essentially negligible and trapped states are only briefly mentioned. Here, the equations of motion

are integrated directly and precisely, establishing the conditions for the existence of trapped states.

These conditions are in agreement with previous results [4] and establish the relation between the

values of constants of motion C and E that enables the existence of trapped states.

613

The integration is performed in terms of special functions, such as Jacobi functions [10] that have

been previously defined. We show a complete analytical solution for the problem, classifying separately the motion of the center of mass and the relative motion. In one hand, we derive the two

components for the trajectory of the motion of the center of mass. Two limiting cases that emphasize

particular initial conditions are shown, these are specifically the fixed dipole and the rotating dipole.

First, it is interesting to note that the system, under certain conditions, can move against the sense of

the pseudomomentum. As expected, the motion in the pseudomomentum sense is possible too. In the

latter case, a rotation with constant angular velocity is obtained for the relative variable previously

identified in [6].

On the other hand, the relevant observation on the existence of a kind of special states is made

that we have called: trapped states. This is a family of states, which are appointed in the special

motion of the relative coordinate. The main property of having a mean velocity equal to zero without

turning points is the fingerprint of this kind of interesting states. Here, we again identify two limiting

cases. The first limiting case, a cardioid-like curve is shaped (see Fig. 2) in the spatial reference system

centered on the initial position of the center of mass. Another limiting and interesting case, which

is graphically illustrated in Fig. 3, is the identical behavior exhibited by the normalized paths of the

center of mass for several values of k. A comparison between the small values of k and k = 0.85 is

presented in Fig. 3, where it can be seen that the curves are very similar.

Certainly, the present study of the behavior of the electric dipole in presence of a magnetic field

is classical. The behavior strongly depends on the initial conditions. If we slightly modify the initial

conditions for the system, we no longer obtain this special family of states. We think this is a relevant

contribution that we expect to follow studying by several perspectives. As said before, for the time

being, it is expected that some physical principles at the scale of a molecular engine can be identified

by applying rotor modeled as electric dipoles in external magnetic fields.

Acknowledgments

We acknowledge partial financial support from CONICYT-UCN PSD-065. In addition, one of us (B.A.)

acknowledges the financial support from CONICyT/Beca Magster Nacional 2014, Folio 22140054.

Appendix

The constant of motion, C , whose dependence on the conjugate momentum of the center of mass

and the relative coordinates is given, in Eq. (11), by

+

C = M R

e

c

r ,

B

(37)

e

r e C ,

B

c

which can be written in terms of the dimensionless variables, defined in the text, as follows:

e C +

C e C = M R

= C + e B e e C .

(38)

(39)

= C + 1 0.

(40)

Therefore,

1 = C 1.

(41)

Thus, 1 C < ; hence, if 1 C < 0, the dipole moves against the sense of the pseudomomentum that seems not to be intuitive. If C = 0, we obtain the marginal case, the resting dipole. If

C > 0, the dipole has a motion parallel to the pseudomomentum.

614

References

[1] V.V. Volchkov, M.N. Khimich, M. Ya Melnikov, B.M. Uzhinov, Hihg Energy Chem. 47 (2013) 224229.

[2] Y. Yoshida, Y. Shimizu, T. Yajima, G. Maruta, S. Takeda, Y. Nakano, T. Hiramatsu, H. Kageyama, H. Yamochi, G. Saito,

Chemistry-A European J. 19 (2013) 1231312324.

[3] N. Ogiwara, T. Yanagibashi, Y. Hikichi, M. Nishikawa, J. Kamiya, K. Wada, Vacuum 98 (2013) 1821.

[4] P. Troncoso, S. Curilef, European J. Phys. 27 (2006) 13151322.

[5] S. Curilef, F. Claro, Amer. J. Phys. 65 (1997) 244250.

[6] M.A. Escobar-Ruiz, A.V. Turbiner, J. Math. Phys. 54 (2013) 022901.

[7] D.L. Pursey, N.A. Sveshnikov, A.M. Shirokov, Theoret. Math. Phys. 117 (1998) 12621273.

[8] L.P. Gorkov, I.E. Dzyaloshinskii, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 53 (1967) 717722.

[9] O. Karlheinz, Eur. J. Phys. 32 (2011) 479490.

[10] P.F. Byrd, M.D. Friedmann, Handbook of Elliptical Integrals for Engineers and Scientists, Springer, New York, 1971;

M. Abramowitz, I.A. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions with Formulas Graphs and Mathematical Tables, Dover,

New York, 1972;

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[11] Hebert Bristol Dwight, Table of Integrals and Other Mathematical Data, Chicago, New York, 1957.

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