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The movement of materials as they flow from their source to the end customer. Supply Chain includes
purchasing, manufacturing, warehousing, transportation ,customer service ,demand planning
, supply planning and Supply Chain management. It is made up of the people, activities, information and
resources involved in moving a product from its supplier to customer. Although this Supply Chain definition
sounds very simple, effective management of a Supply Chain can be a real challenge.


Raw materials


Distribution Center


A typical Supply Chain flow of goods is shown above. In some models, the product is shipped from the
Manufacturer to the Distribution Center as soon as it is manufactured. In other models, such as a Hub & Spoke
model, the product is held at the manufacturer once produced. It is then sent out to the Distribution Center
only when it is needed.


The fundamental objective is to "add value".
That brings us to the example of the fish fingers. During the Supply Chain Management '98 conference in the
United Kingdom this fall, a participant in a supply chain management seminar said that total time from fishing
dock through manufacturing, distribution, and final sale of frozen fish fingers for his European groceryproducts company was 150 days. Manufacturing took a mere 43 minutes. That suggests an enormous target
for supply chain managers. During all that time, company capital is-- almost literally in this case--frozen. What
is true for fish fingers is true of most products.
Examine any extended supply chain, and it is likely to be a long one. James Morehouse, a vice president of
consulting firm A.T. Kearney, reports that the total cycle time for corn flakes, for example, is close to a year
and that the cycle times in the pharmaceutical industry average 465 days. In fact, Morehouse argues that if
the supply chain, of what he calls an "extended enterprise," is encompassing everything from initial supplier to
final customer fulfilment, could be cut to 30 days, that would provide not only more inventory turns, but
fresher product, an ability to customise better, and improved customer responsiveness. "All that add value,"
he says. And it provides a clear competitive advantage.

Supply Chain Management becomes a tool to help accomplish corporate strategic objectives:

reducing working capital,

taking assets off the balance sheet,
accelerating cash-to-cash cycles,
increasing inventory turns, and so on.


Experience shows that the benefits of a well designed and implemented Supply Chain Management strategy is
substantial. Successfully implemented projects have provided benefits such as:

Reduction of Transportation, Warehousing, and Distribution Costs

Lean Processing from Supplier to customers
Reduced Direct and Indirect Labor Costs
Optimized Stock Levels
Increased Material Flow Velocity
Accurate Job Costing and Scheduling
Streamlined Purchasing Control
Increased Decision Making Speed and Responsiveness to Demand Change
Increased Customer Service
Increased Inventory Availability, Customer Order Fill Rates, Accuracies and services
Reduced Operations Support Costs
Reduced Inventory Carrying Costs
Improved Productivity of Procurement Operations
Improved Quality of Products and Services


Milk is the most perishable and fast moving customer good. The very first and initial requirement or feed for
any human being is milk. Milk is complete diet as it contains every nutrient except iron. Fortunately Pakistan
is the fourth largest producer of milk in the entire world and its annual production is surprisingly 45 billion
liters which is very high. But unfortunately only 27 billion liter of milk is available for human consumption.
Therefore most of the milk is lost and Pakistan cannot fulfill its demand. Despites of these facts and figures
Diary Industry is playing a very crucial role in the Pakistan economy and contributing 14% to the countrys
overall GDP. More than 20% of the entire population of Pakistan is involved in this sector directly or indirectly.
If we talk about the Dairy Supply chain management of Pakistan, we can divide it in to two categories: One is
Formal and second is Informal sector.
The share of formal sector is 4% whereas the rest of 96% of share is taken by the informal sector. In the formal
sector Nestle is the market leader in Pakistan and contributing 60% of market share as per fact and figure of
2008. In formal sector, milk is collected by different milk collection centre. Then it is taken in to the processing
plant where milk is stored in cooling towers. In the processing plant, milk is processed and packed and then it
is distributed to the retailer and finally milk is reached to the ultimate consumer. In formal sector we can
divide it in to two sectors. In first category farm milk is collected by gawalas (milkmen) who sell the milk
directly to the consumers or the milk collectors. In second case, farm milk is collected by different milk
collectors who sell their milk to the retailers and these retailers provide it to end consumers.


This business is unregulated and there is no as such
involvement of government therefore the middlemen
often take advantage of poor farmers and charge low
prices for their milk and usually delay their payments.
Large contractors often blackmail small producers and
processors. Most of the farmers are uneducated and they are unaware of modern technology and equipment.
And again there is no as such Government involvement to train the farmers in modern dairy practices so the
famers are lacking in this area. Average Animal of Pakistani breed gives only 1300 to 2400 kg of milk per
annum as compared to yield 6000 kg/animal/year in the modern world. As the farmers are not educated in
their practices so due to wrong milking methods most of the cow and buffalo have expose to mastitis. Farmers
have not sufficient idea of using different types of feed available in the market so they have no precaution to
save their animals from diseases. Farmers are not taking the facility of any veterinary doctors which leads to
decrease in the milk yield and animal is less productive for longer period of time.
Milk productivity is seasonal and it is going to be the most important issue that milk producers are facing in
this industry. In summer season, animals do not find enough food because grass and herbs dry out quickly.
Due to higher temperature the digestive system of animal is weak and farmers yield less quantity of milk. Milk
production falls in June and increases in December. The significant difference between the two seasons is
really a concern for the dairy sector of Pakistan.

The foremost problem dairy industry is facing is the adulteration means adding water, fats and other harmful
substance to the milk that makes the milk unhealthy and less hygienic. This problem is difficult to control and
requires serious consideration from both public and private sectors. Transportation, storage and processing
make this product more costly. Day by day electricity is a problem in the country therefore majority of the
milkmen use ice to keep the temperature of milk low but this method is not optimal and quality of milk is
affected. If we talk about the facts and figures as per World Bank reports 15%of the milk is lost at the stage of
farm due to mishandling and wrong milking practices. While 5% gets wasted during the transportation stage.
The buying capacity for small scale farmers is very low they do not afford high cost of feed for their animals
and they are lacking advantage of economies of scale. They do not access to formal market channels and are
often exploited by the middlemen who offer low prices for their milk and they enjoy the huge profit margin for
their own customer.


Nestle Pak works as a subsidiary of Nestle S.A. Nestle Pak started working in Karachi since 1988 under a joint
venture with Milk Pak Ltd. With its headquarter in Lahore, Nestle Pak. has four production facilities. Two of its
factories are in the heart of Punjab province; Sheikhupura and Kabirwala which are multi-purpose factories,
one in Islamabad and the other in Karachi, Sindh which produces bottled water. Nestle Pak is the biggest milk
collector in Pakistan. Currently, it collects milk from 190,000 farmers over 145,000 square kilo meters in
Punjab and Sindh. With its 8000 brands world-wide, Nestle is the leading brand in beverages and food
industry. It has a separate department for supply chain management which was founded in 2001. The
objective behind the creation of separate department of supply chain management is to ensure the smooth
running operations from the supply of raw materials from farms or other sources to the supply of finished
products into the markets.


Nestles ambition is to achieve high level of customer satisfaction through low cost, highly efficient
operations driven by value creation and continuous improvement


Optimize and consolidate resources and processes for a low-cost but efficient.
Develop and manage simplified and effective supply network to achieve a high level of service.
Create a continuous improvement culture driven by performance measures and reward.

Nestl is based on the principle of decentralization, which means each country is responsible for the efficient
running of its business - including the recruitment of its staff.



We choose Nestle Milk Pack for our supply chain report among 1000 products of Nestle. Pure, rich and
delicious NESTL MILKPAK standardized UHT milk benefits from Nestls expertise in bringing consumer the
very best life has to offer and benefits from 140 years of consumer trust. Nestls extensive milk collection
system ensures that the milk you get is of the finest quality.
Encourage your family to exercise regularly, eat a healthy, well-balanced diet and drink pure, nutritious milk
for good health. Milk is a must-drink for your children as it is a rich source of Calcium that helps in the growth
and development of strong bones and teeth. It is equally beneficial in keeping grown-ups bones strong. So live
to the fulles and enjoy the pure, wholesome goodness of milk with NESTL MILKPAK!
A 250 ml glass of NESTL MILKPAK fulfills your daily requirement of 27-30% of Calcium, 15-18% of Protein,
31-34% of Phosphorous, 6-9% of Vitamin A and 160-16 Kcal of energy, as Recommended Dietary Allowance by
the National Academy of Sciences, USA.


Nestle Pakistan has a wide range of products from nutrition to beverages, as so we chose MILK PAK to explain
the supply chain of Nestle Pakistan.

Supply chain knowledge is becoming more and more critical to ensure competitive supplies of goods and
services, especially for large companies dealing with a complex network of suppliers, customers, distributors
and consumers. All parties in the chain need to have a particularly good grasp of how their individual activities
work together and affect the performance of the whole supply chain. At Nestl, Key Performance Indicators
(KPIs) provide the standard metrics for measuring supply chain performance. Nestl launched a new initiative
to communicate the value and use of KPIs to line managers.

How do Nestle create competitive gaps in the upstream supply chain?

With Farmer Connect, where they have direct contacts with producers to:

Ensure traceability up to farmers level

Assure quality, safety and volume growth of raw materials
Mitigate price volatility exposure
Reduce transaction costs and serving our brands guaranteeing access to specific raw materials
Ensure safety & quality of raw materials Secure availability of adequate agricultural raw materials

Milk is collected from more than 2000 village milk centers and 500-600 sub centers and then milk is
transported to 25 main centers
of milk up to standard. After whole process of milk collection, it is transported to the Sheikhupura and

Kabirwala factories. In the processing stage milk is passed through different stages i.e standardization,
pasteurization UHT treatment and packaging. After processing, milk is then reached to the factory warehouse
which is near the premises of the factory. Finally milk is transported to the south, north and central regions.
Then finally distributors of MILKPAK carry it and transport it to the super marts and retail shops so that its
available to the end consumers. Supply Chain of Nestle MILKPAK guarantees environmental friendly practices
and for this they are continuously making their contributions in the society for keeping the environment safe
and secure. Their ultimate objective is to make sure that the green supply chain is in practice while keeping
their benefits, profits and business activities intact.

Improving Feed
Even before calling Nestl in, Milkpak Ltd. had tried to ensure that milk cows were given fresh fodder during
the summer.
Their teams are always prepared to offer practical advice. They have planted a variety of fodder crops and
demonstrate to farmers on field day. They also provide training on best practices in animal husbandry. For
instance, they stress the importance of giving cattle enough water, and train farmers in hygiene and milking.
Livestock Breeding & Health
Pakistan's vast milk production comes largely from buffaloes, despite their small yield. Nestle agronomists
have shown that with artificial insemination they can actually triple milk production. Yet artificial insemination
is still not widely used. In 1996, their vets and agronomists independently formed an NGO to promote artificial
insemination using high quality semen.
Today, with help from Nestl and others, they have established a training programs for inseminators, and
provide high quality imported semen at low cost to farmers Nestle Pakistan concentrate on preventative
measures against the most common diseases that afflict cattle in Pakistan. Farmers know that they can call on
our trained vets whenever necessary.
Better Equipment
Nestle agricultural services staff have drawn up technical plans for cowsheds, which are provided free of
charge. Their mechanics have also developed prototypes of machines to cut fodder quickly an inexpensively.

Starting 2004, we went a step further and proposed a system of small loans for farmers who wanted to make
improvements to their farms, such as building cowsheds.
Nestle drew up the sample specifications for a model farm to be presented to the bank disbursing the loans.
The Service even helps farmers fill out applications for loans.

Nestl Pakistan collects quality milk from 190,000 farmers

spread over 146,000 sq. km of Punjab and Sindh.


Nestle always do efforts to provide pure, high quality milk to
consumers in distant towns, Nestl entered into an
unprecedented partnership with local farmers. Today, 14 years after Nestl first entered the milk district in
force, the hard work and determination of our milk collection & technical assistance teams and their
dedication to Corporate Social Responsibility have raised the bar for dairy concerns in Pakistan.
1000 Small Village Diaries
An agent runs the diary. It occupies a small room of about 20 to 30 m either in the agents house or in a
building that nestle rents.
The milk collected on average is two times 150 liters per day.
The agent does a quick tasting test on the milk before recording the delivery in the farmers personal milk
The dairy is open two or three hours morning or evening.
The agent transports the milk to one of the 972 secondary receptions and cooling station before closing.

972 Secondary Reception And Cooling Stations

These generally occupy about 40 m, divided into two rooms.
One of these houses an electrically powered milk-cooling tank with a capacity of 600 to 2500 liters.

Power cuts are frequent, so 95% of the stations have their own generator.
An agent who also works as a milk inspector to run quality tests runs each secondary station.

Main Reception And Cooling Stations

These constitute the final stage in milk collection before it is delivered to factories.
It also fitted high capacity milk tanks.
8 of them are equipped with plate heat exchangers for getting the milk re cooled before transported to the
The quality analyses run as each tanker of milk arrives are more thorough than in the secondary station.
The 23 main stations also stores the laboratory supplies needed in the secondary stations and village
Link to the two factories by telephone and Internet, the main stations act as the communication and
administration centers for the entire collection system.

Maintenance And Breakdown Service

Looking after more than 1000 generators with the same number of water pumps
and ancillary equipments demands a systematic approach.
Each of the 23 main stations employs full time mechanics/electricians.
For more complex problem mechanic/electrician can immediately calls one of the five Nestle
maintenance service station located in five of the main reception stations.
The Nestle repair service was originally based in Shaikhupura factory. But over the period of time it was
transferred to the fresh milk-purchasing department.

Number of farmers selling their milk to Nestle


Number of farmers



Milk pack set up reception centers with cooling facilities where farmers and dodhies, small-time milk
merchants, could bring their wares.
It was a simple solution, but difficult in practice: importing the stainless steel chilled containers required was
prohibitively expensive. By 1988, the company purchased 120 tons of milk a day from 26,000 farmers.
After acquiring a share in Milkpak Ltd in 1988, Nestl immediately began investing in milk cooling tanks.
Between 1988 and 1992, 100 milk tanks were installed.
1992 onwards, with full support from the Nestl headquarters in Switzerland, reorganization of the milk
collection operation and the provision of agricultural technical assistance became top priorities.
The investment paid off. Within a decade, Nestl's purchase of fresh milk had quadrupled, and the number of
small farmers selling milk to Nestl tripled.


Follow the story of Nestl's dairy products, from humble beginnings on tiny farms in Sheikhupura district, all
the way to your table!
Step 1
A small farmer in rural Sheikhupura district milks his buffalo twice a day and takes about 4 liters to one of
Nestl's 500 Village Milk Collection Centers.
Step 2
At the Village Milk Collection Centre the farmer's milk is poured into aluminum churns.
The agent checks the milk's freshness and purity, and enters the quantity into the farmer's logbook. He takes it
to one of Nestl's 1308 Secondary Reception and Cooling Stations, about 2-4 kilometers away.

Step 3
The Secondary Reception Station has a large electrically powered cooling tank. A milk inspector measures the
fat content, the non-fat solids content, and the milk's acidity. Once satisfied, he takes the milk to one of 27
Main Reception and Cooling Stations.
Step 4
At the Main Reception and Cooling Stations the milk is poured into huge tanks and is thoroughly checked for
quality. The milk is dispatched to the factories.
Step 5
At the Sheikhupura and Kabirwala factories, the milk is processed and packed into the familiar Nestl cartons
you can find in your grocery store. It is checked for quality thrice before being released for sale. Some is
processed into yoghurt, powdered milk, or other dairy products.

Inbound logistics used for milk collection from different milk collection centre is centrally owned by nestle
Pakistan limited. In Pakistan, logistics has always been a problem especially for sensitive product like milk in
the hot weather. Initially the supplier who supplied there milk

Our products are manufactured in five facilities scattered around the country, from
Islamabad in the north, to Karachi in the south.
Two state-of-the-art multipurpose factories are located in the agricultural heartland of the
Punjab, and the remaining three are dedicated to producing our trusted brands of bottled
As citizens of Pakistan, we consider it our duty to make sure that our manufacturing processes are clean,
hygienic and safe. We are constantly working to reduce emissions at our factories, reducing and treating
wastewater, and making our packaging environmentally friendly. Regular audits have confirmed that our
factories' environmental management meets the Nestl international standard.
Sheikhupura Factory
The factory commenced operations as part of Milkpak Ltd in 1981. At the time it produced only UHT milk, but
by 1988 had expanded to produce butter, cream and ghee, as well as fruit drinks. Milk filling machine TBA-22
(most modern and efficient and high speed equipment available in dairy industry) National distribution centre
was also constructed in 2000 with capacity to store
8300 pallets.
Kabirwala Factory
In 1990, Nestl Milkpak acquired the Kabirwala factory, located in Khanewal district of the Punjab, as a
subsidiary. By 1997 it was a fully owned unit of Nestl Pakistan Ltd. 2006 has seen the commencement of

Kabirwala Extension Project that would be completed in April 2007 at a cost of about Rs. 4.0 billion. The
project has seen expansion of milk processing capacity to triple its current size, both for powder and liquid.In
2005 Fresh milk capacity was increased from 676 to 800 tons per day. In 2007 an additional raw and packing
and semi finished product stored and a bigger distribution. Centre, a stick pack filling machine and 1000 gr.
Powder filling machine will be added.
Islamabad factory:
AVA water factory Islamabad was acquired by Nestle Pakistan in 2001 and was
subsequently merged with it. Thereby becoming a fully owned unit of Nestle Pakistan in
2003.The production capacity of the factory is approximately 8000 bottles per day.

The successful execution of a planning strategy demands that the analysis has been performed with:
Confidence in the accuracy of the information provided;
Clarity in the way the information is presented;
Completeness of the information to be considered.
Planning must also address the resources and expertise that will be needed to implement the chosen
purchasing strategy. The trend to outsource both the initial conversion of raw
materials, the manufacture of certain semi-finished or finished products and some services, requires that the
original expertise in purchasing these materials and services is now needed to
manage suppliers fulfilling a higher added-value process. In addition, consideration must be given to decide
the specific value drivers of the subcontracting initiative for which Nestl needs to control either the sourcing
or pricing (or both).
The realization of the importance of the S&IM spend categories will result in Purchasing allocating more
attention to them. The task of planning a S&IM purchasing initiative may well
require a different skill set and knowledge base to that traditionally expected of a Strategic Buyer.


Manufacturing is very important part of supply chain. In our factories, the objective is to maximize ecoefficiency that is to maximize the production of goods, while at the same time, minimizing of consumption of
resources and reduce wastage and emissions. The factories are equipped with complete testing and
monitoring facilities for wastage and emission enables them to stringently monitor the gaseous environments
and ensure that these are in accordance with environmental standards (NEQS).

Milk Reception
The Milk Reception Unit receives milk and liquid milk products for a milk processing plant. The unit measures
and pumps the product for buffering or further treatment.
Tetra performs in-line mixing for a wide range of powders and liquids for dairy applications such as
reconstituted and recombined milk, yoghurt milk, flavored milk, evaporated milk, recombined concentrated
milk, ice cream mix, chocolate slurries, dairy desse ghee.

Heating and Cooling

Heating and cooling are basic processes within dairy processing and take place in plate or tubular heat
exchangers. Tetra Pak heat exchangers have high thermal efficiency for low energy consumption.
Automatic direct in-line standardization of milk and cream. Accurate control of fat, fat/solids and non-fat ratio
gives better utilization and control of the production parameters
Along with correct cooling, pasteurization is one of the most important processes in the treatment of milk. If
carried out correctly, these processes will supply milk with longer shelf life.
Temperature and pasteurization time are very important factors which must be specified precisely in relation
to the quality of the milk and its shelf life requirements etc. The pasteurization temperature for homogenized,
HTST pasteurized, regular-grade milk is
usually 72-75 C for 15-20 seconds.

UHT treatment
UHT treatment is a thermal process for preserving liquid milk. UHT stands for Ultra High Temperature and by
heating to 137 140 C for a very short time (2-10 s) the micro-organisms are inactivated. If the milk is
packaged under aseptic conditions it can be stored at room temperature for months.

Packaging Materials
Nestl is committed to reducing the environmental impact of packaging, without jeopardizing the safety,
quality or consumer acceptance of its products.
As far as milk is concern packaging is very important, it is perishable item which requires special packaging to
preserve it for few months. To meet this objective Nestle
Milkpak use tetra Pak to deliver fresh milk to its customer without sacrificing in health measures. Nestle have
following objectives in mind regarding packaging:
Result in the lowest possible weight and volume of packages whilst still maintaining pack integrity;
Take into account new packaging materials and processes that reduce the impact on the environment of
unnecessary transportation;
Avoid the use of substances that can adversely impact the environment during packaging production and
Decrease packaging waste at all stages in the supply chain, including package manufacturing, utilization
and disposal;
Increase the use of recycled materials wherever possible, and increase the recyclables and compatibility of
packages with existing waste management schemes.


The finished tetra pack is sent to the factory ware house which is 4 km away from the processing plant.
Factory ware house is located near the plant to reduce the transportation cost. At Factory warehouse
temperature is controlled to ensure the condition of the milk is fresh when it reaches the consumers. Milk is a
very perishable item; therefore it requires very effective storage conditions at warehouses to preserve milk in
its real condition.
For this Nestle milkpak warehouses contains very suitable temperature that should not increase from 38C in
order to keep preserved milk in its fresh condition.

Lay out of the warehouse

This warehouse has no shelving or racking system instead the goods are kept on pallets. Information tags are
placed on every carton as well as on the top of the pallets. The warehouses height is about 17 feet. The
building is divided into two sections; one for carrying heavy weights products and the other for carrying lighter
ones. There are two gates; one for receiving the goods and the other for distribution. In this way, receiving
and dispatching of goods can be done at the same time which is a time saver. There is a room used as check
post to ensure the safety and security along with keeping track of what goes in and out of the warehouse. The
whole warehouse was divided into individual lanes; the lanes were designed in such a way that it creates a U
shaped flow of goods which makes easier for the pickers to carry the goods to the trolleys using safe lifting
and reduces the time and motion wastage.
Inventory Management in the warehouse
The inventory is managed by software called SAP (System Applications and Products). Another method for
managing the inventory is Manual Counts that is done by the inventory clerk on daily basis, who is
specially hired for this purpose. The counted stocks are recorded on a whiteboard thats placed inside the
warehouse. It contains not just the information about the name and no. of products but also in which lane
they are and in what volume they are in. The whiteboard information is updated every time a picker picks the
order and also when the goods are loaded on a truck for delivery.
For further verification, Barcodes are also placed to scan the cartons of the products every time they enter or
exit the warehouse.
Every batch of goods has a batch code like this 2 043 1382 1 Z
Which tells the following information:
The year in which that product was Manufactured
The day of the year in which it was Packed
A plant code in which it was Manufactured
The no. of times a good goes through the machine
A machine code

How the goods are picked in the warehouse?

There are five pickers in the warehouse. The supervisor assigns 4 of them to pick products by a list. The list
contains information about the product batch number, quantity, lane number and the pallet number. Two of
them pick the goods, the third one gives instruction and the fourth person rechecks it. The FIFO method is
adopted in the warehouse because Nestle is a FMCG company and most of its goods are perishable and have
limited time span. So what first goes into the warehouse should be dispatched first.
How the goods are ordered?
The goods are ordered on the basis of LIFO method. Orders are received from distributors across the country.
LIFO is used because it takes transportation cost, time to record and place an order along with the delivery
process. As for Nestle MilkPak, it has an expiry of 6months,
so it needs to be delivered first.

How goods are delivered from the warehouse?

There is a gate in the warehouse from where the goods are delivered, once the picker picks up the goods, the
process of delivery from warehouse begins. The supervisor of the warehouse rechecks the goods are picked in
the right quantity, packed in the right way and loaded in the right truck.
Capacity Of Trucks
Nestle milkpak has trucks which have the following capacity. The data is on the basis of
cartons per truck.
Size of item

No. Of cartons

1 liter
1.5 liter



Acceptance letter is the conformance letter that ensures that the warehouse accepts or
receives the inventory, it includes:

Invoice number
Whom to sold
Whom to ship
Dispatch date
From whom
Product description
Unit price


1 liter of Nestle milkpak has the major 55% of total sales.
250 ml of Nestle milkpak has 25% of sales
1.5 liter of Nestle milkpak has 10% of sales
500 ml pf Nestle milkpak has 10% of sales
Type of carton

No. Of item units

1 liter
1.5 liter


Outbound logistics concerns finished milk movement from factory to different
warehouses located in different cities.
The logistics usually take 3 days to arrive at Nestls warehouses in Karachi from their
manufacturing factories at Lahore, kabirwala and shaikhupura
Size of item

No. Of cartons

1 liter
1.5 liter


According to the distribution, Pakistan is divided into three geographical zones and then
in further Regional Sales Offices.

North Zone:
Islamabad and north outstations

Central Zone:

South Zone:

Selection of Distributors
The Criteria followed are:
1Capital Investment
Depends on both present and future capital investments by distributors
Amount vary from Area-wise to marketwise
2.Relevant experience
Prior experience in FMCG sector is preferred to save on training expenses
Distributor should not be dealing in Competitors product
Should handle entire range of Nestle products (Both fast and slow moving SKUs)
Godowns / Storage space with appropriate refrigeration as per product needs
Delivery vehicles
4.Companys discretion based on markets served

Distribution process
The distributors have sales force to collect orders. There are two methods for distribution of goods:

(Where sales force first books
orders from the shops or retailers
and then delivers the goods)

(Where sales force is given a van
full of Nestle goods to sell)

Nestle Milkpak goes for indirect channel of distribution, that means there is a chain of intermediaries through
which a product moves through additional steps as it moves from manufacturing business via distributors to
wholesalers and then to retail stores or super marts.
The distribution strategy of Nestle MilkPak is intensive as it is covering wide market. There are regional
headquarters of the company in all big cities of Pakistan. In this report we have covered distribution channel
of Nestle MilkPak in Karachi. In order to reach remote areas the company is linked with the main distributor
and sub-distributors. The company is directly linked with the main distributors; they provide the products
inventory to the main distributor that is further dispatched to retailers and sub- distributors. The targets differ
from area to area and set on the basis of history of the area sale and also from the monthly forecasting.

Distribution Channels:
Nestle employs different distributors for different areas. Distributors employ their own sales force and vans,
which deliver Milk Pak to the doorstep of the retailers. Every distributer has three territories per area. In the
A territory, the distributors vans visit the outlets every alternate day. In the B territory, the vans visit the
retailers at least twice a week, while in the C territory; the vans visit once a week.

Distributors sales target:

It is interesting to note that the distributors are given sales targets, which are then communicated by the
distributors to their sales team. The targets are usually like 15% annual growth in sales. The distributors
achieve this by selling more units to the existing clientele (outlets in their region). In some cases the clients
themselves ask for more stock. In other cases they have to be persuaded to buy more. The norm usually is that
if a retail client asks for 12 pack the distributors sales team sells him 15. The reason is to leave no space
available for the competitors.

Daily Incoming And Outgoing Logistics

Minimum one or two nestle milkpak trucks daily being arrived at each ware house from the sheikhupura and
kabirwala factories, and is distributed in the same amount to the retailers all over the city.
The logistics usually take 3 days to arrive at Nestls warehouses in Karachi from their manufacturing factories
at Lahore, kabirwala and shaikhupura.Nestle milkpak has their owned and outsourced trucks.


Nestle milkpak has 3 months of shelf life.

Objectives Of Nestles Distribution Centers Or Warehouses

There are three main objectives of Nestls distribution centers.
Meeting the targets
Distribution at Right time
At Right place


The demand of Nestle milkpak usually increases in the festivity season or any event such as.
Ramazan and
There is a shortage of supply of milk during the pregnancy season of cows.


Nestle milkpak has an efficient return policy for inventory in case of any defect.
Every carton and item has assigned a certain batch number.
If any defect has found in item or carton then the batch number of that item or
carton is noted and disposes the defected item right on there.


In the year 2005 the successful launch of GLOBE remained probably the most significant achievement for
Nestle Pakistan. It was recognized locally as well as in the Nestle world as the most successful implementation
GLOBE is a worldwide program/project designed to align Nestle Pakistan with other Nestle companies around
the world and to learn and benefit from each others experience.
The project has three main objectives;
Creation and adoption of common business practices across all countries where Nestle operates.
Standardization of data and,
Standardization of information technology system.
Migration to an ERP
The final phase of the project entails migration of Nestle Pakistan to an ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning)
called SAP (System Application Products), which is one of the most integrated business application software in
the world. Nestle Pakistan achieved this final migration on February 7, 2005. On that date all Nestle sites
including the head office, all factories, distribution centers and three zonal offices went live on the new
Information system and Purchasing
Purchasing task will be greatly facilitated by standard IS/IT infrastructure, common business applications and
best practices, Visibility of standardized, real-time purchasing data/information will permit aggregated spend
category analysis. This will help identify opportunities and define more effective purchasing strategies with the
objective of achieving lower total cost.

Over View of Supply Chain of Milk Pack

So what makes our supply chain so special?

Well, for a start, we're the leading nutrition, health and wellness company in the world and possess one of the
most sophisticated supply chains in the world - putting the customer at the heart of everything we do. As a
result, every success (and, by definition, every failure) we experience is multiplied to the nth degree. And for
the right type of person, that should be an exhilarating prospect.
Each element of the supply chain relies heavily on strong relationships with other areas, and that creates a
community of like-minded people; a real team ethos where everyone goes out of their way to help each other
It's the passion, dedication and energy from our people that drives our winning culture. You'll quickly come to
appreciate this diverse environment, regardless of which role you find yourself in.


Supply chain activities transform natural resources and raw materials into finished products which are
delivered to the end consumer. Each stage of the process adds value to the overall end product.
Nestl operates within complex supply chains. Its milk supply chain goes from farms to facility.
. Nestl sources materials from thousands of farms, many of them small farmers in poorer rural regions of the
world. In many rural communities, a lack of investment in infrastructure has a serious impact on the quality
and quantity of raw materials that Nestl and other companies rely on. Nestl provides training in order to

encourage sustainable production, protect the supply and quality of its raw materials and have a positive,
long-term impact on the local economy and farmers standards of living.
Around two-thirds of Nestls worldwide expenditure is on raw materials. Nearly 40% of this goes on three
main ingredients: milk, coffee and cocoa. It is a prime example of Nestls Creating Shared Value approach to
business The initiative aims to help farmers to run profitable farms, respect the environment, have a good
quality of life and give their children a better education.
So what does Nestle do in order to stay successful in its supply chain management? There are multiple
innovative strategies that Nestle employs time-to-time on a global level.
To conclude:
Sustainability, Compliance, Farmers Connect sourcing model contribute to

Replicable and consistent quality and food safety

Predictable timing and volume
Increased price stability
Sustainable production
Farmer loyalty


1. Nestle Pakistan can establish their own dairy farms near their factory.

a. Transportation cost that incurs from the collection centres to the factories will be minimized.
b. Less dependency upon local farmers.
c. These dairy farms will act as Crisis Management point in dynamic conditions as we have recently faced in
the form of worst floods in all over Pakistan.
d. More employment opportunities for local people around that region.
e. As milk is collected twice a day so there will be less repetition of work; if Nestle establishes its own dairy
farm near its factory.
2. Nestle can also establish a few of their own retail outlets or franchises in major cities of Pakistan to fill

the demand and supply gap more efficiently just like Millac (Pvt) Ltd.
a. These outlets will save the repute of the company from stock outs in peak seasons like Ramazan, Eids, &
b. These retail outlets will align with Nestles production
planning with the demand of customers.
c. There will be less occurrence of bullwhip effect.
d. These outlets will serve as a competitive advantage for
Nestle in their marketing strategy.
e. Nestle will also be less dependent on other retailers.
3. Nestle should introduce vertical shelf system in the
a. As Nestles warehouse has a ceiling of 17 feet, it should
use the ample space above the lower shelves.
b. This system will allow the storage of goods in segregation.
4. Nestle should install Voice Picking technology in warehouses.
a. Although its a bit expensive, but use of this technology will benefit Nestle in future as it reduces the time
and human error and increases efficiency.

In the end, we would like to conclude that Nestle Pakistan is the leader in FMCG industry. Nestle keeps track
of its goods by maintaining its supply chain all over the country. From Nestls manufacturing system to its
Distribution channels, everything is properly managed. They have a strong relationship not only with their
customers but also with their suppliers, distributors and retailers. They maintain a proper Corporate Social
Responsibility by training their local farmers about milking and feeding of their animals. In 2004, Nestle
proposed a system of small loans for farmers who wanted to make improvements to their farms, such as
building cowsheds. They drew up the sample specifications for a model farm to be presented to the banks

disbursing the loans. The Service even helps farmers fill out applications for loans. In short, Nestle takes care
of its inside and outside customers. The manufacturing plant of Nestle is the strength and serves as a
competitive advantage for Nestle because of its perfect system. The hygiene, safety and security control is
done under Nestle MilkPaks manufacturing plant. We learnt a lot about Nestles Supply Chain; from the
manufacturing department to distribution, everything is done perfectly.

To collection information we have considered following source in order to gather authentic data:
Logistics and Supply Chain Management : Strategies for Reducing Cost and
Improving Service (Financial Times Management) -- Christopher Martin;
Introduction to Supply Chain Management -- Robert B. Handfield, Ernest L. Jr. Nichols
Books concerned:
Nestle management report 2005
Nestle management report 2006
SEMIDA report 2005 for milk production and distribution
Economic survey of Pakistan 2006
Personnel concerned:

Mr Shakeel Mirza
Reigional Sales Manager