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foundation

V8i (SELECTseries 4): Release 5.3

Verification Manual

DAA039050-1/0001

Copyright Information

TRADEMARK NOTICE

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of Bentley Sytems, Inc. or Bentley Software, Inc. All other marks are the property of their

respective owners.

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Including software, file formats, and audiovisual displays; may only be used pursuant to

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Acknowledgments

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Systems Incorporated.

If this software is acquired for or on behalf of the United States of America, its agencies

and/or instrumentalities ("U.S. Government"), it is provided with restricted rights. This

software and accompanying documentation are "commercial computer software" and

"commercial computer software documentation," respectively, pursuant to 48 C.F.R. 12.212

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restrictions as set forth in this Agreement and pursuant to 48 C.F.R. 12.212, 52.227-19,

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Incorporated, 685 Stockton Drive, Exton, PA 19341- 0678.

Unpublished - rights reserved under the Copyright Laws of the United States and

International treaties.

To view the End User License Agreement for this product, review: eula_en.pdf.

Verification Manual i

Table of Contents

Introduction

2004])

14

16

23

23

26

32

38

44

53

62

71

77

83

88

99

99

105

112

115

123

125

125

129

133

138

140

145

Verification Manual iii

150

158

164

170

176

4.12 IS Pilecap 1

182

4.13 ISPilecap 2

189

196

201

201

206

211

215

220

229

233

240

247

253

258

264

271

280

287

295

302

311

321

321

330

338

347

357

357

361

366

371

375

380

385

385

394

403

412

413

414

415

416

418

418

419

420

421

422

424

425

426

430

435

Index

437

439

Figures

439

Tables

443

Verification Manual v

Introduction

This document is intended to use as a hand calculation reference for STAAD.foundation

V8i (SELECTseries 4) Release 5.3 verification problems. Verification Problems can be found

under Start Page > Example > Verification.

Each section in this manual represents either specific design code (e.g., AS3600-2001) or

particular foundation type (e.g., Dead Man Anchor Guy Foundation). Hand calculation title

(e.g., AS GEN ISO 1) indicates corresponding STAAD.foundation file name.

At end of each hand calculation a comparison table between hand calculations and program

results is provided for various output parameters like bearing pressure, overturning and

sliding factor of safety, shear force, etc.

Verification Manual 1

Chapter 4

Section 1

1.1 General Isolated Foundation 1

1.1.1 Reference

1.1.2 Problem

Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = 500 KN, fc = 25 MPa, fy = 450

MPa, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, and Bearing Capacity of Soil = 110 KN/m2.

Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning =1.5. Height

of soil above footing=500 mm, GWT is 200 mm from GL.

Surcharge= 10 KN/m2

Verification Manual 3

Chapter 1

1.1 General Isolated Foundation 1

Figure 1-1: Australian code General isolated foundation

1.1.3 Solution

Approximate area of footing required = 500/110 m2 = 4.545 m2

Assuming 2.4 m x 2.4 m x 0.400 m footing dimension,

Weight of footing = 2.4 x 2.4 x 0.400 x 25 KN = 57.6 KN

Weight of above soil = 2.4 x 2.4 x 0.500 x 18 KN = 51.84 KN

Reduction of Weight due to buoyancy = 2.4 x 2.4 x (0.500+0.400-0.200) x

9.81 KN = 39.554 KN

Load due to surcharge = 2.4 x2.4 x 10 KN =57.6 KN

Therefore, total load on the footing = (500+57.6 +51.84+57.6 -39.554 ) KN

= 627.486 KN

Maximum pressure = 627.486 /(2.4x2.4) = 108.94 KN/ m2

108.94 KN/m2 <110 KN/m2 (Hence safe)

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for sliding

Along X Direction

Sliding force =0

1.1 General Isolated Foundation 1

Total Service load on foundation = 627.486 KN

Hence Max possible Resisting Sliding force =0.5 x 627.486 = 313.74 KN

Hence OK

Along Z Direction

Sliding force =0

max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation

Total Service load on foundation = 627.486 KN

Hence Max possible Resisting Sliding force =0.5 x 627.486 = 313.74 KN

Hence OK

overturning

WRT Z Direction

Overturning Moment =0

Max Resisting Moment = 0.5 x 2.4 x 627.486 = 752.98 KNm

Hence OK

WRT X Direction

Overturning Moment =0

Max Resisting Moment = 0.5 x 2.4 x 627.486 = 752.98 KNm

Hence OK

1.1.4 Comparison

Table 1-1: Australian verification example 1 comparison

Reference

STAAD.foundation

Value of

Result

Result

Bearing Pressure

108.94 KN/m2

108.63 KN/m2

Resisting force for sliding (x)

313.74 KN

312.867 KN

Resisting Moment for

752.98 KNm

750.87 KNm

Overturning (z)

Resisting force for sliding (z)

313.74 KN

312.867 KN

Resisting Moment for

752.98 KNm

750.87 KNm

Overturning (x)

Percent Difference

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Verification Manual 5

Chapter 1

1.2 General Isolated Foundation 2

1.2.1 Reference

1.2.2 Problem

Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = 1500 KN,Mz=50 KNm,Mx=50

KNm, fc = 25 N/m2m, fy = 450 N/m2m, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, and

Bearing Capacity of Soil = 120 KN/m2. Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding

=1.5, FOS against overturning =1.5

Figure 1-2: Plan and Elevation

1.2.3 Solution

Approximate area of footing required = 1500/120 m2 = 12.5 m2

Assuming 3.935 m x 3.935 m x 0.5 m footing dimension,

Tot Moment wrt Z =50 KNm

Tot Moment wrt X =50 KNm

1.2 General Isolated Foundation 2

Stress at four corners ( service condition)

1 = V/A Mx/Zx + Mz/Zz

2 = V/A Mx/Zx - Mz/Zz

3 = V/A + Mx/Zx - Mz/Zz

4 = V/A + Mx/Zx + Mz/Zz

Tot Vertical Load on soil

Self wt of fdn = 3.935x3.935x0.5x25 = 193.56 KN

Col reaction load = 1500 KN

Tot Vertical load V =1693.56 KN

Zz = Z.X2/6 = 3.935 x 3.9352/6 =10.156 m3

Zx = Z.X2/6 = 3.935 x 3.9352/6 =10.156 m3

Mx= 50 KNm

Mz = 50 KNm

1 = V/A Mx/Zx + Mz/Zz = 109.373KN/m2

2 = V/A Mx/Zx - Mz/Zz = 99.53 KN/m2

3 = V/A + Mx/Zx - Mz/Zz = 109.373 KN/m2

4 = V/A + Mx/Zx + Mz/Zz = 119.22 KN/m2

Max stress = 119.22 KN/m2 <120 KN/m2

Hence safe

sliding

Along X Direction

Sliding force = 0

max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation =0.5 x 1693.56 =

846.78 KN

Hence OK

Along Z Direction

Sliding force =0

max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation =0.5 x 1693.56 =

846.78 KN

Hence OK

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for overturning

Verification Manual 7

Chapter 1

1.2 General Isolated Foundation 2

Along X Direction

Overturning Moment =50 KNm

max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 3.935x 1693.56 = 3332.08 KNm

Hence FOS=3332.08 /50 = 66.64> 1.5

Hence OK

Along Z Direction

Overturning Moment =50 KNm

max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 3.935x 1693.56 = 3332.08 KNm

Hence FOS=3332.08 /50 = 66.64 > 1.5

Hence OK

Average Base Pressure along one edge = (121.83 + 135.63)x0.5 = 128.73 KN/m2 (left end)

Average Base Pressure along other edge = (135.63+149.43)x0.5 = 142.53 KN/m2 (right

end)

Approximate Base Pressure at the left critical section = 142.53+(128.73142.53)x2117.5/3935 = 135.11 KN/m2

Approximate Base Pressure at the right critical section = 142.53+(128.73142.53)x1817.5/3935 = 136.16 KN/m2

Hence, the moment at the critical section Mu (Right) = F xLA

F = (142.53+136.16)x0.5x1.8175x3.935 = 996.5763 KN

LA = (136.16+2x142.53)x1.8175/(3x(136.16+142.53)) = 0.916 m

Mu(right) = 912.864 KNm

So max moment wrt Z axis Mu(Z) = 913 KNm

1.2 General Isolated Foundation 2

deff = (500-50-0.5 x 16) mm = 442 mm

m= fc/fy =0.0555

= 0.85-0.007.fc = 0.65

Kumax = 0.4

Ku = 0.34.. (1-0.2x) = 0.192

Rumax = 0.85.fc. Kumax .(1- Kumax /2) = 6.8

Mumax = Rumax.b.d2 = 5227.55 KNm

Mu < Mumax

Hence OK

AverageBasePressurealongoneedge=(135.63+121.83)x0.5=128.73kN/m2(leftend)

AverageBase Pressure along other edge = (135.63 +149.43)x0.5 = 142.53 kN/m2 (right

end)

Approximate Base Pressure at the left critical section = 142.53+(128.73-142.53)x2117.5/3935

= 135.11 KN/m2

Approximate Base Pressure at the right critical section = 142.53+(128.73142.53)x1817.5/3935 = 136.16 KN/m2

Hence, the moment at the critical section Mu (Right) = F xLA

Verification Manual 9

Chapter 1

1.2 General Isolated Foundation 2

LA = (136.16 + 2x 142.53) x 1.8175 / (3x (136.16 + 142.53)) = 0.916 m

Mu(right) = 912.867 KNm

So max moment wrt X axis Mu (X) = 913 KNm

deff = (500-50-0.5 x 16) mm = 442 mm

m= fc/fy =0.0555

= 0.85-0.007.fc = 0.65

Kumax = 0.4

Ku = 0.34.. (1-0.2x) = 0.192

Rumax = 0.85.fc. Kumax .(1- Kumax /2) = 6.8

Mumax = Rumax.b.d2 = 5227.55 KNm

Mu < Mumax

Hence OK

Therefore, Astx = 6391 m2m

Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.002 x B x D = 3935 mm2

10 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

1.2 General Isolated Foundation 2

So, provided area of steel = 4165 mm2

Therefore, Astx = 6391 m2m

Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.002 x B x D = 3935 mm2

So, provided area of steel = 4165 mm2

Critical section for moment is at d dist from the face of column

Average Base Pressure along one edge = (121.83 + 135.63)x0.5=128.73kN/m2

AverageBase Pressure along other edge = (135.63 +149.43)x0.5 = 142.53 kN/m2

Approximate Base Pressure at the left critical section = 142.53 + (128.73 - 142.53)x

2559.5/3935 = 133.55 kN/m2

Approximate Base Pressure at the left critical section = 142.53 + (128.73 - 142.53)x

1375.5/3935 = 137.71 kN/m2

Hence, the SF at critical section (right)

F = (142.53 +137.71)x0.5 1.3755 x 3.935 = 758.41 kN

Developed shear stress v = 759 x 1000/(3935 x 442) = 0.44 N/mm2

cmax = 0.2.fc = 5 N/mm2

1 =1.1(1.6-d/1000) = 1.2738

2 = 1

3 = 1

c =1.2.3.(Ast.fc/b.d)1/3 = 0.575N/mm2

Hence OK

Verification Manual 11

Chapter 1

1.2 General Isolated Foundation 2

Along Z Direction

Average Base Pressure along one edge = (121.83 + 135.63)x0.5=128.73kN/m2

AverageBase Pressure along other edge = (135.63 +149.43)x0.5 = 142.53 kN/m2

Approximate Base Pressure at the left critical section = 142.53 + (128.73 - 142.53)x

2559.5/3935 = 133.55 kN/m2

Approximate Base Pressure at the left critical section = 142.53 + (128.73 - 142.53)x

1375.5/3935 = 137.71 kN/m2

Hence, the SF at critical section (right)

F = (142.53 +137.71)x0.5 1.3755 x 3.935 = 758.41 kN

So max SF along Z axis Fuz = 759 kN

Developed shear stress v = 759x1000/(3935 x442) =

= 0.44 N/mm2

cmax = 0.2.fc = 5 N/mm2

1 =1.1(1.6-d/1000) = 1.2738

2 = 1

3 = 1

c =1.2.3.(Ast.fc/b.d)1/3 = 0.575N/mm2

Hence OK

1.2 General Isolated Foundation 2

Vmax= 2026 KN

v =

= 1.544 N/mm2

v < c

Hence safe

Verification Manual 13

Chapter 1

1.3 General Combined Foundation 1

1.2.4 Comparison

Table 1-2: Australian verification example 2 comparison

Reference

STAAD.foundation

Percent DifValue of

Result

Result

ference

Corner Pressure

109.373 KN/m2 109.373 KN/m2

None

99.53 KN/m2

99.525 KN/m2

Governing Moment

119.22 KN/m2

912.86 KNm

119.22 KN/m2

912.45 KNm

Negligible

Shear Force(One-Way)

912.86 KNm

758.4 KN

912.42 KNm

757.25 KN

Negligible

Shear Force(Two-Way)

Resisting force for sliding

758.4 KN

2026 KN

846.78 KN

757.25 KN

2024.93 KN

846.78 KN

Negligible

None

846.78 KN

3332 KNm

846.78 KN

3332 KNm

None

3332 KNm

3332 KNm

Overturning

1.3.1 Reference

1.3 General Combined Foundation 1

1.3.2 Problem

Design a combined footing with the given data: Load Fy = 600 KN each column., fc = 25

MPa, fy = 450 MPa, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, Pedestal height-500 mm.

and C/C column distance=3000 mm . Bearing Capacity of Soil = 105 KN/m2. Coefficient of

friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning =1.5

Ht of soil =450 mm. Depth of GWT=250 mm.

Figure 1-3: Plan and Elevation

1.3.3 Solution

Approximate area of footing required = 2x600/115 m2 = 10.435 m2

Assuming 5 m x 2.7 m x 0.600 m footing dimension,

( left overhang=right overhang = 1 m)

Weight of footing = 5 x 2.7 x 0.600 x25 KN = 202.5 KN

Weight of pedestal=2x0.3x0.3x0.5x25=2.25 KN

Weight of soil above footing = (5 x 2.7-2x0.3x0.3) x 0.450 x18 KN = 107.892 KN

Reduction of Weight due to buoyancy = 5 x 2.7 x (0.45+0.6-0.25) x9.81 KN = 105.948 KN

Therefore, total load on the footing = (2x600+202.5 +2.25+107.892 -105.948) KN =

1406.694 KN

Maximum pressure= 1406.694 /(5 x2.7) = 104.199 KN/ m2

104.2 KN/ m2 <105 KN/m2 (Hence safe)

Verification Manual 15

Chapter 1

1.4 General Combined Foundation 2

overturning

About Z Direction

Overturning Moment =0

Total Service load on foundation = 2x600+202.5 +2.25+107.892 -105.948 KN= 1406.694

KNm

max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 5x 1406.694 = 3516.735 KNm

Hence OK

About X Direction

Overturning Moment = 0

max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 2.7x 1406.694 = 1899.04 KNm

Hence OK

1.3.4 Comparison

Table 1-3: Australian verification example 3 comparison

Reference

STAAD.foundation

Percent DifValue of

Result

Result

ference

2

2

Bearing Pressure

104.2 KN/m

104.2 KN/m

None

Resisting Moment for

3516.735 KNm 3516.816 KNm

Negligible

Overturning (Z)

Resisting Moment for

1899.04 KNm 1899.08 KNm

Negligible

Overturning (X)

1.4.1 Reference

1.4.2 Problem

Design a combined footing with the given data: Load Fy = 600 KN and 550 KN on two

col., fc = 25 MPa, fy = 450 MPa, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, Pedestal

height-500 mm. and C/C column distance=3000 mm . Bearing Capacity of Soil = 100

KN/m2. Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning

=1.5

1.4 General Combined Foundation 2

Figure 1-4: Plan and Elevation

1.4.3 Solution

Approximate area of footing required = (600+550)/100 m2 = 1.15 m2

Assuming 5 m x 2.85 m x 0.500 m footing dimension,

( left overhang=right overhang=1m)

Weight of footing = 5 m x 2.85 m x 0.500 x25 KN = 178.125 KN

Weight of pedestal=2x0.3x0.3x0.5x25=2.25 KN

Therefore, total load on the footing = (600+550+178.125 +2.25) KN = 1330.38 KN

Pressure from axial load = 1330.38 /(5x2.85) = 118.34 KN/ m2

CG of foundation raft = 5/2= 2.5

CG of load = (1x600+4x550)/(600+550) = 2.43478 m

Eccentricity= 2.5 - 2.43478 = 0.065217 m

So Moment Mz = Pxe = 75 KNm

Zz = 2.85 x 52/6 = 11.875 m3

stress due to moment = M/Z = 6.32 KN/m2

Stress at left end = P/A + M/Z = 99.68 KN/m2

Stress at right end = P/A + M/Z = 87.04 KN/m2

So, Maximum stress

99.68 KN/m2<100 KN/m2 (Hence safe)

Verification Manual 17

Chapter 1

1.4 General Combined Foundation 2

overturning

About Z Direction

Overturning Moment =0

max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 5 x 1330.38 = 3325.95 KNm

Hence OK

Wrt X Direction

Overturning Moment =0

max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 2.85 x 1330.38 = 1895.79 KNm

Hence OK

About Z Axis (sagging)

Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 172 KNm

Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 12 mm bar, effective depth

deff = (600-50-0.5 x 12) mm = 544 mm

m= fc/fy =0.0555

= 0.85-0.007.fc = 0.65

Kumax = 0.4

Ku = 0.34.. (1-0.2x) = 0.192

Rumax = 0.85.fc. Kumax .(1- Kumax /2) = 6.8

Mumax = Rumax.b.d2 = 3820.4 KNm

Mu < Mumax Hence OK

Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 201 KNm

Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 12 mm bar, effective depth

deff = (600-50-0.5 x 12) mm = 544 mm

m= fc/fy =0.0555

= 0.85-0.007.fc = 0.65

Kumax = 0.4

Ku = 0.34.. (1-0.2x) = 0.192

1.4 General Combined Foundation 2

Mumax = Rumax.b.d2 = 3820.4 KNm

Mu < Mumax Hence OK

Moment About X Axis

Cantilever length=(2.85-0.3)/2 = 1.275 m

Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 121.84 x5x1.275 2/2 =495 KNm

Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 12 mm bar, effective depth

deff = (600-50-0.5 x 12) mm = 544 mm

m= fc/fy =0.0555

= 0.85-0.007.fc = 0.65

Kumax = 0.4

Ku = 0.34.. (1-0.2x) = 0.192

Rumax = 0.85.fc. Kumax .(1- Kumax /2) = 6.8

Mumax = Rumax.b.d2 = 6702.6 KNm

Mu < Mumax Hence OK

Along X Direction (Bottom)

Astx = 991 m2m

Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.002 x B x D = 2850 mm2

Provided area = 2850 m2m

Astx = 1333.34 m2m

Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.002 x B x D = 2850 mm2

Provided area = 2850 m2m

Therefore, Astz = 3064 m2m

Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.002 x B x D = 5000 mm2

Provided area = 5000 m2m

Verification Manual 19

Chapter 1

1.4 General Combined Foundation 2

Figure 1-5: Graphs of combined strip footing internal forces

Vumax = 299.418 KN

Developed shear stress V = 299.418(10)3/(2850 x 444)= 0.2367 N/mm2

cmax = 0.2.fc = 5 N/mm2

1 =1.1(1.6-d/1000) = 1.2716

1.4 General Combined Foundation 2

2 = 1

3 = 1

c =1.2.3.(Ast.fc/b.d)1/3 = 0.488 N/mm2

Hence OK

Punching Shear

For Column One

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d from the column face.

2 way shear= 774.52 KN

v =

N/mm2

= 774.52x1000/(300x2+300x2+444x4)x444 = 0.5862

v < c , Hence safe

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d from the column face.

Two way shear= 710.396 KN

v =

N/mm2

v < c , Hence safe

Verification Manual 21

Chapter 1

1.4 General Combined Foundation 2

1.4.4 Comparison

Table 1-4: Australian verification example 4 comparison

Reference

STAAD.foundation

Percent DifValue of

Result

Result

ference

Bearing Pressure

99.68 KN/m2 99.68 KN/m2

Negligible

Governing Moment

Shear Force(One-Way)

Shear Force(Two-Way)

Resisting Moment for

Overturning (Z)

Resisting Moment for

Overturning (X)

87.64 KN/m2

172 KN-m

87.04 KN/m2

167 KN-m

201 KN-m

201 KN-m

495 KN-m

299.42 KN

774.52 KN

481 KN-m

299.37 KN

774.52 KN

None

Negligible

710.4 KN

3326 KNm

710.04 KN

3326 KNm

None

1896 KNm

1896 KNm

None

Negligible

Section 2

2.1 General Isolated Foundation 1

2.1.1 Reference

Reinforced Concrete by T.J.Macgingley & B.S.Choo, Page 333 and Example: 11.1.

2.1.2 Problem

A column 400mm X 400mm carries a dead load of 800 kN and an imposed load of 300 kN.

The safe bearing pressure is 200 kN/m2. Design a square base to resist the loads. The

concrete is grade 35 and the reinforcement is grade 460.

Verification Manual 23

Chapter 2

2.1 General Isolated Foundation 1

2.1.3 Solution

Figure 2-1: Bending section considered

2.1 General Isolated Foundation 1

Size of base

Self-weight of footing = 2.5 x 2.5 x 0.5 x 25 = 78.125 kN.

Therefore, Service load = Dead load + Imposed load + Self weight

= (800 + 300 + 78.125) kN = 1178.125 kN.

Area required = 1178.125 / 200 m2 = 5.890625 m2.

Make the base 2.5 m x 2.5 m.

Moment Steel

Ultimate load = (1.4 x 800) + (1.6 x 300) = 1600 kN.

Ultimate pressure = 1600 / (2.5 x 2.5) = 256 kNm2

The critical section YY at the column face is shown in Figure 6.1.

MYY= 256 x (2.5 / 2 - 0.4 / 2) x 2.5 x 0.525 = 352.8 kNm.

Try an overall depth of 500 mm with 20 mm bars.

Effective depth = 500 40 20 10 = 430 mm.

Therefore z = 0.95d,

= 1976.31 mm2.

Minimum area of steel = 0.0015 x B x d = 0.0012 x 2500 x 430 = 1625 mm2 < AS (Hence

Safe)

Let us provide 10 nos. 16 mm bars, AS = 2010.62 mm2.

The critical section Y1 Y1 at d = 430 mm from the face of the column is shown in Figure 6.2.

Design shear force, VU = 256 x (2.5 /2 0.43 0.4 / 2) x 2.5 = 396.8 kN

Design shear stress, v = 396.9(10)3 / (2500 x 430) = 0.369 N/mm2

Now, vC1 = min(0.8

Verification Manual 25

Chapter 2

2.2 General Isolated Foundation 2

= 0.395 N / mm2 > v (Hence Safe)

Hence no shear reinforcement is required.

Punching Shear

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 1.5d = 625.5 mm from the column face. The

critical perimeter is shown in Figure 6.3.

Perimeter = 1690 x 4 = 6760 mm.

Shear = 256 x (2.52 1.69 2) = 868.8 kN.

v = 868 x 103 / (6760 x 430) = 0.3 N / mm2 < VC (Hence Safe).

Hence no shear reinforcement is required.

Spacing

We provided 10 nos. 16 mm bars, AS = 2010.62 mm2.

Spacing = (2500 - 40 x 2 - 16) / (10 -1) = 267.11 mm.

2.1.4 Comparison

Table 2-1: British verification example 1 comparison

Reference

STAAD.foundation

Value of

Results

Result

Effective Depth

430 mm

430 mm

Governing Moment

352.8 KN-m

352.8 KN-m

Area of Steel

1976.31

1976.31

2

Shear Stress (One0.369 N/mm

0.369 N/mm2

Way)

Shear Stress (Two0.3 N/mm2

0.3 N/mm2

Way)

Percent Difference

None

None

None

None

None

2.2.1 Reference

Reinforced Concrete by T.J.Macgingley & B.S.Choo, Page 340 and Example: 11.2.

2.2.2 Problem

The characteristic loads for an internal column footing in a building are given in the

following table. The proposed dimensions for the column and base are shown in Figure

6.4. The safe bearing pressure of soil is 150 kN / m2. The materials to be used in the

foundation are grade 35 concrete and grade 460 reinforcement.

Table 2-2: Table BS2.1 - Column loads

Vertical Load (kN) Moment (KN m)

Dead Load

770

78

Imposed Load

330

34

2.2 General Isolated Foundation 2

Figure 2-4: Plan and Elevation

2.2.3 Solution

Self-weight of footing = 0.5 x 3.6 x 2.8 x 24 = 120.96 kN.

Total axial load = 770 + 330 + 120.96 = 1220.96 kN.

Total moment = 78 + 34 = 112 kN-m.

Base area = 2.8 x 3.6 = 10.08 m2.

Section modulus = (I / y) = (1/12)BD3/(D/2) = 6.048 m3.

Maximum pressure = 1220.96/10.08 + 112/6.048 = 139.65 kN / m2 < 150 kN / m2 (Hence

Safe).

Factored axial load = (1.4 x 770) + (1.6 x 330) = 1606 kN.

Factored moment = (1.4 x 78) + (1.6 x 34) = 163.6 kN-m.

Maximum pressure = 1606/10.08 +163.6/6.048 = 186.38 kN / m2.

Minimum pressure = 1606/10.08 -163.6/6.048 = 132.28 kN / m2.

1

Average pressure for section X1X1 (as shown in Figure 6.5) = 159.33 kN / m2.

Moment (MY) = (159.33 x 1.175 x 3.6) x (1.175 / 2) = 395.955 kN-m.

Effective depth (d) = 500 40 10 = 450 mm.

Verification Manual 27

Chapter 2

2.2 General Isolated Foundation 2

Therefore z = 0.95d,

= 2119.475 mm2.

The minimum area of steel = 0.13 x 3600 x 500 / 100 = 2340 mm2 > calculated area of

steel.

Provide minimum steel.

Figure 2-5: Sections considered for bending in both directions

1

2.2 General Isolated Foundation 2

Moment(MX) = (162.7 x 2.8 x 1.575)x(1.575 / 2)+(0.5 x 1.575 x (186.38 162.7) x 2.8)x(2

/ 3 x 1.575) = 619.862 kN-m.

Effective depth (d) = 500 40 20 10 = 430 mm.

= 0.96d

Therefore z = 0.95d,

= 3472.334 mm2.

The minimum area of steel = 0.13 x 2800 x 500 / 100 = 1820 mm2 <

calculated area of steel. (Hence safe)

2

The critical section Y2 Y2 at d = 430 mm from the face of the column is shown in Figure

6.6.

Average pressure for the required section = 177.78 kN / m2.

Design shear force, VU = 177.78 x 2.8 x 1.145 = 569.96 kN

Now, vC1 = min(0.8

=473.388 kN / m2

,5) = 4732.8 kN / m2 > v (Hence Safe)

= 429.6 kN / m2.

Let us consider 1.5 times shear enhancement.

Vce = 1.5 x 429.6 = 644.4 kN/m2 > v (Hence safe)

Hence no shear reinforcement is required.

Verification Manual 29

Chapter 2

2.2 General Isolated Foundation 2

Figure 2-6: Sections considered for one-way shear in both directions

Along Section X -X :

2

The critical section X2X2 at d = 450 mm from the face of the column is shown in Figure

6.6.

Average pressure for the required section = 159.33 kN / m2.

Design shear force, VU = 159.33 x 3.6 x 7.25 = 415.85 kN

Now, vC1 = min(0.8

=256.698 kN / m2

,5) = 4732.8 kN / m2 > v (Hence Safe)

2.2 General Isolated Foundation 2

= 409.6 kN / m2.

Let us consider 1.5 times shear enhancement.

Vce = 1.5 x 409.6 = 614.4 kN/m2 > v (Hence safe)

Hence no shear reinforcement is required.

Punching Shear

Figure 2-7: Section considered for punching shear

The punching shear will be calculated for an area outside the area enclosed by the rectangle

at a distance 1.5d from the column face as shown in Figure 6.7.

Total pressure under the base = 2.8 x 3.6 x 132.28 + 0.5 x 3.6 x 2.8 x (186.38 132.28) =

1606.05 kN.

Pressure under enclosed rectangle = (1.74)2 x 146.255 + 0.5 x (1.74)2 x (172.4 146.255) =

482.38 kN

Punching shear force = 1606.05 482.38 = 1123.67 kN.

Critical perimeter = 1.74 x 4 = 6.96 m.

Punching shear stress = 1123.67 / (6.96 x 0.43) = 375.46 kN / m2.

Verification Manual 31

Chapter 2

2.3 General Isolated Foundation 3

2.2.4 Comparison

Table 2-3: British verification example 2 comparison

Reference

STAAD.foundation

Value of

Result

Result

Effective Depth (X-X)

430 mm

430 mm

Effective Depth (Y-Y)

450 mm

450 mm

Governing Moment (My)

395.955 KN-m 395.943 KN-m

Governing Moment (Mx )

619.862 KN-m 619.909 kN-m

Area of Steel (Along X-X)

2340.00

2340.00

Area of Steel (Along Y-Y)

3472.2334

3472.2334

2

Shear Stress (One-Way) (Y1- 473.388 kN/m 444.81 kN/m2

Y1)

Shear Stress (One-Way) (X1- 256.698 kN/m2 256.698 kN/m2

X1)

Shear Stress (Two-Way)

375.46 kN/m2 375.44 kN/m2

Percent Difference

None

None

None

None

None

None

Negligible

None

None

2.3.1 Reference

2.3.2 Problem

Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = 1500 KN, fc = 25 MPa, fy = 415

MPa, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, and Bearing Capacity of Soil = 120

KN/m2. Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning

=1.5

2.3 General Isolated Foundation 3

Figure 2-8: Plan and Elevation

2.3.3 Solution

Approximate area of footing required = 1500/120 m2 = 12.5 m2

Assuming 3.85 m x 3.85 m x 0.65 m footing dimension,

Weight of footing = 3.85 x 3.85 x 0.65 x 25 KN = 240.865 KN

Therefore, total load on the footing = (1500+240.865) KN = 1740.865 KN

Maximum pressure =1740.865/(3.85x3.85)=KN/ m 2 = 117.45 KN/m 2 <120 KN/m 2 (Hence

safe)

Ultimate pressure =1500x1.4/(3.85x3.85) KN/m 2 = 141.676 KN/m 2

overturning and sliding

Along X Direction

Sliding force =0

max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation =0.5 x 1740.865 = 870.43 KN

Verification Manual 33

Chapter 2

2.3 General Isolated Foundation 3

Hence OK

Overturning Moment =0

max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 3.85 x 1740.865 = 3351.1 KNm

Hence OK

Along Z Direction

Sliding force =0

max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation =0.5 x 1740.865 = 870.43 KN

Hence OK

Overturning Moment =0

max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 3.85 x 1740.865 = 3351.1 KNm

Hence OK

Moment About X Axis

Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 141.676 x 3.85 x1.775x1.775/2 = 859.26 KN-m

Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 12 mm bar, effective depth

d

eff

K=

= =0.0253 <

0.156

Hence safe

Bending moment at critical section, Muz = 141.676 x 3.85 x1.775x1.775/2 = 859.26 KN-m

Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 12 mm bar, effective depth

d

eff

K=

= 0.0253 <

0.156

Hence safe

2.3 General Isolated Foundation 3

Along X Direction

Z=d

= 0.971 d>0.95d

So, Z= 0.95d

= 3862.3 m 2m

Therefore, Astx =

Along Z Direction

Z=d

= 0.971 d>0.95d

So, Z= 0.95d

= 3862.3 m 2m

Therefore, Astz =

Along X Direction

Percentage of steel p =

= 0.1689

umax

= 141.676 x 3.85 x

= 644.18 KN

= 0.282N/mm2

= 4 N/mm 2

c1

V1 =

V2 =

0.17 N/mm 2

1 N/mm 2

Verification Manual 35

Chapter 2

2.3 General Isolated Foundation 3

1 N/mm 2

V3 =

= 0.352 N/mm 2

Vc =

0.704 N/mm 2

Vce =

Along Z Direction

Percentage of steel p =

= 0.1689

umax

= 141.676 x 3.85 x

= 644.18 KN

= 0.282N/mm2

= 4 N/mm 2

c1

0.17 N/mm 2

V1 =

1 N/mm 2

V2 =

1 N/mm 2

V3 =

= 0.352 N/mm 2

Vc =

Vce =

0.704 N/mm 2

Punching Shear

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 1.5d = 891 mm from the column face.

Area within Critical Perimeter A

Vmax =

= 4.3347 m 2

1485.87 KN

2.3 General Isolated Foundation 3

Vm1 =

= 0.3 N/mm 2

= 4 N/mm 2

t1

V1 =

V2 =

V3 =

0.17 N/mm 2

1 N/mm 2

1 N/mm 2

Vc =

= 0.352 N/mm 2

Bar Spacing

In the X Direction

No. of 12 mm bar =

Spacing =

= 35

= 110 mm

In the Z Direction

No. of 12 mm bar =

Spacing =

= 35

= 110 mm

Along x & Z direction

Max dia permitted =25 mm

= 0.5

Hence Fbu = x fc =0.5 x 5 = 2.5

Ld = 0.95x fy x / 4Fbu = 0.95x 415x25/4x2.5 = 985.6 mm

available length = 1725 mm

Verification Manual 37

Chapter 2

2.4 General Isolated Foundation 4

Hence OK

2.3.4 Comparison

Table 2-4: British verification example 3 comparison

Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of

Result

Result

ference

Effective Depth

594 mm

594 mm

None

Bearing Pressure

117.45

117.45 KN/m2

None

2

KN/m

Ku

0.0253

0.0252

Negligible

Governing Moment

859.26 KN- 856.92 KN-m

Negligible

m

Shear Force(One-Way) 644.18 KN 642.87 KN

Negligible

Shear Force(Two-Way) 1485.87 KN 1483.64 KN

Negligible

Steel required

3862 m2m 3851 m2m

0.28% (

Negligible)

Resisting force for

870.43 KN 870.43 KN

None

sliding

Resisting Moment for

3351.1 KNm 3351.1 KNm

None

Overturning

2.4.1 Reference

2.4.2 Problem

Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = 2000 KN, fc = 25 MPa, fy = 415

MPa, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, and Bearing Capacity of Soil = 100

KN/m2. Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning

=1.5 Soil cover above footing =500 mm

Plan and Elevation

2.4 General Isolated Foundation 4

2.4.3 Solution

Approximate area of footing required = 2000/100 m2 = 20 m2

Assuming 5.3 m x 5.3 m x 0.75 m footing dimension,

Weight of footing = 5.3 x 5.3 x 0.75 x 25 KN = 526.687 KN

Weight of soil = 5.3 x 5.3 x 0.5 x 18 KN = 252.81 KN

Therefore, total load on the footing = (2000+526.687+252.81) KN = 2779.5 KN

Maximum pressure = 2779.5 KN/ (5.3 m x 5.3 m) KN/ m 2 = 98.9 KN/m 2 <100 KN/m 2

(Hence safe)

Ultimate pressure = 1.4(2000 KN) / (5.3 m x 5.3 m)KN/m 2 = 99.678 KN/m 2

overturning and sliding

Along X Direction

Sliding force =0

max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation = 0.5 x 2779.5 = 1389.75 KN

Hence OK

Verification Manual 39

Chapter 2

2.4 General Isolated Foundation 4

Overturning Moment =0

max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 5.3 x 2779.5 = 7365 KNm

Hence OK

Along Z Direction

Sliding force =0

max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation = 0.5 x 2779.5 = 1389.75 KN

Hence OK

Overturning Moment =0

max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 5.3 x 2779.5 = 7365 KNm

Hence OK

About X Axis

Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 99.68 x 5.3 x 2.5 x 2.5 / 2 = 1651 KN-m

Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth

d

eff

K=

= =0.026 <

0.156

Hence safe

About Z Axis

Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 99.68 x 5.3 x = 1651 KN-m

Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 12 mm bar, effective depth

deff = (750-50-0.5 x 16) mm = 692 mm

K=

= =0.026 <

0.156

Hence safe

Along X Direction

Z=d

40 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

2.4 General Isolated Foundation 4

= 0.97 d>0.95d

So, Z= 0.95d

= 6351.73 m2m

Therefore, Astx =

Area of Steel Required along Z dir

Z=d

= 0.97 d>0.95d

So, Z= 0.95d

= 6351.73 m2m

Therefore, Astz =

Along X Direction

Percentage of steel pt =

= 0.173

= 955.2 KN

955.2(103)/(5300

= 4 N/mm2

V < Vc1, Hence Safe

0.173 N/mm2

V1 =

V2 =

1 N/mm2

1 N/mm2

V3 =

= 0.354 N/mm2

Vc =

Vce =

x 692) = 0.26N/mm2

0.708 N/mm2

Verification Manual 41

Chapter 2

2.4 General Isolated Foundation 4

Along Z Direction

Percentage of steel p =

= 0.173

umax

= 99.68 x 5.3 x

= 955.2 KN

= 4 N/mm 2

c1

c1

0.173 N/mm 2

V1 =

1 N/mm 2

V2 =

1 N/mm 2

V3 =

= 0.354 N/mm 2

Vc =

0.708 N/mm 2

Vce =

So V < Vce , Hence Safe

Punching Shear

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 1.5d = 1038 mm from the column face.

Area within Critical Perimeter Am = 5.645 m2

Vmax =

2237.3 KN

Vm1 =

= 0.345 N/mm 2

t1

V1 =

V2 =

V3 =

0.173 N/mm 2

1 N/mm 2

1 N/mm 2

= 4 N/mm 2

2.4 General Isolated Foundation 4

Vc =

= 0.354 N/mm 2

Bar Spacing

In the X Direction

No. of 16 mm bar =

Spacing =

= 32

= 165 mm

In the ZDirection

No. of 16 mm bar =

Spacing =

= 32

= 165 mm

Along X & Z direction

Max dia permitted =25 mm

= 0.5

Hence Fbu = x fc =0.5 x 5 = 2.5

Ld = 0.95x fy x / 4Fbu = 0.95x 415x25/4x2.5 = 985.6 mm

available length = 1725 mm

Hence OK

Verification Manual 43

Chapter 2

2.5 General Isolated Foundation 5

2.4.4 Comparison

Table 2-5: British verification example 4 comparison

Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of

Result

Result

ference

Effective Depth

692 mm

692 mm

None

Bearing Pressure

98.9

98.75 KN/m2

Negligible

2

KN/m

Ku

0.026

0.026

Negligible

Governing Moment

1651 KN-m 1647.74 KN-m

Negligible

Shear Force(One-Way) 955.2 KN

952.85 KN

Negligible

Shear Force(Two-Way) 2237.3 KN 2232.14 KN

Negligible

2

2

Steel required

6352 m m 6357.649 m m

Negligible

Resisting force for

1389.75 KN 1374.762 KN

Negligible

sliding

Resisting Moment for

7365 KNm 7148.63 KN

Negligible

Overturning

2.5.1 Reference

2.5.2 Problem

Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = 1200 KN,Mz=80 KNm, fc = 25

MPa, fy = 415 MPa, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, and Bearing Capacity of

Soil = 120 KN/m2. Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against

overturning =1.5

2.5 General Isolated Foundation 5

2.5.3 Solution

Approximate area of footing required = 1200/120 m2 = 10 m2

Assuming 3.65 m x 3.65 m x 0.75 m footing dimension,

Tot Moment wrt Z =80 KNm

Stress at four corners ( service condition)

1 = V/A Mx/Zx + Mz/Zz

2 = V/A Mx/Zx - Mz/Zz

3 = V/A + Mx/Zx - Mz/Zz

4 = V/A + Mx/Zx + Mz/Zz

Tot Vertical Load on soil

Self wt of fdn = 3.65x 3.65x 0.75x25 = 249.8 KN

Dry wt of soil = 0

Col reaction load = 1200 KN

Tot Vertical load V =1449.8 KN

Zz = Z.X2/6 = 3.65 x 3.652/6 =8.105 m 3

Zx = X.Z2/6 = 3.65 x 3.652/6 =8.105 m 3

Verification Manual 45

Chapter 2

2.5 General Isolated Foundation 5

Mx=0

Mz = 80 KNm

1 = V/A Mx/Zx + Mz/Zz = 118.694 KN/m 2

2 = V/A Mx/Zx - Mz/Zz = 98.953 KN/m 2

3 = V/A + Mx/Zx - Mz/Zz = 98.953 KN/m 2

4 = V/A + Mx/Zx + Mz/Zz = 118.694 KN/m 2

= 118.694 KN/m 2 <120 KN/m 2

Hence safe

overturning and sliding

Along X Direction

Sliding force =0

max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation =0.5 x 1449.8 = 724.9 KN

Hence OK

Overturning Moment =0

max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 3.63x 1449.8 = 2645.885 KNm

Hence OK

overturning and sliding

Along Z Direction

Sliding force =0

max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation =0.5 x 1449.8 = 724.9 KN

Hence OK

Overturning Moment =80 KNm

max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 3.63x 1449.8 = 2645.885 KNm

Hence FOS =2645.885/80 = 33.074

Hence OK

Moment About Z Axis

Force creating Moment= (139.922 +127.239) x 0.5 x 1.675 x 3.65 = 816.68 KN

Lever arm =(127.239 + 2 x 139.922) x 1.675/ 3x (139.922 + 127.239) = 0.8508 m

Moment = Fx LA = 694.84 KNm

46 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

2.5 General Isolated Foundation 5

Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 12 mm bar, effective depth

d

eff

K=

= =0.016 <

0.156

Hence safe

Figure 2-9: Section considered for bending about the Z axis

Force creating Moment= 126.103 x 1.675 x 3.65 = 770.97 KN

Lever arm = 1.675x 0.5 = 0.823 m

Moment = Fx LA =646.08 KNm

K=

= =0.01481 <

0.156

Hence safe

Verification Manual 47

Chapter 2

2.5 General Isolated Foundation 5

Figure 2-10: Section considered for bending about the Z axis

Along X Direction

Z=d

= 0.983 d>0.95d

So, Z= 0.95d

Therefore, Astx =

Minimum area of steel Ast

= 2594 m 2m

min

= 0.0013 x B x D = 3558.75 mm 2

Along Z Direction

Z=d

= 0.97 d>0.95d

So, Z= 0.95d

Therefore, Astz =

Minimum area of steel Ast

= 2412 m 2m

min

= 0.0013 x B x D = 3558.75 mm 2

48 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

2.5 General Isolated Foundation 5

Along X Direction

Percentage of steel p =

= 0.14

umax

= 0.19N/mm2

= 4 N/mm2

V < Vc1, Hence Safe

V1 =

V2 =

V3 =

0.14 N/mm 2

1 N/mm 2

1 N/mm 2

= 0.329 N/mm 2

Vc =

Vce =

0.658 N/mm 2

Verification Manual 49

Chapter 2

2.5 General Isolated Foundation 5

Figure 2-11: Section considered for one-way shear along X direction

Along Z Direction

Percentage of steel pt =

= 0.141

V

126.103 x 0.983 x 3.65= 452.46 KN

umax

= 0.177 N/mm2

= 4 N/mm 2

c1

V1 =

V2 =

V3 =

0.141 N/mm 2

1 N/mm 2

1 N/mm 2

= 0.329 N/mm 2

Vc =

Vce =

0.658 N/mm 2

2.5 General Isolated Foundation 5

So V < Vce , Hence Safe

Figure 2-12: Section considered for one-way shear along z direction

Punching Shear

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 1.5d = 1038 mm from the column face.

Area within Critical Perimeter A

Vmax =

968.11 KN

Vm1 =

= 0.1472 N/mm 2

= 4 N/mm 2

t1

V1 =

V2 =

V3 =

Vc =

0.14 N/mm 2

1 N/mm 2

1 N/mm 2

= 0.329 N/mm 2

Verification Manual 51

Chapter 2

2.5 General Isolated Foundation 5

Figure 2-13: Section considered for punching shear

Bar Spacing

In the X Direction

No. of 12 mm bar =

Spacing =

= 32

= 115 mm

In the Z Direction

No. of 12 mm bar =

Spacing =

= 32

= 115 mm

2.6 General Isolated Foundation 6

Along X & Z direction

Max dia permitted =25 mm

= 0.5

Hence Fbu = x fc =0.5 x 5 = 2.5

Ld = 0.95x fy x / 4Fbu = 0.95x 415x25/4x2.5 = 985.6 mm

available length = 1725 mm

Hence OK

2.5.4 Comparison

Table 2-6: British verification

Reference

Value of

Result

Effective Depth (mm)

692

Corner Pressure (KN/m2)

118.69

Ku

Governing Moment (KNm)

Shear Force ,One-Way

(KN)

Shear Force, Two-Way

(KN)

Steel required (mm2)

Resisting force for sliding

(KN)

Resisting Moment for

Overturning (KN-m)

example 5 comparison

STAAD.foundation Percent DifResult

ference

692

None

118.69

None

98.95

98.95

98.95

98.95

118.69

0.01481

118.69

0.0146

Negligible

0.0156

646.08

0.0158

643.82

Negligible

694.84

488.69

692.8

486.65

Negligible

452.46

968.11

456.42

961.62

Negligible

3558.75

3558.75

None

3558.75

724.9

3558.75

724.898

Negligible

724.9

2645.8

724.898

2645.8

Same

2645.8

2.6.1 Reference

Verification Manual 53

Chapter 2

2.6 General Isolated Foundation 6

2.6.2 Problem

Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = 1500 KN, Fx100 KN, fc = 25

MPa, fy = 415 MPa, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, and Bearing Capacity of

Soil = 90 KN/m2. Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against

overturning =1.5

2.6.3 Solution

Approximate area of footing required = 1500/90 = 16.67 m2

Assuming 4.65 m x 4.65 m x 0.65 m footing dimension,

Tot Moment wrt Z =-0.65x100 =-65 KNm

Stress at four corners ( service condition)

1 = V/A Mx/Zx + Mz/Zz

2 = V/A Mx/Zx - Mz/Zz

3 = V/A + Mx/Zx - Mz/Zz

4 = V/A + Mx/Zx + Mz/Zz

Tot Vertical Load on soil

Self wt of fdn = 4.65x 4.65x 0.65x25 = 351.37 KN

54 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

2.6 General Isolated Foundation 6

Dry wt of soil = 0

Col reaction load = 1500 KN

Tot Vertical load V = 1851.37 KN

Zz = Z.X2/6 = 4.65 x 4.652/6 =16.758 m 3

Zx = X.Z2/6 = 4.65 x 4.652/6 =16.758 m 3

Mx=0

Mz = -65 KNm

1 = V/A Mx/Zx + Mz/Zz = 81.75 KN/m 2

2 = V/A Mx/Zx - Mz/Zz = 89.50 KN/m 2

3 = V/A + Mx/Zx - Mz/Zz = 89.50 KN/m 2

4 = V/A + Mx/Zx + Mz/Zz = 81.75 KN/m 2

= 89.5 KN/m 2 <90 KN/m 2

Hence safe

overturning and sliding

Along X Direction

Sliding force =100 KN

max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation =0.5 x 1851.37 = 925.685 KN

Hence OK

Overturning Moment =65

max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 4.65x 1851.37 = 4304.43 KNm

Hence OK

Along Z Direction

Sliding force =0

max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation =0.5 x 1851.37 = 925.685 KN

Hence OK

Overturning Moment =0

max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 4.65x 1851.37 = 4304.43 KNm

Hence OK

Verification Manual 55

Chapter 2

2.6 General Isolated Foundation 6

Moment About Z Axis

Force creating Moment=1/2 x (102.552+97.472) x2.175x4.65 = 1011.5 KN

Lever arm =(97.472 + 2 x 102.552) x 2.175/ 3x (97.472+102.552) = 1.097m

Moment = Fx LA = 1109.62 KNm

Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 12 mm bar, effective depth

d

eff

K=

=0.027 <

0.156

Hence safe

Force creating Moment= 97.122 x 2.175 x 4.65 = 982.27 KN

Lever arm =2.175 x 0.5 = 1.088 m

Moment = Fx LA =1068.71 KNm

K=

=0.02606 <

0.156

Hence safe

2.6 General Isolated Foundation 6

Along X Direction

Z=d

So, Z= 0.95d

Therefore, Astx =

Minimum area of steel Ast

= 4890 m 2m

min

= 0.0013 x B x D = 3929.25 mm 2

Along Z Direction

Z=d

= 0.97 d>0.95d

So, Z= 0.95d

Therefore, Astz =

Minimum area of steel Ast

= 4706 m 2m

min

= 0.0013 x B x D = 3929.25 mm 2

Verification Manual 57

Chapter 2

2.6 General Isolated Foundation 6

Along X Direction

Critical section for moment is at d dist from the face of column

Percentage of steel p =

= 0.178

umax

= 4 N/mm2

V < V , Hence Safe

c1

V1 =

V2 =

V3 =

0.178 N/mm 2

1 N/mm 2

1 N/mm 2

= 0.356 N/mm 2

Vc =

Vce =

0.712 N/mm 2

2.6 General Isolated Foundation 6

Along Z Direction

Critical section for moment is at d dist from the face of column

Percentage of steel p =

= 0.171

umax

= 0.258 N/mm2

= 4 N/mm 2

c1

V1 =

V2 =

V3 =

0.171 N/mm 2

1 N/mm 2

1 N/mm 2

= 0.351 N/mm 2

Vc =

Vce =

0.702 N/mm 2

Verification Manual 59

Chapter 2

2.6 General Isolated Foundation 6

Punching Shear

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 1.5d = 1782 mm from the column face.

Area within Critical Perimeter A

Vmax =

= 2.082x2.082 =4.3347 m 2

1679 KN

Vm1 =

= 0.3394 N/mm 2

= 4 N/mm2

Vm1< Vt1 , Hence safe

V1 =

V2 =

V3 =

Vc =

0.171 N/mm 2

1 N/mm 2

1 N/mm 2

= 0.351 N/mm 2

2.6 General Isolated Foundation 6

Bar Spacing

In the X Direction

No. of 12 mm bar =

Spacing =

= 44

= 105 mm

In the Z Direction

No. of 12 mm bar =

Spacing =

= 42

= 115 mm

Along X & Z direction

Max dia permitted =25 mm

= 0.5

Hence Fbu = x fc =0.5 x 5 = 2.5

Ld = 0.95x fy x / 4Fbu = 0.95x 415x25/4x2.5 = 985.6 mm

available length = 1725 mm

Hence OK

Verification Manual 61

Chapter 2

2.7 General Isolated Foundation 7

2.6.4 Comparison

Table 2-7: British verification example 6 comparison

Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of

Result

Result

ference

Effective Depth

594 mm

594 mm

None

Corner Pressure

81.75

81.74 KN/m2

None

2

KN/m

89.5 KN/m2

89.5

89.5 KN/m2

KN/m2

81.74 KN/m2

89.5

KN/m2

Ku

Governing Moment

81.75

KN/m2

0.02606

0.027

1068.71

KNm

0.026

None

0.0269

1065.83 KNm

Negligible

1103.31 KNm

Shear Force(One-Way)

1109.62

KNm

740.36 KN

Shear Force(Two-Way)

Steel required

714 KN

712 KN

1679 KN

1677 KN

2

4890 m m 4959.354 m2m

Negligible

Negligible

4706 m2m

925.68 KN

4790.8 m2m

925.68 KN

None

925.68 KN

4304.43

KNm

925.68 KN

4304.43 KNm

None

sliding

Resisting Moment for

Overturning

736.98 KN

Negligible

4304.43 KNm

4304.43

KNm

2.7.1 Reference

2.7.2 Problem

Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = 1500 KN,Mz=Mx=50 KNm, fc =

25 MPa, fy = 460 MPa, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, and Bearing Capacity of

Soil = 100 KN/m2. Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against

overturning =1.5

2.7 General Isolated Foundation 7

Figure 2-14: Plan and Elevation

2.7.3 Solution

Approximate area of footing required =1500/100 m2 = 15 m2

Assuming 4.45 m x 4.45 m x 0.65 m footing dimension,

Tot Moment wrt Z =50 KNm

Tot Moment wrt X =50 KNm

Stress at four corners ( service condition)

1 = V/A Mx/Zx + Mz/Zz

2 = V/A Mx/Zx - Mz/Zz

3 = V/A + Mx/Zx - Mz/Zz

4 = V/A + Mx/Zx + Mz/Zz

Tot Vertical Load on soil

Self wt of fdn = 4.45x 4.45x 0.65x25 = 321.79 KN

Dry wt of soil = 0

Col reaction load = 1500 KN

Tot Vertical load V = 1821.79 KN

Verification Manual 63

Chapter 2

2.7 General Isolated Foundation 7

Zz = Z.X2/6 = 4.45 x 4.452/6 =14.686 m 3

Zx = X.Z2/6 = 4.45 x 4.452/6 =14.686 m 3

Mx= 50 KNm

Mz = 50 KNm

1 = V/A Mx/Zx + Mz/Zz = 92KN/m 2

2 = V/A Mx/Zx - Mz/Zz = 85 KN/m 2

3 = V/A + Mx/Zx - Mz/Zz = 92 KN/m 2

4 = V/A + Mx/Zx + Mz/Zz = 98.81 KN/m 2

= 98.81 KN/m2 <100 KN/m2 (Hence safe)

overturning and sliding

Along X Direction

Sliding force =0

max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation =0.5 x 1821.8 = 911 KN

Hence OK

Overturning Moment =50 KNm

max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 4.45x 1821.8 = 4053.5 KNm

Hence FOS=4053.5/50 = 81> 1.5

Hence OK

Along Z Direction

Sliding force =0

max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation =0.5 x 1821.8 = 911 KN

Hence OK

Overturning Moment =50 KNm

max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 4.45x 1821.8 = 4053.5 KNm

Hence FOS=4053.5/50 = 81> 1.5

Hence OK

About Z Axis

Avg Base Pressure at one edge=( 96.5149+106.047)/2 = 101.282 KN/m 2

Avg Base Pressure at other edge=( 106.0473+115.5797)/2 = 110.814 KN/m 2

2.7 General Isolated Foundation 7

Lever arm = (106.37+2x110.814)x2.075/3x(106.37+110.814) m

Moment = Fx LA = 1047.85 KNm

Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 12 mm bar, effective depth

d

eff

K=

=0.027 <

0.156

Hence safe

About X Axis

Avg Base Pressure at one edge=( 96.5149+106.047)/2 = 101.282 KN/m 2

Avg Base Pressure at other edge=( 106.0473+115.5797)/2 = 110.814 KN/m 2

Force creating Moment= (110.814+106.37)/2 x 2.075x4.45 = 1002.72 KN

Lever arm = (106.37+2x110.814)x2.075/3x(106.37+110.814) m

Moment = Fx LA = 1047.85 KNm

Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 12 mm bar, effective depth

d

eff

K=

= 0.027 <

0.156

Hence safe

Verification Manual 65

Chapter 2

2.7 General Isolated Foundation 7

Along X Direction

Z=d

=<0.95d

= 0.969 d>0.95d

So, Z= 0.95d

Therefore, Astx =

= 4165 m 2m

So, provided area of steel = 4165 mm2

Along Z Direction

Z=d

= 0.969 d>0.95d

So, Z= 0.95d

Therefore, Astz =

= 4165m 2m

2.7 General Isolated Foundation 7

So, provided area of steel = 4165 mm2

Along X Direction

Percentage of steel p =

= 0.158

umax

= 4 N/mm2

V < V , Hence Safe

c1

V1 =

V2 =

V3 =

0.158 N/mm 2

1 N/mm 2

1 N/mm 2

= 0.342 N/mm 2

Vc =

Vce =

0.684 N/mm 2

Verification Manual 67

Chapter 2

2.7 General Isolated Foundation 7

Along Z Direction

Percentage of steel p =

= 0.158

umax

= 0.272 N/mm2

= 4 N/mm2

V < Vc1, Hence Safe

0.158 N/mm 2

V1 =

1 N/mm 2

V2 =

1 N/mm 2

V3 =

= 0.342 N/mm 2

Vc =

Vce =

0.684 N/mm 2

Punching Shear

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 1.5d from the column face.

68 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

2.7 General Isolated Foundation 7

Vmax =

= 2.082x2.082=4.335 m 2

1640 KN

Vm1 =

= 0.3315 N/mm 2

= 4 N/mm 2

t1

V1 =

V2 =

V3 =

Vc =

0.158 N/mm 2

1 N/mm 2

1 N/mm 2

= 0.342 N/mm 2

Figure 2-15: Section considered for punching shear

Verification Manual 69

Chapter 2

2.7 General Isolated Foundation 7

Bar Spacing

In the X Direction

No. of 12 mm bar =

Spacing =

= 37

= 120 mm

In the Z Direction

No. of 12 mm bar =

Spacing =

= 37

= 120 mm

2.8 General Combined Foundation 1

2.7.4 Comparison

Table 2-8: British verification example 7 comparison

Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of

Result

Result

ference

Effective Depth

594 mm

594 mm

None

Corner Pressure

92KN/m2

92 KN/m2

None

85.2 KN/m2 85.91 KN/m2

Ku

Governing Moment

Shear Force(One-Way)

Shear Force(Two-Way)

Steel required

Resisting force for

sliding

Resisting Moment for

Overturning

92 KN/m2

92 KN/m2

98.81

KN/m2

0.027

98.81 KN/m2

0.0266

Negligible

0.027

1047.85

KNm

0.0266

1045 KNm

Negligible

1047.85

KNm

720 KN

1045 KNm

718.71 KN

Negligible

720 KN

1640 KN

12 @ 120

c/c

910.9 KN

718.71 KN

1638 KN

12 @ 118 c/c

Negligible

Negligible

910.8 KN

Negligible

910.9 KN

4053.5

KNm

910.8 KN

4053.4 KNm

Same

4053.4 KNm

4053.5

KNm

2.8.1 Reference

2.8.2 Problem

Design a combined footing with the given data: Load Fy = 500 KN each column., fc = 25

MPa, fy = 450 MPa, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, Pedestal height-500 mm.

and C/C column distance=3000 mm . Bearing Capacity of Soil = 150 KN/m2. Coefficient of

friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning =1.5

Ht of soil =400 mm. Depth of GWT=200 mm

Verification Manual 71

Chapter 2

2.8 General Combined Foundation 1

2.8.3 Solution

Figure 2-16: Plan and Elevation

Assuming 5 m x 1.5 m x 0.600 m footing dimension,

( left overhang=right overhang=1m)

Weight of footing = 5 m x 1.5 m x 0.600 x25 KN = 112.5 KN

Weight of pedestal=2x0.3x0.3x0.5x25=2.25 KN

Weight of soil above footing = (5 x 1.5-0.3x0.3x2 )x 0.400 x18 KN = 52.704 KN

Reduction of Weight due to buoyancy = 5 x 1.5 x (0.4+0.6-0.2) x9.81 KN = 58.86 KN

Therefore, total load on the footing = (2x500+112.5 +2.25+52.704 -58.86) KN = 1108.6 KN

Maximum pressure= 1108.6 /(5 x1.5) = 147.82 KN/ m 2

147.82 KN/ m 2 <150 KN/m 2

Hence safe

Ultimate pressure =

2.8 General Combined Foundation 1

overturning

About Z Direction

Overturning Moment =0

max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 5x 1108.6 = 2771.5 KNm

Hence OK

About X Direction

Overturning Moment =0

max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 1.5 x 1108.6 = 831.45 KNm

Hence OK

Moment About Z Axis (sagging)

Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 140 KNm

Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 12 mm bar, effective depth

d

eff

eff

Hence OK

Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 174.9 KN-m

Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 12 mm bar, effective depth

d

eff

K = Mu/fc.b.d 2 = 0.016=

eff

<0.156

Hence OK

Cantilever length=(1.5-0.3)/2 = 0.6 m

Bending moment at critical section, M

ux

d

eff

eff

Verification Manual 73

Chapter 2

2.8 General Combined Foundation 1

Hence OK

Along X Direction (Bottom)

Z=d

= 0.998 d>0.95d

So, Z= 0.95d

= 637 m 2m

Therefore, Astx =

Provided area = 1170 m2m

Z=d

= 0.998 d>0.95d

So, Z= 0.95d

= 792 m 2m

Therefore, Astx =

Provided area = 1170 m2m

Z=d

= 0.994 d>0.95d

So, Z= 0.95d

= 761 m 2m

Therefore, Astx =

Provided area = 3900 m2m

Percentage of steel p =

t

= 0.143

2.8 General Combined Foundation 1

umax

= 225.68 KN

= 0.276 N/mm2

= 4 N/mm 2

c1

0.143 N/mm 2

V1 =

1 N/mm 2

V2 =

1 N/mm 2

V3 =

= 0.331 N/mm 2

Vc =

0.662 N/mm 2

Vce =

So V < Vce , Hence Safe

Punching Shear

For Column One

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 1.5d = 816 mm from the column face.

2 way shear= 3.24 KN

Pm=300x2+300x2=544x12=7728 mm

v =

t1

= 4 N/mm 2

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 1.5d = 816 mm from the column face.

2 way shear= 3.24 KN

Pm=300x2+300x2=544x12=7728 mm

v =

t1

= 4 N/mm 2

Verification Manual 75

Chapter 2

2.8 General Combined Foundation 1

Figure 2-17: Shear force and Bending Moment diagrams

2.9 General Combined Foundation 2

2.8.4 Comparison

Table 2-9: British verification example 8 comparison

Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of

Result

Result

ference

Bearing Pressure

147.82 KN/ 147.82 KN/m2

None

m2

Governing Moment

140 KN-m 135.77 KN-m

Negligible

174.9 KNm

174.9 KN-m

Shear Force(One-Way)

Shear Force(Two-Way)

168 KN-m

168 KN-m

225.68 KN 225.69 KN

3.24 KN

3.24 KN

Overturning (Z)

Resisting Moment for

Overturning (X)

3.24 KN

2771.5

KNm

831.45

KNm

Negligible

None

3.24 KN

2771.5 KNm

Negligible

831.46 KNm

Negligible

2.9.1 Reference

2.9.2 Problem

Design a combined footing with the given data: Load Fy = 600 KN, Mz=30 KNm, each

column., fc = 25 MPa, fy = 450 MPa, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, Pedestal

height-500 mm. and C/C column distance=3500 mm . Bearing Capacity of Soil = 140

KN/m2. Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning =1.5

No soil above footing and dry condition.

Verification Manual 77

Chapter 2

2.9 General Combined Foundation 2

2.9.3 Solution

Figure 2-18: Plan and Elevation

Assuming 5.9 m x 1.7 m x 0.500 m footing dimension,

( left overhang=right overhang=1.2m)

Weight of footing = 5.9 m x 1.7 m x 0.500 x25 KN = 125.375 KN

Weight of pedestal=2x0.3x0.3x0.5x25=2.25 KN

Therefore, total load on the footing = (2x600+125.375 +2.25) KN = 1327.63 KN

Maximum pressure from axial load= 1327.63 /(5.9 x1.7) = 132.37 KN/ m 2

Total Moment=30+30 = 60 KNm

CG of load= 2.9 m

CG of raft = 2.9 m

Eccentricity =2.95-2.9 =0.05 m

So Moment= P x Eccentricity = 1200x0.05 =60 KNm

Z= 1.7 x 5.92/6= 9.863 m 3

So M/Z = 6.09 KN/m 2

So stress at left end= P/A + M/Z= 138.46 KN/m 2

2.9 General Combined Foundation 2

So stress at left end= P/A - M/Z= 126.28 KN/m 2

138.46 KN/ m 2 <140 KN/m 2

Hence safe

overturning

About Z Direction

Overturning Moment =60 KNm

max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 5.9x 1327.63 = 3916.5085 KNm

So FOS = 3916.5085/60 = 65.27 >1.5

Hence OK

About X Direction

Overturning Moment =0

max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 1.7 x 1327.63 = 1128.48 KNm

Hence OK

Moment About Z Axis (sagging)

Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 214 KNm

Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 12 mm bar, effective depth

d

eff

eff

Hence OK

Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 231.62 KN-m

Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 12 mm bar, effective depth

d

eff

K = Mu/fc.b.d 2 = 0.0276=

eff

<0.156

Hence OK

Cantilever length=(1.7-0.3)/2 = 0.7 m

Bending moment at critical section, M

ux

Verification Manual 79

Chapter 2

2.9 General Combined Foundation 2

Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 12 mm bar, effective depth

d

eff

eff

Hence OK

Along X Direction (Bottom)

Z=d

= 0.971 d>0.95d

So, Z= 0.95d

Therefore, Astx =

= 1187 m 2m

Provided area = 1187 m2m

Z=d

= 0.968 d>0.95d

So, Z= 0.95d

Therefore, Astx =

= 1284.5 m 2m

Provided area = 1285 m2m

Z=d

= 0.99 d>0.95d

So, Z= 0.95d

Therefore, Astx =

= 1342.74 m 2m

Provided area = 3835 m2m

2.9 General Combined Foundation 2

Percentage of steel p =

= 0.17

umax

= 347.24 KN

= 4 N/mm2

V < V , Hence Safe

c1

0.17 N/mm 2

V1 =

1 N/mm 2

V2 =

1 N/mm 2

V3 =

= 0.351 N/mm 2

Vc =

0.702 N/mm 2

Vce =

So V < Vce , Hence Safe

Punching Shear

For Column One

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 1.5d = 666 mm from the column face.

Two way shear = 380.43 KN

Pm=300x2+300x2=444x12=6528 mm

v =

= 380.43x1000/(6528)x544=0.131 N/mm 2

t1

= 4 N/mm 2

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 1.5d = 666 mm from the column face.

Two way shear = 407.34 KN

Pm=300x2+300x2=444x12=6528 mm

v =

Verification Manual 81

Chapter 2

2.9 General Combined Foundation 2

t1

= 4 N/mm 2

Figure 2-19: Shear force and Bending Moment diagrams

2.10 Mat Combined Foundation

2.9.4 Comparison

Table 2-10: British verification example 9 comparison

Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of

Result

Result

ference

Bearing Pressure

138.46

138.45 KN/m2

None

KN/m2

126.28 KN/m2

126.28

KN/m2

Governing Moment

214 KN-m 212 KN-m

Negligible

231.62

KNm

231.78 KNm

Shear Force(One-Way)

Shear Force(Two-Way)

249.42 KNm

242.122

KNm

347.24 KN 347.24 KN

380.42 KN 380.43 KN

Overturning (Z)

Resisting Moment for

Overturning (X)

407.34 KN 407.34 KN

3916.5

3916.5 KNm

KNm

1128.48

1128.48 KNm

KNm

None

None

None

None

2.10.1 Reference

Reinforced Concrete by T.J.Macgingley & B.S.Choo, Page 351 and Example: 11.4

2.10.2 Problem

Design a rectangular base to support two columns carrying the following loads:

Column 1 Dead load 310 kN, imposed load 160 kN

Column 1 Dead load 310 kN, imposed load 160 kN

The columns are each 350 mm square and are spaced at 2.5 m centers. The width of the

base is not to exceed 2.0 m. the safe bearing pressure on the ground is 180 kN/m2. The

materials are grade 35 concrete and grade 460 reinforcement.

Verification Manual 83

Chapter 2

2.10 Mat Combined Foundation

Figure 2-20: Plan and Elevation

2.10.3 Solution

Let us assume the self weight of the base is 130 kN.

Total vertical load = (310 + 160 + 430 + 220 + 130) = 1250 kN.

Area of base = 1250 / 160 = 7.81 m 2 (considering safe base pressure as 160 kN/m 2).

Length of base = 7.81/2 = 3.91 m

Let the dimension of the mat is as follows,

Width = 2 m,

Length = 4.5 m,

Depth = 0.6 m.

Hence self-weight of mat = 2 x 4.5 x 0.6 x 24 = 129.6 kN.

Hence, total vertical load = (310 + 160 + 430 + 220 + 129.6) = 1249.6 kN.

Actual base pressure = 1249.6 / (2 x 4.5) = 138.84 kN/m 2.

The ultimate loads are,

Column 1 load = 1.4 x 310 + 1.6 x 160 = 690 kN,

Column 2 load = 1.4 x 430 + 1.6 x 220 = 954 kN.

The distance of center of gravity from column 1 is checked for service load case 1:

x = (954 x 2.5)/(690 + 954) = 1.45 m.

84 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

2.10 Mat Combined Foundation

The soil pressure is checked for service loads for case 1:

Base area = 4.5 x 2 =9.0 m2,

Base modulus = 2 x 4.52 / 6 = 6.75 m3.

Direct load = 310 + 160 + 430 + 220 + 129.6 = 1249.6 kN.

The moment about the centerline of the base is,

M = (430 + 220) 1.05 (310 + 160) 1.45 = 1.0 kN-m.

Maximum pressure = 1249.6 / 9 + 1 / 6.75 = 138.9 kN / m2 < 180 kN / m2 (Hence safe)

Total uniformly distributed upward load = (690 + 954) / (4.5 x 2 / 2) = 365.33 kN / m.

The ultimate loads are,

Column 1 load = 1.4 x 310 + 1.6 x 160 = 690 kN,

Column 2 load = 1.0 x 430 = 430 kN.

Direct load = 310 + 160 + 430 + 129.6 = 1029.6 kN.

The moment about the centerline of the base is,

M = 430 X 1.54 (310 + 160) 0.96 = 230 kN-m.

Maximum pressure = 1029.6 / 9 + 230 / 6.75 = 148.47 kN / m2 < 180 kN / m2 (Hence

safe)

The ultimate loads are,

Column 1 load = 1.0 x 310 = 310 kN,

Column 2 load = 1.4 x 430 + 1.6 x 220 = 954 kN.

Direct load = 310 + 430 + 220 + 129.6 = 1089.6 kN.

The moment about the centerline of the base is,

M = (430 + 220) 1.05 310 X 1.45 = 233 kN-m.

Maximum pressure = 1089.6 / 9 + 233 / 6.75 = 155.59 kN / m2 < 180 kN / m2 (Hence safe)

Verification Manual 85

Chapter 2

2.10 Mat Combined Foundation

The maximum negative BM from Figure 6.18 is 221.7 kN-m

Assuming 40 mm clear cover and 20 mm bar diameter, effective depth = 600 40 20/2

= 550 mm.

Hence Safe

Therefore z = 0.95d,

2.10 Mat Combined Foundation

= 970.95 mm 2.

The minimum area of steel = 0.13 x 2000 x 600 / 100 = 1560 mm2 > calculated area of

steel.

Provide minimum steel.

Provide 16 bars 12 mm in diameter at 125 mm centers to give area of 1808 mm2.

The maximum positive BM from Figure 6.18 is 99.7 kN-m.

Assuming 40 mm clear cover and 20 mm bar diameter, effective depth = 600 40 20/2

= 550 mm.

Hence Safe

Therefore z = 0.95d,

= 436.6 mm 2.

The minimum area of steel = 0.13 x 2000 x 600 / 100 = 1560 mm2 > calculated area of

steel.

Provide minimum steel as above.

The maximum vertical shear from case 1 is V = 250.8 kN,

V=

= 0.228 N/mm 2.

= 0.39 N/mm 2.

Hence no shear reinforcement is required.

Verification Manual 87

Chapter 2

2.11 General Isolated Foundation with Eccentricity

The critical perimeter for punching shear check is at 1.5 d distance from the face of the

column. Here the perimeter crosses the boundary of the base on two sides. Hence punching

shear is less critical than the vertical shear in this case.

2.10.4 Comparison

Table 2-11: British verification example 10 comparison

Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of

Result

Result

ference

Max Bending

221.7 kN-m 201.204 kN-m

9.2

Moment (-)

Max Bending

99.7 kN-m

108.94 kN-m

9.2

Moment (+)

Area of Steal

780 mm2/m 780 mm2/m

None

Required

Base Pressure

138.84

136 kN/m2

2

kN/m2

Eccentricity

2.11.1 Reference

2.11.2 Problem

Design an isolated footing with the given data:

Loads:

Fx =-300 KN

Fy =-500 KN

Fz=-200 KN

Mz= 45.89 KNm

Mx=-98.32 KNm

Offset of column in X-direction (Oxd) =300 mm

Offset of column in Z-direction (Ozd) =300 mm

Density of soil =14 KN/m3

Depth of Soil = 0.5m

Density of Concrete = 25 KN/cum

Coefficient of Friction () = 0.5

Safe Bearing Capacity of the Soil () = 120 KN/m2

2.11 General Isolated Foundation with Eccentricity

Factor of Safety against Overturning =1.5

Factor of Safety against Sliding = 1.5

Permissible soil pressure =

Column dimension = 0.3m x 0.3m,

Strength of concrete (fc) = M-30 = 4349.39 Psi

Strength of steel (fy) = Fe-415

Figure 2-21: Plan and Elevation

Self-wt of footing, wt of soil and surcharge are not included for shear and moment

computations

Verification Manual 89

Chapter 2

2.11 General Isolated Foundation with Eccentricity

2.11.3 Solution

Design started with trial dimensions of 5.0m X 5.0m X 1.0m

The base area of footing is determined using service (unfactored) loads with the net

permissible soil pressure.

Net permissible soil pressure = 120 KN/ m2

Required base area of footing = (500 + 0.10 x 500)/ 120= 4.5833 m2

Use a 5 .0m x 5.0m square footing (Af =25 m2).

Using a depth of 1m;

Self-wt. of Footing =(5.0*5.0*1*25) = 625 KN

Wt. of soil = 14*0.5*[(5.0*5.0) (0.3*0.3)] =174.37

Serviceability Check

The net moments are given by:Mz =+45.89 (-300*1) +(-500*0.3) = 195.89 KNm

Mx= - 98.32 +(-200*1) (-500*0.3) = -148.32 KNm

The pressure at the four corners are given by: 1=((500+625)/25)+(6*195.89/53)-(6*148.32/53)=47.283KN/m2

2=((500+625)/25)-(6*195.89/53)-(6*148.32/53)=28.478KN/m2

3=((500+625)/25)-(6*195.89/53)+(6*148.32/53)=42.717KN/m2

4=((500+625)/25)+(6*195.89/53)+(6*148.32/53)=61.522KN/m2

which is < 120 KN/m2. Hence OK

Stability Check

Calculation for Overturning and Sliding:

For Sliding:

Along X- Direction

Disturbing force = -300 KN

Restoring Force = m*(Wt of Footing + Fy + Wt of Soil) = 649.685 KN

Hence, Factor of Safety against Sliding = (649.685/300) =2.166 > 1.5 Hence Safe

2.11 General Isolated Foundation with Eccentricity

Along Z- Direction

Disturbing force = -200 KN

Restoring Force = mu*(Wt of Footing + Fy + Wt of Soil) = 649.685 KN

Hence, FacFor Overturning:tor of Safety against Sliding = (649.685/200) =3.2484 > 1.5

Hence Safe

About X- Direction

Overturning Moment = Mx + Fz* (Ht of Pedestal + Depth of Footing) = 98.32 200* (0 +1) = -298.32 KN-m

Restoring Moment = Fy * (Width of Footing *0.5 Ozd)+ (Wt of Soil + Wt of

Footing) * Width of Footing*0.5 = 3098.425 KN-m

Hence, Factor of Safety against Overturning = (3098.425/298.32) =10.386 > 1.5 Hence

Safe

About Z- Direction

Overturning Moment = Mx + Fz* (Ht of Pedestal + Depth of Footing) =45.89

+ 300* (0 +1) = 345.89 KN-m

Restoring Moment = Fy * (Width of Footing *0.5 Ozd)+ (Wt of Soil + Wt of

Footing) * Width of Footing*0.5 = 3398.425 KN-m

Hence, Factor of Safety against Overturning = (3398.425/345.89) =9.82516 > 1.5 Hence

Safe

The pressure at the four corners are given by: 1=(500/25)+(6*195.89 /5.03)-(6*148.32 /5.03)= 22.2834KN/m2

2=(500/25)-(6*195.89 /5.03)-(6*148.32 /5.03)= 3.47792KN/m2

3=(500/25)-(6*195.89 /5.03)+(6*148.32 /5.03)=17.7167KN/m2

4=(500/25)+(6*195.89 /5.03)+(6*148.32 /5.03)=36.52208KN/m2

Factored loads and soil reaction:

To proportion the footing for strength (depth and required reinforcement) factored loads are

used. For this problem, the factors used are all 1.0

Figure 2-22: Bending about major axes

Verification Manual 91

Chapter 2

2.11 General Isolated Foundation with Eccentricity

About X- axis

Average Base Pressure along one edge

=(22.2834+3.47792)/2 =12.8806 KN/m2

Average Base Pressure along other edge

=(17.7167+36.5221)/2 = 27.1194 KN/m2

Approximate Base Pressure at the critical section

=27.1194- {(27.1194 12.8806)/5.0*2.05} =21.2815 KN/ m2 [2.05 =5(5/2+0.3+0.15)]

Hence, the moment at the critical section

Mu =5.0*{21.2815 *2.05*2.05*0.5+0.5*(27.1194-21.2815)* 2.05*2.05*2/3}=

264.48 KNm

Effective depth (d) = 1000 50 20 = 930 mm

Hence safe

Therefore,

2.11 General Isolated Foundation with Eccentricity

The minimum area of steel = 0.13 x 5000 x 1000 / 100 = 6500 mm2 > Calculated area of

steel.

So, provide minimum steel = 6500 mm2

About Z- axis

Average Base Pressure along one edge

=(36.5221+22.2834)/2 =29.4027 KN/m2

Average Base Pressure along other edge

=(17.7167+3.47792)/2 = 10.5973 KN/m2

Approximate Base Pressure at the critical section

=29.4027- {(29.4027-10.5973)/5.0*2.65} =19.4358 KN/ m2 [2.65 =(5/2+0.30.15)]

Hence, the moment at the critical section

Mu =5.0*{19.4358 *2.65*2.65*0.5+0.5*(29.4027 19.4358)*2.65*2.65*2/3}=

457.874 KNm

Effective depth (d) = 1000 50 20 = 930 mm

Hence safe

Therefore,

The minimum area of steel = 0.13 x 5000 x 1000 / 100 = 6500 mm2 > Calculated area of

steel.

So, provide minimum steel = 6500 mm2

Assume overall footing thickness = 1.0m and average effective thickness d = 0.92m (36.22

in)

Wide-beam action (One-Way Shear) :

Verification Manual 93

Chapter 2

2.11 General Isolated Foundation with Eccentricity

Vu = qs

tributary area

Bw = 5.00m = 196.8504 in

qs is given by:Average Base Pressure along one edge

=(22.2834+3.47792)/2 =12.8806 KN/m2

Average Base Pressure along other edge

=(17.7167+36.5221)/2 = 27.1194 KN/m2

Approximate Base Pressure at the critical section

=27.1194- {(27.1194 12.8806)/5.0*1.13} =23.9014 KN/ m2 [1.13=5 -(5/2

+0.3 +0.92 +0.15)]

Hence, the one- way shear at the critical section

Vux =5.0*{23.9014*1.13+0.5*(27.1194-23.9014)*1.13}= 144.134 KN

Design shear stress, v = 144.134/(5.0 x 0.93) =30.996 kN/ m2

Now, VC1 = min(0.8 (fcu),5) N/ mm2= 4381.78 kN/ m2 > v (Hence Safe)

=

348.5494 kN/ m2

Let us consider 1.5 times shear enhancement.

Vce = 1.5 x 348.5494 = 522.824 kN/m2 > v (Hence safe)

Hence no shear reinforcement is required.

Vu = qs

tributary area

Bw = 5.00m = 196.8504 in

qs is given by:Average Base Pressure along one edge

=(36.5221+22.2834)/2 =29.4027 KN/m2

Average Base Pressure along other edge

2.11 General Isolated Foundation with Eccentricity

Approximate Base Pressure at the critical section

=29.4027- {(29.4027-10.5973)/5.0*1.73} =22.89603 KN/ m2 [ 1.73=(5/2 +0.3

0.92 0.15)]

Hence, the Design one-way shear at the critical section

Vuz =5.0*{22.89603*1.73+0.5*(29.4027-22.89603)*1.73}= 226.1924 KN

Design shear stress, v = 226.1924/(5.0 x 0.93) =48.64353 kN/ m2

Now, vC1 = min(0.8 (fcu),5) N/ mm2= 4381.78 kN/ m2 > v (Hence Safe)

= 348.5494 kN/ m2

Let us consider 1.5 times shear enhancement.

Vce = 1.5 x 348.5494 = 522.824 kN/m2 > v (Hence safe)

Hence no shear reinforcement is required.

Verification Manual 95

Chapter 2

2.11 General Isolated Foundation with Eccentricity

Along X-X axis

The punching shear will be calculated for an area outside the area enclosed by the

rectangle at a distance 1.5d from the column face as shown in figure.

Total pressure under the base = 5.0 x 5.0 x 10.5973 + 0.5 x 5.0 x 5.0 x (29.4027

10.5973) = 500.00 kN.

Pressure at the critical sections:a = 29.4027 ((29.4027-10.5973)/5.0*0.955) = 25.810869 KN/m2

b = 10.5973 + ((29.4027-10.5973)/5.0*0.955) = 14.189131 KN/m2

Pressure under enclosed rectangle = (3.09)2 x 14.189131 + 0.5 x (3.09)2 x (25.810869

14.189131) = 190.962 kN

Punching shear force = 500.00-190.962 = 309.038 kN.

Critical perimeter = 3.09 x 4 =12.36 m.

2.11 General Isolated Foundation with Eccentricity

Hence, the punching shear stress is less than VC . Hence Safe

The punching shear will be calculated for an area outside the area enclosed by the rectangle

at a distance 1.5d from the column face as shown in figure.

Total pressure under the base = 5.0 x 5.0 x 12.8806 + 0.5 x 5.0 x 5.0 x (27.1194 12.8806)

= 500.00 kN.

Pressure at the critical sections:a = 27.1194 ((27.1194-12.8806)/5.0*0.955) = 24.3998 KN/m2

b = 12.8806 + ((27.1194-12.8806)/5.0*0.955) = 15.60021 KN/m2

Punching shear force = 500.00-190.962 = 309.038 kN.

Critical perimeter = 3.09 x 4 =12.36 m.

Punching shear stress = 309.038/(12.36 x 0.93)= 26.885 kN / m2.

Verification Manual 97

Chapter 2

2.11 General Isolated Foundation with Eccentricity

Hence, the punching shear stress is less than VC . Hence Safe

Hence, the moment at the critical section

Mu =5.0*{19.4358 *2.65*2.65*0.5+0.5*(29.4027 19.4358)*2.65*2.65*2/3}=

457.874 KNm

Effective depth (d) = 1000 50 20 = 930 mm

2.11.4 Comparison

Table 2-12: British verification example 13 comparisons

Reference STAAD.foundation Difference (Reasons

Result

Result*

there-of)

Moment about X 264.48

259.98 KNm

Error due to approxKNm

imation in base pressure interpolation

Moment about Z 457.874

448.24 KNm

Error due to approxKNm

imation in base pressure interpolation

Area of steel

6500.00 6500.00 mm2

Negligible

2

about X-X

mm

Area of steel

6500.00 6500.00 mm2

Negligible

about Z-Z

mm2

Shear Stress

48.64

46.66 KN/ m2

Error due to approx2

KN/ m

imation in base pres(One way) along

sure interpolation

X

Shear Stress

30.996

29.28 KN/ m2

Error due to approxKN/ m2

imation in base pres(One way) along

sure interpolation

Z

Shear Force

309.038 305.46 KN

Error due to approxKN

imation in base pres(Two way)

sure interpolation

Factor of Safety

2.1656

2.167

Negligible

against Sliding

(X)

Factor of Safety

3.2484

3.250

Negligible

against Sliding

(Z)

Factor of Safety

10.386

10.392

Negligible

against Overturning (X)

Factor of Safety

9.82516

9.830

Negligible

against Overturning (Z)

Section 3

A23.3-2004)

3.1 CSA General Isolated Foundation 1

3.1.1 Reference

3.1.2 Problem

Design of a square Isolated Footing

A tied column, 450 mm square, and reinforced with eight No. 35 bars carries an unfactored

dead load of 1300 kN and an unfactored live load of 1000 kN. Suitable soil with a factored

soil bearing pressure of 300 kN/m2 is available at a depth of 1.5 m . Design a square

footing.

The compressive strength fc is 30 MPa for the column and 25 MPa for the footing. All steel

has fy=400 MPa. Unit weight of concrete and soil is 24 kN/m2 and 16 kN/m2 respectively.

Verification Manual 99

Chapter 3

3.1 CSA General Isolated Foundation 1

Figure 3-1: Plan and Elevation

3.1.3 Solution

Trial Footing Size

Calculate the initial footing size based on soil bearing capacity.

As per CSA A.23.3-04 cls. 8.3 and Annex C. the 2005 National Building Code of Canada

load combination factors must be used:

Factored Load = 1.25 DL +1.5 LL = (1.25 X 1300 kN) + (1.5 x 1000 kN) =

3,125 kN

Required area of footing: 3125/300 = 10.41 m2

Total Axial load = 3125+Self Weight of footing + weight of soil

Self Weight of footing = 3.6 x 3.6 x 0.75 x 24 = 233.28 KN

weight of soil=3.6 x 3.6 x 1.5 x 16 = 311.04 KN

For square footing, the axial force on the footing is:

3125+233.28+311.04 =3669.32 KN

So stress on soil=369.32/(3.6x3.6)=283.12 KN/m2

3.1 CSA General Isolated Foundation 1

In this case, we do not have any sliding and overturning forces. The CSA A23.3-04

recommends for a footing that experiences horizontal shear, the designer must make sure

that this shear is transferred to the subgrade utilizing the passive soil resistance and the

friction between the subgrade and the footing surface. The passive soil resistance will be

ignored in STAAD.foundation to calculate the factor of safety against sliding check. Factor

of safety against overturning must be checked as per the NBCC.

Anyway, max sliding force equals the axial load x coefficient of friction

for coeff. of friction =0.5,

Sliding force= 0.5x 3669.32 =1834.66 KN

3669.32x3.6 KNm= 6604.78 KNm(Same wrt both x and z axis).

Stress on soil from Factored load = 3125/(3.6x3.6)=241.126 KN/m2

Along X Direction

Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 20 mm bar, effective depth

deff = (750-50-0.5 x 20) mm = 690 mm

Vumax =

= 768.22 KN

= 0.65, = 1

dv = 0.9.deff = 0.9 x 690 = 621 mm

bw=3600 mm

Now allowable shear

Vc =

=1030913 N =1031 KN

Along Z Direction

Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 20 mm bar, effective depth

deff = (750-50-0.5 x 20) mm = 690 mm

Vumax =

= 768.22 KN

= 0.65, = 1

dv = 0.9.deff=0.9 x 690=621 mm

Chapter 3

3.1 CSA General Isolated Foundation 1

bw = 3600 mm

Now allowable shear

Vc =

= 1030913 N = 1031 KN

Punching Shear

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 345 mm from the column face.

Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 20 mm bar, effective depth

deff = (750-50-0.5 x 20) mm = 690 mm

Area within Critical Perimeter Am = (450+2x0.5x.69)2=1.2996 m2

Vmax =

1.2996)=2811.63 KN

241.126x(3.6x3.6-

v =

= 0.8936 N/mm2

=4

=L/B =4.5/4.5 =1

1.8525 N/mm2

2.5846 N/mm2

1.235 N/mm2

As effective depth>300 mm so the multiplier=1300/(1000+deff)=0.769

So,

Vr1= 1.424 N/mm2 =1424 KN/m2

Vr2= 1.987N/mm2 = 1987 KN/m2

Vr3= 0.9497 N/mm2 = 949.7 KN/m2

So min {Vr1, Vr2, Vr3} = 949.7 KN/m2

So allowable shear = Vc = 949.7 KN/m2

V < Vc , Hence safe

Development Length

Along Z Axis

ld = 0.45 k1 x k2 x k3 x k4 fy/(f'c) db

3.1 CSA General Isolated Foundation 1

k2 = 1 if coated reinforcement is used

k2 = 1.2 if epoxy coated reinforcement is used

k2 = 1.5 if epoxy coated reinforcement is used and clear cover is less than 3x

db

k2 = 1.5 if bar spacing is less than 6x db

k3 = 1 Normal density concrete

k4 = 0.8 for 20M and smaller bar size

k4 = 1 for 20M and larger bar size

ld = 0.45 x 1 x 0.8 x 1 x 0.8 x (400 MPa)/(25MPa) x 19.5 mm = 449.28 mm

Available Length = (3600-450)/2-50 = 1525 mm

Hence OK

Along X Axis

ld = 0.45 k1 x k2 x k3 x k4 fy/(f'c) db

k1 = 1 if clear cover is less than 300 mm or else use 0.45

k2 = 1 if coated reinforcement is used

k2 = 1.2 if epoxy coated reinforcement is used

k2 = 1.5 if epoxy coated reinforcement is used and clear cover is less than 3xdb

k2 = 1.5 if bar spacing is less than 6 xdb

k3 = 1 Normal density concrete

k4 = 0.8 for 20M and smaller bar size

k4 = 1 for 20M and larger bar size

ld = 0.45 x 1 x 0.8 x 1 x 0.8 x (400 MPa)/(25MPa) x 19.5 mm = 449.28 mm

Available Length = (3600-450)/2-50 = 1525 mm

Hence OK

About X Axis

Bending moment at critical section:

Mux =

= 1076.66 KN-m

1 = 0.85-0.0015.fc=0.8125

s=0.85

Chapter 3

3.1 CSA General Isolated Foundation 1

= 0.62817

Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 20 mm bar, effective depth

deff = (750-50-0.5 x 20) mm = 690 mm

So, =0.001892

Hence OK

About Z Axis

Bending moment at critical section,

Mux =

= 1076.66 KN-m

1 = 0.85-0.0015.fc=0.8125

s=0.85

= 0.62817

Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 20 mm bar, effective depth

deff = (750-50-0.5 x 20) mm = 690 mm

So, =0.001892

Hence OK

Along X Direction(Bottom)

Astx =.B.deff= 4700 m2m

Minimum area of steel Ast min = (0.2xfc /fy)xB.D= 6750 mm2

Provided area = 6750 m2m

Astz = .L.deff= 4700 m2m

Minimum area of steel Ast min = (0.2xfc /fy)xB.D= 6750 mm2

Provided area = 6750 m2m

Minimum area of steel Ast min = (0.2xfc /fy)xB.D= 6750 mm2

Provided area = 6750 m2m

3.2 CSA General Isolated Foundation 2

Minimum area of steel Ast min = (0.2xfc /fy)xB.D= 6750 mm2

Provided area = 6750 m2m

(as no uplift is present so min steel is provided)

3.1.4 Comparison

Table 3-1: CSAverification example 1 comparison

Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of

Result

Result

ference

2

Bearing Pressure

286.45

283.5 KN/m

Negligible

KN/m2

Governing Moment

1076.66 KN- 1076.64 KN-m

Negligible

m

1076.66 KN-m

1076.66 KNm

Shear Force(One-Way) 768.22 KN

768.01 KN

Negligible

768.22 KN

Shear Force(Two-Way) 2811.63 KN

Resisting Shear Force 1031 KN

(One-Way)

1031 KN

Resisting Shear Stress 949.7 KN/m2

(Two-Way)

Resisting force for

1834.66 KN

sliding

1834.66 KN

Resisting Moment for 6604.78 KNm

Overturning

6604.78 KNm

Ast (B)

6750 mm

768.01 KN

2811.49 KN

1031.14 KN

Negligible

None

1031.14 KN

949.86 KN/m2

Negligible

1837.09 KN

Negligible

1837.09 KN

6613.4 KNm

Negligible

6613.4 KNm

6750 mm

None

Ast (T)

6750 mm

6750 mm

6750 mm

6750 mm

None

Ld (rqrd)

6750 mm

449.28 mm

6750 mm

449.28 mm

None

Ld (available)

449.28 mm

1525 mm

449.28 mm

1525 mm

None

1525 mm

1525 mm

3.2.1 Reference

Chapter 3

3.2 CSA General Isolated Foundation 2

3.2.2 Problem

Design of a square Isolated Footing

A tied column, 500 mm square, and reinforced with eight No. 35 bars carries an unfactored

dead load of 900 kN and an unfactored live load of 800 kN. Suitable soil with a factored

soil bearing pressure of 300 kN/m2 is available at a depth of 1.5 m . Design a square

footing.

The compressive strength fc is 20 MPa for the column and 20 MPa for the footing. All

steel has fy=350 MPa. Unit weight of concrete and soil is 24 kN/m2 and 16 kN/m2

respectively.

Figure 3-2: Plan and Elevation

3.2.3 Solution

Trial Footing Size

Initial footing size is based on soil bearing capacity.

As per CSA A.23.3-04 cls. 8.3 and Annex C. the 2005 National Building Code of Canada

load combination factors must be used:

Factored Load = 1.25 DL + 1.5 LL = (1.25 X 900 kN) + (1.5 x 800 kN) =

2,325 kN

Required area of footing: 2,325 /300 = 7.75 m2

3.2 CSA General Isolated Foundation 2

Self Weight of footing = 3 x 3 x 0.6 x 24 = 129.6 KN

weight of soil=3 x 3 x 1.5 x 16 = 216 KN

For square footing, the axial force on the footing is:

2,325 +129.6 + 216 =2670.6 KN

So stress on soil=2670.6 /(3x3)=296.73 KN/m2

In this case, we do not have any sliding and overturning forces. The CSA A23.3-04

recommends for a footing that experiences horizontal shear, the designer must make sure

that this shear is transferred to the subgrade utilizing the passive soil resistance and the

friction between the subgrade and the footing surface. The passive soil resistance will be

ignored in STAAD.foundation to calculate the factor of safety against sliding check. Factor

of safety against overturning must be checked as per the NBCC.

Anyway, max sliding force =axial load x coeff of friction

for coeff of friction =0.5,

Sliding force= 0.5x 2670.6 =1335.3 KN

2670.6x3 KNm= 4005.45 KNm(Same WRT both x and z axis).

Stress on soil from Factored load=2325/(3x3)=258.33 KN/m2

Along X Direction

Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 20 mm bar, effective depth

deff = (600-50-0.5 x 20) mm = 540 mm

Vumax =

= 550.24 KN

= 0.65, = 1

dv = 0.9.deff = 0.9 x 490 = 441 mm

bw = 3000 mm

Now allowable shear

Vc =

=655986 N =655.99 KN

Chapter 3

3.2 CSA General Isolated Foundation 2

Along ZDirection

Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 20 mm bar, effective depth

deff = (600-50-0.5 x 20) mm = 540 mm

Vumax =

= 550.24 KN

= 0.65, = 1

dv = 0.9.deff = 0.9 x 490 = 441 mm

bw = 3000 mm

Now allowable shear

Vc =

= 655986 N = 655.99 KN

Punching Shear

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 270 mm from the column face.

Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 20 mm bar, effective depth

deff = (600-50-0.5 x 20) mm = 540 mm

Area within Critical Perimeter Am = (500+2x0.5x.54)2 = 1.0816 m2

Vmax =

v =

= 0.91 N/mm2

=4

=L/B =5/5 =1

1.657 N/mm2

2.645 N/mm2

1.1046 N/mm2

As effective depth > 300 mm so the multiplier = 1300/(1000+deff) = 0.844

So,

108 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

3.2 CSA General Isolated Foundation 2

Vr2= 2.232N/mm2 ==2232 KN/m2

Vr3= 0.932 N/mm2 =932 KN/m2

So min{ Vr1,Vr2,Vr3} = 932 KN/m2

So allowable shear = Vc = 932 KN/m2

V < Vc , Hence safe

Development Length

Along Z Axis

ld = 0.45 k1 x k2 x k3 x k4 fy/(f'c) db

k1 = 1 if clear cover is less than 300 mm or else use 0.45

k2 = 1 if coated reinforcement is used

k2 = 1.2 if epoxy coated reinforcement is used

k2 = 1.5 if epoxy coated reinforcement is used and clear cover is less than 3xdb

k2 = 1.5 if bar spacing is less than 6 xdb

k3 = 1 Normal density concrete

k4 = 0.8 for 20M and smaller bar size

k4 = 1 for 20M and larger bar size

ld = 0.45 x 1 x 0.8 x 1 x 0.8 x (350 MPa)/(20MPa) x 19.5 mm = 439.52 mm

Available Length = (3000-500)/2-50 = 1200 mm

Hence OK

Along X Axis

ld = 0.45 k1 x k2 x k3 x k4 fy/(f'c) db

k1 = 1 if clear cover is less than 300 mm or else use 0.45

k2 = 1 if coated reinforcement is used

k2 = 1.2 if epoxy coated reinforcement is used

k2 = 1.5 if epoxy coated reinforcement is used and clear cover is less than 3xdb

k2 = 1.5 if bar spacing is less than 6 xdb

k3 = 1 Normal density concrete

k4 = 0.8 for 20M and smaller bar size

k4 = 1 for 20M and larger bar size

ld = 0.45 x 1 x 0.8 x 1 x 0.8 x (350 MPa)/(20MPa) x 19.5 mm = 439.52 mm

Available Length = (3000-500)/2-50 = 1200 mm

Hence OK

Verification Manual 109

Chapter 3

3.2 CSA General Isolated Foundation 2

About X Axis

Bending moment at critical section

Mux =

= 605.46 KN-m

1 = 0.85-0.0015.fc=0.82

s=0.85

= 0.0346

Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 20 mm bar, effective depth

deff = (600-50-0.5 x 20) mm = 540 mm

So, =0.002405

Hence OK

About Z Axis

Bending moment at critical section

Mux =

= 605.46 KN-m

1 = 0.85-0.0015.fc=0.82

s=0.85

= 0.0346

Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 20 mm bar, effective depth

deff = (600-50-0.5 x 20) mm = 540 mm

So, =0.002405

Hence OK

Along X Direction(Bottom)

Astx =.B.deff= 3896 m2m

3.2 CSA General Isolated Foundation 2

Provided area = 4600 m2m

Astz = .L.deff=

3896 m2m

Provided area = 4600 m2m

Use #20 @ 190 c/c

Minimum area of steel Ast min = (0.2xfc /fy)xB.D= 4599.9 mm2

Provided area = 4600 m2m

(as no uplift force is present only min steel is provided)

Use #20 @ 190 c/c

Minimum area of steel Ast min = (0.2xfc /fy)xB.D= 4599.9 mm2

Provided area = 4600 m2m

(as no uplift force is present only min steel is provided)

Use #20 @ 190 c/c

Chapter 3

3.3 CSA General Isolated Foundation 3

3.2.4 Comparison

Table 3-2: CSA verification example 2 comparison

STAAD.foundation

Value of

Reference Result

Result

Bearing Pressure

296.73 KN/m2

296.07 KN/m2

Governing

605.46 KN-m

605.46 KN-m

Moment

605.46 KN-m

605.46 KN-m

Shear Force(One- 550.24 KN

550.06 KN

Way)

550.24 KN

550.06 KN

Shear Force(Two- 2045.56 KN

2045.45 KN

Way)

Resisting force for 1335.3KN

1332.3 KN

sliding

1335.3KN

1332.3 KN

Resisting Moment 4005.45 KNm

3996.827 KNm

for Overturning

4005.45 KNm

3996.827 KNm

Ast (B)

#20@190 c/c

#20@190 c/c

Percent

Difference

Negligible

None

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

None

Ast (T)

#20@190 c/c

#20@190 c/c

#20@190 c/c

#20@190 c/c

None

Ld (rqrd)

#20@190 c/c

439.52 mm

#20@190 c/c

439.52 mm

None

Ld (available)

439.52 mm

1200 mm

439.52 mm

1200 mm

None

1200 mm

1200 mm

3.3.1 Reference

3.3.2 Problem

Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = 1200 KN, fc = 30 MPa, fy = 400

MPa, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, and Bearing Capacity of Soil = 90KN/m2.

Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning =1.5. Height

of soil above footing=450 mm, GWT is 300 mm from GL.

Surcharge= 10 KN/m2

3.3 CSA General Isolated Foundation 3

Figure 3-3: Plan and Elevation

3.3.3 Solution

Approximate area of footing required = 1200/90 m2 = 13.33 m2

Assuming 4.3 m x 4.3 m x 0.500 m footing dimension,

Weight of footing = 4.3 x 4.3 x 0.500 x 25 KN = 231.125 KN

Weight of above soil = 4.3 x 4.3 x 0.450 x 18 KN = 149.77 KN

Reduction of Weight due to buoyancy = 4.3x4.3 x (0.500+0.450-0.300) x 9.81

KN = 117.9 KN

Load due to surcharge = 4.3x4.3 x 10 KN =184.9 KN

KN = 1647.895 KN

Maximum pressure = 1647.895 /(4.3x4.3) = 89.12 KN/m2

89.12 KN/ m2 <90 KN/m2

Hence safe

Stress for Factor design = 1.25x1200/(4.3x4.3) = 81.12 KN/m2

Chapter 3

3.3 CSA General Isolated Foundation 3

sliding

Along X Direction

Sliding force =0

max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation

Max resisting force against sliding = 0.5 x 1647.895 KN = 823.95 KN

Hence OK

Along Z Direction

Sliding force =0

max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation

Max resisting force against sliding = 0.5 x 1647.895 KN = 823.95 KN

Hence OK

overturning

WRT X Direction

Overturning Moment = 0

max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 4.3 x 1647.895 = 3542.97 KNm

Hence OK

WRT Z Direction

Overturning Moment = 0

max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 4.3 x 1647.895 = 3542.97 KNm

Hence OK

3.5 CSA Pilecap Foundation 1

3.3.4 Comparison

Table 3-3: CSA verification

Reference

Value of

Result

Bearing Pressure

89.12 KN/

m2

Resisting force for sliding 823.95 KN

(x)

Resisting Moment for

3542.97

Overturning (z)

KNm

Resisting force for sliding 823.95 KN

(z)

Resisting Moment for

3542.97

Overturning (x)

KNm

example 3 comparison

STAAD.foundation Percent DifResult

ference

89.03 KN/ m2

Negligible

823.12 KN

Negligible

3539.366 KNm

Negligible

823.12 KN

Negligible

682.862 KNm

Negligible

3.3.5 Reference

3.3.6 Problem

Design pilecap foundation with the given data: Load Fy = 800 KN, fc = 25 MPa, fy = 450

MPa, Column Dimension = 250 mm x 250 mm. Pedestal ht= 500 mm

Pile Data

Dia of pile= 400 mm.

Vertical capacity = 250 KN,

Horizontal capacity = 100 KN

Uplift capacity = 80 KN

Chapter 3

3.5 CSA Pilecap Foundation 1

Figure 3-4: Elevation and Plan, with dimension and loads

3.3.7 Solution

depth of pilecap= 1.5 x piledia, D=600 mm

Take D=600 mm

c/c pile distance = 3xpile dia =1200 mm. Edge diatance =350 mm

Assuming 4 pile combination,

Coordinates of piles considering pedestal at 0,0,0)

Pile No

1

2

3

4

X Coordinate (mm)

-600

-600

600

600

Z Coordinate (mm)

-600

600

600

-600

Weight of footing = 1.9 x1.9 x 0.60 x 25 KN = 54.15 KN

Weight of pedestal = 0.25 x 0.25 x 0.5 x 25 KN = 0.78 KN

Therefore, total load on the pilecap = (800+54.15 +0.78) KN = 854.93 KN

116 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

3.5 CSA Pilecap Foundation 1

So Pile reaction = 854.93 /4= 213.73 KN < 250 KN, Hence OK

As there is no lateral load, moment or uplift force, so each pile is safe in lateral & uplift

capacity.

Factored Design

Load factor for self wt is taken =1

Load factor for axial load is taken 1.25

SO, Load on pilecap = 1.25x800+54.15 x1+0.78x1= 1054.93 KN

Load on each pile =1054.93 /4=263.73 KN

Figure 3-5: Bending sections considered

For moment wrt X1X1

Contribution from pile 1=from pile2=263.73 x 0.475=125.27 KNm

So Total Mz X1X1 = 250.54 KNm

For moment wrt X2X2

Contribution from pile3=from pile4=263.73 x 0.475=125.27 KNm

So Total Mz X2X2 = 250.54 KNm

So Max value of Mz = 250.54 KNm

Bending moment at critical section, Muz = 250.54 KN-m

Chapter 3

3.5 CSA Pilecap Foundation 1

Assuming 50 mm clear cover, 75 mm pile in pilecap & and 11.3 mm bar ( Bar No 10),

effective depth

deff = 463.7 mm

B =1900 mm ,

c = Resistance Factor of concrete = 0.6 (Clause No 8.4.2)

1 = 0.8125 (Clause No 10.1.7.c)

1 = 0.8475 (Clause No 10.1.7.c)

c = (700.d)/(700+fy) = 282.25 mm (Clause No 10.5.2)

a = 239.208 mm (Clause No 10.1.7.a)

C = 5539 x 103 KN(Clause No 10.1.7.a)

Resisting Moment=C.(d-a/2)=1906 KNm

Muz < Resisting Moment, Hence OK

For moment wrt Z1Z1

Contribution from pile 1=from pile4=263.73 x 0.475=125.27 KNm

So Total Mx Z1Z1 = 250.54KNm

For moment wrt Z2Z2

Contribution from pile 2=from pile3=263.73 x 0.475=125.27 KNm

So Total Mx Z2Z2 = 250.54KNm

So Max value of MX = 250.54 KNm

Check For Trial Depth against moment wrt X Axis

Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 250.54 KN-m

deff = 463.7 mm

B =1900 mm ,

C=5539 x 103 KN

Resisting Moment=C.(d-a/2)=1906 KNm

Mux < Resisting Moment, Hence OK

3.5 CSA Pilecap Foundation 1

Figure 3-6: Shear sections considered

Contribution from pile 1 =pile2=263.73 x528=139.25 KN

So Total V X1X1 = 274.5 KN

For shear wrt X2X2

Contribution from pile 3=pile4=263.73 x528=139.25 KN

So Total V X2X2 = 274.5 KN

So Max V parallel to X direction = 274.5 KN

Shear Strength Vr = 260/(1000+d).c..(f'c ).bw.d=>0.1..c.(f^' c).bw.d

= max(469.497, 264.309) KN = 469.5 KN (Clause no 11.3.5.2)

Where

c = Resistance Factor of concrete=0.6 (Clause No 8.4.2)

= factor to account Concrete density=1(Clause No 8.6.5)

bw = Section Width=1900 mm

d = effective Depth= 463.7 mm (Clause 11.0)

VX < VResistanceX, Hence Safe

For shear wrt Z1Z1

Chapter 3

3.5 CSA Pilecap Foundation 1

So Total V Z1Z1 = 274.5 KN

For shear wrt Z2Z2

Contribution from pile 2=pile 3 =263.73 x528=139.25 KN

So Total V Z2Z2 = 274.5 KN

So Max V parallel to Z direction = 274.5 KN

Shear Strength Vr=260/(1000+d).c..(f'c ).bw.d=>0.1..c.(f^' c).bw.d

= max(469.497, 264.309) KN = 469.5 KN

VZ < VResistanceZ, Hence Safe

Punching Shear

Figure 3-7: Two-way shear sections considered

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d =231.85 mm from the column face.

Contribution from pile 1=from pile2=from pile3=from pile 4= 263.73 KN

So total punching shear Vmax= 1054.92 KN

b0=Perimeter of failure line at d/2 distance from column face=2.(Column Length+Column

Width+2d)x 2= 4x(250+463.7/2+463.7/2)=2854.88

Therefore Shear stress c= =Vmax/(b0 x d)= 797 KN/m2

Calculation of punching shear stress capacity

= 1 (Clause 8.6.5)

c = 0.6 (Clause 8.4.2)

f' = Strength of concrete (in MPa)

c

c

s

3.5 CSA Pilecap Foundation 1

mod factor=1

Vr1=(1+2/c).0.2..c.(f'c).mod factor=1800 KN/m 2 (Eqn no 13.5 Clause no 13.4.4a)

Vr2=(0.2+(s. dv)/bo)..c.(f'c).mod factor=2549 KN/m 2 (Eqn no 13.6 Clause no13.4.4b)

Vr3=0.4..c.(f'c).mod factor= 1200 KN/m 2 (Eqn no 13.7 Clause no 13.4.4c)

Vr=Min (Vr1,Vr2,Vr3)=1200 KN/m 2

V < VResistance , Hence safe

Along X Direction

Calculate Kr (neutral axis/depth ratio) for Actual Bending Moment

Where

1= 0.85- 0.0015.fc>=0.67 (Clause No 10.1.7)

c = 0.6 (clause 8.4.2)

s = 0.85 (clause 8.4.3)

Solving the equation (steel area ratio = 0.165 %

Therefore, Astx = .b,d= 1450 m2m

Minimum area of steel Astmin = 0.2/100 x B x D = 2280 mm2

Provided area = 2280 mm2

Along Z Direction

Calculate Kr (neutral axis/depth ratio) for Actual Bending Moment

Therefore, Astx = .b,d= 1450 m2m

Minimum area of steel Astmin = 0.2/100 x B x D = 2280 mm2

Provided area = 2280 mm2

Chapter 3

3.5 CSA Pilecap Foundation 1

Ld (required)=1.15.k1.k2.k3.k4.fy/((dcs+Kr) ).Ab/(f' )= 380.7 mm

c

Ld (available)Along X=(Length-pedestal length) 1/2 Cover=775 mm

Ld (required)<Ld (available)Along X

Hence OK

Ld (available)Along Z=(Length-pedestal length) 1/2 -Cover=775 mm

Ld (required)<Ld (available)Along Z

Hence OK

3.3.8 Comparison

Table 3-4: CSA verification

Reference

Value of

Result

Depth

600 mm

Governing Moment (wrt 250.54 KNX axis)

m

Resisting Moment (wrt 1906 KN-m

Z axis)

Governing Moment (wrt 250.54 KNX axis)

m

Resisting Moment (wrt 1906 KN-m

Z axis)

Shear Force(One-Way) 274.5 KN

X

Shear Resistance(One- 469.5 KN

Way) X

Shear Force(One-Way) 274.5 KN

Z

Shear Resistance(One- 469.5 KN

Way) Z

Shear stress(Two-Way) 797 KN/m2

Resistance Shear Stress 1200

(Two-Way)

KN/m2

Ld required

381 mm

Ld Available ( Along X) 775 mm

Ld Available ( Along Z) 775 mm

Ast ( Along X)

2280 mm2

example 5 comparison

STAAD.foundation Percent DifResult

ference

598 mm

Negligible

250.54 KN-m

None

1933 KN-m

Negligible

250.54 KN-m

None

1933 KN-m

Negligible

274.3 KN

None

471.8 KN

Negligible

274.3 KN

None

471.8 KN

Negligible

787.6 KN/m2

1200 KN/m2

None

None

381 mm

775 mm

775 mm

2240 mm2

None

None

None

Negligible

3.4 CSA General Combined Foundation s1

3.4.1 Reference

3.4.2 Problem

Design a combined footing with the given data: Load Fy = 900 KN each column., fc = 30

MPa, fy = 400 MPa, Column Dimension = 250 mm x 250 mm, Pedestal height-400 mm.

and C/C column distance=3500 mm . Bearing Capacity of Soil = 120 KN/m2. Coefficient of

friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning =1.5

Ht of soil =500 mm. Depth of GWT=200 mm. Surcharge= 5 KN/m2

Figure 3-8: Plan and Elevation

3.4.3 Solution

Approximate area of footing required = 2x900/120 m2 = 15 m2

Assuming 5.7 m x 3.15 m x 0.500 m footing dimension,

left overhang = right overhang = 1.1 m, C/C col dist=3500 mm

Weight of footing = 5.7 x 3.15 x0.500 x25 KN = 224.44 KN

Weight of pedestal=2x0.25x0.25x0.4x25=1.25 KN

Chapter 3

3.4 CSA General Combined Foundation s1

160.47 KN

Reduction of Weight due to buoyancy = 5.7 x 3.15 x (0.500+0.500-0.200)

x9.81 KN = 140.91 KN

Surcharge load = ( 5.7x3.15-2x0.25x0.25)x5= 89.15 KN

Therefore, total load on the footing is

(2x900+224.44 +1.25+160.47 +89.15 -140.91) KN = 2134.4 KN

Maximum pressure= 2134.4 /(5.7 x3.15) = 118.87 KN/m2

118.87 KN/ m2 <120 KN/m2 (Hence safe)

overturning

About Z Direction

Overturning Moment =0

Total Service load on foundation = 2134.4 KN

max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 5.7x 2134.4 = 6083 KNm

Hence OK

About X Direction

Overturning Moment =0

Total Service load on foundation = 2134.4 KN

max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 3.15x 2134.4 = 3361.7 KNm

Hence OK

3.4.4 Comparison

Table 3-5: CSA verification

Reference

Value of

Result

Bearing Pressure

118.87

KN/m2

Resisting Moment for

6083 KNm

Overturning (Z)

Resisting Moment for

3361.7

Overturning (X)

KNm

example 5 comparison

STAAD.foundation Percent DifResult

ference

118.87 KN/m2

None

6083 KNm

None

3361.7 KNm

None

Section 4

4.1 IS General Isolated Foundation 1

4.1.1 Reference

Reinforced Concrete by A.K. Jain, Page 539, Example 18.2.

4.1.2 Problem

Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = 1000 KN, fc = 15 MPa, fy = 415

MPa, Column Dimension = 400 mm X 400 mm, Bearing Capacity of Soil = 100 KN/m2,

and Load Factor = 1.5.

Chapter 4

4.1 IS General Isolated Foundation 1

Figure 4-1: Plan and Elevation

4.1.3 Solution

Approximate area of footing required = 1000/10 m2 = 10 m2

Assuming 3.5 m x 3.5 m x 0.6 m footing dimension (I = 12.5 m4)

Weight of footing = 3.5 x 3.5 x 0.6 x 25 KN = 183.75 KN

Therefore, total load on the footing = (1000 +183.75) KN = 1183.75 KN

Maximum pressure = 1183.75/(3.5 x 3.5) KN/ m2 = 96.633 KN/m2 <100

KN/m2

Hence safe

Ultimate pressure = 1000 x 1.5/ (3.5 x 3.5) KN/m2 = 122.45 KN/m2

Bending moment at critical section,

Mu = 122.45 x 3.5 x 1.55 x 1.55/2 = 514.826 KN-m

Assuming 35 mm clear cover and 10 mm bar, effective depth

de = (600-35-0.5 x 10) mm = 560 mm

Ku,max =

= 0.479

4.1 IS General Isolated Foundation 1

Mulim = Ru,max x B x de2 = 2267.642 x 106 N-mm = 2267.642 KN-m> Mu

Hence safe

Area of steel required along length,

x B x de = 2646.4 mm2

Ast = 0.5 x

Percentage of steel pt =

= 0.135

Corresponding allowable

= 0.28 N/mm2

Developed shear stress

safe)

= 424.289 KN

c,all

(Hence

Vumax = 1500 KN

= 0.698 N/mm2

Ks = min (0.5+1,1) = 1

Allowable shear stress = Ks x

= 1 x 0.25

= 0.968 N/mm2

Note: There is no deduction for the upward force underneath the area enclosed by the

critical perimeter. This approach is conservative.

Chapter 4

4.1 IS General Isolated Foundation 1

Spacing

No. of 10 mm bar =

Spacing =

= 33.69 (34)

= 102.73 mm

Figure 4-2: Plan of Reinforcement

4.2 IS General Isolated Foundation 2

Figure 4-3: Cross Section showing Reinforcement

4.1.4 Comparison

Table 4-1: IS verification example 1 comparison

Reference

STAAD.foundation

Percent DifValue of

Result

Result

ference

Effective Depth

560 mm

560 mm

None

Governing

514.826 KN- 514.821 KN-m

Negligible

Moment

m

Area of Steal

2646.40

2645.01 mm2

0.05

2

mm

Shear Stress (One- 0.216 N/mm2 0.216 N/mm2

None

Way)

Shear Stress (Two- 0.698

0.700 N/mm2

0.286

2

Way)

N/mm

4.2.1 Reference

Reinforced Concrete Structure by Punmia-Jain-Jain, Example 25.1.

4.2.2 Problem

Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = 600 KN, fc = 15 MPa, fy = 250

MPa, Column Dimension = 500 mm x 500 mm, and Bearing Capacity of Soil = 120 KN/m2.

Chapter 4

4.2 IS General Isolated Foundation 2

Figure 4-4: Plan and Elevation

4.2.3 Solution

Approximate area of footing required = 600/ 120 m2 = 5 m2

Assuming 2.4 m x 2.4 m x 0.35 m footing dimension,

Weight of footing = 2.4 x 2.4 x 0.35 x 25 KN = 50.4 KN

Therefore, total load on the footing = (600+50.4) KN = 650.4 KN

Maximum pressure = 650.4 / (2.4 x 2.4) KN/ m2 = 112.92 KN/m2 <120

KN/m2

Hence safe

Ultimate pressure = 600 x 1.5 /(2.4 x 2.4) KN/m2 = 156.25 KN/m2

Bending moment at critical section, Mu = 56.25 x 2.4 x 0.95 x 0.95 /2=

169.21875 KN-m

Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 12 mm bar, effective depth

de = (350-50-0.5 x 12) mm = 294 mm

4.2 IS General Isolated Foundation 2

Ku,max =

= 0.53

Mulim = Ru,max x B x de2 = 461.568 x 106 N-mm = 461.568 KN-m > Mu

Hence safe

Area of steel required along length,

x B x de = 2837.87 mm2

Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0015 x B x D = 1260 mm2

Ast = 0.5 x

Percentage of steel pt =

= 0.4022

Corresponding allowable

= 0.42 N/mm2

Developed shear stress

= 246 KN

= 0.3486N/mm2 <

c,all

Hence safe

Vumax = 900 KN

= 0.96 N/mm2

Ks = min (0.5+1, 1) = 1

Allowable shear stress = Ks x

= 1 x 0.25

= 0.968 N/mm2

Hence safe

Chapter 4

4.2 IS General Isolated Foundation 2

Note: There is no deduction for the upward force underneath the area enclosed by the

critical perimeter. This approach is conservative.

Spacing

No. of 12 mm bar =

Spacing =

= 25.09 (26)

= 91.52 mm

Figure 4-5: Elevation and Plan showing reinforcement design

4.3 IS General Isolated Foundation 3

4.2.4 Comparison

Table 4-2: IS verification example 2 comparison

Reference

STAAD.foundation

Percent DifValue of

Result

Result

ference

Effective Depth

294 mm

294 mm

None

Governing

169.2187 KN- 169.2187 KN-m

None

Moment

m

Area of Steel

2837.87 mm2 2836.34 mm2

0.05

Shear Stress (One- 0.3486

0.3486 N/mm2

None

Way)

N/mm2

Shear Stress (Two- 0.96 N/mm2 0.96 N/mm2

None

Way)

4.3.1 Reference

4.3.2 Problem

Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = 2000 KN, fc = 25 MPa, fy = 415

MPa, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, and Bearing Capacity of Soil = 100

KN/m2. Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning =1.5

Chapter 4

4.3 IS General Isolated Foundation 3

Figure 4-6: Plan and Elevation

4.3.3 Solution

Approximate area of footing required = 2000/100 m2 = 20 m2

Assuming 4.95 m x 4.95 m x 0.700 m footing dimension,

Weight of footing = 4.95x4.95x0.7 x 25 KN = 428.79 KN

Therefore, total load on the footing = (2000+428.79) KN = 2428.79 KN

Maximum pressure = 2428.79/(4.95x4.95) = 99.124 KN/ m2 <100 KN/m2

Hence safe

Ultimate pressure =

overturning and sliding

Along X Direction

Sliding force =0

4.3 IS General Isolated Foundation 3

1214.395 KN

Hence OK

Overturning Moment =0

max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 4.95 x 2428.79 = 6011.25 KNm

Hence OK

Along Z Direction

Sliding force =0

max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation =0.5 x 2428.79 =

1214.395 KN

Hence OK

Overturning Moment =0

max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 4.95 x 2428.79 = 6011.25 KNm

Hence OK

About X Axis

Bending moment at critical section

Mux = 122.436 x 4.95 x 2.325 x 2.325 / 2 = 1638.06 KN-m

Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth

deff = (700-50-0.5 x 16) mm = 642 mm

K=700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107

Ru= 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2

Resisting Moment =Ru. B deff2 = 7026 KNm

Hence OK

About Z Axis

Bending moment at critical section

Mux = 122.436 x 4.95 x 2.325 x 2.325 / 2 = 1638.06 KN-m

Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth

deff = (700-50-0.5 x 16) mm = 642 mm

K=700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107

Ru= 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2

Chapter 4

4.3 IS General Isolated Foundation 3

Hence OK

Along X Direction

From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b:

Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck)

So solving equation for Ast,

Astx = 7358 m2m

Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 4158 mm2 ( as fy>250)

Provided area = 7358 m2m

Along Z Direction

From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b:

Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck)

So solving equation for Ast,

Astx = 7358 m2m

Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 4158 mm2 ( as fy>250)

Provided area = 7358 m2m

Along X Direction

Percentage of steel pt =

= 0.2315

Developed shear stress V =

= 1020 KN

= 0.321 N/mm2

V < c

Hence Safe

4.3 IS General Isolated Foundation 3

Along Z Direction

Percentage of steel pt =

= 0.2315

Developed shear stress V =

= 1020 KN

= 0.321 N/mm2

V < c

Hence Safe

Punching Shear

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 321 mm from the column face.

Area within Critical Perimeter Am = 0.887 m2

Vmax =

2892 KN

v =

= 1.19 N/mm2

=L/B =4.95/4.95 =1

k=0.5 +=1.5 , k<=1

Hence, k=1

Now allowable stress

c =k.0.25.fck = 1.25 N/mm2

v < c , Hence safe

Chapter 4

4.4 IS General Isolated Foundation 4

4.3.4 Comparison

Table 4-3: IS verification example 3 comparison

Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of

Result

Result

ference

Bearing Pressure

99.124

99.124 KN/m2

None

KN/m2

Governing Moment

1638.06

1638.038 KN-m

None

KN-m

Shear Force(One-Way)

1020 KN

1019 KN

Negligible

Shear Force(Two-Way)

2892 KN

2891 KN

Negligible

Resisting force for sliding 1214.395

1214.397 KN

None

(X)

KN

Resisting Moment for

6011.25

6011.155 KNm

None

Overturning (Z)

KNm

Resisting force for sliding 1214.395

1214.397 KN

None

(Z)

KN

Resisting Moment for

6011.25

6011.155 KNm

None

Overturning (X)

KNm

4.4.1 Reference

4.4.2 Problem

Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = 1000 KN, fc = 25 MPa, fy = 415

MPa, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, and Bearing Capacity of Soil = 110

KN/m2. Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning

=1.5 Surcharge=20 KN/m2

4.4 IS General Isolated Foundation 4

Figure 4-7: Plan and Elevation

4.4.3 Solution

Approximate area of footing required = 1000/110 m2 = 8.33 m2

Assuming 3.65 m x 3.65 m x 0.600 m footing dimension,

Weight of footing = 3.65x3.65x0.6 x 25 KN = 199.8 KN

Surcharge= 20 KN/m2

Surcharge force=20x3.65x3.65= 266.4 KN

Therefore, total load on the footing = (1000+266.4+199.8)= 1466.2 KN

Maximum pressure = 1466.2/(3.65x3.65)=

110 KN/m2 (Hence OK)

overturning and sliding

Along X Direction

Sliding force =0

Max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation

Total Service load on foundation =1466.2 KN

Chapter 4

4.5 IS General Isolated Foundation 5

Hence OK

Overturning Moment =0

max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 3.65 x 1466.2 = 2675.815 KNm

Hence OK

Along Z Direction

Sliding force =0

Max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation

Total Service load on foundation =1466.2 KN

Max Resisting force =0.5 x 1466.2 = 733.1 KN

Hence OK

Overturning Moment =0

max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 3.65 x 1466.2 = 2675.815 KNm

Hence OK

4.4.4 Comparison

Table 4-4: IS verification example 4 comparison

Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of

Result

Result

ference

2

2

Bearing Pressure

110 KN/m 109.9 KN/m

Negligible

Resisting Moment for

2675.815

2672.535 KNm

Negligible

Overturning (x)

KNm

Resisting force for

733.1 KN

732.2 KN

Negligible

sliding (z)

Resisting Moment for

2675.815

2672.535 KNm

Negligible

Overturning (z)

KNm

Resisting force for

733.1 KN

732.2 KN

Negligible

sliding (x)

4.5.1 Reference

4.5.2 Problem

Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = 1200 KN, fc = 25 MPa, fy = 415

MPa, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, and Bearing Capacity of Soil = 110

4.5 IS General Isolated Foundation 5

KN/m2. Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning =1.5.

Height of soil above footing=450 mm, dry condition.

Figure 4-8: Plan and Elevation

4.5.3 Solution

Approximate area of footing required = 1200/110 m2 = 10.91 m2

Assuming 3.7 m x 3.7 m x 0.55 m footing dimension,

Weight of footing = 3.7x3.7x0.55 x 25 KN = 188.237 KN

Weight of above soil = 3.7x3.7x0.45 x 18 KN = 110.889 KN

Therefore, total load on the footing = (1200+188.237+110.889) KN = 1499.126

KN

Maximum pressure = 1499.126/(3.7x3.7) = 109.5 KN/m2 <110 KN/m2

Hence safe

Ultimate pressure =

Chapter 4

4.5 IS General Isolated Foundation 5

overturning and sliding

Along X Direction

Sliding force =0

max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation = 0.5 x 1499.126

= 749.6 KN

Hence OK

Overturning Moment =0

max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 3.7 x 1499.126 = 2773.383 KNm

Hence OK

Along Z Direction

Sliding force =0

max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation = 0.5 x 1499.126

= 749.6 KN

Hence OK

Overturning Moment =0

max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 3.7 x 1499.126 = 2773.383 KNm

Hence OK

Bending moment at critical section,

Mux = 131.4828 x 3.7 x 1.7 x 1.7/2 = 702.97 KN-m

Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth

deff = (550-50-0.5 x 16) mm = 492 mm

K=700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107

Ru= 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4443 N/mm2

Resisting Moment =Ru. B deff2 = 3084.8 KNm

Hence OK

Bending moment at critical section,

Mux = 131.4828 x 3.7 x 1.7 x 1.7/2 = 702.97 KN-m

Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth

142 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

4.5 IS General Isolated Foundation 5

K=700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107

Ru= 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4443 N/mm2

Resisting Moment =Ru. B deff2 = 3084.8 KNm

Hence OK

Along X Direction

From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b:

Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck)

So solving equation for Ast,

Astx = 4120 m2m

Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 2442 mm2 ( as fy>250)

Provided area = 4120 m2m

Along Z Direction

From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b:

Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck)

So solving equation for Ast,

Astx = 4120 m2m

Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 2442 mm2 ( as fy>250)

Provided area = 4120 m2m

Percentage of steel pt =

= 0.226

= 587.7 KN

= 0.322 N/mm2

Now allowable stress = 0.344 N/mm2

v < c

Hence Safe

Verification Manual 143

Chapter 4

4.5 IS General Isolated Foundation 5

Percentage of steel pt =

= 0.226

= 587.7 KN

Now allowable stress = 0.344 N/mm2

v < c

Hence Safe

Punching Shear

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 246 mm from the column face.

Area within Critical Perimeter Am = 0.627 m2

Vmax =

1718 KN

v =

= 1.1 N/mm2

=L/B =3.7/3.7 =1

k=0.5 +=1.5 , k<=1

Hence, k=1

Now allowable stress= c =k.0.25.fck = 1.25 N/mm2

v < c , Hence safe

4.6 IS General Isolated Foundations 6

4.5.4 Comparison

Table 4-5: IS verification example 5 comparison

Reference STAAD.foundation

Value of

Result

Result

Bearing Pressure

109.5

109.45 KN/m2

KN/m2

Governing Moment (x&Z) 702.97 KN- 700.1 KN-m

m

Shear Force(One-Way) ( 587.7 KN

586 KN

x&Z)

Shear Force(Two-Way)

1718 KN

1716.5 KN

Resisting force for sliding 749.6 KN 749.187 KN

(X)

Resisting Moment for

2773.4

2771.9 KNm

Overturning (Z)

KNm

Resisting force for sliding 749.6 KN 749.187 KN

(Z)

Resisting Moment for

2773.4

2771.9 KNm

Overturning (X)

KNm

Percent Difference

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

4.6.1 Reference

4.6.2 Problem

Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = 2000 KN, fc = 25 MPa, fy = 415

MPa, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, and Bearing Capacity of Soil = 100

KN/m2. Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning =1.5.

Height of soil above footing=500 mm, depth of GWT =200 mm

Chapter 4

4.6 IS General Isolated Foundations 6

Figure 4-9: Plan and Elevation

4.6.3 Solution

Approximate area of footing required = 2000/100 m2 = 20 m2

Assuming 4.95 m x 4.95 m x 0.700 m footing dimension,

Weight of footing = 4.95x4.95x0.7 x 25 KN = 428.79 KN

Weight of above soil = 4.95x4.95x0.5 x18 KN = 220.522 KN

Reduction of Weight due to buoyancy = 4.95x4.95x0.5 x18 KN = 240.369 KN

Therefore, total load on the footing = (2000+428.79+220.522-240.369) KN =

2408.943 KN

Maximum pressure = 2408.943/(4.95x4.95) = 99.12 KN/m2 <100 KN/m2

Hence safe

Ultimate pressure =

4.6 IS General Isolated Foundations 6

overturning and sliding

Along X Direction

Sliding force =0

max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation = 0.5 x 2408.943

= 1204.5 KN

Hence OK

Overturning Moment =0

max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 4.95 x 2408.943 = 5962 KNm

Hence OK

Along Z Direction

Sliding force =0

max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation=0.5 x 2408.943 =

1204.5 KN

Hence OK

Overturning Moment =0

max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 4.95 x 2408.943 = 5962 KNm

Hence OK

About X Axis

Bending moment at critical section

Mux = 122.436 x 4.95 x 2.325 x 2.325 / 2 = 1638.06 KN-m

Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth

deff = (700-50-0.5 x 16) mm = 642 mm

K=700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107

Ru= 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2

Resisting Moment =Ru. B deff2 = 7026 KNm

Hence OK

About Z Axis

Bending moment at critical section

Chapter 4

4.6 IS General Isolated Foundations 6

Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth

deff = (700-50-0.5 x 16) mm = 642 mm

K = 700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107

Ru = 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2

Hence OK

Along X Direction

From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b:

Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck)

So solving equation for Ast,

Astx = 7358 m2m

Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 4158 mm2 ( as fy>250)

Provided area = 7358 m2m

Along Z Direction

From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b:

Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck)

So solving equation for Ast,

Astx = 7358 m2m

Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 4158 mm2 ( as fy>250)

Provided area = 7358 m2m

4.6 IS General Isolated Foundations 6

Along X Direction

Percentage of steel pt =

= 0.2315

= 1020 KN

= 0.321 N/mm2

V < c

Hence Safe

Along Z Direction

Percentage of steel pt =

= 0.2315

Developed shear stress V =

= 1020 KN

= 0.321 N/mm2

V < c

Hence Safe

Punching Shear

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 321 mm from the column face.

Area within Critical Perimeter Am = 0.887 m2

Vmax =

2892 KN

v =

= 1.19 N/mm2

=L/B =4.95/4.95 =1

k=0.5 +=1.5 , k<=1

Hence, k=1

Verification Manual 149

Chapter 4

4.7 IS General Isolated Foundation 7

v < c , Hence safe

4.6.4 Comparison

Table 4-6: IS verification example 6 comparison

Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of

Result

Result

ference

Bearing Pressure

98.314

98.2832 KN/m2

None

KN/m2

Governing Moment

1638.06

1634 KN-m

Negligible

(x&Z)

KN-m

Shear Force(One-Way) ( 1020 KN

1017 KN

Negligible

x&Z)

Shear Force(Two-Way)

2892 KN

2889.7 KN

Negligible

Resisting force for

1204 KN

1204 KN

None

sliding (x)

Resisting Moment for

5962 KNm 5960 KNm

Negligible

Overturning (z)

Resisting force for

1204 KN

1204 KN

None

sliding (z)

Resisting Moment for

5962 KNm 5960 KNm

Negligible

Overturning (x)

4.7.1 Reference

4.7.2 Problem

Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = 1500 KN, Fz=120 KN fc = 25

MPa, fy = 415 MPa, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, and Bearing Capacity of

Soil = 120 KN/m2. Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against

overturning =1.5

4.7 IS General Isolated Foundation 7

Figure 4-10: Plan and Elevation

4.7.3 Solution

Approximate area of footing required = 1500/120 m2 = 12.50 m2

Assuming 3.95 m x 3.95 m x 0.600 m footing dimension,

Weight of footing = 3.95x3.95x0.6 x 25 KN = 234.04 KN

Therefore, total axial load on the footing = (1500+234.04) KN = 1734.04 KN

Maximum axial pressure =P/A= 1734.04 /(3.95x3.95) = 111.138 KN/ m2

Moment due to lateral load= 120x0.6 72 KNm

Total moment (Mx=72 KNm

Zx=3.95x3.952/6 = 10.27 mm3

M/Z=7.01 KN/m2

So,

1=P/A M/Z=104.129 KN/m2

2=P/A M/Z=104.129 KN/m2

3=P/A +M/Z=118.148 KN/m2

4=P/A +M/Z=118.148 KN/m2

118.148 KN/m2 <120 KN/m2 (Hence safe)

Verification Manual 151

Chapter 4

4.7 IS General Isolated Foundation 7

overturning and sliding

Along X Direction

Sliding force =0

max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation = 0.5 x 1734.04 =

867.02 KN

Hence OK

Overturning Moment =72 KNm

max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 3.95 x 1734.04 = 3429.729 KNm

FOS = 47.6 > 1.5

Hence OK

Along Z Direction

Sliding force =120

max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation = 0.5 x 1734.04 =

867.02 KN

FOS = 7.22 > 1.5

Hence OK

Overturning Moment =0 KNm

max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 3.95 x 1734.04 = 3429.729 KNm

Hence OK

About X Axis

Critical section for moment is at the face of column; wrt z axis:

Average Base Pressure along one edge = (113.69 + 154.73)x0.5 = 144.21

KN/m2 (left end)

Average Base Pressure along other edge = (113.69 + 154.73)x0.5 = 144.21

KN/m2 (right end)

Approximate Base Pressure at the left critical section = 144.21 +(144.21144.21) x 2125/3950 = 144.21 KN/m2

Approximate Base Pressure at the right critical section = 144.21 +(144.21144.21) x 1825/3950 = 144.21 KN/m2

Hence, the moment at the critical section, Mu = F x LA

Where:

152 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

4.7 IS General Isolated Foundation 7

LA = (144.21 +2x 144.21) x 1.825/ [3x (144.21 +144.21)] = 0.913 m

Mu (right) = 949.13 kNm

So, max moment wrt Z axis Mu (z) = 950 KNm

deff = (600-50-0.5 x 16) mm = 542 mm

K = 700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107

Ru = 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2

Resisting Moment =Ru. B deff2 = 3997 KNm

Hence OK

About Z Axis

Critical section for moment is at the face of column; wrt x axis:

Average Base Pressure along one edge = (133.69 + 133.69)x0.5 = 133.69

KN/m2 (left end)

Average Base Pressure along other edge = (154.73 + 154.73)x0.5 = 154.73

KN/m2 (right end)

Approximate Base Pressure at the left critical section = 154.73 +(133.69154.731) x 2125/3950 = 143.42 KN/m2

Chapter 4

4.7 IS General Isolated Foundation 7

Approximate Base Pressure at the right critical section = 154.73 +(133.69154.73) x 1825/3950 = 145.01 KN/m2

Hence, the moment at the critical section, Mu = F x LA

Where:

F = (133.69 + 143.42) x 0.5 x 1.825 x 3.95 = 1080.38 KN

LA = (143.42 +2x 133.69) x 1.825/ [3x (144.21 +144.21)] = 0.923 m

Mu (right) = 997.19 kNm

So, max moment wrt Z axis Mu (z) = 998 KNm

deff = (600-50-0.5 x 16) mm = 542 mm

K = 700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107

Ru = 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2

Resisting Moment =Ru. B deff2 = 3997 KNm

Hence OK

Along X Direction

From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b:

Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck)

So solving equation for Ast,

4.7 IS General Isolated Foundation 7

Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 2844 mm2 ( as fy>250)

Provided area = 5056 m2m

Along Z Direction

From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b:

Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck)

So solving equation for Ast,

Astx = 5323 m2m

Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 2844 mm2 ( as fy>250)

Provided area = 5323 m2m

Along X Direction

Percentage of steel pt =

= 0.236

Average Base Pressure along one edge = (133.69 + 154.73)x0.5 = 144.21

KN/m2

Average Base Pressure along other edge = (133.69 + 154.73)x0.5 = 144.21

KN/m2

Approximate Base Pressure at the left critical section = 144.21 +(144.21 144.21) x 2667/3950 = 144.21 KN/m2

Approximate Base Pressure at the right critical section = 144.21 +(144.21 144.21) x 2667/3950 = 144.21 KN/m2

Hence, the SFat critical section

F = (144.21 +144.21) x0.5 x 1.283 x 3.95 = 730.84 KN

So max SFalong X axis Fux = 731 KN

Developed shear stress v = 731 x 1000 / (3950 x 542) = 0.341 N/mm2

Chapter 4

4.7 IS General Isolated Foundation 7

v < c, Hence Safe

Along Z Direction

Percentage of steel pt =

= 0.2486

Average Base Pressure along one edge = (133.69 + 133.69)x0.5 = 133.69

KN/m2

Average Base Pressure along other edge = (154.73 + 154.73)x0.5 = 154.73

KN/m2

Approximate Base Pressure at the left critical section = 154.73 +(133.69 154.73) x 2667/3950 = 144.21 KN/m2

Approximate Base Pressure at the right critical section = 154.73 +(133.69 154.73) x 1283/3950 = 144.21 KN/m2

Hence, the SFat critical section (left)

F = (133.69 +140.53) x0.5 x 1.283 x 3.95 = 694.84 KN

Hence, the SF at critical section (right)

F = (15473 +147.90) x0.5 x 1.283 x 3.95 = 766.83 KN

So max SFalong X axis Fux = 731 KN

4.7 IS General Isolated Foundation 7

So max SF=767 KN

Developed shear stress v = 767 x 1000 / (3950 x 542) = 0.358 N/mm2

Now allowable stress = 0.359 N/mm2

v < c

Hence Safe

Punching Shear

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 271 mm from the column face.

Area within Critical Perimeter Am = 0.709 m2

Vmax =

2148 KN

v =

= 1.177 N/mm2

=L/B =3.95/3.95 =1

k=0.5 +=1.5 , k<=1

Hence, k=1

Now allowable stress= c =k.0.25.fck = 1.25 N/mm2

v < c

Hence safe

Chapter 4

4.8 IS Toolkit Combined 1

Figure 4-11: Final Plan Dimensions

4.7.4 Comparison

Table 4-7: IS verification example 7 comparison

Reference

STAAD.foundation

Percent DifValue of

Result

Result

ference

Max Bearing

104.129

104.129 KN/m2

None

Pressure

KN/m2

MinBearing

118.148 KN

118.148 KN

None

Pressure

Governing

999 KN-m

994 KN-m

Negligible

Moment

950 KN-m

946 KN-m

Shear Force(One- 767 KN

764 KN

Negligible

Way)

731 KN

728 KN

Shear Force(Two- 2148 KN

2146 KN

Negligible

Way)

4.8.1 Reference

4.8 IS Toolkit Combined 1

4.8.2 Problem

Design a combined footing with the given data: Load Fy = 400 KN each column., fc = 25

MPa, fy = 415 MPa, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, Pedestal height-500 mm.

and C/C column distance=3000 mm . Bearing Capacity of Soil = 120 KN/m2. Coefficient of

friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning =1.5

Figure 4-12: Plan and Elevation

4.8.3 Solution

Approximate area of footing required = 2x400/120 m2 = 6.67 m2

Assuming 5.75 m x 1.35 m x 0.600 m footing dimension,

(left overhang = right overhang = 1.375 m)

Weight of footing = 5.75 m x 1.35 m x 0.600 x 25 KN = 116.375 KN

Weight of pedestal=2x 0.3 x 0.3 x 0.5 x 25 = 2.25 KN

Therefore, total load on the footing = (2x400+116.375+2.25) KN = 918.625 KN

Maximum pressure = 918.625 /(5.75x1.35) = 118.34 KN/ m2 < 120 KN/m2

Hence safe

Ultimate pressure = 800 x 1.5/ (5.75 x 1.35) KN/m2 = 154.589 KN/m2

Chapter 4

4.8 IS Toolkit Combined 1

overturning

With Respect to Z Direction

Overturning Moment =0

max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 5.75 x 918.625 = 2641 KNm

Hence OK

Overturning Moment =0

max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 1.35 x 918.625 = 620 KNm

Hence OK

About Z Axis (Sagging)

Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 197.2 KNm

Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth

deff = (600-50-0.5 x 12) mm = 544 mm

K = 700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107

Ru = 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2

Resisting Moment =Ru. B deff2 = 1376 KNm

Hence OK

Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 37.49 KNm

Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth

deff = (600-50-0.5 x 12) mm = 544 mm

K = 700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107

Ru = 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2

Resisting Moment =Ru. B deff2 = 1376 KNm

Hence OK

4.8 IS Toolkit Combined 1

Cantilever length = (1.35-0.3)/2 = 0.525 m

Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 154.589 x5.75 x0.5252/2 =

122.5KNm

Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth

deff = (600-50-0.5 x 12) mm = 544 mm

K = 700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107

Ru = 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2

Resisting Moment =Ru. B deff2 =5860 KNm

Hence OK

Along X Direction (Bottom)

From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b:

Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck)

So solving equation for Ast,

Astx = 1029 m2m

Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 972 mm2 ( as fy>250)

Provided area = 1029 m2m

From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b:

Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck)

So solving equation for Ast,

Astx = 192 m2m

Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 972 mm2 ( as fy>250)

Provided area = 972 m2m

From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b:

Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck)

So solving equation for Ast,

Chapter 4

4.8 IS Toolkit Combined 1

Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 4140 mm2 ( as fy>250)

Provided area = 4140 m2m

Figure 4-13: Dimension, Moment, and Shear and diagrams

Percentage of steel pt =

Vumax = 168.2 KN

= 0.133

4.8 IS Toolkit Combined 1

Now allowable stress = 0.29 N/mm2

V < c, Hence Safe

Punching Shear

For Column 1

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 272 mm from the column face.

2 way shear= 489.89 KN

v =

N/mm2

k=0.5 +=5.26 , k<=1

Hence, k=1

Now allowable stress= c =k.0.25.fck = 1.25 N/mm2

v < c , Hence safe

For Column 2

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 272 mm from the column face.

2 way shear= 489.89 KN

v =

N/mm2

k=0.5 +=5.26 , k<=1

Hence, k=1

Now allowable stress= c =k.0.25.fck = 1.25 N/mm2

v < c , Hence safe

Chapter 4

4.9 IS Toolkit Combined Foundation 2

4.8.4 Comparison

Table 4-8: IS verification example 8 comparison

Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of

Result

Result

ference

Bearing Pressure

118.35

118.35 KN/m2

None

KN/m2

Governing Moment

197 KN-m 191.4 KN-m

Negligible

37.49 KNm

Shear Force(One-Way)

Shear Force(Two-Way)

Resisting Moment for

Overturning (Z)

Resisting Moment for

Overturning (X)

37.4 KN-m

122.5 KN-m

122.5 KNm

168.2 KN

168.2 KN

489.89 KN 489.88 KN

None

Negligible

489.89 KN 489.88 KN

2641 KNm 2641 KNm

None

620 KNm

None

620 KNm

4.9.1 Reference

4.9.2 Problem

Design a combined footing with the given data: Load Fy = 350 KN each column., fc = 25

MPa, fy = 415 MPa, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, Pedestal height-500 mm.

and C/C column distance=3000 mm . Bearing Capacity of Soil = 110 KN/m2. Coefficient of

friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning =1.5

Ht of soil =500 mm. Dry condition

4.9 IS Toolkit Combined Foundation 2

Figure 4-14: Plan and Elevation

4.9.3 Solution

Approximate area of footing required = 2x350/110 m2 = 6.36 m2

Assuming 5 m x 1.65 m x 0.600 m footing dimension,

( left overhang=right overhang=1m)

Weight of footing = 5 m x 1.65 m x 0.600 x25 KN = 123.75 KN

Weight of pedestal=2x0.3x0.3x0.5x25=2.25 KN

Weight of soil above footing = 5 m x 1.65 m x 0.500 x18 KN = 74.25 KN

Therefore, total load on the footing = (2x350+123.75+2.25+74.25) KN =

900.25 KN

Maximum pressure = 900.25 /(5 x1.65) = 109.12 KN/ m2

109.12 KN/ m2 <110 KN/m2

Hence safe

Ultimate pressure = 700 x 1.5 / (5.0 x 1.65) = 127.273 KN/m2

Chapter 4

4.9 IS Toolkit Combined Foundation 2

overturning

About Z Direction

Overturning Moment =0

max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 5x 900.25 = 2250 KNm

Hence OK

About X Direction

Overturning Moment =0

max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 1.65 x 900.25 = 742.7 KNm

Hence OK

Moment About Z Axis (Sagging)

Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 105 KNm

Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth

deff = (600-50-0.5 x 12) mm = 544 mm

K = 700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107

Ru = 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2

Resisting Moment =Ru. B deff2 = 1681.78 KNm

Hence OK

Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 131.2 KNm

Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth

deff = (600-50-0.5 x 12) mm = 544 mm

K = 700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107

Ru = 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2

Resisting Moment =Ru. B deff2 = 1681.78 KNm

Hence OK

Cantilever length=(1.65-0.3)/2 = 0.675 m

4.9 IS Toolkit Combined Foundation 2

Bending moment at critical section

Mux = 127.273 x5x0.6752/2 = 144.97 KNm

Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth

deff = (600-50-0.5 x 12) mm = 544 mm

K = 700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107

Ru = 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2

Resisting Moment =Ru. B deff2 =5096.3 KNm

Hence OK

Along X Direction (Bottom)

From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b:

Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck)

So solving equation for Ast,

Astx = 541 m2m

Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 1188 mm2 ( as fy>250)

Provided area = 1188 mm2

From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b:

Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck)

So solving equation for Ast,

Astx = 677 m2m

Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 1188 mm2 ( as fy>250)

Provided area = 1188 mm2

From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b:

Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck)

So solving equation for Ast,

Astz = 742 m2m

Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 3600 mm2 ( as fy>250)

Provided area = 3600 mm2

Chapter 4

4.9 IS Toolkit Combined Foundation 2

Percentage of steel pt =

Vumax = 169.3 KN

= 0.133

Now allowable stress = 0.29 N/mm2

v < c, Hence Safe

Punching Shear

For Column One

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 272 mm from the column face.

2 way shear= 434.3 KN

v =

N/mm2

k=0.5 +=5.26 , k<=1

Hence, k=1

Now allowable stress= c =k.0.25.fck = 1.25 N/mm2

v < c , Hence safe

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 272 mm from the column face.

2 way shear= 434.3 KN

v =

N/mm2

k=0.5 +=5.26 , k<=1

Hence, k=1

Now allowable stress= c =k.0.25.fck = 1.25 N/mm2

v < c , Hence safe

4.9 IS Toolkit Combined Foundation 2

Figure 4-15: ShearForce andBending Momentdiagrams

Chapter 4

4.10 IS Toolkit Combined Foundation 3

4.9.4 Comparison

Table 4-9: IS verification example 9 comparison

Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of

Result

Result

ference

Bearing Pressure

109.12

108.92

KN/m2 Negligible

KN/m2

Governing Moment

105 KN-m 101.8 KN-m

Negligible

131.2 KN-m 131.2 KN-m

Shear Force(One-Way)

Shear Force(Two-Way)

Resisting Moment for

Overturning (Z)

Resisting Moment for

Overturning (X)

m

169.3 KN

169.26 KN

434.3 KN 434.3 KN

None

None

434.3 KN 434.3 KN

2250 KNm 2246 KNm

Negligible

None

4.10.1 Reference

4.10.2 Problem

Design a combined footing with the given data: Load Fy = 350 KN each column., fc = 25

MPa, fy = 415 MPa, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, Pedestal height-500 mm.

and C/C column distance=3000 mm . Bearing Capacity of Soil = 130 KN/m2. Coefficient

of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning =1.5

Ht of soil =500 mm. Depth of GWT=200 mm

4.10 IS Toolkit Combined Foundation 3

Figure 4-16: Plan and Elevation

4.10.3 Solution

Approximate area of footing required = 2 x 500/130 m2 = 7.69 m2

Assuming 5.4 m x 1.65 m x 0.600 m footing dimension,

(left overhang = right overhang = 1.2m)

Weight of footing = 5.4 m x 1.65 m x 0.600 x25 KN = 133.65 KN

Weight of pedestal=2x0.3x0.3x0.5x25=2.25 KN

Weight of soil above footing = 5.4 m x 1.65 m x 0.500 x18 KN = 80.19 KN

Reduction of Weight due to buoyancy = 5.4 m x 1.65 m x (0.5+0.6-0.2) x9.81

KN = 78.67 KN

Therefore, total load on the footing = (2x500+133.65+2.25+80.19-78.67) KN =

1137.42 KN

Maximum pressure= 1137.42 /(5.4 x1.65) = 127.66 KN/ m2

127.66 KN/ m2 <130 KN/m2

Hence safe

Ultimate pressure = 1000 x 1.5 / (5.4 x 1.65) = 168.35 KN/m2

Chapter 4

4.10 IS Toolkit Combined Foundation 3

overturning

wrt Z Direction

Overturning Moment =0

max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 5x 1137.42 = 3071 KNm

Hence OK

Wrt X Direction

Overturning Moment =0

max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 1.65 x 1137.42 = 938.37 KNm

Hence OK

About Z Axis (Sagging)

Bending moment at critical section

Mux = 200 KNm

Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth

deff = (600-50-0.5 x 12) mm = 544 mm

K = 700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107

Ru = 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2

Resisting Moment =Ru. B deff2 = 1681.78 KNm

Hence OK

Bending moment at critical section

Mux = 112.4 KNm

Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth

deff = (600-50-0.5 x 12) mm = 544 mm

K = 700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107

Ru = 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2

Resisting Moment =Ru. B deff2 = 1681.78 KNm

Hence OK

4.10 IS Toolkit Combined Foundation 3

About X Axis

Cantilever length = (1.65-0.3)/2 = 0.675 m

Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 168.35 x5.4x0.6752/2 = 207 KNm

Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth

deff = (600-50-0.5 x 12) mm = 544 mm

K = 700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107

Ru = 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2

Resisting Moment =Ru. B deff2 =5504 KNm

Hence OK

Along X Direction (Bottom)

From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b:

Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck)

So solving equation for Ast,

Astx = 1040 mm2

Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 1188 mm2 ( as fy>250)

Provided area = 1188 mm2

From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b:

Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck)

So solving equation for Ast,

Astx = 579 mm2

Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 1188 mm2 ( as fy>250)

Provided area = 1188 mm2

From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b:

Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck)

So solving equation for Ast,

Astz = 1062 mm2

Chapter 4

4.10 IS Toolkit Combined Foundation 3

Provided area = 3888 mm2

Figure 4-17: Shear Force and Bending Moment diagrams

Percentage of steel pt =

Vumax = 223.95 KN

= 0.133

Now allowable stress = 0.29 N/mm2

V < c, Hence Safe

4.10 IS Toolkit Combined Foundation 3

Punching Shear

For Column 1

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 272 mm from the column face.

2 way shear= 630.07 KN

v =

N/mm2

k=0.5 +=4.27 , k<=1

Hence, k=1

Now allowable stress= c =k.0.25.fck = 1.25 N/mm2

v < c , Hence safe

For Column 2

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 272 mm from the column face.

2 way shear= 630.07 KN

v =

N/mm2

k=0.5 +=4.27 , k<=1

Hence, k=1

Now allowable stress= c =k.0.25.fck = 1.25 N/mm2

v < c , Hence safe

Chapter 4

4.11 IS Toolkit Combined Foundation 4

4.10.4 Comparison

Table 4-10: IS verification example 10 comparison

Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of

Result

Result

ference

Bearing Pressure

127.48

127.66

KN/m2 Negligible

KN/m2

Governing Moment

200 KN-m 199.9 KN-m

Negligible

112.4 KNm

Shear Force(One-Way)

Shear Force(Two-Way)

Resisting Moment for

Overturning (Z)

Resisting Moment for

Overturning (X)

112.4 KN-m

207 KN-m

207 KN-m

223.95 KN 223.89 KN

630.07 KN 630.08 KN

Negligible

None

630.07 KN 630.08 KN

3071 KNm 3067 KNm

Negligible

Negligible

4.11.1 Reference

4.11.2 Problem

Design a combined footing with the given data: Load Fy = 350 KN & Fx=-30 KN each

column., fc = 25 MPa, fy = 415 MPa, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, Pedestal

height-500 mm. and C/C column distance=4000 mm . Bearing Capacity of Soil = 90

KN/m2. Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning

=1.5. No soil above footing. Dry condition

4.11 IS Toolkit Combined Foundation 4

Figure 4-18: Plan and Elevation

4.11.3 Solution

Approximate area of footing required = 2x350/00 m2 = 7.78 m2

Assuming 6 m x 1.75 m x 0.600 m footing dimension,

(left overhang = right overhang = 1 m)

Weight of footing = 6 m x 1.75 m x 0.600 x25 KN = 157.5 KN

Weight of pedestal = 2 x 0.3 x 0.3 x 0.5 x 25 = 2.25 KN

Therefore, total load on the footing = (2x350+157.5 +2.25) KN = 859.75 KN

Maximum pressure for axial load=P/A = 859.75 /(6x1.75) = 81.88 KN/ m2

Moment on each col = 30 x (0.5 x 0.6) = 33 KNm

So total moment = 33 + 33 = 66 KNm

Z=1.75x6 2/6 = 10.5 m3

M/Z = 66/10.5 = 6.28 KN/m2

Streaa at left end = 81.88+6.28= 88.16 KN/m2

Streaa at right end = 81.88-6.28= 75.6 KN/m2

88.16 KN/ m2 <90 KN/m2

Hence safe

Chapter 4

4.11 IS Toolkit Combined Foundation 4

overturning

wrt Z Direction

Overturning Moment =0

max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 6 x 859.75 = 2579.25 KNm

Hence OK

Wrt X Direction

Overturning Moment =0

max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 1.75 x 859.75 = 752.28 KNm

Hence OK

About Z Axis (Sagging)

Bending moment at critical section

Mux = 95 KNm

Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth

deff = (600-50-0.5 x 12) mm = 544 mm

K = 700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107

Ru = 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2

Resisting Moment =Ru. B deff2 = 1783.71 KNm

Hence OK

Bending moment at critical section

Mux = 264.25 KNm

Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth

deff = (600-50-0.5 x 12) mm = 544 mm

K = 700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107

Ru = 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2

Resisting Moment =Ru. B deff2 = 1783.71 KNm

Hence OK

4.11 IS Toolkit Combined Foundation 4

About X Axis

Cantilever length=(1.75-0.3)/2 = 0.725 m

Bending moment at critical section, Mux = (109.43+90.57) x6x0.7252/2 = 157

KNm

Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth

deff = (600-50-0.5 x 12) mm = 544 mm

K = 700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107

Ru = 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2

Resisting Moment =Ru. B deff2 =5860 KNm

Hence OK

Along X Direction (Bottom)

From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b:

Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck)

So solving equation for Ast,

Astx = 490 mm2

Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 1260mm2 ( as fy>250)

Provided area = 1260 mm2

From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b:

Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck)

So solving equation for Ast,

Astx = 1380 mm2

Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 1260 mm2 ( as fy>250)

Provided area = 1380 mm2

From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b:

Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck)

So solving equation for Ast,

Chapter 4

4.11 IS Toolkit Combined Foundation 4

Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 4321 mm2 ( as fy>250)

Provided area = 4320 mm2

Percentage of steel pt = 0.133

Vumax = 248.613 KN

Developed shear stress V = 0.261 N/mm2

Now allowable stress = 0.29 N/mm2

V < c, Hence Safe

Punching Shear

For Column One

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 272 mm from the column face.

2 way shear= 449.289 KN

v =

= 449.289 x 1000 / (300 x 2 + 300 x 2 + 544 x 4) x 544 =

0.245 N/mm2

=L/B =6/1.75 =3.43

k=0.5 +=4.43 , k<=1

Hence, k=1

Now allowable stress= c =k.0.25.fck = 1.25 N/mm2

v < c , Hence safe

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 272 mm from the column face.

2 way shear= 458.245 KN

v =

= 458.245 x 1000 / (300 x 2 + 300 x 2 + 544 x 4) x 544 =

0.2496 N/mm2

=L/B =6/1.75 =3.43

k=0.5 +=4.43 , k<=1

Hence, k=1

Now allowable stress= c =k.0.25.fck = 1.25 N/mm2

v < c , Hence safe

4.11 IS Toolkit Combined Foundation 4

Figure 4-19: Shear Force and Bending Moment diagrams

Chapter 4

4.12 IS Pilecap 1

4.11.4 Comparison

Table 4-11: IS verification example 11 comparison

Reference

STAAD.foundation Percent

Value of

Result

Result

Difference

Bearing Pressure

88.17 KN/m2 88.16 KN/m2

Negligible

Governing Moment

75.59 KN/m2

129.7 KN-m

75.6 KN/m2

95 KN-m

8.5%

264.25 KN-m

264.25 KN-m

None

157 KN-m

Shear Force(One-Way) 248.61 KN

Shear Force(Two-Way) 449.289 KN

458.245 KN

Resisting Moment for

Overturning (Z)

Resisting Moment for

Overturning (X)

167 KN-m

248.61 KN

449.29 KN

6%

None

None

2579.25 KNm

458.24 KN

2579.25 KNm

None

752.28 KNm

752.28 KNm

None

4.12 IS Pilecap 1

4.12.1 Reference

4.12.2 Problem

Design pilecap foundation with the given data: Load Fy = 800 KN, fc = 25 MPa, fy = 415

MPa, Column Dimension = 250 mm x 250 mm. Pedestal ht= 500 mm

Pile Data- Dia of pile= 400 mm.

Vertical capacity = 250 KN,

Horizontal capacity = 100 KN

Uplift capacity = 80 KN

4.12 IS Pilecap 1

Figure 4-20: Plan and Elevation

4.12.3 Solution

depth of pilecap= 1.5xpiledia, D = 600 mm

Take D=650 mm

c/c pile diatance = 3xpile dia =1200 mm. Edge diatance = 350 mm

Assuming 4 pile combination, Coordinates of piles (considering pedestal at 0,0,0)

Table 4-12: Pile Locations

X CoorPile No

dinate

(mm

1

-600

2

-600

3

600

4

600

in Plan

Z Coordinate

(mm)

-600

600

600

-600

Weight of footing = 1.9 x1.9 x 0.65 x 25 KN = 58.66 KN

Chapter 4

4.12 IS Pilecap 1

Therefore, total load on the pilecap = (800+58.66 +0.78) KN = 859.44 KN

So Pile reaction = 859.44 /4= 214.86 KN<250 KN

Hence OK

As there is no lateral load , moment or uplift force, so each pile is safe in lateral & uplift

capacity.

Factored Design

Load factor for self wt is taken =1

Load factor for axial load is taken 1.5

So, Load on pilecap = 1.5 x 800 + 58.66 x 1 + 0.78 x 1 = 1259.44 KN

Load on each pile = 1259.44 /4 = 314.86 KN

Contribution from pile 1 = from pile 2 = 314.86 x 0.475 = 149.56 KN

So Total Mz X1X1 = 299.12 KNm

For moment wrt X2X2

Contribution from pile 3 = from pile 4 = 314.86 x 0.475 = 149.56 KNm

So Total Mz X2X2 = 299.12 KNm

So Max value of Mz = 299.12 KNm

For moment wrt Z1Z1

184 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

4.12 IS Pilecap 1

So Total Mx Z1Z1 = 299.12 KNm

For moment wrt Z2Z2

Contribution from pile 2 = from pile 3 = 314.86 x 0.475 = 149.56 KNm

So Total Mx Z2Z2 = 299.12 KNm

So Max value of MX = 299.12 KNm

About Z Axis

Bending moment at critical section

Muz = 299.12 KN-m

Assuming 50 mm clear cover, 50 mm pile in pilecap & and 12 mm bar, effective depth

deff = 532 mm

K = 700/(1100+0.87x fy ) = 0.479107

Ru = 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2

B =1900 mm ,

deff = 532 mm

Hence OK

AboutX Axis

Bending moment at critical section

Mux = 299.12 KN-m

Assuming 50 mm clear cover, 50 mm pile in pilecap & and 12 mm bar, effective depth

deff = 532 mm

K=700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107

Ru = 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2

B =1900 mm ,

D = 532 mm

Hence OK

Along X Direction

From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b:

Chapter 4

4.12 IS Pilecap 1

Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck)

So solving equation for Ast,

Astx = 1558 m2m

Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 1482 mm2 ( as fy>250)

Provided area = 1558 m2m

Along Z Direction

From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b:

Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck)

So solving equation for Ast,

AstZ = 1558 m2m

Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 1482 mm2 ( as fy>250)

Provided area = 1558 m2m

Calculation of Shear

Parallel to X Axis

For shear wrt X1X1

Contribution from pile 1 = pile 2 = 317.116 x 0.375 = 113.37 KN

So Total V X1X1 = 226.74 KN

For shear wrt X2X2

Contribution from pile 3 = pile 4 = 317.116 x 0.375 = 113.37 KN

4.12 IS Pilecap 1

So Maximum V parallel to X direction = 226.74 KN

Parallel to Z Axis

For shear wrt Z1Z1

Contribution from pile 1 = pile 4 = 317.116 x 0.375 = 113.37 KN

So Total V Z1Z1 = 226.74 KN

For shear wrt Z2Z2

Contribution from pile 2 = pile 3 = 317.116 x 0.375 = 113.37 KN

So Total V Z2Z2 = 226.74 KN

So Max V parallel to Z direction = 226.74 KN

Along X Direction

Percentage of steel pt =

Vumax = 226.74 KN

= 0.154

Now allowable stress = 0.293 N/mm2

V < c, Hence Safe

Along Z Direction

Percentage of steel pt =

Vumax = 226.74 KN

= 0.154

Now allowable stress = 0.293 N/mm2

V < c, Hence Safe

Chapter 4

4.12 IS Pilecap 1

Punching Shear

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d =266 mm from the column face.

Contribution from pile 1 = from pile 2 = from pile 3 = from pile 4 = 317.12

KN

So total punching shear Vmax= 1268.464 KN

4x(250+532/2+532/2)=3128 mm

v =

= 0.76 N/mm2

=L/B =1900/1900 =1

k=0.5 +=1.5 , k<=1

Hence, k=1

Now allowable stress= c =k.0.25.fck = 1.25 N/mm2

v < c , Hence safe

4.12.4 Comparison

Table 4-13: IS verification example 12 comparison

Reference

STAAD.foundation

Percent DifValue of

Result

Result

ference

Governing

299.12 KNm 229.112 KN-m

None

Moment

Shear Force(One- 226.74 KN

222 KN

Negligible

Way)

Shear Force(Two- 1268.464 KN 1259.44 KN

None

Way)

4.13 ISPilecap 2

4.13 ISPilecap 2

4.13.1 Reference

4.13.2 Problem

Design pilecap foundation with the given data: Load Fy = 1100 KN, Mx= 50 KNm, Fz= 50

KN,fc = 25 MPa, fy = 415 MPa, Column Dimension = 250 mm x 250 mm. Pedestal ht= 500

mm

Pile Data- Dia of pile= 400 mm.

Vertical capacity =300 KN,

Horizontal capacity = 100 KN

Uplift capacity = 80 KN

Figure 4-21: Plan, Elevation, and Pedestal dimensions

4.13.3 Solution

depth of pilecap= 1.5 x pile dia, D=600 mm

Take D=800 mm

Verification Manual 189

Chapter 4

4.13 ISPilecap 2

c/c pile diatance = 3xpile dia =1200 mm. Edge diatance =350 mm

Assuming 5 pile combination,

Coordinates of piles considering pedestal at 0,0,0)

Pile X Coordinate Z Coordinate

No

(mm)

(mm)

1

-849

-849

2

-849

849

3

0

0

4

849

-849

5

849

-849

pilecap dimension is 2397 mm x2397 mm x 800 mm

Weight of footing = 2.397 x 2.397 x 0.8 x 25 KN = 114.9 KN

Weight of pedestal = 0.25 x 0.25 x 0.5 x 25 KN = 0.78 KN

Therefore, total load on the pilecap = (1100+114.9 +0.78) KN = 1215.69 KN

So Pile reaction from axial load= 1215.69 /5= 243.136KN

Moment from lateral load = (0.8+0.5) x 50= 65 KNm

Moment Mx ( from input) = 50 KNm

So Total moment = 115 KNm

Using Rivet theoryReaction from moment= +/- 115x0.849/(4x0.849 2) = +/-33.86 KNm

So

Reaction at Pile 2= reaction at pile 5 = 243.136+33.86 =276.996 KN

Reaction at Pile 1= reaction at pile 4 = 243.136-33.86 =209.276 KN

Reaction at Pile 3= 243.136 KN

So Critical vertical reaction= 277 KN< 300 KN

Lateral reaction = 50/5 = 10 KN < 50 KN, Hence OK

As there is no net uplift load, so each pile is safe in uplift capacity.

4.13 ISPilecap 2

Factored Design

Load factor for self wt is taken =1

Load factor for axial load is taken 1.5

So, Axial Load on pilecap = 1.5x1100+114.9 x1+0.78x1= 1765.68 KN

Moment on pilecap = 1.5x115= 172.5 KNm

Load on each pile from axial reaction =1765.68 /5=353.136 KN

Reaction from moment= +/- 172.5x0.849/(4x0.849 2) = +/-50.795 KNm

So

Reaction at Pile 2= reaction at pile 5 = 353.136 +50.795 =403.931 KN

Reaction at Pile 1= reaction at pile 4 = 353.136 -50.795 =302.341 KN

Reaction at Pile 3= 353.136 KN

Calculation of Moment

About Z Axis

For moment wrt X1X1

Contribution from pile 1=302.341 x 0.724=218.89 KNm

Contribution from pile 2=403.931 x 0.724=292.446 KNm

Contribution from pile 3=1.4 KNm

So Total Mz X1X1 = 512.74 KNm

Chapter 4

4.13 ISPilecap 2

For moment wrt X2X2

Contribution from pile 4=302.341 x 0.724=218.89 KNm

Contribution from pile 5=403.931 x 0.724=292.446 KNm

Contribution from pile 3=1.4 KNm

So Total Mz X2X2 = 512.74 KNm

So Max value of Mz = 512.74 KNm

About X Axis

For moment wrt Z1Z1

Contribution from pile 1=302.341 x 0.724=218.89 KNm

Contribution from pile 4=302.341 x 0.724=218.89 KNm

Contribution from pile 3=1.4 KNm

So Total Mx Z1Z1 = 439.18 KNm

For moment wrt Z2Z2

Contribution from pile 2 = 403.931 x 0.724=292.446 KNm

Contribution from pile 5 = 403.931 x 0.724=292.446 KNm

Contribution from pile 3=1.4 KNm

So Total Mx Z2Z2 = 586.292 KNm

So Max value of MX = 586.292 KNm

Moment About Z Axis

Bending moment at critical section

Muz = 512.74 KN-m

Assuming 50 mm clear cover, 50 mm pile in pilecap & and 12 mm bar, effective depth

deff = 695 mm

K=700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107

Ru = 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2

B =2397 mm ,

deff = 532 mm

Hence OK

Bending moment at critical section

4.13 ISPilecap 2

Assuming 50 mm clear cover, 50 mm pile in pilecap & and 12 mm bar, effective depth

deff = 695 mm

K=700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107

Ru = 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2

B =2397 mm ,

deff = 532 mm

Hence OK

Along X Direction

From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b:

Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck)

So solving equation for Ast,

Astx = 2046 m2m

Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 2300 mm2 ( as fy>250)

Provided area = 2300 m2m

Along Z Direction

From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b:

Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck)

So solving equation for Ast,

AstZ = 2341 m2m

Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 2300 mm2 ( as fy>250)

Provided area = 2341 m2m

Chapter 4

4.13 ISPilecap 2

Calculation of Shear

Parallel to X Axis

Contribution from pile 1 =302.341 x0.572=173 KN

Contribution from pile 2=403.931 x0.572=231KN

For shear wrt X2X2

Contribution from pile 4 =302.341 x0.572=173 KN

Contribution from pile 5=403.931 x0.572=231KN

So Total V X2X2 = 404 KN

So Max V parallel to X direction = 404 KN

Parallel to Z Axis

For shear wrt Z1Z1

Contribution from pile 1 =302.341 x0.572=173 KN

Contribution from pile 4 =302.341 x0.572=173 KN

So Total V Z1Z1 = 346 KN

For shear wrt Z2Z2

194 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

4.13 ISPilecap 2

Contribution from pile 5=403.931 x0.572=231KN

So Total V Z2Z2 = 462 KN

So Max V parallel to Z direction = 462 KN

Along X Direction

Percentage of steel pt =

Vumax = 404 KN

= 0.138

Now allowable stress = 0.29 N/mm2

V < c, Hence Safe

Along Z Direction

Percentage of steel pt =

Vumax = 462 KN

= 0.141

Now allowable stress = 0.29 N/mm2

V < c, Hence Safe

Punching Shear

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d =347.5 mm from the column face.

Chapter 4

4.14 IS Mat Combined Foundation 1

Contribution from pile 2 = from pile 5 = 403.93 KN

Contribution from pile 3 =0 KN

So total punching shear Vmax= 1412.544 KN

4x(250+347.5 +347.5)=3780 mm

v =

= 0.538 N/mm2

=L/B =2397/2397 =1

k=0.5 +=1.5 , k2397<=1

Hence, k=1

Now allowable stress= c =k.0.25.fck = 1.25 N/mm2

v < c , Hence safe

4.13.4 Comparison

Table 4-15: IS verification example 13 comparison

Reference

STAAD.foundation

Percent DifValue of

Result

Result

ference

Governing

586 KNm

570 KNm

Negligible

Moment

512.74 KNm 512.5 KNm

Shear Force(One- 462 KN

461 KN

Negligible

Way)

404 KN

415 KN

Shear Force(Two- 1412.544 KN 1412 KN

None

Way)

Depth

800 mm

800 mm

None

4.14.1 Reference

Reinforced Concrete Design by Pillai & Menon, Page 652, Example 14.7.

4.14.2 Problem

Design a combined footing for two columns with the given data: C1 (400 mm x 400 mm)

with 4-25 bars and C2 (500 mm x 500mm) with 4-28 bars supporting axial loads P1

= 900 KN and P2 = 1600 KN respectively (under service dead and live loads). The column

C1 is an exterior column whose exterior face is flush with the property line. The center-tocentre distance between C1 and C2 is 4.5 meters. The allowable soil pressure at the base of

the footing, 1.5 m below ground level, is 240 KN/m2. Assume a steel of grade Fe 415 in

the columns as well as the footing, and a concrete grade of M 20 in the footing.

4.14 IS Mat Combined Foundation 1

Figure 4-22: Footing Plan

4.14.3 Solution

Dimension of Mat (Based on the bearing Capacity given):

Length = 6.16 m

Width = 2 m

Depth = 0.95 m

Self-weight of mat = 6.16 x 2 x 0.95 x 25 KN = 292.6 KN

Total load on the mat = (1600+900+200.2) KN = 2792.6 KN

Base pressure = 279.6 / (6.16 x 2) KN/m2 = 226.67 KN/m2 < 240 KN/m2

(Hence Safe)

Ultimate load for C 1 = Pu1 = 1.5 x 900 = 1350 KN

Ultimate load for C 2 = Pu2 = 1.5 x 1600 = 2400 KN

Then uniformly distributed upward load = (Pu1+Pu2)/6.16 KN/m = 608.8

KN/m

Developed shear stress,

Verification Manual 197

Chapter 4

4.14 IS Mat Combined Foundation 1

c,allowable

Hence safe

Maximum shear for C 2 = 2400 KN

Developed shear stress,

c,allowable

Hence safe

Note: There is no deduction for the upward force underneath the area enclosed by the

critical perimeter. This approach is conservative.

Calculation of reinforcement

Maximum negative moment Mu(-) = 1227 KN-m

Maximum negative moment/width = 1227/2 KN-m/m = 613.5 KN-m/m

Area of steel required on top face along length,

Ast = 0.5 x

x B x de

B = 1000 mm

de = 865 mm

Mu= 613.5 x 106 N-mm

Ast = 2067.97 mm2/m

Ast,min = 0.0012 x B x D = 1140mm2/m

4.14 IS Mat Combined Foundation 1

Figure 4-24: Shear Force (kN, top) and Bending Moment (kNm, bottom) diagrams

4.14.4 Comparison

Table 4-16: IS verification example 14 comparison

Reference

STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of

Result

Result

ference

Max Bending

603.201 KN- 613.5 KN-m/m

1.68

Moment(-)

m/m

Max Bending

219.687 KN- 223 KN-m/m

1.48

Moment(+)

m/m

Area of Steal

2014.835

2067.97 mm2/m

2.56

Required

mm2/m

Base Pressure

227 KN/m2

226.67 KN/m2

Negligible

Chapter 4

4.14 IS Mat Combined Foundation 1

Section 5

318 -2005)

5.1 US General Isolated Foundation 1

5.1.1 Reference

Notes on ACI318-02 Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete with Design

Applications by B.A. Fanella and B. G. Robert, Page 22-7, Example 22.1-22.3.

5.1.2 Problem

Design an isolated footing with the given data: Service dead load = 350 kips, Service live

load = 275 kips, Service surcharge = 100 psf, Average weight of soil above footing = 130 pcf,

Permissible soil pressure = 4.5 ksf, Column dimension = 30 x 12 in, Strength of concrete

(fc) = 3,000 psi, and Strength of steel (fy) = 60,000 psi.

Chapter 5

5.1 US General Isolated Foundation 1

Figure 5-1: Elevation and loads

5.1.3 Solution

Determination of base area of footing:

The base area of footing is determined using service (unfactored) loads with the net

permissible soil pressure.

Total weight of surcharge = (0.130 x 5 + 0.1) = 0.75 ksf

Net permissible soil pressure = 4.5 0.75 = 3.75 ksf

Required base area of footing = (320 + 275) / 3.75 = 166.667 ft 2

[Clause 15.2.2]

Use a 13 x 13 ft square footing (Af = 169 ft 2).

Factored loads and soil reaction:

To proportion the footing for strength (depth and required reinforcement) factored loads

are used. [Clause 15.2.1]

Pu = 1.2 x 350 + 1.6 x 275 = 860 kips [Eq. 9-2]

qu = (Pu/A) = (860/169) = 5.089 ksf

5.1 US General Isolated Foundation 1

Figure 5-2: Considered sections for two-way (b ) and beam (b ) action

o

Both wide action and two-way action for strength computation need to be investigated to

determine the controlling shear criteria for depth. [Clause 11.2]

Assume overall footing thickness = 33 in. and average effective thickness d = 28 in. = 2.33

ft.

Wide-beam action

Vu = qs x tributary area

Bw = 13 ft = 156 in.

Tributary area = 13(6.0 2.33) = 47.71 ft 2

Vu = 5.089 x 47.71 = 242.796 kips

V = (2(f'c)bwd) [Eq 11 - 3]

= 0.75(2(3000) x 156 x 28)/1000 [Clause 9.3.2.3]

= 359 kips > Vu O.K.

Two-way action

Vu = qs x tributary area

Tributary area =

= 152.889 ft 2

Chapter 5

5.1 US General Isolated Foundation 1

= Minimum of

[Eq 11-33,11-34 & 11-35 respectively]

bo = 2(30 + 28) + 2(12 + 28) = 196 in.

bo/d= 196/28 = 7

= 40 for interior columns

=

Vc = 0.75 x 3.6 (3000) x 196 x 28/1000 = 812 kips > Vu = 780 kips

O.K.

Calculation of Reinforcement

Figure 5-3: Critical section for moment (long projection)

Mu = 5.089 x 13 x 6 2/2 = 1190.862 ft-kips

Compute required As assuming tension-controlled section ( = 0.9)

[Clause 10.3.4, 9.3.2.1]

204 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

5.1 US General Isolated Foundation 1

Required Rn =

psi

Check minimum As required for footings of uniform thickness; for grade 60 reinforcement:

[Clause 10.5.4]

min = 0.00180 < 0.00186 O.K. [Clause 7.12.2]

Required As = bd = 0.0022 x 156 x 28 = 9.61 in. 2

Try 13-No. 8bars (As = 10.27 in. 2) each way

Critical section for development length is same as that for moment (at face of column).

[Clause 15.6.3]

Ld =

[Eq. 12-1]

in.

[Clause 12.2.4]

C = minimum of

= 1.0 (less than 12 in. of concrete below bars) [Clause 12.2.4]

= 1.0 (uncoated reinforcement)

= 1.0 < 1.7

= 1.0 (larger than No.7 bars)

Chapter 5

5.2 US General Isolated Foundation 2

Ld =

12.2.1]

Since Ld = 32.9 in. is less than the available embedment length in the short direction

(156/2 - 30/2 - 3 = 60 in.), the No.8 bars can be fully developed.

Use 13 No.8 each way.

5.1.4 Comparison

Table 5-1: US verification example 1 comparison

Reference

STAAD.foundation

Percent DifValue of

Result

Result

ference

Effective Depth

28 in

28 in

None

Governing

1190.86 ft1190.77 ft-kips

Negligible

Moment

kips

Area of Steal

9.61 in2

9.70 in2

0.94

Shear Stress (One- 242.79 kips

242.56 kips

Negligible

Way)

Shear Stress (Two- 778.05 kips

778.01 kips

Negligible

Way)

5.2.1 Reference

5.2.2 Problem

Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = 200 Kip, fc = 4 Ksi, fy = 60 Ksi,

Column Dimension = 12 inch x 12 inch, and Bearing Capacity of Soil = 2.2 Kip/sqft.

Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning =1.5

5.2 US General Isolated Foundation 2

Figure 5-4: Elevation and Plan

5.2.3 Solution

Approximate area of footing required = 200/2.2 = 90.9 sqft

Assuming 122 inch x122 inch x18 inch footing dimension,

Weight of footing = 122 x122 x18 x 0.159/(123)= 24.66 Kip

Therefore, total load on the footing = (200+24.66) KN = 224.66 Kip

Maximum pressure = 224.66 /(122 x 122) = 0.0151 Ksi=2.17 Kip/sqft <2.2

Kip/sqft (Hence safe)

Ultimate pressure =200x1.5/(122x122)= KN/m2 = 0.020156 Ksi

overturning and sliding

Along X Direction

Sliding force = 0

max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation = 0.5 x 224.66 =

112.33 Kip

Hence OK

Chapter 5

5.2 US General Isolated Foundation 2

Overturning Moment = 0

max resisting Moment = 0.5x 122 x 224.66 = 13704.26 in kip

Hence OK

Along Z Direction

Sliding force = 0

max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation= 0.5 x 224.66 =

112.33 Kip

Hence OK

Overturning Moment = 0

max resisting Moment = 0.5x 122 x 224.66 = 13704.26 in kip

Hence OK

Punching Shear

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 7.5 inch from the column face.

Effective Depth=D-clear cover-1=18-2-1=15 inch

Punching Shear Vm = 0.018813 x 122 x 122 - 0.0189 x 27 x 27 = 266.24 Kip

Critical perimeter Pm = 2 X ( b + h + 2 x d) = 108 inch

Vm1 = Vmax / (Pm*d)= 164.81 Ksi

c=Width of col/depth of col=12/12=1

bc=2.(b+d+2.deff)=108 inch

V1

V2

774125.57 lb

Vc = min {V1, V2, V3} =409831.185 lb

So, 0.75Vc = 307.374 Kip

Vm< 0.75.Vc , Hence safe

Along Z Direction

= 92.24 Kip

5.2 US General Isolated Foundation 2

231.48 Kip

= 2x(4000) x 122 x 15 lb =

0.75.Vc1=173.61 Kip

V < Vc1, Hence Safe

So Vumax < Vc1 , Hence Safe

Along Z Direction

= 92.24 Kip

231.48 Kip

= 2x(4000) x 122 x 15 lb =

0.75.Vc1=173.61 Kip

V < Vc1, Hence Safe

So Vumax < Vc1 , Hence Safe

About X Axis

m = fy/0.85.fc=60/(0.85x4) = 17.6471

1 = 0.85 ( as fc=4)

bal = 0.85.1.fc.87/fy.(87+fy) = 0.028507

max = 0.75. bal = 0.02138

min = 0.0018 ( as fy=60)

Bending moment at critical section

Mux = 0.0189 x 122 x 55 x 55 / 2 = 3487.55 in kip

So Resisting Moment =Mnz= Muz/ =3875.56 in kip

Rn = Mnz/b.d2 =0.1412 Ksi

2m.Rn/fy <1 , Hence OK

= 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.002405

min < < max Hence OK

About Z Axis

m = fy/0.85.fc=60/(0.85x4) = 17.6471

1 = 0.85 ( as fc=4)

bal = 0.85.1.fc.87/fy.(87+fy) = 0.028507

Chapter 5

5.2 US General Isolated Foundation 2

min = 0.0018 ( as fy=60)

Bending moment at critical section

Mux = 0.0189 x 122 x 55 x 55 /2 = 3487.55 in kip

So Resisting Moment = Mnz = Muz/ =3875.56 in kip

Rn = Mnz/b.d2 =0.1412 Ksi

2m.Rn/fy <1 , Hence OK

= 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.002405

min < < max Hence OK

Along X Direction

x = 0.002405

Therefore, Astx = x *b*d = 4.4 in2

Along Z Direction

z = 0.002405

Therefore, Astz = z*b*d = 4.4 in2

5.2.4 Comparison

Table 5-2: US verification example 2 comparison

Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of

Result

Result

ference

Effective Depth

15 inch

15 inch

None

Bearing Pressure

0.0151 Ksi 0.0151 Ksi

None

Governing Moment

3487 in kip 3471 in kip

Negligible

Shear Force(One-Way)

Shear Force(Two-Way)

Resisting force for

sliding

Resisting Moment for

Overturning

92.24 Kip

91.8 Kip

Negligible

92.24 Kip

91.8 Kip

266.24 Kip 266.29 Kip

112.33 Kip 112.33 Kip

Negligible

None

13704.26

in kip

13703.75 in kip

Negligible

5.3 US General Isolated Foundation 3

5.3.1 Reference

5.3.2 Problem

Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = 250 Kip, fc = 4 Ksi, fy = 60 Ksi,

Column Dimension = 12 inch x 12 inch, and Bearing Capacity of Soil = 2Kip/sqft.

Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning =1.5

Figure 5-5: Elevation and Plan

5.3.3 Solution

Approximate area of footing required = 250/2 = 125 sqft

Assuming 160 inch x160 inch x21 inch footing dimension,

Weight of footing 160 x160 x21 x 0.159/(123)= 49.47 Kip

Weight of soil above footing 160 x160 x32 x 0.159/(123)= 53.57 Kip

Therefore, total load on the footing = (250+49.47 +53.57) KN = 353.04 Kip

Chapter 5

5.3 US General Isolated Foundation 3

Kip/sqft

Hence safe

Ultimate pressure = 200 x 1.5/(122 x 122)= KN/m2 = 0.020156 Ksi

overturning and sliding

Along X Direction

Sliding force =0

max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation = 0.5 x 353.04 =

176.52 Kip

Hence OK

Overturning Moment =0

max resisting Moment = 0.5x 160 x 353.04 = 28243.2 in kip

Hence OK

Along Z Direction

Sliding force =0

max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation =0.5 x 353.04 =

176.52 Kip

Hence OK

Overturning Moment =0

max resisting Moment = 0.5x 160 x 353.04 = 28243.2 in kip

Hence OK

Punching Shear

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 9 inch from the column face.

Effective Depth=D-clear cover-1=21-2-1=18 inch

Punching Shear Vm= 0.013673x160x160-0.0137x30x30=337.68 Kip

Critical perimeter Pm = 2 X ( b + h + 2 x d) = 120 inch

c=Width of col/depth of col=12/12=1

bc=2.(b+d+2.deff)=120 inch

V1

5.3 US General Isolated Foundation 3

V2

Vc =

=546441.58 lb

So, 0.75Vc=409.832 Kip

Vm< 0.75xVc , Hence safe

Along X Direction

Now allowable shear = Vc1 =

0.75.Vc1 = 273.2 Kip

= 122.76 Kip

= 2x(4000) x160x18 lb =364.3 Kip

Along Z Direction

Now allowable shear = Vc1 =

0.75.Vc1 = 273.2 Kip

= 122.76 Kip

= 2x(4000) x160x18 lb =364.3 Kip

About X Axis

m = fy/0.85.fc=60/(0.85x4) = 17.6471

1 = 0.85 ( as fc=4)

bal = 0.85.1.fc.87/fy.(87+fy) = 0.028507

max = 0.75. bal = 0.02138

min = 0.0018 ( as fy=60)

Bending moment at critical section

Mux = = 0.0137 x 160 x 74 x 74 /2 = 6002 in kip

So Resisting Moment =Mnz= Muz/ =6668.89 in kip

Chapter 5

5.3 US General Isolated Foundation 3

2m.Rn/fy <1 , Hence OK

= 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.002188

min < < max Hence OK

About Z Axis

m=fy/0.85.fc=60/(0.85x4) = 17.6471

1 = 0.85 ( as fc=4)

bal = 0.85.1.fc.87/fy.(87+fy) = 0.028507

max = 0.75. bal = 0.02138

min = 0.0018 ( as fy=60)

Bending moment at critical section

Mux = = 0.0137 x 160 x 74 x 74 / 2 = 6002 in kip

So Resisting Moment =Mnz= Muz/ =6668.89 in kip

Rn = Mnz/b.d2 =0.1287 Ksi

2m.Rn/fy <1 , Hence OK

= 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.002188

min < < max Hence OK

Along X Direction

x = 0.002188

Therefore, Astx = x *b*d = 6.3 in2

Along Z Direction

z = 0.002188

Therefore, Astz = z*b*d = 6.3 in2

5.4 US General Isolated Foundation 4

5.3.4 Comparison

Table 5-3: US verification example 3 comparison

Reference

STAAD.foundation

Value of

Result

Result

Effective Depth

18 inch

18 inch

Bearing Pressure

0.0138 Ksi

0.0138 Ksi

Governing Moment

6002 in kip

5989 in kip

6002 in kip

5989 in kip

Shear Force(One92.24 Kip

91.8 Kip

Way)

92.24 Kip

91.8 Kip

Shear Force(Two337.68 Kip

337.7 Kip

Way)

Resisting force for

176.52 Kip

176.37 Kip

sliding

Resisting Moment for 28243.2 in kip 28218.85 in kip

Overturning

Percent Difference

None

None

Negligible

Negligible

None

Negligible

Negligible

5.4.1 Reference

5.4.2 Problem

Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = 300 Kip, fc = 4 Ksi, fy = 60 Ksi,

Column Dimension = 12 inch x 12 inch, and Bearing Capacity of Soil = 2.1Kip/sqft.

Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning =1.5

Chapter 5

5.4 US General Isolated Foundation 4

Figure 5-6: Elevation and Plan

5.4.3 Solution

Approximate area of footing required =300/2.1 = 142.86 sqft

Assuming 158 inch x158 inch x21 inch footing dimension,

Weight of footing 158 x158 x21 x 0.159/(123)= 48.24 Kip

Weight of soil above footing 158 x158 x25 x 0.159/(123)= 40.82 Kip

Reduction of Weight due to buoyancy = 158 x158 x(25+21-10) x 3.61398x105= 32.479 Kip

Therefore, total load on the footing = (300+48.24 +40.82 -32.479) = 356.581

Kip

Maximum pressure = 356.581 /(158x158) = 0.0143 Ksi=2.059 Kip/sqft <2.1

Kip/sqft

Hence safe

Ultimate pressure =200x1.5/(122x122)= KN/m2 = 0.020156 Ksi

5.4 US General Isolated Foundation 4

overturning and sliding

Along X Direction

Sliding force =0

max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation=0.5 x 356.581 =

178.29 Kip

Hence OK

Overturning Moment =0

max resisting Moment = 0.5x 158 x 356.581 = 28169.899 in kip

Hence OK

Along Z Direction

Sliding force =0

max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation=0.5 x 356.581 =

178.29 Kip

Hence OK

Overturning Moment =0

max resisting Moment = 0.5x 158 x 356.581 = 28169.899 in kip

Hence OK

Punching Shear

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 9 inch from the column face.

Effective Depth=D-clear cover-1=21-2-1=18 inch

Punching Shear Vm= 0.016825 x 158 x 158 - 0.0169 x 30 x 30 = 404.81 Kip

Critical perimeter Pm = 2 X ( b + h + 2 x d) = 120 inch

c = Width of col/depth of col = 12/12=1

bc = 2.(b+d+2.deff) = 120 inch

Chapter 5

5.4 US General Isolated Foundation 4

Figure 5-7: Section considered for two-way shear

V1

V2

lb

Vc = min{V1, V2, V3} = 546441.58 lb

So, 0.75Vc=409.832 Kip

Vm< 0.75.Vc , Hence safe

Along X Direction

Now allowable shear = Vc1 =

0.75.Vc1=269.81 Kip

= 146.87 Kip

= 2x(4000) x158x18 lb = 359.74 Kip

5.4 US General Isolated Foundation 4

Along Z Direction

Now allowable shear = Vc1 =

0.75.Vc1=269.81 Kip

= 146.87 Kip

= 2x(4000) x158x18 lb = 359.74 Kip

Moment About X Axis

m=fy/0.85.fc=60/(0.85x4) = 17.6471

1 = 0.85 ( as fc=4)

bal = 0.85.1.fc.87/fy.(87+fy) = 0.028507

max = 0.75. bal = 0.021381

min = 0.0018 ( as fy=60)

Bending moment at critical section

Mux = 0.0169 x 158 x 73 x 73 / 2 = 7114.95 in kip

So Resisting Moment =Mnz= Muz/ =7905.56 in kip

Rn = Mnx/b.d2 =0.1545 Ksi

2m.Rn/fy <1 , Hence OK

= 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.002637

min < < max Hence OK

m=fy/0.85.fc=60/(0.85x4) = 17.6471

1 = 0.85 ( as fc=4)

bal = 0.85.1.fc.87/fy.(87+fy) = 0.028507

max = 0.75. bal = 0.021381

min = 0.0018 ( as fy=60)

Bending moment at critical section

Mux = 0.0169 x 158 x 73 x 73 / 2 = 7114.95 in kip

So Resisting Moment =Mnz= Muz/ =7905.56 in kip

Rn = Mnz/b.d2 =0.1545 Ksi

Chapter 5

5.5 US General Isolated Foundation 5

= 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.002637

min < < max Hence OK

Along X Direction

x = 0.002637

Therefore, Astx = x *b*d = 7.45 in2

Along Z Direction

z = 0.002637

Therefore, Astz = z*b*d = 7.45 in2

5.4.4 Comparison

Table 5-4: US verification

Reference

Value of

Result

Effective Depth

18 inch

Bearing Pressure

0.0143 Ksi

Governing Moment

7114.95

Shear Force(One-Way)

Shear Force(Two-Way)

Resisting force for

sliding

Resisting Moment for

Overturning

example 4 comparison

STAAD.foundation Percent DifResult

ference

18 inch

None

0.0143 Ksi

None

7082.85 in kip

Negligible

in kip

7082.85 in kip

7114.95

in kip

146.87 Kip

146.2 Kip

Negligible

146.87 Kip

404.81 Kip

178.29 Kip

146.2 Kip

404.86 Kip

178.18 Kip

None

Negligible

28169.899

in kip

28152.53 in kip

Negligible

5.5.1 Reference

5.5.2 Problem

Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = 200 Kip,Mx=Mz=240 in kip. fc

= 4 Ksi, fy = 60 Ksi, Column Dimension = 12 inch x 12 inch, and Bearing Capacity of Soil

5.5 US General Isolated Foundation 5

= 2.2 Kip/sqft. Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against

overturning =1.5

Figure 5-8: Elevation and Plan

5.5.3 Solution

Approximate area of footing required = 200/2.2 = 90.9 sqft

Assuming 130 inch x130 inch x19 inch footing dimension,

Weight of footing 130 x130 x19 x 0.159/(123)= 29.55 Kip

Therefore, total load on the footing = (200+29.55) KN = 229.55 Kip

Zx = 130x1302 = 366166.667 in3

Zz = 130x1302 = 366166.667 in3

Maximum pressure from axial load = 229.55/(130x130) = 0.0136 Ksi

Mx/Zx=240/366166.667 =0.0007 Ksi

Mz/Zz=240/366166.667 =0.0007 Ksi

So stress at four corners

Chapter 5

5.5 US General Isolated Foundation 5

2=P/A-Mx/Zx-Mz/Zz= 0.0122 Ksi

3=P/A+Mx/Zx-Mz/Zz= 0.0136 Ksi

4=P/A+Mx/Zx+Mz/Zz= 0.015 Ksi

Max stress = 0.0136 Ksi = 2.16 Ki/sqft <2.2 Kip/sqft (Hence safe)

overturning and sliding

Along X Direction

For Sliding

Sliding force =0

max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation = 0.5 x 229.55 =

114.775 Kip

Hence OK

Along Z Direction

Sliding force =0

max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation =0.5 x 229.55 =

114.775 Kip

Hence OK

For overturning

About X Direction

Overturning Moment =240 in kip

max resisting Moment = 0.5x 130 x 229.55 = 14920.75 in kip

FOS= 14920.75/240 = 62.17>1.5

Hence OK

About Z Direction

Overturning Moment =240 in kip

max resisting Moment = 0.5x 130 x 229.55 = 14920.75 in kip

FOS= 14920.75/240 = 62.17>1.5

Hence OK

5.5 US General Isolated Foundation 5

Punching Shear

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 8 inch from the column face.

Effective Depth=D-clear cover-1=19-2-1=16 inch

Punching Shear Vm= 0.018813x122x122-0.0189x27x27=266.24 Kip

Critical perimeter Pm = 2 X ( b + h + 2 x d) = 108 inch

Vm1 =

= 164.81 Ksi

bc=2.(b+d+2.deff)=108 inch

V1

V2

Vc = min{V1, V2, V3} = 409831.185 lb

So, 0.75Vc=307.374 Kip

Vm< 0.75xVc , Hence safe

Chapter 5

5.5 US General Isolated Foundation 5

Along X Direction

Critical section for moment is at distance d from the face of the column.

Average Base Pressure along one edge = (0.014733 +0.016569) x0.5 = 0.157

Ksi

Average Base Pressure along other edge = (0.016569 +0.018405) x 0.5 =

0.0175 Ksi

Approximate Base Pressure at the left critical section = 0.0175 +(0.0157 0.0175) x87/130 = 0.0163 Ksi

Approximate Base Pressure at the right critical section = 0.0175 +(0.0157 0.0175) x 43/130 = 0.0170 Ksi

Hence, the shear force at the critical section:

F = (0.0175 + 0.0170) x0.5 x 43 x 130 = 96.43 kip

So, max shear force along X axis, Fux = 97 kip

Now allowable shear = Vc1 =

0.75.Vc1 = 197.327 Kip

5.5 US General Isolated Foundation 5

Along Z Direction

Average Base Pressure along one edge = (0.014733 +0.016569) x0.5 = 0.157

Ksi

Average Base Pressure along other edge = (0.016569 +0.018405) x 0.5 =

0.0175 Ksi

Approximate Base Pressure at the left critical section = 0.0175 +(0.0157 0.0175) x87/130 = 0.0163 Ksi

Approximate Base Pressure at the right critical section = 0.0175 +(0.0157 0.0175) x 43/130 = 0.0170 Ksi

Hence, the shear force at the critical section:

F = (0.0175 + 0.0170) x0.5 x 43 x 130 = 96.43 kip

So, max shear force along Z axis, Fuz = 97 kip

Now allowable shear = Vc1 =

0.75.Vc1 = 197.327 Kip

About Z Axis

Critical section for moment is at the face of the column.

Chapter 5

5.5 US General Isolated Foundation 5

0.0157 Ksi (left end)

Average Base Pressure along other edge = (0.016569 +0.018405) x 0.5 =

0.0175 Ksi (right end)

Approximate Base Pressure at the left critical section = 0.0175 +(0.0157 0.0175) x 71/130 = 0.0166 Ksi

Approximate Base Pressure at the right critical section = 0.0175 +(0.0157 0.0175) x 59/130 = 0.0167 Ksi

Hence, the moment at the critical section (right):

Mu = F x LA

F = (0.0175 + 0.0167) x 0.5 x 59 x 130 = 131.16 Kip

LA = (0.0167 +2 x 0.0175) x 59/(3x (0.0167 + 0.0175)) = 29.731 inches

Mu(right) = 3899.52 in-kips

So, max moment wrt Z axis, Mu(x) = 3900 in-kips

m=fy/0.85.fc=60/(0.85x4) = 17.6471

1 = 0.85 ( as fc=4)

bal = 0.85.1.fc.87/fy.(87+fy) = 0.028507

max = 0.75. bal = 0.021381

min = 0.0018 ( as fy=60)

So Resisting Moment =Mnz= Muz/ =4333.3334 in kip

Rn = Mnz/b.d2 =0.1303 Ksi

2m.Rn/fy <1 , Hence OK

5.5 US General Isolated Foundation 5

min < < max Hence OK

About X Axis

Critical section for moment is at the face of the column.

Average Base Pressure along one edge = (0.014733 + 0.016569) x 0.5 = 0.0157

Ksi (left end)

Average Base Pressure along other edge = (0.016569 +0.018405) x 0.5 =

0.0175 Ksi (right end)

Approximate Base Pressure at the left critical section = 0.0175 +(0.0157 0.0175) x 71/130 = 0.0166 Ksi

Approximate Base Pressure at the right critical section = 0.0175 +(0.0157 0.0175) x 59/130 = 0.0167 Ksi

Hence, the moment at the critical section (right):

Mu = F x LA

F = (0.0175 + 0.0167) x 0.5 x 59 x 130 = 131.16 Kip

LA = (0.0167 +2 x 0.0175) x 59/(3x (0.0167 + 0.0175)) = 29.731 inches

Mu(right) = 3899.52 in-kips

So, max moment wrt Z axis, Mu(z) = 3900 in-kips

m=fy/0.85.fc=60/(0.85x4) = 17.6471

Chapter 5

5.5 US General Isolated Foundation 5

1 = 0.85 ( as fc=4)

bal = 0.85.1.fc.87/fy.(87+fy) = 0.028507

max = 0.75. bal = 0.021381

min = 0.0018 ( as fy=60)

So Resisting Moment =Mnz= Muz/ =4333.3334 in kip

Rn = Mnz/b.d2 =0.1303 Ksi

2m.Rn/fy <1 , Hence OK

= 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.002215

min < < max Hence OK

Along X Direction

x = 0.002215

Therefore, Astx = x *b*d = 4.61 in2

Along Z Direction

z = 0.002215

Therefore, Astz = z*b*d = 4.61 in2

5.6 US General Isolated Foundation 6

5.5.4 Comparison

Table 5-5: US verification example 5 comparison

Reference

Percent DifValue of

STAAD.foundation

Result

ference

Effective Depth

16 inch

16 inch

None

Bearing Pressure

0.0136 Ksi 0.0136 Ksi

None

Governing Moment

Shear Force(One-Way)

Shear Force(Two-Way)

Resisting force for

sliding

Resisting Moment for

Overturning

0.0122 Ksi

0.0123 Ksi

0.0136 Ksi

0.0136 Ksi

0.015 Ksi

3899.52

in kip

0.0149 Ksi

3893.52 in kip

Negligible

3893.52 in kip

3899.52

in kip

96.43 Kip

96.05 Kip

Negligible

96.43 Kip

266.96 Kip

114.775 Kip

96.05 Kip

267.01 Kip

114.773 Kip

Negligible

None

114.775 Kip

14920.75

in kip

114.773 Kip

14920.466 in kip

Negligible

14920.466 in kip

14920.75

in kip

5.6.1 Reference

5.6.2 Problem

Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = 1000 KN, Concrete grade M25,

Steel Grade Fe 415, Pedestal Dimension = 250 mm x 250 mm x 500 mm.

Bearing Capacity of Soil = 120 KN/m2. Coefficient of friction =0.4, FOS against sliding

=1.4, FOS against overturning =1.4

Soil Depth is 500 mm , depth of GWT from GL is 200 mm and surcharge on foundation

is 5 KN/m2. (consider unt wight of soil 18 KN/m2)

Chapter 5

5.6 US General Isolated Foundation 6

Figure 5-9: Elevation and Plan

5.6.3 Solution

Approximate area of footing required = 1000/120 = 8.33 m2

Assuming 3140 mm x 3140 mm footing dimension, with 490 mm depth

Punching Shear

Weight of footing = 3.14 x 3.14 x 0.49 x 25 = 120.78 KN

Punching Shear Vm = 1400/(3.14 x 3.14) x (3.14 x 3.14-0.665 x 0.665) =

1337.2 KN

Critical perimeter Pm = 2 x (b + d + 2 x d) = 2660 mm

Vm1 = Vmax/(Pm .d) = 1211.34 KN/m2

c = Width of col/depth of col = 250/250 = 1

bc = 2.(b+d+2.deff) = 2660 mm

V1 = (2+4/c)fc.bc.d = 0.083x(2+4/1)x25 x 2660 x 415x 1/1000 = 2748.7

KN

V2 = (40.d/b+2)fc.bc.d = 0.083x(40x 415/2660+2)x25 x 2660 x 415x

1/1000 = 3775.17 KN

V3 = 4.fc.bc.de =0.083 x 4 x 25 x 2660 x 415x 1/1000 =1832.47 KN

Vc =min(V1,V2,V3) =1832.47

5.6 US General Isolated Foundation 6

So, 0.75Vc = 1374.35 KN

Vm < 0.75.Vc , Hence safe

Along X Direction

Vumax = 141.993 x 3.14 x ((3.14-0.25)/2-0.415) = 459.23 KN

Now allowable shear = Vc1 =2fc.b.d = 0.083x2x25 x 3140 x 415x 1/1000 =

1081.57 KN

0.75.Vc1=811.18 KN

V < Vc1, Hence Safe

So Vumax < Vc1 , Hence Safe

Along Z Direction

Vumax = 141.993 x 3.14 x ((3.14-0.25)/2-0.415) = 459.23 KN

Now allowable shear = Vc1 =2fc.b.d =0.083x2x25 x 3140 x 415x 1/1000 =

1081.57 KN

0.75.Vc1=811.18 KN

V < Vc1, Hence Safe

So Vumax < Vc1 , Hence Safe

About X Axis

m = fy/0.85.fc = 415/(0.85x25) = 19.529

1 = 0.85 ( as fc < 27.6 N/mm2)

bal = 0.85.1.fc.87/fy.(87 + fy) = 0.025759

max = 0.75. bal = 0.0193

min = 0.0018 ( as fy = 415 N/mm2)

Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 1/2 x 141.993 x 3.14 x [(3.140.25)/2)]2 = 465.48 KNm

So Resisting Moment = Mnz = Muz/ = 517.2 KNm

Rn = Mnz/b.d2 = 0.956 N/mm2

2m.Rn/fy < 1 , Hence OK

= 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.002359

min < < max Hence OK

Chapter 5

5.6 US General Isolated Foundation 6

About Z Axis

m = fy/0.85.fc = 415/(0.85x25) = 19.529

1 = 0.85 ( as fc < 27.6 N/mm2)

bal = 0.85.1.fc.87/fy.(87 + fy) = 0.025759

max = 0.75. bal = 0.0193

min = 0.0018 ( as fy = 415 N/mm2)

Bending moment at critical section, Muz = 1/2 x 141.993 x 3.14 x [(3.140.25)/2)]2 = 465.48 KNm

So Resisting Moment = Mnz = Muz/ = 517.2 KNm

Rn = Mnz/b.d2 = 0.956 N/mm2

2m.Rn/fy < 1 , Hence OK

= 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.002359

min < < max Hence OK

Along X Direction

z = 0.002359

Therefore, Astx = z.b.d = 3074 m2m

Along Z Direction

x = 0.002359

Therefore, Astz = x.b.d = 3074 m2m

5.7 US General Isolated Foundation 7

5.6.4 Comparison

Table 5-6: US verification example 6 comparison

Reference

Percent DifValue of

STAAD.foundation

Result

ference

Effective Depth

415 mm

415 mm

None

Bearing Pressure

119.92 KN/m2

119.96 KN/m2

None

Resisting force for sliding

472.936 KN

472.945 KN

None

472.936 KN

1856.23 KNm

472.945 KN

1856.276 KNm

Negligible

Governing Moment

1856.23 KNm

465.48 KNm

1856.276 KNm

465.48 KNm

None

Shear Force(One-Way)

465.48 KNm

459.23 KN

465.48 KNm

459.4 KN

Negligible

459.23 KN

811.18 KN

459.4 KN

810.737 KN

Negligible

Shear Force(Two-Way)

Shear Resistance (Two-Way)

Reinf X

Reinf Z

811.18 KN

1337.2 KN

1374.35 KN

3074 m2m

3074 m2m

810.737 KN

1337.28 KN

1372.8 KN

3076.9 m2m

3076.9 m2m

None

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

5.7.1 Reference

5.7.2 Problem

Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = -1200 KN, Fx=Fz=5 KN,

Mx=Mz=10 KNm. fc = 25 N/m2m, fy = 415 N/m2m, Column Dimension = 250 mm x 250

mm, and Bearing Capacity of Soil = 120 KN/m2. Assume 500 mm soil depth above footing

and depth of GWT 200 mm. Assume unit weight of concrete & soil are 25 & 18 KN/cum

respectively. Coefficient of friction =0.4, FOS against sliding =1.4, FOS against overturning

=1.4

Chapter 5

5.7 US General Isolated Foundation 7

Figure 5-10: Elevation and Plan

5.7.3 Solution

Approximate area of footing required = 1200/120 = 10 m2

Assuming 3500 mm x 3500 mm x 540 mm footing dimension,

Weight of footing = 3.5 x 3.5 x 0.54 x 25 = 165.38 KN

Weight of soil = (3.5 x 3.5- 0.25 x 0.25) x 0.5 x 18 = 109.69 KN

Weight reduction for Buoyancy = 3.5 x 3.5 x (0.54 + 0.5 0.2) x 9.81 =

100.95 KN

Surcharge Load = (3.5 x 3.5 0.25 x 0.25) x 5 = 60.94 KN

Therefore, total Axial load on the footing = 1435.063 KN

Total Moment on the footingMx = 10 + 5x 0.54 = 12.7 KNm

Mz = 10 - 5x 0.54 = 7.3 KNm

Zx = 3.5x3.52 /6 = 7.1458 cum

Zz = 3.5x3.52 /6 = 7.1458 cum

Maximum pressure from axial load = 1435.063 /(3.5 x 3.5) = 117.15 KN/m2

Mx/Zx = 12.7 /7.1458 = 1.78 KN/m2

Mz/Zz = 7.3 /7.1458 = 1.03 KN/m2

234 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

5.7 US General Isolated Foundation 7

So stress at four corners

1 = P/A-Mx/Zx+Mz/Zz= 116.39 KN/m2

2 = P/A-Mx/Zx-Mz/Zz= 114.35 KN/m2

3 = P/A+Mx/Zx-Mz/Zz = 117.09 KN/m2

4 = P/A+Mx/Zx+Mz/Zz= 119.94 KN/m2

Max stress = 119.94 KN/m2 < 120 KN/m2 (Hence safe)

overturning and sliding

Along X Direction

For Sliding

Sliding force = 5 KN

max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation = 0.4 x 1435.063 =

574 KN

Hence OK

Along Z Direction

Sliding force = 5 KN

max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation = 0.4 x 1435.063 =

574 KN

Hence OK

For Overturning

About X Direction

Overturning Moment = 12.7 KNm

max resisting Moment = 0.5x 3.5 x 1435.063 = 2511.36 KNm

FOS= 2511.36/12.7 = 197.75 > 1.4

Hence OK

About Z Direction

Overturning Moment = 7.3 KNm

max resisting Moment = 0.5x 3.5 x 1435.063 = 2511.36 KNm

FOS= 2511.36/7.3 = 344 > 1.4

Hence OK

Chapter 5

5.7 US General Isolated Foundation 7

Section Design

Fy = -1.4 x 1200 KN = -1680 KN

Fx = 1.4 x 5 KN = 7 KN

Fz = 1.4 x 5 KN = 7 KN

Mx = 1.4 x 10 KNm = 14 KNm

Mz = 1.4 x 10 KNm = 14 KNm

Modifying Moments due to lateral forces:

Mx= 17.78 KNm & Mz= 10.22 KNm

D= 540 mm, So deff = 650- 50-25 = 465 mm

Punching Shear

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 232.5 from the column face.

Effective Depth= 465 mm

Punching Shear bc = 1609.9 KN = 1610 KN

Figure 5-11: Corner pressure values on plan for punching shear

Vm1 = Vmax/(bc .d) = 1.21 N/m2m

c = Width of col/depth of col=250/250=1

V1 = (2+4/c)fc.bc.d = 3311.45 KN

V2 = (40.d/b+2)fc.bc.d = 4693.15 KN

V3 = 4.fc.bc.de=2207.63 KN

5.7 US General Isolated Foundation 7

Vc =min(V1,V2,V3) = 2207.63 KN

So, 0.75Vc = 1655.73 KN

Vm< 0.75xVc , Hence safe

Along X Direction

Critical Section for shear is at d distance from face of column

Average Base pressure at left edge = 134.66 KN/m2

Average Base pressure at right edge = 139.64 KN/m2

Approximate Base pressure at left critical section = 136.311 KN/m2

Approximate Base pressure at right critical section = 137.99 KN/m2

Now allowable shear = Vc1 = 2fc.b.d= 1350.825 KN

0.75.Vc1 = 1013.12 KN

So Vumax < 0.75x Vc1 , Hence Safe

Along Z Direction

Critical Section for shear is at d distance from face of column

Average Base pressure at left edge = 138.59 KN/m2

Average Base pressure at right edge = 135.71 KN/m2

Approximate Base pressure at left critical section = 137.636 KN/m2

Approximate Base pressure at right critical section = 136.665 KN/m2

Chapter 5

5.7 US General Isolated Foundation 7

Figure 5-13: One-way shear pressure values along z-direction

Now allowable shear = Vc1 = 2fc.b.d = 1350.825 KN

0.75.Vc1 = 1013.12 KN

So Vumax < 0.75x Vc1 , Hence Safe

Critical Section for Moment is at the face of column

m = fy/0.85.fc = 19.5295

1 = 0.85 (as fc=M 25)

bal = 0.85.1.fc.87/fy.(87+fy) = 0.025729

max = 0.75. bal = 0.019297

min = 0.0018

About Z Axis

Average Base pressure at left edge = 138.59 KN/m2

Average Base pressure at right edge = 135.71 KN/m2

Approximate Base pressure at left critical section = 137.26 KN/m2

Approximate Base pressure at right critical section = 137.05 KN/m2

5.7 US General Isolated Foundation 7

Figure 5-14: Bending pressure about Z axis

So Resisting Moment = Mnz = Muz/ = 710 KNm

Rn = Mnz/b.d2 = 0.93822 N/m2m

2m.Rn/fy <1 , Hence OK

= 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.002313

min < < max Hence OK

About X Axis

Average Base pressure at left edge = 134.66 KN/m2

Average Base pressure at right edge = 139.64 KN/m2

Approximate Base pressure at left critical section = 136.98 KN/m2

Approximate Base pressure at right critical section = 137.33 KN/m2

Figure 5-15: Bending pressure about X axis

So Resisting Moment =Mnz= Muz/ = 642 KNm

Chapter 5

5.8 US General Combined Foundation 1

2m.Rn/fy < 1 , Hence OK

= 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.002325

min < < max Hence OK

Along X Direction

z = 0.002313

Therefore, Astx = z.b.d = 3765 m2m

Along Z Direction

x = 0.002325

Therefore, Astz = x.b.d = 3784 m2m

5.7.4 Comparison

Table 5-7: US Verification problem 9 comparison

Value of

Effective Depth

Bearing Pressure

540 mm

116.39 KN/m2

540 mm

116.397 KN/m2

114.35 KN/m2

114.35 KN/m2

117.9 KN/m2

117.91 KN/m2

Percent Difference

None

None

119.95 KN/m2

119.95 KN/m2

574.05 KN (Xdir) 574.05 KN (Xdir)

574.05 KN (Zdir

2511 KNm (WRT

Z)

Governing Moment

X)

639 KNm

638 KNm

Negligible

Shear Force(One-Way)

642 KNm

564 KN

642 KNm

564 KN

Negligible

Shear Force(Two-Way)

561 KN

1610 KN

561 KN

1610 KN

None

None

574.05 KN (Zdir)

2511 KNm (WRT Z) None

2511 KNm (WRT X)

5.8.1 Reference

5.8 US General Combined Foundation 1

5.8.2 Problem

Design a combined footing with the given data: Load Fy = 60 Kip each column., fc = 4 Ksi,

fy = 60 Ksi, Column Dimension = 12 inch x 12 inch, Pedestal height-20 inch. and C/C

column distance=195 inch . Bearing Capacity of Soil = 2 Kip/sqft. Coefficient of friction

=0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning =1.5

Ht of soil =24 inch. Depth of GWT=10 inch

5.8.3 Solution

Figure 5-16: Elevation and Plan

Assuming 275 inch x40 inch x 24 inch footing dimension,

( left overhang=right overhang = 40 inch)

Weight of footing = 275 x 40 x 24 x 0.159/123 = 24.3Kip

Weight of pedestal=2 x 12 x 12 x 20 x 0.159 /123 = 0.530 kip

Weight of soil above footing = (275 x 40-2x12x12) x 24 x 0.127/123 = 18.9 Kip

Reduction of Weight due to buoyancy = 275 x 40 x (24 +24-10) x 3.61398x105 = 15.1Kip

Therefore, total load on the footing = (2x60+24.3+18.9- 15.1) = 148.624 Kip

Chapter 5

5.8 US General Combined Foundation 1

Kip/sqft

Hence safe

Ultimate pressure = 1.4x2x60/(275x40) = 0.015273 Ksi

overturning

With Respect to Z Direction

Overturning Moment =0

max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 275x 148.624 = 20435.8 in kip

Hence OK

Overturning Moment =0

max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 40x 148.624 = 2972.48 in kip

Hence OK

5.8 US General Combined Foundation 1

Figure 5-17: Shear Force and Bending Moment diagrams

Punching Shear

For Column 1

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 10.5 inch from the column face.

deff = (24-2-1) inch = 21 inch

2 way shear Vm = 67.37 Kip

c=Width of col/depth of col=12/12=1

Chapter 5

5.8 US General Combined Foundation 1

bc=2.(b+d+2.deff)=132 inch

V1

V2

lb

fc.bc.d = (40x21/132+2).(4000) x132x21 = 1466284.9

Vc = min{V1, V2, V3} = 701266.694 lb

So, 0.75Vc=525.95 Kip

Vm< 0.75xVc , Hence safe

For Column 2

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 10.5 inch from the column face.

deff = (24-2-1) inch = 21 inch

2 way shear Vm = 67.37 Kip

c=Width of col/depth of col=12/12=1

bc=2.(b+d+2.deff)=132 inch

V1

V2

lb

fc.bc.d = (40x21/132+2).(4000) x132x21 = 1466284.9

Vc = min{V1, V2, V3} = 701266.694 lb

So, 0.75Vc=525.95 Kip

Vm< 0.75xVc , Hence safe

Vumax = 43.072 Kip

Now allowable shear = Vc1 =

0.75.Vc1=79.69 Kip

About Z Axis (Sagging)

m=fy/0.85.fc=60/(0.85x4) = 17.6471

5.8 US General Combined Foundation 1

1 = 0.85

(as fc=4)

max = 0.75. bal = 0.021381

min = 0.0018 ( as fy=60)

Bending moment at critical section

Mux = 488.74 in kip

deff = (24-2-1) inch = 21 inch

So Resisting Moment =Mnz= Muz/ =543.04 in kip

Rn = Mnx/b.d2 = 0.0308 Ksi

2m.Rn/fy <1 , Hence OK

= 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.000516

Hence OK

m=fy/0.85.fc=60/(0.85x4) = 17.6471

1 = 0.85

(as fc=4)

max = 0.75. bal = 0.021381

min = 0.0018 ( as fy=60

Bending moment at critical section

Mux = 2414.897 in kip

deff = (24-2-1) inch = 21 inch

So Resisting Moment =Mnz= Muz/ =2683.219 in kip

Rn = Mnx/b.d2 = 0.1522 Ksi

2m.Rn/fy <1 , Hence OK

= 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.002597

max Hence OK

m=fy/0.85.fc=60/(0.85x4) = 17.6471

1 = 0.85

(as fc=4)

max = 0.75. bal = 0.021381

min = 0.0018 ( as fy=60

Chapter 5

5.8 US General Combined Foundation 1

Bending moment at critical section

Mux = 411.608 in kip

deff = (24-2-1) inch = 21 inch

So Resisting Moment =Mnz= Muz/ =457.34 in kip

Rn = Mnx/b.d2 = 0.0038 Ksi

2m.Rn/fy <1 , Hence OK

= 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.000064

Hence OK

Reinforcement Calculation

z (top) = 0.002597

z (bot) = 0.0018

x = 0.0018

Therefore, Ast =*b*d

Area of Steel Required along X dir ( bot) = 1.512 in2

Area of Steel Required along X dir (top) = 2.18 in2

Area of Steel Required along Z dir ( bot) = 10.395 in2

5.8.4 Comparison

Table 5-8: US verification

Reference

Value of

Result

Bearing Pressure

0.0136 Ksi

Governing Moment

488.736

in kip

2414.897

in kip

Shear Force(One-Way)

Shear Force(Two-Way)

411.608

in kip

42.73 Kip

66.8 Kip

Overturning

66.8 Kip

2972.44

in kip

example 7 comparison

STAAD.foundation Percent DifResult

ference

0.0135 Ksi

Negligible

461.95 in kip

Negligible

2414.41 in kip

411 in kip

43.07 Kip

67.37 Kip

Negligible

Negligible

67.37 Kip

2972.48 in kip

Negligible

20435.8 in kip

20435.52

in kip

5.9 US General Combined Foundation 2

5.9.1 Reference

5.9.2 Problem

Design a combined footing with the given data: Load Fy = 60 Kip, Mz=360 in kip for each

column., fc = 4 Ksi, fy = 60 Ksi, Column Dimension = 12 inch x 12 inch, Pedestal height20 inch. and C/C column distance=195 inch . Bearing Capacity of Soil = 2 Kip/sqft.

Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning =1.5

Figure 5-18: Elevation and Plan

5.9.3 Solution

Approximate area of footing required = 2x60/2 sqft = 60 sqft

Assuming 275 inch x44 inch x 24 inch footing dimension,

( left overhang=right overhang = 40 inch)

Weight of footing = 275 x 44 x 24 x 0.159/123 = 26.73 Kip

Weight of pedestal=2x12x12x20x0.159/123 = 0.530 kip

Therefore, total load on the footing = (2x60+26.73 +0.530) Kip = 147.26 Kip

Maximum pressure from axial load= P/A = 147.26 /(275x44) = 0.0122 Ksi

Mz=360+360=720 Kip

Mz=0

Chapter 5

5.9 US General Combined Foundation 2

Mz/Zz = 720/554583.334 =0.0013 Ksi

So, stress at left end

1 = P/A + Mz/Zz = 0.0135 Ksi

stress at right end

1 = P/A - Mz/Zz = 0.0109 Ksi

So maximum stress= 0.0135 Ksi= 1.944 Kip/sqft < 2 Kip/sqft

Hence safe

overturning

wrt Z Direction

Overturning Moment =0

max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 275x 147.26 = 20248.25 in kip

Hence OK

Wrt X Direction

Overturning Moment =0

max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 44x 147.26 = 3239.72 in kip

Hence OK

Punching Shear

For Column One

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 10.5 inch from the column face.

deff = (24-2-1) inch = 21 inch

2 way shear Vm = 67.48 Kip

c=Width of col/depth of col=12/12=1

bc=2.(b+d+2.deff)=132 inch

V1

V2

lb

fc.bc.d = (40x21/132+2).(4000) x132x21 = 1466284.9

5.9 US General Combined Foundation 2

So, 0.75Vc=525.95 Kip

Vm< 0.75xVc , Hence safe

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 10.5 inch from the column face.

deff = (24-2-1) inch = 21 inch

2 way shear Vm = 70.28 Kip

c=Width of col/depth of col=12/12=1

bc=2.(b+d+2.deff)=132 inch

V1

V2

Vc= min{V1, V2, V3} = 701266.694 lb

So, 0.75Vc=525.95 Kip

Vm< 0.75xVc , Hence safe

Vumax = 47.126 Kip

Now allowable shear = Vc1 =

0.75.Vc1=87.66 Kip

About Z Axis (sagging)

m=fy/0.85.fc=60/(0.85x4) = 17.6471

1 = 0.85

(as fc=4)

max = 0.75. bal = 0.0214

min = 0.0018 ( as fy=60)

Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 791 in kip

deff = (24-2-1) inch = 21 inch

So Resisting Moment =Mnz= Muz/ =879 in kip

Chapter 5

5.9 US General Combined Foundation 2

2m.Rn/fy <1 , Hence OK

= 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.000761

Hence OK

m=fy/0.85.fc=60/(0.85x4) = 17.6471

1 = 0.85

(as fc=4)

max = 0.75. bal = 0.0214

min = 0.0018 ( as fy=60

Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 2440 in kip

deff = (24-2-1) inch = 21 inch

= 0.9

So Resisting Moment =Mnz= Muz/ =2711.1967 in kip

Rn = Mnx/b.d2 = 0.1398 Ksi

2m.Rn/fy <1 , Hence OK

= 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.00238

max Hence OK

About X Axis

m=fy/0.85.fc=60/(0.85x4) = 17.6471

1 = 0.85

(as fc=4)

max = 0.75. bal = 0.0214

min = 0.0018 ( as fy=60

Cantilever length=(40-12)/2 = 14 inch

Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 0.013885x275x16 2/2 =552.82

in kip

deff = (24-2-1) inch = 21 inch

So Resisting Moment =Mnz= Muz/ =614.24 in kip

Rn = Mnx/b.d2 = 0.0051 Ksi

2m.Rn/fy <1 , Hence OK

= 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.000086

Hence OK

5.9 US General Combined Foundation 2

Reinforcement Calculation

z (bot) = 0.0018

z (top) = 0.00238

x(bot) = 0.0018

Therefore, Ast = *b*d

Area of Steel Required along X dir (top) = 2.2 in2

Area of Steel Required along Z dir ( bot) = 10.4 in2

Chapter 5

5.9 US General Combined Foundation 2

Figure 5-19: Shear Force and Bending Moment diagrams

5.10 US General Combined Foundation 3

5.9.4 Comparison

Table 5-9: US verification example 8 comparison

STAAD.foundation Percent

Value of

Reference Result

Result

Difference

Bearing Pressure

0.0135 Ksi

0.0135 Ksi

None

Governing Moment

Shear Force(OneWay)

Shear Force(TwoWay)

Resisting Moment

for Overturning

0.0109 Ksi

791 in kip

0.0109 Ksi

830 in kip

2440 in kip

2439.66 in kip

552.82 in kip

47.126 Kip

534 in kip

46.8 Kip

Negligible

67.48 Kip

66.91 Kip

Negligible

70.28 Kip

3239.72 in kip

20248.25 in kip

69.81 Kip

3239.518 in kip

Negligible

Negligible

20246.985 in kip

5.10.1 Reference

5.10.2 Problem

Design a combined footing with the given data: Load Fy = 1500 KN on each column.,

Concrete Grade = M 25, Steel Grade Fe 415, Column Dimension = 250 mm x250 mm,

Pedestal height-500 mm each. and C/C column distance=5000 mm . Bearing Capacity of

Soil = 120 KN/m2., FOS against overturning =1.4

Ht of soil =500 mm. Depth of GWT=200 mm

Chapter 5

5.10 US General Combined Foundation 3

5.10.3 Solution

Figure 5-20: Elevation and Plan

Assuming 7000 mm 4500 mm x 840 mm footing dimension,

( left overhang=right overhang = 1000 mm)

Weight of footing = 7 x 4.5 x 0.84 x 25 = 661.5 KN

Weight of pedestal=2 x 0.25 x 0.25 x 0.5 x 25 = 1.5625 KN

Weight of soil above footing = (7 x 4.5- 0.25 x0.25 x 2) x 0.5 x 18 = 282.375 KN

Reduction of Weight due to buoyancy = 7 x 4.5 x (0.84+0.5-0.2) x 9.81 = 352.277 KN

Surcharge = (7 x 4.5 -0.25 x0.25 x2) x 5 = 156.875 KN

Therefore, total load on the footing = (2x1500+661.5 +1.5625 - 352.277 +156.875) = 3750.04

KN

Maximum pressure= 3750.04 /(7 x 4.5) = 119.05 KN/m 2 =119.05 KN/m 2 120 KN/m 2

Hence safe

5.10 US General Combined Foundation 3

overturning

With Respect to Z Direction

Overturning Moment =0

max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 7x 3750 = 13125 KNm

Hence OK

Overturning Moment =0

max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 4.5 x 3750 = 8437.5 KNm

Hence OK

Ultimate design

Ultimate pressure = 1.4 x 2 x1500/(7 x 4.5) = 133.33 KN/m2

Deff = 784 mm

Figure 5-21: Shear Force and Bending Moment diagrams

Punching Shear

For Column 1

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 392 mm from the column face.

Verification Manual 255

Chapter 5

5.10 US General Combined Foundation 3

= Width of col/depth of col=250/250 = 1

c

b = 2 (b + d + 2 d ) = 4136 mm

c

eff

1

2

V = 4.f bc de = 5382.76 KN

3

V = min(V , V , V ) = 5382.76 KN

c

c

For Column 2

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 392 mm from the column face.

2 way shear Vm = 1957.5 KN

= Width of col/depth of col=250/250 = 1

c

b = 2 (b + d + 2 d ) = 4136 mm

c

eff

1

2

V = 4 f b d = 5382.76 KN

3

V = min(V , V , V ) = 5382.76 KN

c

c

Vumax = 954 KN

Now allowable shear = Vc1 = 2 fc b d = 2928 KN

0.75 Vc1 = 2196 KN

So Vumax < 0.75 Vc1 , Hence Safe

m=fy/0.85.fc=415/(0.85x25) = 19.5295

1 = 0.85 (as fc=25 N/m2m)

bal = 0.85.1.fc.87/fy.(87+fy) = 0.025729

max = 0.75. bal = 0.019297

min = 0.0018 ( as fy=415 N/m2m)

5.10 US General Combined Foundation 3

Bending moment at critical section

Muz = 300.54 KNm

So Resisting Moment =Mnz= Muz/ =333.93 KNm

Rn = Mnz/b.d2 = 0.1208 N/m2m

2m.Rn/fy <1 , Hence OK

= 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.000292 <max Hence OK

Take = min = 0.0018

Hence OK

Bending moment at critical section

Muz = 1574.8 KNm

So Resisting Moment =Mnz= Muz/ =1749.8 KNm

Rn = Mnz/b.d2 = 0.6327 N/m 2m

2m.Rn/fy <1 , Hence OK

= 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.001548 <max Hence OK

Take = min = 0.0018

Hence OK

Cantilever length = (4500 - 250)/2 = 2125 mm

Bending moment at critical section

Mux = 2107.4 KNm

So Resisting Moment =Mnx= Mux/ =2341.55 KNm

Rn = Mnx/b.d2 = 0.762 N/m 2m

2m.Rn/fy <1 , Hence OK

= 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.001871 < max

Hence OK

Reinforcement Calculation

z (top) = 0.0018

z (bot) = 0.0018

x = 0.001871

Chapter 5

5.11 US General Combined Foundation 4

Therefore, Ast = b d

Area of Steel Required along X dir ( bot) = 6350 mm2

Area of Steel Required along X dir (top) = 6350 mm2

Area of Steel Required along Z dir ( bot) = 10268 mm2

5.10.4 Comparison

Table 5-10: US verification example 7 comparison

Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of

Result

Result

ference

Bearing Pressure

119.05

119.05

None

2

(KN/m )

Governing Moment

300.54

293.97

Negligible

(KNm)

1574.82

1574.60

Shear Force, OneWay (KN)

Shear Force, TwoWay (KN)

2107.4

954.8

2107.4

43.07 Kip

Negligible

1957.4

1957.4

None

1957.4

1957.4

5.11.1 Reference

5.11.2 Problem

Design a combined footing with the given data: Load Fy = -1200 KN & Fx= 10 KN on each

column., Concrete Grade = M 25, Steel Grade Fe 415, Column Dimension = 250 mm x250

mm, Pedestal height-500 mm each. and C/C column distance=5000 mm . Bearing

Capacity of Soil = 120 KN/m2., FOS against overturning =1.4

5.11 US General Combined Foundation 4

5.11.3 Solution

Figure 5-22: Elevation and Plan

Assuming 7000 mm 3250 mm x 530 mm footing dimension,

( left overhang=right overhang = 1000 mm)

Weight of footing = 7 x 3.25 x 0.53 x 25 = 301.44 KN

Weight of pedestal=2 x 0.25 x 0.25 x 0.5 x 25 = 1.5625 KN

Therefore, total load on the footing = (2x1200+301.44 +1.5625) = 2703 KN

Mz1 = -10 x (0.5+0.53) = -10.3 KNm

Mz2 = -10 x (0.5+0.53) = -10.3 KNm

Maximum pressure from axial load= 2703/(7 x3.25) = 118.813 KN/ m2

Total Moment = -10.3 + -10.3 = -20.6 KNm

CG of load= 3.5085 m

CG of raft = 3.5 m

Eccentricity =-8.5833 mm

Chapter 5

5.11 US General Combined Foundation 4

Hence OK

Zz= 3.25 x 72/6 = 26.542 m3

So M/Z = -0.78 KN/m2

So stress at left end= P/A - M/Z= 118.04 KN/m2

So stress at right end= P/A + M/Z= 119.6 KN/m2

Maximum pressure =119.6 KN/m2 120 KN/m2

Hence safe

overturning

With Respect to Z Direction

Overturning Moment =20.6 KNm

max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 7x 2703 = 9460 KNm

So FOS= 9460/20.6 = 459.25 >1.4

Hence OK

Overturning Moment =0

max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 3.25x 2703 = 4392.4 KNm

Hence OK

Ultimate design

Ultimate pressure from axial load = 1.4 x 2 x1200/(7 x 3.25) = 147.692 KN/m2

Mz1 = 1.4x-10 x90.5+0.53) = -14.42 KNm

Mz2 = 1.4x-10 x90.5+0.53) = -14.42 KNm

Total Moment = -14.42 + -14.42 = -28.84 KNm

CG of load= 3.5085 m

CG of raft = 3.5 m

Eccentricity =-8.5833 mm

So Moment= P x Eccentricity = -28.84 KNm (Hence OK)

Zz= 3.25 x 72/6 = 26.542 m3

So M/Z = -1.09 KN/m2

So stress at left end= P/A - M/Z= 146.61 KN/m2

5.11 US General Combined Foundation 4

Deff = 474 mm

Figure 5-23: Shear Force and Bending Moment diagrams

Punching Shear

For Column 1

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 392 mm from the column face.

Two way shear, V

= 1602.987 KN

Chapter 5

5.11 US General Combined Foundation 4

c

b = 2 (b + d + 2 d ) = 2896 mm

c

eff

1

2

V = 4.(f ) b d = 2278.69 KN

3

V = min(V , V , V ) = 2278.69 KN

c

c

For Column 2

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 392 mm from the column face.

Two way shear, V

= 1602.17 KN

c

b = 2 (b + d + 2 d ) = 2896 mm

c

eff

1

2

V = 4.(f ) b d = 2278.69 KN

3

V = min(V , V , V ) = 2278.69 KN

c

c

Vumax = 916.99 KN

Now allowable shear = Vc1 = 2 (fc) b d = 1278 KN

0.75 Vc1 = 958.96 KN

So Vumax < 0.75 Vc1 , Hence Safe

m = fy/0.85 fc=415/(0.85x25) = 19.53

1 = 0.85 (as fc = 25 N/mm2)

bal = 0.85 1 fc 87/fy (87 + fy) = 0.025729

max = 0.75 bal = 0.0193

min = 0.0018 ( as fy=415 N/mm2)

Bending moment at critical section

262 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

5.11 US General Combined Foundation 4

uz

= 238.94 KNm

Rn = Mnz/b d2 =0.3636 N/mm2

2 m Rn /fy <1 , Hence OK

= 1/m (1-1-2m Rn /fy) = 0.000884 <max

Hence OK

Take = min = 0.0018

Hence OK

Bending moment at critical section

M

uz

= 1259.84KNm

R = M /b d 2 = 1.9171 N/mm 2

n

nz

2 m R /f < 1 , Hence OK

n y

max

Hence OK

Take =

min

= 0.0018

Hence OK

Cantilever length = (3250-250)/2 = 1500 mm

Bending moment at critical section

M

ux

= 1163 KNm

R = M /b d 2 =1.593 N/mm 2

n

nz

2 m R /f < 1 , Hence OK

n y

max

Hence OK

Reinforcement Calculation

z (top) = 0.0018

z (bot) = 0.0018

x = 0.004

Therefore, Ast = b d

Chapter 5

5.12 US Pilecap Foundation 1

Area of Steel Required along X dir (top) = 7472 mm2

Area of Steel Required along Z dir ( bot) = 13256 mm2

5.11.4 Comparison

Table 5-11: US verification example 7 comparison

Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of

Result

Result

ference

Bearing Pressure

119.6

119.6

None

2

(KN/m )

118.04

118.04

Governing Moment

239

237

Negligible

(KNm)

1260

1260

Shear Force, OneWay (KN)

Shear Force, TwoWay (KN)

1163

917

1169

917

None

1602.99

1602.99

None

1602.17

1602.18

5.12.1 Reference

5.12.2 Problem

Design pilecap foundation with the given data: Load Fy = 330 kip, fc = 4 ksi, fy = 60 ksi,

Column Dimension = 12 in x 12 in. Pedestal ht= 20 in.

Dia of pile= 18 in

Vertical capacity = 65 kip

Horizontal capacity = 20 kip

Uplift capacity = 15 kip

5.12 US Pilecap Foundation 1

Figure 5-24: Elevation and Plan

5.12.3 Solution

Depth of pilecap= 1.5 x pile diameter, D = 27 in.

Take D = 31 in.

c/c pile distance = 3 x pile diameter =54 mm

Edge distance =18 inch

Assuming 6 pile combination, coordinates of piles(considering pedestal at 0,0,0):

Chapter 5

5.12 US Pilecap Foundation 1

Table 5-12: Pile Coordinates in Plan

Pile X Coordinate Z Coordinate

No

(in)

(in)

1

-54

-27

2

-54

27

3

0

-27

4

0

27

5

54

-27

6

54

27

Pilecap Length = 2(54)+2(18) = 144 inch

Pilecap Width = 54+2(18) = 90 inch

pilecap dimension is 144 inch x90 inch x 31 inch

Weight of footing = 144 x 90 x 31 x 0.16/123 = 37.2 kip

Weight of pedestal = 12 x 12 x 20 x 0.16 /123 = 0.267 kip

Therefore, total load on the pilecap = (330+37.2 +0.267) =367.467 kip

So Pile reaction = 367.467 /6= 61.244 kip < 65 kip

Hence OK

As there is no lateral load , moment or uplift force, so each pile is safe in lateral & uplift

capacity.

Factored Design

Load factor for self wt is taken = 1

Load factor for axial load is taken = 1.4

So, Load on pilecap = 1.4(330) + 1(37.2)+0 1(.267) = 499.467

Load on each pile =499.467/6=83.245 kip

5.12 US Pilecap Foundation 1

Punching Shear

Figure 5-25: Section considered for punching shear

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d =13inch from the column face.

Contribution from pile 1 = from pile2 = from pile5 = from pile 6 = 83.245 kip

Contribution from pile 3 = from pile4 = 0.944 x 83.245 = 78.58 kip

So total punching shear Vm= 490.14 kip

Pm = 4 (12+13+13) =152 inch

= L/B =12/12 =1

V1= (2 +4/ c)(fc) bc d = (2+4/1) (4000) 152 26 =1499.6 (10)3 lb

V2 = (40 d/b +2)(fc) bc d = (40 26/152 + 2) (4000) 152 26 =

2210 (10)3 lb

V3= 4.(fc) bc de = 4 (4000) 152 26= 999.78 (10)3 lb

Vc = min(V1, V2, V3) = 999.78 kip

So, 0.75 Vc = 749.8 kip

Vm< 0.75 Vc , Hence safe

Corner piles are 1,2,5,6

Verification Manual 267

Chapter 5

5.12 US Pilecap Foundation 1

Each pile is taking reaction 83.245 kip

d critical = 5.486 inch

Effective depth = 26 inch

d critical< Effective depth, Hence Safe

Calculation of Shear

Parallel to X Axis

For shear wrt X1X1

Contribution from pile 1 =pile2=83.245 Kip

Contribution from pile 3,4,5,6 =0 Kip

So Total V X1X1 = 166.49 Kip

For shear wrt X2X2

Contribution from pile 5 =pile6=83.245 Kip

Contribution from pile 1,2,3,4 =0 Kip

So Total V X2X2 = 166.49 Kip

So V parallel to X direction = 166.49 Kip

Now allowable shear = Vc1 =2(fc) bc d =2 (4000) 90 26 lb

=295.99 (10)3 lb

0.75 Vc1=222 Kip

V < Vc1, Hence Safe

Parallel to Z Axis

For shear wrt Z1Z1

Contribution from pile 1 =pile 6 =pile 7 =83.245 x0.222=18.498 Kip

Contribution from pile 2 =pile 4 =pile 6 =0 Kip

So Total V Z1Z1 = 55.5 Kip

For shear wrt Z2Z2

Contribution from pile 2 =pile 4 =pile 6 =83.245 x0.167=18.498 Kip

Contribution from pile 1 =pile 3 =pile 5 =0 Kip

So Total V Z2Z2 = 55.5 Kip

So V parallel to Z direction = 55.5 Kip

Now allowable shear = Vc1 =2(fc) bc d =2 (4000) 90 26 lb

=295.99 (10)3 lb

0.75 Vc1 = 222 Kip

V < Vc1, Hence Safe

268 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

5.12 US Pilecap Foundation 1

Calculation of Moment

For either direction:

m = f /0.85 f = 60/(0.85 4) = 17.65

y

= 0.85 (as f = 4)

1

bal

1 c

= 0.75

= 0.0018 ( as f = 60 Ksi)

max

min

bal

= 0.02138

y

Calculation of MzFor moment wrt X1X1

Contribution from pile 1=from pile2=83.245 x 48=3995.76 in kip

Contribution from pile 3=from pile 4=12 in kip

Contribution from pile 5,6=0 in kip

So Total Mz X1X1 = 8014 in kip = 670 ft kip

For moment wrt X2X2

Contribution from pile 5=from pile6=83.245 x 48=3995.76 in kip

Contribution from pile 3=from pile 4=12 in kip

Chapter 5

5.12 US Pilecap Foundation 1

So Total Mz X2X2 = 8014 in kip = 670 ft kip

So Resisting Moment = Mnz= Muz/ = 744.44 ft kip

Rn = Mnz/b d2 = 0.147 Ksi

2 m Rn /fy = 0.0864 <1 , Hence OK

= 1/m (1-1-2m Rn /fy) = 0.0025

min < < max , Hence OK

Calculation of MxFor moment wrt Z1Z1

Contribution from pile 1=from pile 3=from pile 5= 83.245 x 21=1748.145

in kip

So Total Mx Z1Z1 = 437 ft kip

For moment wrt Z2Z2

Contribution from pile 2=from pile 4=from pile 6= 83.245 x 21=1748.145

in kip

So Total Mx Z2Z2 = 437 ft kip

So Max value of MX = 437 ft kip

So Resisting Moment = Mnx = Mxux / = 485.55 ft kip

Rn = Mnz/b d2 = 0.06 Ksi

2 m Rn /fy = 0.035 <1 , Hence OK

= 1/m (1-1-2m Rn /fy) = 0.001

So = min =0.0018

< max ,Hence OK

Along X Direction

= 0.0025

b = 90 in, d=26 in

Therefore, Astx = 5.85 in2

Along Z Direction

= 0.0018

5.13 US Pilecap Foundation 2

b = 144 in , d=26 in

Therefore, Astxz = 6.74 in2

5.12.4 Comparison

Table 5-13: US verification example 10 comparison

Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of

Result

Result

ference

Pile Reaction (kip)

83.245

83.244

None

Governing Moment

670

718

15%

(ft kip)

437

502.6

Shear Force, One166.49

166.49

None

Way (kip)

55.5

55.5

Shear Force, Two490.14

490.217

Negligible

Way (kip)

5.13.1 Reference

5.13.2 Problem

Design pilecap foundation with the given data: Load Fy = 150 kip, Mx= 50 ft kip.

ksi, fy = 60 ksi, Column Dimension = 12 inchx12 inch. Pedestal ht= 20 inch

fc = 4

Vertical capacity = 65 kip,

Horizontal capacity = 20 kip

Uplift capacity = 15 kip

Chapter 5

5.13 US Pilecap Foundation 2

Figure 5-26: Elevation and Plan

5.13 US Pilecap Foundation 2

5.13.3 Solution

depth of pilecap= 1.5xpiledia, D=27 inch

Take D=27 inch

c/c pile diatance = 3xpile dia =54 mm. Edge diatance =18 inch

Assume a 4 pile combination.

Coordinates of piles; considering pedestal at 0,0,0

Table 5-14: Pile Coordinates in Plan

Pile X Coordinate ZCoordinate

No

(in)

(in)

1

-27

-27

2

-27

27

3

27

27

4

27

-27

Pilecap Length = 54+2x18 = 90 inch

Pilecap Width = 54+2x18 = 90 inch

pilecap dimension is 90 inch x90 inch x 27 inch

Weight of footing = 90 x 90 x 27 x 0.16/123 = 20.25 kip

Weight of pedestal = 12 x 12 x 20 x 0.16 /123 = 0.267 kip

Therefore, total load on the pilecap = (150+20.25 +0.267) =170.517 kip

So Pile reaction from axial load = 170.517 /4= 42.629 kip

Moment Mx ( from input) = 50 ft kip =600 in kip

Using Rivet theoryReaction from moment= +/- 600x0.27/(4x272) = +/-5.55 Kip

So,

Reaction at Pile 2= reaction at pile 3 = 42.629 +5.55 = 48.185 Kip

Reaction at Pile 1= reaction at pile 4 = 42.629 -5.55 = 37.085Kip

So Critical vertical reaction= 48.185 Kip < 65 kip

As there is no net uplift/lateral load, so each pile is safe in uplift & lateral capacity.

Factored Design

Load factor for self wt is taken =1

Load factor for axial load is taken 1.4

So, Axial Load on pilecap = 1.4x150+20.25 x1+0.267x1= 230.517 Kip

Moment on pilecap = 1.4x50 ft kip = 840 in kip

Load on each pile from axial reaction =230.517 /4=57.629 Kip

Reaction from moment= +/- 840x27/(4x272) = +/-7.78 Kip

Verification Manual 273

Chapter 5

5.13 US Pilecap Foundation 2

So,

Reaction at Pile 2= reaction at pile 3 = 57.629 +7.78 = 65.409 Kip

Reaction at Pile 1= reaction at pile 4 = 57.629 -7.78 = 49.849 Kip

Punching Shear

Figure 5-27: Section considered for two-way shear

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d =11.5 inch from the column face.

Contribution from pile 1=from pile 4= 49.849 Kip

Contribution from pile 2=from pile 3= 65.409 Kip

So total punching shear Vm= 230.516 kip

Pm = 4x(12+11+11) =136 inch

=L/B =12/12 =1

5.13 US Pilecap Foundation 2

V1

V2

= 1602.9 x 1000 lb

Vc = min{V1, V2, V3} = 756.9 kip

So, 0.75Vc = 567.7 Kip

Vm< 0.75.Vc , Hence safe

Corner piles are 1,2,3,4

Pile 1/4 are taking reaction 49.849 Kip & Pile 2/3 are taking reaction 65.409 Kip

d critical = 4.46 inch

Effective depth = 22 inch

d critical< Effective depth, Hence Safe

Chapter 5

5.13 US Pilecap Foundation 2

Calculation of Shear

Figure 5-28: Section considered for one-way shear

Parallel to X Axis

For shear wrt X1X1

Contribution from pile 1 =49.849 x 0.444=22.155 Kip

Contribution from pile 2 =65.409 x 0.444=29.04 Kip

Contribution from pile 3,4 =0 KN

So Total V X1X1 = 51.195 Kip

For shear wrt X2X2

Contribution from pile 4 =49.849 x 0.444=22.155 Kip

Contribution from pile 3 =65.409 x 0.444=29.04 Kip

Contribution from pile 1,2 =0 KN

So Total V X2X2 = 51.195 Kip

5.13 US Pilecap Foundation 2

Now allowable shear = Vc1 =

1000 lb

= 2x(4000) x 90 x 22 lb = 250.4 x

0.75.Vc1=187.84 Kip

V < Vc1, Hence Safe

Parallel to Z Axis

For shear wrt Z1Z1

Contribution from pile 1 =49.849 x 0.444=22.155 Kip

Contribution from pile 4 =49.849 x 0.444=22.155 Kip

Contribution from pile 2,3 =0 KN

So Total V Z1Z1 = 44.31 Kip

For shear wrt Z2Z2

Contribution from pile 2 =65.409 x 0.444=29.04 Kip

Contribution from pile 3 =65.409 x 0.444=29.04 Kip

Contribution from pile 1,4 =0 KN

So Total V Z2Z2 = 58.08 Kip

So V parallel to Z direction = 58.08 kip

Now allowable shear = Vc1 =

1000 lb

= 2x(4000) x 90 x 22 lb = 250.4 x

V < Vc1, Hence Safe

Chapter 5

5.13 US Pilecap Foundation 2

Calculation of Moment

Figure 5-29: Section considered for bending

About Z Axis

Calculation of MzFor moment wrt X1X1

Contribution from pile 1=49.849 x21/12=87.24 ft kip

Contribution from pile 4=65.409 x21/12=114.46 ft kip

Contribution from pile 3,4=0 in kip

So Total Mz X1X1 = 207.1 ft kip

For moment wrt X2X2

Contribution from pile 4=49.849 x21/12=87.24 ft kip

5.13 US Pilecap Foundation 2

Contribution from pile 3=65.409 x21/12=114.46 ft kip

Contribution from pile 1,2=0 in kip

So Total Mz X2X2 = 207.1 ft kip

So max Mz = 207.1 ft kip

So Resisting Moment =Mnz= Muz/ =224.11 ft kip

m=fy/0.85.fc=60/(0.85x4) = 17.6471

1 = 0.85 ( as fc=4)

bal = 0.85.1.fc.87/fy.(87+fy) = 0.028507

max = 0.75. bal = 0.02138

min = 0.0018 ( as fy=60)

Rn = Mnz/b.d2 =0.0617 Ksi

2m.Rn/fy = 0.0363 <1 , Hence OK

= 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.001

So, =min = 0.0018

< max Hence OK

About X Axis

Calculation of MxFor moment wrt Z1Z1

Contribution from pile 1=from pile 4=49.849 x 21/12=87.24 ft kip

Contribution from pile 2=from pile 3=0 ft kip

So Total Mx Z1Z1 = 174.47 ft kip

For moment wrt Z2Z2

Contribution from pile 2=from pile 3=65.409 x 21/12=114.465 ft kip

Contribution from pile 1=from pile 4=0 ft kip

So Total Mx Z2Z2 = 228.93 ft kip

So Max value of MX = 228.93 ft kip

So Resisting Moment =Mnz= Muz/ =254.37 ft kip

m=fy/0.85.fc=60/(0.85x4) = 17.6471

1 = 0.85 ( as fc=4)

bal = 0.85.1.fc.87/fy.(87+fy) = 0.028507

max = 0.75. bal = 0.02138

min = 0.0018 ( as fy=60

Rn = Mnz/b.d2 =0.07 Ksi

2m.Rn/fy = 0.0412 <1 , Hence OK

Chapter 5

5.14 US Pilecap Foundation 3

So = min=0.0018

< max Hence OK

Along X Direction

= 0.0018

b= 90 inch , d=22 inch

Therefore, Astx = 3.6 in2

Along Z Direction

= 0.0018

b= 90 inch , d=22 inch

Therefore, AstZ = 3.6 in2

5.13.4 Comparison

Table 5-15: US verification example 11 comparison

STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of

Reference Result

Result

ference

Pile Reaction

49.849 Kip

49.851 Kip

None

Governing

Moment

65.409 Kip

207.1 ft kip

228.93 ft kip

Shear

51.195 Kip 58.08

Force(One-Way) Kip

Shear

Force(TwoWay)

230.516 kip

65.407 Kip

219.654 ft kip

Negligible

294.254 ft kip

51.226 Kip

None

58.14 Kip

230.517 kip

None

5.14.1 Reference

5.14.2 Problem

Design pilecap foundation with the given data: Load Fy = 1000 KN, fc = M 25, fy = Fe 415

Column Dimension = 250 mm x 250 mm, Pedestal ht= 500 mm

5.14 US Pilecap Foundation 3

Vertical capacity = 250 KN

Horizontal capacity = 50 KN

Uplift capacity = 100 KN

Figure 5-30: Elevation and Plan

5.14.3 Solution

Depth of pilecap= 1.5 x pile diameter, D = 450 mm

Take D = 655 mm

c/c pile distance = 3 x pile diameter =1200 mm

Edge distance =350 mm

Assuming five pile combination, coordinates of piles(considering pedestal at 0,0,0):

Table 5-16: Pile Coordinates in Plan

Pile X Coordinate Z Coordinate

No

(mm)

(mm)

1

-848.528

-848.528

2

-848.528

848.528

3

0

0

4

848.528

-848.528

5

848.528

848.528

Chapter 5

5.14 US Pilecap Foundation 3

Pilecap Width = 2(850)+2(350) = 2400 mm

pilecap dimension is 2400 mm x 2400 mm x 740 mm

Weight of footing = 2.4 x 2.4 x 0.74 x 25 = 106.56 KN

Weight of pedestal = 0.25 x 0.25 x 0.5 x 25 = 0.78 KN

Therefore, total load on the pilecap= (1000+106.56 +0.78) =1107.34 KN

So Pile reaction = 1107.34 /5 = 221.47 KN < 250 KN

Hence OK

As there is no lateral load , moment or uplift force, so each pile is safe in lateral & uplift

capacity.

Factored Design

Load factor for self wt is taken = 1

Load factor for axial load is taken = 1.4

So, Load on pilecap = 1.4(1000) + 1(106.56)+0 1(0.78) = 1507.34 KN

Load on each pile = 1507.34/5 = 301.468 KN

deff = 740 - 50 - 50 - 25 = 615 mm

Punching Shear

Figure 5-31: Section considered for punching shear

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d =307.5 mm from the column face.

Contribution from pile 1 = from pile2 = from pile4 = from pile 5 = 301.468

KN

Contribution from pile 3 = 0 KN

So total punching shear Vm= 1205.9 KN

Pm = 4 (250 + 307.5 + 307.5) =3460 mm

= L/B = 250/250 = 1

5.14 US Pilecap Foundation 3

V2 = (40 d/b +2)(fc) bc d = 5530.9 KN

V3= 4.(fc) bc de = 3532 KN

Vc = min(V1, V2, V3) = 3532 KN

So, 0.75 Vc =2649 KN

Vm< 0.75 Vc , Hence safe

Corner piles are 1, 2, 4, & 5

Each pile is taking reaction 301.47 KN

B1 = 1418.27 mm & B2 =2025 mm

d1 = 151 mm

d2 = 211 mm

d critical =212 mm

Effective depth = 615 mm

d critical < Effective depth, Hence Safe

Calculation of Shear

Figure 5-32: Section considered for one-way shear

Parallel to X Axis

Shear Plane is at a distance d (615 mm from face of column)

For shear wrt X1X1

Contribution from pile 1 = pile 2 = 0.8667 x 301.47 = 261.27 KN

Contribution from pile 3,4,5 =0 KN

So Total V X1X1 = 522.548 KN

Verification Manual 283

Chapter 5

5.14 US Pilecap Foundation 3

For shear wrt X2X2

Contribution from pile 4 = pile 5 = 0.8667 x 301.47=261.27 KN

Contribution from pile 3,2,1 =0 KN

So, Total V X2X2 = 522.548 KN

Shear, V, parallel to X direction = 522.548 KN

Now allowable shear = Vc1 =2(fc) bc d = 1225 KN

0.75 Vc1= 918.8 KN

V < Vc1, Hence Safe

Parallel to Z Axis

For shear wrt Z1Z1

Contribution from pile 1 =pile 4 = 0.8667 x 301.47 = 261.27 KN

Contribution from pile 2 = pile 3 = pile 5 = 0 KN

So Total V Z1Z1 = 522.548 KN

For shear wrt Z2Z2

Contribution from pile 2 = pile 5 = 0.8667 x 301.47 = 261.27 KN

Contribution from pile 1 = pile 3 = pile 4 =0 KN

So Total V Z2Z2 = 522.548 KN

Shear, V, parallel to Z direction = 522.548 KN

Now allowable shear = Vc1 =2(fc) bc d = 1225 KN

0.75 Vc1= 918.8 KN

V < Vc1, Hence Safe

Calculation of Moment

For either direction:

m = f /0.85 f = 415/(0.85 25) = 19.529

y

1

bal

1 c

= 0.75

max

min

bal

= 0.019297

y

5.14 US Pilecap Foundation 3

Figure 5-33: Section considered for moment

Calculation of MzFor moment wrt X1X1

Contribution from pile 1 = pile 2 = 301.47 x 0.725 = 218.56 KNm

Contribution from pile 3 = 0.083 x 301.47 x 0.0083 = 0.21 KNm

Contribution from pile 4= pile 5 = 0 KNm

So Total Mz X1X1 = 437.34 KNm = 440 KNm

For moment wrt X2X2

Contribution from pile 4 = pile 5 = 301.47 x 0.725 = 218.56 KNm

Contribution from pile 3 = 0.083 x 301.47 x 0.0083 = 0.21 KNm

Contribution from pile 4 = pile 5 =0 KNm

So Total Mz X2X2 = 437.34 KNm = 440 KNm

So Resisting Moment = Mnz= Muz/ = 488.89 KNm = 490 KNm

Rn = Mnz/b d2 = 0.5398 N/mm2

2 m Rn /fy = 0.0508 <1 , Hence OK

= 1/m (1-1-2m Rn /fy) =0.00132

= min =0.0018

< max , Hence OK

Calculation of MxFor moment wrt Z1Z1

Contribution from pile 1= pile 4 = 301.47 x 0.725 = 218.56 KNm

Contribution from pile 3=0.083 x 301.47 x 0.0083 = 0.21 KNm

Verification Manual 285

Chapter 5

5.14 US Pilecap Foundation 3

So Total Mx Z1Z1 = 437.34 KNm = 440 KNm

For moment wrt Z2Z2

Contribution from pile 2= pile 5 = 301.47 x 0.725 = 218.56 KNm

Contribution from pile 3 = 0.083 x 301.47 x 0.0083 = 0.21 KNm

Contribution from pile 1 = pile 4 = 0 KNm

So Total Mx Z2Z2 = 437.34 KNm = 440 KNm

So Max value of MX = 440 KNm

So Resisting Moment = Mnx = Mxux / = 488.89 KNm =490 KNm

Rn = Mnz/b d2 = 0.5398 N/mm2

2 m Rn /fy = 0.0508 <1 , Hence OK

= 1/m (1-1-2m Rn /fy) = 0.00132

So = min =0.0018

< max ,Hence OK

Along X Direction

= 0.0018

b = 2400 mm, d = 615 mm

Therefore, Astx = 2657 mm2

Along Z Direction

= 0.0018

b = 2400 mm, d = 615 mm

Therefore, Astz = 2657 mm2

5.15 US Pilecap Foundation 4

5.14.4 Comparison

Table 5-17: US verification example 11 comparison

Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of

Result

Result

ference

Pile Reaction, Service

221.5

221.4

Negligible

(KN)

Pile Reaction, Ulti301.5

301.4

Negligible

mate (KN)

Governing Moment

489

485

Negligible

(KNm)

489

485

Shear Force, One523

520

Negligible

Way (KN)

523

520

Shear Force, Two1206

1206

None

Way (KN)

5.15.1 Reference

5.15.2 Problem

Design pilecap foundation with the given data: Load Fy = -1200 KN &Mz = 100 KNm, fc =

M 25, fy = Fe 415

Column Dimension = 250 mm x 250 mm, Pedestal ht= 500 mm

Dia of pile= 300 mm

Vertical capacity = 250 KN

Horizontal capacity = 50 KN

Uplift capacity = 50 KN

Chapter 5

5.15 US Pilecap Foundation 4

Figure 5-34: Elevation and Plan

5.15.3 Solution

Depth of pilecap= 1.5 x pile diameter, D = 450 mm

Take D = 780 mm

c/c pile distance = 3 x pile diameter = 900 mm

Edge distance =350 mm

Assuming six pile combination, coordinates of piles(considering pedestal at 0,0,0):

5.15 US Pilecap Foundation 4

Table 5-18: Pile Coordinates in Plan

Pile X Coordinate Z Coordinate

No

(mm)

(mm)

1

-900

-450

2

-900

450

3

0

-450

4

0

450

5

900

-450

6

900

450

Pilecap Length =2(900) + 2(350) = 2500 mm

Pilecap Width = 900 + 2(350) = 1600 mm

pilecap dimension is 2500 mm x 1600 mm x 780 mm

Weight of footing = 2.5 x 1.6 x 0.78 x 25 = 78 KN

Weight of pedestal = 0.25 x 0.25 x 0.5 x 25 = 0.78 KN

Therefore, total load on the pilecap = 1200 + 78 + 0.78 = 1278.78 KN

So Pile reaction from axial load = 1278.78/6= 213.13 KN

So Pile reaction at Pile1 /Pile 2 = 213.13 +100 0.9/(4 0.9 0.9) = 240.91 KN

So Pile reaction at Pile3 /Pile 4 = 213.13 KN

So Pile reaction at Pile5 /Pile 6 = 213.13 - 100 0.9/(4 0.9 0.9) = 185.35 KN

So Critical Pile reaction = 240.91 KN < 250 KN

Hence OK

As there is no lateral load , moment or uplift force, so each pile is safe in lateral & uplift

capacity. Similarly, as there is no tension pile case so each pile is safe again uplift.

Factored Design

Load factor for self wt is taken = 1

Load factor for axial load is taken = 1.4

So, Load on pilecap = 1.4(1200) + 1(78) + 1(0.78) = 1758.78 KN

So Pile reaction from axial load = 1758.78/6 = 293.13 KN

Moment (Mz) = 1.4(100) = 140 KNm

So Pile reaction at Pile 1 /Pile 2 = 293.13 + 140 0.9/(4 0.9 0.9) = 332.02 KN

So Pile reaction at Pile 3 /Pile 4 = 293.13 KN

So Pile reaction at Pile 5 /Pile 6 = 293.13 -140 0.9/(4 0.9 0.9) = 254.24 KN

deff = 780 - 50 - 50 - 25 = 655 mm

Punching Shear

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d =327.5 mm from the column face.

Chapter 5

5.15 US Pilecap Foundation 4

Figure 5-35: Section considered for punching shear

Contribution from pile 3 = pile 4= 0.492(293.13) = 144.22 KN

Contribution from pile 5 = pile 6 = 1(254.24) = 254.24 KN

So total punching shear Vm= 2(333.02 + 144.22 + 254.24) = 1462.96 KN

Pm = 4 (250 + 327.5 + 327.5) = 3620 mm

= L/B = 250/250 = 1

V1= (2 +4/ c)(fc) bc d = 5904 KN

V2 = (40 d/b +2)(fc) bc d = 9090 KN

V3= 4.(fc) bc de = 3936 KN

Vc = min(V1, V2, V3) = 3936 KN

So, 0.75 Vc = 2952 KN

Vm< 0.75 Vc , Hence safe

Corner piles are 1, 2, 5, & 6

Critical Pile 1 & 2 with axial Reaction 333.02 KN

B1 = 1450 mm & B2 =2105 mm

d1 = 163 mm

d2 = 225 mm

d critical =225 mm

5.15 US Pilecap Foundation 4

d critical < Effective depth, Hence Safe

Calculation of Shear

Figure 5-36: Section considered for one-way shear

Parallel to X Axis

Shear Plane is at a distance d (655 mm from face of column)

For shear wrt X1X1

Contribution from pile 1 = pile 2 =0.9x 333.03 = 299.72 KN

Contribution from piles 3, 4, 5, &6 =0 KN

So Total V X1X1 = = 2(299.72) KN= 599.4 KN

For shear wrt X2X2

Contribution from pile 5 = pile 6 = 0.9(254.24) = 228.82 KN

Contribution from piles 1, 2, 3, &4 = 0 KN

So, Total V X2X2 = 2(228.82) = 457.63 KN

Shear, V, parallel to X direction = 599.4 KN

Chapter 5

5.15 US Pilecap Foundation 4

0.75 Vc1= 652 KN

V < Vc1, Hence Safe

Parallel to Z Axis

For shear wrt Z1Z1

Contribution from all piles = 0 KN

So Total V Z1Z1 = 0 KN

For shear wrt Z2Z2

Contribution from all piles =0 KN

So Total V Z2Z2 = 0 KN

Shear, V, parallel to Z direction = 0 KN

No shear parallel to the Z axis, Hence Safe

Calculation of Moment

For either direction:

m = f /0.85 f = 415/(0.85 25) = 19.529

y

1

bal

1 c

= 0.75

max

min

bal

= 0.019297

y

5.15 US Pilecap Foundation 4

Figure 5-37: Section considered for moment

Calculation of Mz

For moment wrt X1X1

Contribution from pile 1 = pile 2 = 333.02(0.775)= 258.1 KNm

Contribution from pile 3 = pile 4 = 0.083(293.13 0.0083) = 0.2 KNm

Contribution from pile 5 = pile 6 = 0 KNm

So Total Mz X1X1 = 516.6 KNm = 520 KNm

For moment wrt X2X2

Contribution from pile 5 = pile 6 = 254.24(0.775) = 197 KNm

Contribution from pile 3 = pile 4 = 0.083(293.13 0.0083) = 0.2 KNm

Contribution from pile 1 = pile 2 =0 KNm

So Total Mz X2X2 = 394.4 KNm = 395 KNm

So Critical value of Mz =520 KNm

So Resisting Moment = Mnz= Muz/ = 577.78 KNm = 580 KNm

Rn = Mnz/b d2 = 0.845 N/mm2

2 m Rn /fy = 0.0795 <1 , Hence OK

= 1/m (1-1-2m Rn /fy) = 0.002

= min =0.0018

min < < max , Hence OK

Chapter 5

5.15 US Pilecap Foundation 4

Calculation of Mx

For moment wrt Z1Z1

Contribution from pile 1 = 332.02(0.325) = 107.9 KNm

Contribution from pile 3 = 293.13(0.325) = 95.27 KNm

Contribution from pile 5 = 254.24(0.325) = 82.63 KNm

Contribution from piles 2, 4, &6 = 0 KNm

So Total Mx Z1Z1 =285.8 KNm = 286 KNm

For moment wrt Z2Z2

Contribution from pile 2 = 332.02(0.325) = 107.9 KNm

Contribution from pile 4 = 293.13(0.325) = 95.27 KNm

Contribution from pile 6 = 254.24(0.325)= 82.63 KNm

Contribution from piles 1, 3, & 5 = 0 KNm

So Total Mx Z2Z2 = 285.8 KNm = 286 KNm

So Max value of Mx = 286 KNm

So Resisting Moment = Mnx = Mxux / = 317.78 KNm =318 KNm

Rn = Mnz/b d2 = 0.2964 N/mm2

2 m Rn /fy = 0.0279 <1 , Hence OK

= 1/m (1-1-2m Rn /fy) = 0.00072

So = min =0.0018

< max ,Hence OK

Along X Direction

= 0.0020

b = 1600 mm, d = 655 mm

Therefore, Astx = 2096 mm2

Along Z Direction

= 0.0018

b = 2500 mm, d = 655 mm

Therefore, Astz = 2948 mm2

5.16 US Mat Combined Foundation 1

5.15.4 Comparison

Table 5-19: US verification example 13 comparison

Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of

Result

Result

ference

Pile Reaction, Service

241

241

Negligible

(KN)

241

241

Governing Moment

(KNm)

Shear Force, OneWay (KN)

Shear Force, TwoWay (KN)

213

213

213

213

185

185

185

332

185

332

332

332

293

293

293

293

254

254

254

578

254

572

Negligible

318

600

318

599

Negligible

0

1463

0

1462

Negligible

None

5.16.1 Reference

Foundation Analysis and Design Fifth Edition by J.E. Bowles, Page 475-481, Example

9-1.

5.16.2 Problem

Design a rectangular combined footing using the conventional method given. fc = 3000psi

(column and footing), fy = 60000 psi, qa = 2 ksf.

Chapter 5

5.16 US Mat Combined Foundation 1

Figure 5-38: Elevation and dimensions

Column 1

12 in. x 12 in.

4 No. 7 bars

DL = 60 kips

LL = 60 kips

Column 2

15 in. x 15 in.

4 No. 8 bars

DL = 110 kips

LL = 90 kips

5.16.3 Solution

Step 1- Find out ultimate soil pressure

Pu 1 = 1.2 x 60 + 1.6 x 60 = 168 kips

Pu 2 = 1.2 x 110 + 1.6 x 90 = 276 kips

Pw= P1 + P2 = 60 + 60 + 110 + 90 = 320 kips

Ultimate ratio UR= (168 + 276) / 320 = 1.3875

qult = qa x UR= 2 x 1.3875 = 2.775 ksf

This is necessary so that eccentricity is not introduced in finding L using working loads

and then switching to ultimate values.

resultant from center of column 1

Mcol1= R where R = Pu = 168 + 276 = 444 KN

444

= 15 x 276

= 9.324 ft

To make the resultant 444 kips (factored loads) fall at L/2:

L = (9.324 + 0.5) x 2 = 19.648 ft

We will use 19.75 ft.

5.16 US Mat Combined Foundation 1

Step 3 - Find B

BLq = 444

B=

= 8.143 ft

Uniformly distributed upward load = (Pu 1 + Pu 2) / 19.75 = 22.48 kip / ft

Shear between column 1 and 2 using integration (set integration constant by inspection):

dV =

V = 22.48 x 168

V = 0 at x =

dM =

M=

168 (x 0.5)

M = -72.76 ft-kips

Maximum negative M at V = 0 is

M=

These values are Mu values and can be directly used to compute steel quantities.

Chapter 5

5.16 US Mat Combined Foundation 1

Figure 5-39: Forces on foundation

= 22.48 x (3.625)2 / 2 = 147.7 ft-kips

Maximum shear force at the face of column 2

= 22.48 x 14.875 168 = 166.39 kips

Figure 5-40: Shear and Bending diagrams

Step 5 - Select depth based on analysis for both widebeam and diagonal tension

a. Critical location for wide-beam is readily obtained.

b. Diagonal tension may have to be investigated for three conditions:

i. three-side zone, column 1

ii. four-side zone, column 2

iii. three-side zone, column 2

Check wide beam first (slope of shear diagram = constant) using V diagram:

B vc d = 166.39 22.48 d

vc = 11.825 ksf (allowable =

5.16 US Mat Combined Foundation 1

d=

Checking diagonal tension at column 1 using d just obtained for a three-side zone and

vc =

The net shear is column load upward soil force in diagonal tension zone:

= 4.07 ft 2

A=

Actual v =

= 156.8 kips

A=

= 7.01 ft 2

And

V = 276 7.01 x

= 256.74 kips

v=

= 10.59 ft

For fy = 60 and fc = 3 ksi and b = 12 in, obtain a = 1.96As:

As (d - a/2) =

As (16.765 0.98 As) =

As = 0.94 in2 / ft

= 14.79

Chapter 5

5.16 US Mat Combined Foundation 1

p=

steel

= 0.00467 >

As = 12(0.79) = 9.48 > 7.68 in2

Run 1/3 of bars full length of footing (less 3 in end cover):

Ld is O.K.

B = 12 + 16.765 x 0.75 = 24.574 in = 2.05 ft

L =

q=

M=

= 3.585 ft

x 12 = 773.45 in-kips

As = 0.98 in2 / ft

= 14.323

Ld = 0.04 x 0.60 x 60000 x

= 26.3 in

or

Ld = 0.004 x 0.875 x 60000 = 21 in

Ld furnished = 3.585 x 12 3 = 40 in

Compute short direction steel at column 2; use d= 15 in:

B = 15 + 16 x 1.5 = 39 in = 3.25 ft

L =

= 3.46 ft

q=

5.16 US Mat Combined Foundation 1

M=

x 12 = 746.6 in-kips

As = 0.98 in2 / ft

= 14.379

At column 1 the supporting area is not on all sides; therefore the bearing stress is limited

to:

fc = 0.75 x 0.7 x fc = 1.575 ksi

p = 12 x12 x 1.575 = 226.8 > 168 kips (dowels not required for load transfer)

Use 4 dowels to provide at least 0.05Ag:

As = 0.005 x 144 = 0.72 in2

Use 4 No. 6 for 4 x (0.44) = 1.76 in2 at column 2 with concrete all around

> 2

Use 2

fc = 0.75 x 0.7 fc x 2 = 3.15 ksi

P = 15 x 15 x 3.15 = 708.75 >> 276

Use four dowels same size as column 1.

Step 9 - Conclusion

Steel in cantilever portion is found to be 0.28 for moment and 0.67 in2 / ft for minimum

requirement of 200 / fy (could use 0.28 x 1.33 >= T and S alternatively but would require

increasing other steel by 1 / 3 also)

Use 10 No. 7 bars

Run five bars full length to use as chairs for short direction steel.

Chapter 5

5.17 US General Isolated Foundation with Sliding & Overturning

5.16.4 Comparison

Table 5-20: US verification example 12 comparison

Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of

Result

Result

ference

Average Base Pressure

0.01911

0.02 kip/in2

4.657

kip/in2

Maximum Negative

543.76 ft- 529.064 ft-kips

2.70

Bending Moment

kips

Maximum Positive

147.7 ft149.12 ft-kips

0.96

Bending Moment

kips

Required Area of

0.94 in2/ft 0.909 in2/ft

3.3

Reinforcement

Sliding & Overturning

5.17.1 Reference

5.17.2 Problem

Design an isolated footing with the given data:

Density of soil =14 KN/cum

Depth of Soil = 0.5m

Density of Concrete = 25 KN/cum

Coefficient of Friction (m) = 0.5

Safe Bearing Capacity of the Soil (s) = 120 KN/m2

Factor of Safety against Overturning =1.5

Factor of Safety against Sliding = 1.5

Permissible soil pressure =

Column dimension = 0.3m x 0.3m,

Strength of concrete (fc) = M-30 = 4349.39 Psi

Strength of steel (fy) = Fe-415

Loads:

Fx =-300 KN

Fy =-500 KN

Fz=-200 KN

Mz= -10.32KNm

Mx=45.89 KNm

5.17 US General Isolated Foundation with Sliding & Overturning

Note: Self weight of footing, wt of soil and surcharge are not included for shear and

moment computations.

Figure 5-41: Plan and Elevation

5.17.3 Solution

Design started with trial dimensions of 3.75m X 3.75m X 1.0m

The base area of footing is determined using service (unfactored) loads with the net

permissible soil pressure.

Net permissible soil pressure = 120 KN/ m2

Chapter 5

5.17 US General Isolated Foundation with Sliding & Overturning

3.75m square footing (Af =14.0625 m2).

Using a depth of 1m;

Use a 3.75m

Serviceability Check

The net moments are given by:Mz = -10.32 (-300*1) = 289.68 KNm

Mx= +45.89 +(-200*1) = -154.11 KNm

The pressure at the four corners are given by:s1=((500+351.562)/14.0625)+(6*154.11/3.753)-(6*289.68/3.753)=

75.980KN/m2

s2=((500+351.562)/14.0625)-(6*154.11/3.753)-(6*289.68/3.753)=

10.0621KN/m2

s3=((500+351.562)/14.0625)-(6*154.11/3.753)+(6*289.68/3.753)=

45.131KN/m2

s4=((500+351.562)/14.0625)+(6*154.11/3.753)+(6*289.68/3.753)=

111.049KN/m2

which is < 120 KN/m2. Hence OK

Stability Check

Calculation for Overturning and Sliding

For Sliding

Along X- Direction:

Disturbing force = -300 KN

Restoring Force = *(Wt of Footing + Fy + Wt of Soil) = 474.6848 KN

Hence, Factor of Safety against Sliding = (474.6848/300) =1.5823 > 1.5 Hence Safe

Along Z- Direction:

Disturbing force = -200 KN

Restoring Force = *(Wt of Footing + Fy + Wt of Soil) = 474.6848 KN

Hence, Factor of Safety against Sliding = (474.6848/200) =2.373 > 1.5 Hence Safe

5.17 US General Isolated Foundation with Sliding & Overturning

For Overturning

About X- Direction:

Overturning Moment = Mx + Fz* (Ht of Pedestal + Depth of Footing) = 45.89

200* (0 +1) = -154.11 KN-m

Restoring Moment = (Fy + Wt of Soil + Wt of Footing) *Width of Footing*0.5

= 1780.068 KN-m

Hence, Factor of Safety against Overturning = (1780.068/154.11) =11.5506 > 1.5 Hence Safe

About Z- Direction:

Overturning Moment = Mx + Fz* (Ht of Pedestal + Depth of Footing) =-10.32

+ 300* (0 +1) = 289.68 KN-m

Restoring Moment = (Fy + Wt of Soil + Wt of Footing) *Width of Footing*0.5

= 1780.068 KN-m

Hence, Factor of Safety against Overturning = (1780.068/289.68) =6.1449 > 1.5 Hence Safe

Factored loads and soil reaction:

To proportion the footing for strength (depth and required reinforcement) factored loads are

used. For this problem, the factors used are all 1.0

The pressure at the four corners are given by:s1=(500/14.0625)+(6*154.11/3.753)-(6*289.68/3.753)=50.9804KN/m2

s2=(500/14.0625)-(6*154.11/3.753)-(6*289.68/3.753)=-14.9378KN/m2

s3=(500/14.0625)-(6*154.11/3.753)+(6*289.68/3.753)=20.1307KN/m2

s4=(500/14.0625)+(6*154.11/3.753)+(6*289.68/3.753)=86.049KN/m2

Average pressure:qu = (s1+s2+s3+s4)/4 = 35.555 KN/ m2

Figure 5-42: Critical section for punching shear is at d/2

Chapter 5

5.17 US General Isolated Foundation with Sliding & Overturning

Depth requirement for shear usually controls the footing thickness. Both wide action and

two-way action (punching shear) for strength computation need to be investigated to

determine the controlling shear criteria for depth.

Assume overall footing thickness = 1.0m and average effective thickness d = 0.92m (36.22

in)

Along Z-Z axis: Vu = qs tributary area

Bw = 3.75m = 147.6378 in

qs is given by:Average Base Pressure along one edge = (50.98041-14.9379)/2 =18.02126

KN/m2

Average Base Pressure along other edge = (20.1307+86.049)/2 = 53.0899

KN/m2

Approximate Base Pressure at the critical section = 53.0899- {(53.0899 18.02126)/3.75*0.805} =45.56183 KN/ m2 [0.805=3.75-(3.75/2+0.92+0.15)]

Hence, the one- way shear at the critical section

Vux =3.75*{45.56183*0.805+0.5*(53.0899-45.56183)*0.805}= 148.9025 KN

Along X-X axis:Vu = qs

tributary area

Bw = 3.75m = 147.6378 in

qs is given by:Average Base Pressure along one edge = (86.049+50.98041)/2 =68.5147

KN/m2

Average Base Pressure along other edge = (20.1307-14.9379)/2 = 2.5964

KN/m2

Approximate Base Pressure at the critical section = 68.5147- {(68.51472.5964)/3.75*0.805} =54.36424 KN/ m2[0.805=(3.75/20.920.15)]

Hence, the one-way shear at the critical section

Vuz =3.75*{54.36424*0.805+0.5*(68.5147-54.36424)*0.805}= 185.47 KN

Vu = (2(f'c)bwd) = 0.75(2(4349.39) 147.6378

529.0018 kips = 2354.06 KN > Vux and Vuz

Hence O.K.

Vu = qs

tributary area

36.22)/1000 =

5.17 US General Isolated Foundation with Sliding & Overturning

V

u

= 35.555

= Minimum of

= 5.304348

=

Vc = 0.75 4 x

= 100.467 kips

192.126

O.K.

Figure 5-43: Critical section for moment is at the face of column

Chapter 5

5.17 US General Isolated Foundation with Sliding & Overturning

About X Axis

Average Base Pressure along one edge = (50.98041-14.9379)/2 =18.02126

KN/m2

Average Base Pressure along other edge = (20.1307+86.049)/2 = 53.0899

KN/m2

Approximate Base Pressure at the critical section = 53.0899- {(53.0899 18.02126)/3.75*1.725} =36.958 KN/ m2 [1.725= 3.75-(3.75/2+0.15)]

Hence, the moment at the critical section

Mu =3.75*{36.958*1.725*1.725*0.5+0.5*(53.0899-36.958)*1.725*1.725*2/3}=

266.2033 KNm

KN/m2 =13.5105

Required Rn =

psi

0.00022 = (0.92/1.0)

0.00027 = 0.000207

Check minimum As required for footings of uniform thickness; for grade 415 reinforcement:

min

Since

is <

= 0.00180

min,

so

min

=0.00180

5.17 US General Isolated Foundation with Sliding & Overturning

Required As =

About Z Axis

Average Base Pressure along one edge = (86.049+50.98041)/2 =68.5147

KN/m2

KN/m2

Approximate Base Pressure at the critical section = 68.5147- {(68.51472.5964)/3.75*1.725} =38.1923 KN/ m2 [1.725=(3.75/2-0.15)]

Hence, the moment at the critical section

Mu =3.75*{38.1923*1.725*1.725*0.5+0.5*(68.5147-38.1923)*1.725*1.725*2/3}=

325.87126 KNm

Compute required As assuming tension-controlled section (

= 0.9)

KN/m2 =8.44355

Required Rn =

psi

0.00014 = (0.92/1.0)

0.00014 = 0.000129

Check minimum As required for footings of uniform thickness; for grade 415 reinforcement:

min

Since

is <

= 0.00180

min,

so

min

=0.00180

Required As =

bd= 0.00180 3.75 0.92 = 0.00621 m2 = 6210 m2m

Try with 16mm bars (Af =201.06 m2m)

So, no. of bars reqd = 6210/ 201.06 =31 bars

Critical section for development length is same as that for moment (at face of column).

As per ACI- 12.2.2 and T-1.12.2 of Reinforced Concrete Design by Salmon-Wang; For # 35M

bars and smaller:

Chapter 5

5.17 US General Isolated Foundation with Sliding & Overturning

Ld = 0.02 Ab

= 0.02* 201.06*(415/300.5)= 304.68 mm

Available development length of the bars = 0.5*(L-Dcol) C cover = 1675 mm

> 304.68 mm.

Hence OK

Clear cover (bottom and side) = 50 mm

Center-to-center bar spacing = {3750-2*(50+8)}/30 = 121.13 mm

This is to be checked with the minimum and maximum spacing permissible.

5.18 US General Isolated Foundation with Eccentric Loading

5.17.4 Comparison

Table 5-21: US verification example 14 comparison

Reference STAAD.foundation Difference (Reasons

Value of

Result

result*

there-of)

Moment about X 266.2033 269.53

Error due to

(KNm)

approximation in base

pressure interpolation

Moment about Z 325.87126 328.41 m

Error due to

(KNm)

approximation in base

pressure interpolation

Area of steel

6210

6106.05

Error due to

about X-X (mm2)

approximation in base

pressure interpolation

Area of steel

6210

6241.05

Error due to

about Z-Z (mm2)

approximation in base

pressure interpolation

Shear force

185.47

186.09

Error due to

approximation in base

(One way) along

pressure interpolation

X (KN)

Shear force

148.9025 144.21

Error due to

approximation in base

(One way) along

pressure interpolation

Z (KN)

Shear force

447.079 447.38

Negligible

(Two way) (KN)

Factor of Safety

against Sliding

(X)

Factor of Safety

against Sliding

(Z)

Factor of Safety

against

Overturning (X)

Factor of Safety

against

Overturning (Z)

1.582

1.582

Negligible

2.373

2.373

Negligible

11.5506

11.550

Negligible

6.1449

6.145

Negligible

Eccentric Loading

5.18.1 Reference

Chapter 5

5.18 US General Isolated Foundation with Eccentric Loading

5.18.2 Problem

Design an isolated footing with the given data:

Offset of column in X-direction (Oxd) =300 mm

Offset of column in Z-direction (Ozd) =300 mm

Density of soil =14 KN/m3

Depth of Soil = 0.5m

Density of Concrete = 25 KN/m3

Coefficient of Friction (m) = 0.5

Safe Bearing Capacity of the Soil (s) = 120 KN/m2

Factor of Safety against Overturning =1.5

Factor of Safety against Sliding = 1.5

Permissible soil pressure =

Column dimension = 0.3m x 0.3m,

Strength of concrete (fc) = M-30 = 4349.39 Psi

Strength of steel (fy) = Fe-415

Loads:

Fx =-300 KN

Fy =-500 KN

Fz=-200 KN

Mz= 45.89 KNm

Mx=-98.32 KNm

Note: Self weight of footing, wt of soil and surcharge are not included for shear and

moment computations.

5.18 US General Isolated Foundation with Eccentric Loading

Figure 5-44: Plan and Elevation

5.18.3 Solution

Design started with trial dimensions of 5.0m X 5.0m X 1.0m

Determination of base area of footing:

The base area of footing is determined using service (unfactored) loads with the net

permissible soil pressure.

Net permissible soil pressure = 120 KN/ m2

Required base area of footing = [500 + 0.10(500)]/120 = 4.5833 m2

5.0m square footing (Af =25 m2).

Using a depth of 1m;

Use a 5 .0m

Chapter 5

5.18 US General Isolated Foundation with Eccentric Loading

Wt. of soil = 14*0.5*{(5.0*5.0) (0.3*0.3)} =174.37 KN

Serviceability Check

The net moments are given by:

Mz =+45.89 (-300*1) +(-500*0.3) = 195.89 KNm

Mx= - 98.32 +(-200*1) (-500*0.3) = -148.32 KNm

The pressure at the four corners are given by:

1=((500+625)/25)+(6*195.89 /5.03)-(6*148.32 /5.03)=

47.28336KN/m2

2=((500+625)/25)-(6*195.89 /5.03)-(6*148.32 /5.03)= 28.478KN/m2

3=((500+625)/25)-(6*195.89 /5.03)+(6*148.32 /5.03)=42.7167KN/m2

4=((500+625)/25)+(6*195.89 /5.03)+(6*148.32 /5.03)=61.522

KN/m2

which is < 120 KN/m2. Hence OK

Stability Check

Calculation for Overturning and Sliding

For Sliding

Along X- Direction:

Disturbing force = -300 KN

Restoring Force = m*(Wt of Footing + Fy + Wt of Soil) = 649.685 KN

Hence, Factor of Safety against Sliding = (649.685/300) =2.1656 > 1.5

Hence Safe

Along Z- Direction:

Disturbing force = -200 KN

Restoring Force = m*(Wt of Footing + Fy + Wt of Soil) = 649.685 KN

Hence, Factor of Safety against Sliding = (649.685/200) =3.2484 > 1.5

Hence Safe

For Overturning

About X- Direction:

Overturning Moment = Mx + Fz* (Ht of Pedestal + Depth of Footing)= 98.32 200* (0 +1) = -298.32 KN-m

5.18 US General Isolated Foundation with Eccentric Loading

Footing) * Width of Footing*0.5 = 3098.425 KN-m

Factor of Safety against Overturning = (3098.425/298.32) =10.386 > 1.5

Hence Safe

About Z- Direction:

Overturning Moment = Mx + Fz* (Ht of Pedestal + Depth of Footing) =45.89

+ 300* (0 +1) = 345.89 KN-m

Restoring Moment = Fy * (Width of Footing *0.5 Ozd)+ (Wt of Soil + Wt of

Footing) * Width of Footing*0.5 = 3398.425 KN-m

Factor of Safety against Overturning = (3398.425/345.89) =9.82516 > 1.5

Hence Safe

Factored Loads and Soil Reaction

To proportion the footing for strength (depth and required reinforcement) factored loads are

used. For this problem, the factors used are all 1.0

The pressure at the four corners are given by:

1=(500/25)+(6*195.89 /5.03)-(6*148.32 /5.03)= 22.2834KN/m2

2=(500/25)-(6*195.89 /5.03)-(6*148.32 /5.03)= 3.47792KN/m2

3=(500/25)-(6*195.89 /5.03)+(6*148.32 /5.03)=17.7167KN/m2

4=(500/25)+(6*195.89 /5.03)+(6*148.32 /5.03)=36.52208KN/m2

Average pressure:

qu = (1+2+3+4)/4 = 20.000 KN/ m2

Figure 5-45: Critical section for punching shear at d/2

Depth requirement for shear usually controls the footing thickness. Both wide action and

two-way action (punching shear) for strength computation need to be investigated to

determine the controlling shear criteria for depth.

Assume overall footing thickness = 1.0m and average effective thickness d = 0.92m (36.22

in)

Chapter 5

5.18 US General Isolated Foundation with Eccentric Loading

Along Z-Z axis: Vu = qs

tributary area

Bw = 5.00m = 196.8504 in

qs is given by:

Average Base Pressure along one edge =(22.2834+3.47792)/2 =12.8806 KN/m2

Average Base Pressure along other edge =(17.7167+36.5221)/2 = 27.1194 KN/m2

Approximate Base Pressure at the critical section = 27.1194- {(27.1194

12.8806)/5.0*1.13} =23.9014 KN/ m2 [1.13=5 -(5/2 +0.3 +0.92 +0.15)]

Hence, the one- way shear at the critical section

Vux =5.0*{23.9014*1.13+0.5*(27.1194-23.9014)*1.13}= 144.134 KN

Along X-X axis:

Vu = qs

tributary area

Bw = 5.00m = 196.8504 in

qs is given by:

Average Base Pressure along one edge =(36.5221+22.2834)/2 =29.4027 KN/m2

Average Base Pressure along other edge =(17.7167+3.47792)/2 = 10.5973 KN/m2

Approximate Base Pressure at the critical section = 29.4027- {(29.4027-10.5973)/5.0*1.73}

=22.89603 KN/ m2 [ 1.73=(5/2 +0.3 0.92 0.15)]

Hence, the one-way shear at the critical section

Vuz =5.0*{22.89603*1.73+0.5*(29.4027-22.89603)*1.73}= 226.1924 KN

Vu = (2(f'c)bwd) = 0.75(2(4349.39) 196.8504

705.3265 kips = 3138.703 KN > Vux and Vuz

36.22)/1000 =

Hence O.K.

Vu = qs

tributary area

V

u

5.18 US General Isolated Foundation with Eccentric Loading

= Minimum of

bo = 2(0.3+0.3+2*0.92) = 4.88m =192.126 in

= 5.304348

=

Vc = 0.75 4 x

= 100.467 kips O.K.

192.126

Critical section for moment is at the face of column

Chapter 5

5.18 US General Isolated Foundation with Eccentric Loading

About X-Axis

Average Base Pressure along one edge = (22.2834+3.47792)/2 =12.8806

KN/m2

Average Base Pressure along other edge = (17.7167+36.5221)/2 = 27.1194

KN/m2

Approximate Base Pressure at the critical section = 27.1194- {(27.1194

12.8806)/5.0*2.05} =21.2815 KN/ m2 [2.05 =5-(5/2+0.3+0.15)]

Hence, the moment at the critical section

Mu = 5.0*{21.2815 *2.05*2.05*0.5+0.5*(27.1194-21.2815)* 2.05*2.05*2/3}=

264.48 KNm

Required Rn =

0.0001675 = (0.92/1.0)

0.0001675 = 0.0001541

Check minimum As required for footings of uniform thickness; for grade 415 reinforcement:

min = 0.00180

Since is < min , = min =0.00180

Required As = bd= 0.00180 5.0 0.92 = 0.00828 m2 = 8280 mm2

About Z- axis:

Average Base Pressure along one edge = (36.5221+22.2834)/2 =29.4027

KN/m2

Average Base Pressure along other edge = (17.7167+3.47792)/2 = 10.5973

KN/m2

Approximate Base Pressure at the critical section = 29.4027- {(29.402710.5973)/5.0*2.65} =19.4358 KN/ m2 [2.65 =(5/2+0.3-0.15)]

Hence, the moment at the critical section

Mu =5.0*{19.4358 *2.65*2.65*0.5+0.5*(29.4027 19.4358)*2.65*2.65*2/3}=

457.874 KNm

Compute required As assuming tension-controlled section (

= 0.9)

5.18 US General Isolated Foundation with Eccentric Loading

Required Rn =

0.00029 = (0.92/1.0)

0.00029 = 0.000267

Check minimum As required for footings of uniform thickness; for grade 415 reinforcement:

min = 0.00180

Since is < min , = min =0.00180

Required As = bd = 0.00180 5.0 0.92 = 0.00828 m2 = 8280 mm2

Try with 20 mm bars (Af =314.16 mm2)

So, no. of bars required = 8280/ 314.16 =27 bars

Critical section for development length is same as that for moment (at face of column).

As per ACI- 12.2.2 and T-1.12.2 of Reinforced Concrete Design by Salmon-Wang:

Ld = 0.02 Ab

(For # 35M bars and smaller)

= 0.02* 314.16*(415/300.5)= 476.0625m

Available development length of the bars= 0.5*(L-Dcol) C cover = 2375 mm

> 476.0625 mm. Hence OK

Clear cover (bottom and side) = 50mm

Center-to-center bar spacing = {5000-2*(50+10)}/26 = 187.6923 mm

This is to be checked with the minimum and maximum spacing permissible.

Chapter 5

5.18 US General Isolated Foundation with Eccentric Loading

5.18.4 Comparison

Table 5-22: US verification example 15 comparison

Reference STAAD.foundation Difference (Reasons

Value of

Result

result*

there-of)

Moment about X 264.48

264.53 KNm

Negligible

KNm

Moment about Z 457.874

457.83 KNm

Negligible

KNm

Area of steel

8280

8906.40 mm2

Error due to

about X-X

mm2

approximation in

base pressure

interpolation

Area of steel

8280

8321.40 mm2

Error due to

about Z-Z

mm2

approximation in

base pressure

interpolation

Shear force

226.1924 225.67 KN

Error due to

KN

approximation in

(One way) along

base pressure

X

interpolation

Shear force

144.134

143.58 KN

Negligible

KN

(One way) along

Z

Shear force

470.232

470.01 KN

Negligible

KN

(Two way)

Factor of Safety

2.1656

2.166

Negligible

against Sliding

(X)

Factor of Safety

3.2484

3.248

Negligible

against Sliding

(Z)

Factor of Safety

10.386

10.386

Negligible

against

Overturning (X)

Factor of Safety

9.82516

9.825

Negligible

against

Overturning (Z)

Section 6

318 -2005)

6.1 Deadman Guy Anchor US 1

6.1.1 Reference

380 ft Brenham (Wesley), TX guyed tower Design Project

6.1.2 Problem

Design an anchor block for a guy rod supporting the following load condition

Axial Tension = 83.815 Kip

Slope with Horizontal = 54.231 degree

Min area required for guy rod =1.677 sq.inch, i.e if single guy rod is used,min

dia of rod required = 1.5 inch

Necessary Factors of Safety are as follows

FOS against Uplift = 1.5

FOS against sliding = 2

Ultimate Load Factor = 1.3

Material SpecificationAssume Strength of Concrete = 4 Ksi

Strength of Steel = 60 Ksi

Chapter 6

6.1 Deadman Guy Anchor US 1

unit weight of Concrete = 150 lb/cu.ft

unit weight of Soil = 62.4 lb/cu.ft

Soil & GWT conditionTable 6-1: Soil Test Report Summary

Layer

Layer

Depth of Cohesion

Angle of

Index No

Type

Layer

(psf)

Friction

1

Sand

(0-2)

0

20

2

Sand

(2-15)

0

30

3

Sand

(15-below) 0

30

Dry Density

(pcf)

115

115

115

Assume soil cone angle of uplift = 30 degree

6.1.3 Solution

First let us calculate the Horizontal & Vertical components of Axial Tension at guy rod

Horizontal component of load (H) = P.cos = 83.815 x Cos 54.231 =

48.9656 Kip

Vertical component of load (V)= P.sin = 83.815 x Sin 54.231 = 68.0245

Kip

Properties of soil (divided into relevant small strips each max 1/2 ft thick)

6.1 Deadman Guy Anchor US 1

Kp=tan2 (450- /2)

Note: is in degrees

Pa = .h.Kp

So Pa or a particular layer = Pa of previous layer + .h.Ka

Where:

Ka= Active EP coeff of the present layer

= Soil density of Soil at present layer

h= Thickness of present layer)

Chapter 6

6.1 Deadman Guy Anchor US 1

Thus

Pp= .h.Kp + 2C.Kp

So Pp or a particular layer = Pp of previous layer + .h.Kp

Where:

Kp= Passive EP coeff of the present layer

= Soil density of Soil at present layer

h= Thickness of present layer

C= Cohesion of Present layer)

Note: Here, = Density of soil which is used when soil layer is above GWT

If Soil layer is below GWT then submerged density of soil (-soil) is used

Adhesion factor = 0.31 + 0.34/C

Figure 6-1: Deadman Anchor Guy Tension Block section

<=1

C= Cohesion in Kip/ft 2 unit

6.1 Deadman Guy Anchor US 1

Figure 6-2: Dispersion of soil against vertical uplift diagram

Soil Depth

upper lvl of

layer(ft)

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

3.5

4

4.5

5

5.5

6

6.5

7

7.5

8

8.5

9

9.5

10

10.5

11

11.5

12

12.5

Soil Depth

lower lvl of

layer(ft)

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

3.5

4

4.5

5

5.5

6

6.5

7

7.5

8

8.5

9

9.5

10

10.5

11

11.5

12

12.5

13

avg Pp effective on

block surface (psf)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2167.1918

2340.028

2512.8643

2638.8093

2717.8631

2796.9169

2875.9707

0

0

0

0

0

0

weighted

avg Pp

(lb/ft)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1083.596

1170.014

1256.432

1319.405

1358.932

1398.458

1437.985

0

0

0

0

0

0

Chapter 6

6.1 Deadman Guy Anchor US 1

Soil Depth

upper lvl of

layer(ft)

13

13.5

14

14.5

Soil Depth

lower lvl of

layer(ft)

13.5

14

14.5

15

avg Pp effective on

block surface (psf)

0

0

0

0

weighted

avg Pp

(lb/ft)

0

0

0

0

Tot Passive resistance per unit length = 9024.823 lb/ft

Length = 11.5 ft

Tot Passive resistance = 9024.823 x 11.5 /1000 = 103.786 kip

Allowable Horizontal Load on Anchor = 48.9656 Kip

Safety Factor against Horizontal Load = 103.786 / 48.9656 = 2.12

FOS is greater than min required FOS, Hence OK

given value of dispersion angle = 30 degree

Let us consider wedge at all sides with dimension of 0.5 ft

As wedge is present so dispersion is to be started from bottom of block

6.1 Deadman Guy Anchor US 1

Height of water effecting the weight of concrete = 10 - 8 = 2 ft

Weight of Concre Block = LxBxHx unit wt of concrete = 11.5 x 4 x 3.5 x 0.15

= 24.15 kip

reduction of concrete weight due to buoyancy = 2 x 4 x 11.5 x 62.4/1000 =

5.7408 kip

So, total buoyant weight of concrete = 24.15-5.7408 = 18.4092Kip

Weight of soil over top of anchor in a truncated pyramid = 215.93 Kip

Uplift Resistance due to Soil/Concrete Adhesion = 0 Kip

Therefore, Total resistance against uplift = 18.4092 + 215.93 + 0 = 234.34 Kip

Allowable anchor uplift resistance = V = 68.0245 Kip

Net Safety factor = 234.34 / 68.0245 = 3.445

Safety Factor against Horizontal Load = 1.5

FOS is greater than min required FOS, Hence OK

Chapter 6

6.1 Deadman Guy Anchor US 1

Top Rebar Design Check

Figure 6-4: Top rebar force diagram

Length (L)= 11.5 Kip

Force/Length = w=V/L = 5.91517391304348 Kip

Bending Moment = w.L2/8 = 97.786 ft kip

Factored Moment M = 97.786 x 1.3 = 127.1218 ft kip

Strength of concrete = 4 Ksi

Strength of Steel = 60 Ksi

Figure 6-5: Bending moment diagram - top

= 0.9

= 0.85 - 0.05x (fc-4)

0.85>= >=0.65

= 0.85

width (B) = 4 ft

Effective Depth = Deff = D-clear cover-Tie bar dia -0.5xtop rebar dia

Hence, deff = 38.19 inch

Area of each top rebar = 0.601015625 sq.inch

Total area of Top Rebar = As = 2.4040625 Ksi

a = As.fy/(.fck.B) = 0.883847 inch

6.1 Deadman Guy Anchor US 1

ratio = 408.37 / 127.1218 = 3.213 >1,

Hence OK

Resisting Moment is greater than Factored Moment, Hence Safe

Vertical Force (V)= 48.9656 Kip

Length (L) = 11.5 ft

Force/Length = w=V/L = 4.25787826086957 Kip/ft

Bending Moment = w.L2/8 = 70.389 ft kip

Factored Moment M = 91.5057 ft kip

Strength of concrete = 4 Ksi

Figure 6-6: Bending moment diagram - front face

= 0.9

= 0.85 - 0.05x (fc-4)

0.85>= >=0.65

= 0.85

width (B) = 3.5 ft

Effective Depth = Deff = D-clear cover-Tie bar dia -0.5xtop rebar dia

Hence, deff = 44.19 inch

Area of each front rebar = 0.601015625 sq.inch

Total area of Front Rebar = As = 1.803046875 sq.inch

a = As.fy/(.fck.B) = 0.757583 inch

Resisting Moment = M1 = .As.fy.(deff-a/2) = 355.47 ft kip

ratio = 355.472 / 91.5057 = 3.885 >1, Hence OK

Resisting Moment is greater than Factored Moment, Hence Safe

Chapter 6

6.2 Deadman Guy Anchor US 2

6.1.4 Comparison

Table 6-2: Deadman Anchor (US)verification example 1 comparison

Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of

Result

Result

ference

Sliding Resistance (kips)

103.786

103.71

Negligible

Uplift Resistance (kips)

234.34

234.495

Negligible

Horizontal FOS

2.12

2.117

Negligible

Vertical FOS

3.445

3.448

Negligible

Factored moment resisted by top rebar

127.122

127.086

Negligible

(ft-kip)

Max. moment capacity (vertically hog408.37

407.66

Negligible

ging) (ft-kip)

Factored moment resisted by front

91.506

91.553

Negligible

rebar (ft-kip)

Max. moment capacity (horizontally

355.472

354.856

Negligible

hogging) (ft-kip)

6.2.1 Reference

380 ft Brenham (Wesley), TX guyed tower Design Project

6.2.2 Problem

Design an anchor block for a guy rod supporting the following load conditionAxial Tension = 75.926 Kip

Slope with Horizontal = 49.816 degree

Min area required for guy rod =1.519 sq.inch, i.e if single rod is used,min dia of rod

required = 1.4 inch

6.2 Deadman Guy Anchor US 2

Figure 6-7: Deadman Anchor Guy Tension Block section

FOS against sliding = 2

Ultimate Load Factor = 1.3

Material SpecificationAssume Strength of Concrete = 4 Ksi

Strength of Steel = 60 Ksi

Strength of Gye Rod steel = 50 Ksi

unit weight of Concrete = 150 lb/cu.ft

unit weight of Soil = 62.4 lb/cu.ft

Soil & GWT condition

Table 6-3: Soil

Layer

Layer

Depth of

Index No

Type

Layer

1

clay

(0-2)

2

clay

(2-15)

3

clay

(15-below)

Cohesion

Angle of

(psf)

Friction

0

0

800

0

800

0

Dry Density

(pcf)

106

106

106

Assume soil cone angle of uplift = 0 degree

6.2.3 Solution

First let us calculate the Horizontal & Vertical components of Axial Tension at gyerod

Chapter 6

6.2 Deadman Guy Anchor US 2

48.9706 Kip

Vertical component of load (V)= P.sin = 75.926 x Sin 49.816 = 58.0229

Kip

Properties of soil (divided into relevant small strips each max 1/2 ft thick)

Kp=tan2 (450 - /2)

Note: is in degree

Pa = .h.Kp

6.2 Deadman Guy Anchor US 2

So Pa or a particular layer = Pa of previous layer + .h.Ka

Where:

Ka= Active EP coeff of the present layer

= Soil density of Soil at present layer

h= Thickness of present layer

Thus

Pp= .h.Kp + 2C.Kp

So Pp or a particular layer = Pp of previous layer + .h.Kp

Where:

Kp= Passive EP coeff of the present layer

= Soil density of Soil at present layer

h= Thickness of present layer

C= Cohesion of Present layer

Note: Here = Density of soil which is used when soil layer is above GWT

If Soil layer is below GWT then submerged density of soil (-soil) is used

Adhesion factor = 0.31 + 0.34/C

<=1

C= Cohesion in Kip/ft 2 unit

Figure 6-8: Dispersion of soil against vertical uplift

Chapter 6

6.2 Deadman Guy Anchor US 2

Soil Depth

upper lvl of

layer(ft)

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

3.5

4

4.5

5

5.5

6

6.5

7

7.5

8

8.5

9

9.5

10

10.5

11

11.5

12

12.5

13

13.5

14

14.5

Soil Depth

avg Pp effective on

lower lvl of

block surface (psf)

layer(ft)

0.5

0

1

0

1.5

0

2

0

2.5

0

3

0

3.5

0

4

0

4.5

0

5

0

5.5

0

6

0

6.5

0

7

2317.4172

7.5

2370.4843

8

2423.5513

8.5

2460.9987

9

2482.8262

9.5

2504.6538

10

2526.4814

10.5

0

11

0

11.5

0

12

0

12.5

0

13

0

13.5

0

14

0

14.5

0

15

0

weighted

avg Pp

(lb/ft)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1158.709

1185.242

1211.776

1230.499

1241.413

1252.327

1263.241

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Tot Passive resistance per unit length = 8543.207 lb/ft

Length = 14 ft

Tot Passive resistance = 8543.207 x 14 /1000 = 119.605 kip

Allowable Horizontal Load on Anchor = 48.9706 Kip

Safety Factor against Horizontal Load = 119.605 / 48.9706 = 2.443

FOS is greater than min required FOS, Hence OK

6.2 Deadman Guy Anchor US 2

given value of dispersion angle = 0 degree

Let us consider no wedge to support uplift load

As wedge is not present so dispersion is to be started from top of block

Height of water effecting the weight of concrete = 10 - 8 = 2 ft

Weight of Concrete Block = LxBxHx unit wt of concrete = 14 x 4 x 3.5 x 0.15

= 29.4 kip

reduction of concrete weight due to buoyancy = 2 x 4 x 14 x 62.4/1000 =

6.9888 kip

So, total buoyant weight of concrete = 29.4-6.9888 = 22.4112Kip

Weight of soil over top of anchor in a truncated pyramid = 38.58 Kip

Uplift Resistance due to Soil/Concrete Adhesion = 74.08 Kip

Therefore, Total resistance against uplift = 22.4112 + 38.58 + 74.08 = 135.072

Kip

Allowable anchor uplift resistance = V = 58.0229 Kip

Net Safety factor = 135.072 / 58.0229 = 2.328

Safety Factor against Horizontal Load = 1.5

FOS is greater than min required FOS, Hence OK

Verification Manual 335

Chapter 6

6.2 Deadman Guy Anchor US 2

Top Rebar Design Check

Vertical Force (V)= 58.0229 Kip

Length (L)= 14 Kip

Figure 6-9: Top rebar force diagram

Bending Moment = w.L2/8 = 101.541 ft kip

Factored Moment M = 101.541 x 1.3 = 132.0033 ft kip

Strength of concrete = 4 Ksi

Strength of Steel = 60 Ksi

= 0.9

= 0.85 - 0.05x (fc-4)

0.85>= >=0.65

= 0.85

width (B) = 4 ft

Effective Depth = Deff = D-clear cover-Tie bar dia -0.5xtop rebar dia

Figure 6-10: Bending moment diagram - top

Area of each top rebar = 0.601015625 sq.inch

Total area of Top Rebars = As = 2.4040625 Ksi

a = As.fy/(.fck.B) = 0.883847 inch

336 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

6.2 Deadman Guy Anchor US 2

ft kip

ratio = 408.37 / 132.0033 = 3.094 >1, Hence OK

Resisting Moment is greater than Factored Moment, Hence Safe

Vertical Force (V)= 48.9706 Kip

Length (L) = 14 ft

Force/Length = w=V/L = 3.4979 Kip/ft

Bending Moment = w.L2/8 = 85.699 ft kip

Factored Moment M = 111.4087 ft kip

Figure 6-11: Bending moment diagram - front face

Strength of Steel = 60 Ksi

= 0.9

= 0.85 - 0.05x (fc-4)

0.85>= >=0.65

= 0.85

width (B) = 3.5 ft

Effective Depth = Deff = D-clear cover-Tie bar dia -0.5xtop rebar dia

Hence, deff = 44.19 inch

Area of each front rebar = 0.601015625 sq.inch

Total area of Front Rebar = As = 1.803046875 sq.inch

a = As.fy/(.fck.B) = 0.757583 inch

Resisting Moment = M1 = .As.fy.(deff-a/2) = 355.47 ft kip

ratio = 355.472 / 111.4087 = 3.191 >1, Hence OK

Resisting Moment is greater than Factored Moment, Hence Safe

Chapter 6

6.3 Deadman Guy Anchor US 3

6.2.4 Comparison

Table 6-5: Deadman Anchor (US)verification example 2 comparison

Reference STAAD.foundation Percent

Value of

Result

Result

Difference

Sliding Resistance (Kip)

119.605

119.542

negligible

Uplift Resistance (Kip)

135.072

135.123

negligible

Horizontal FOS

2.443

2.44

negligible

Vertical FOS

2.328

2.329

negligible

factored moment resisted by 132.0033 131.963

negligible

top rebar ( ft kip)

Max moment capacity

408.37

407.66

negligible

(vertically hogging) (ft kip)

factored moment resisted by 111.4087 111.454

negligible

front rebar (ft kip)

Max moment capacity

355.472

354.865

negligible

(horizontally hogging)

(ft kip)

6.3.1 Reference

380 ft Brenham (Wesley), TX guyed tower Design Project

6.3.2 Problem

Design an anchor block for a guy rod supporting the following load condition

Axial Tension = 92.435 Kip

Slope with Horizontal = 31.289 degree

Min area required for guy rod =1.849 sq.inch, i.e if single rod is used,min dia

of rod required = 1.6 inch

Necessary FOS are as follows

FOS against Uplift = 1.5

FOS against sliding = 2

Ultimate Load Factor = 1.3

Material Specification

Assume Strength of Concrete = 4 Ksi

Strength of Steel = 60 Ksi

Strength of Gye Rod steel = 50 Ksi

unit weight of Concrete = 150 lb/cu.ft

unit weight of Soil = 62.4 lb/cu.ft

6.3 Deadman Guy Anchor US 3

Soil & GWT condition

Table 6-6: Soil test report summary

Layer

Layer

Depth of Cohesion

Angle of

Index No

Type

Layer

(psf)

Friction

1

silt

(0-2)

500

20

2

silt

(2-15)

500

20

3

silt

(15- below) 500

20

Dry Density

(pcf)

105

105

105

Assume soil cone angle of uplift = 20 degree

6.3.3 Solution

First let us calculate the Horizontal & Vertical components of Axial Tension at gyerod

Horizontal component of load (H) = P.cos = 92.435 x Cos 31.289 =

78.9806 Kip

Vertical component of load (V)= P.sin = 92.435 x Sin 31.289 = 48.024 Kip

Properties of soil (divided into relevant small strips each max 1/2 ft thick)

Chapter 6

6.3 Deadman Guy Anchor US 3

Kp=tan2 (450+/2)

Kp=tan2 (450-/2)

Note: is in degree

Pa = .h.Kp

6.3 Deadman Guy Anchor US 3

Figure 6-12: Deadman Anchor Guy Tension Block section

Where:

Ka= Active EP coeff of the present layer

= Soil density of Soil at present layer

Pp= .h.Kp + 2C.Kp

So Pp or a particular layer = Pp of previous layer + .h.Kp

Where:

Kp= Passive EP coeff of the present layer

= Soil density of Soil at present layer

Note: Here = Density of soil which is used when soil layer is above GWT

If Soil layer is below GWT then submerged density of soil (-soil) is used

Adhesion factor = 0.31 + 0.34/C

<=1

C= Cohesion in Kip/ft 2 unit

Chapter 6

6.3 Deadman Guy Anchor US 3

Figure 6-13: Dispersion of soil against vertical uplift diagram

Soil Depth

upper lvl of

layer(ft)

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

3.5

4

4.5

5

5.5

6

6.5

7

7.5

8

8.5

9

9.5

10

10.5

11

11.5

Soil Depth

avg Pp effective on

lower lvl of

block surface (psf)

layer(ft)

0.5

0

1

0

1.5

0

2

0

2.5

0

3

0

3.5

0

4

0

4.5

0

5

0

5.5

0

6

0

6.5

0

7

0

7.5

2984.5298

8

3091.7854

8.5

3167.1708

9

3210.6859

9.5

3254.2011

10

3297.7162

10.5

3341.2313

11

3384.7465

11.5

3428.2616

12

3471.7768

weighted

avg Pp

(lb/ft)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1492.265

1545.893

1583.585

1605.343

1627.101

1648.858

1670.616

1692.373

1714.131

1735.888

6.3 Deadman Guy Anchor US 3

Soil Depth

upper lvl of

layer(ft)

12

12.5

13

13.5

14

14.5

Soil Depth

lower lvl of

layer(ft)

12.5

13

13.5

14

14.5

15

avg Pp effective on

block surface (psf)

0

0

0

0

0

0

weighted

avg Pp

(lb/ft)

0

0

0

0

0

0

Tot Passive resistance per unit length = 16316.053 lb/ft

Length = 10 ft

Tot Passive resistance = 16316.053 x 10 /1000 = 163.161 kip

Allowable Horizontal Load on Anchor = 78.9806 Kip

Safety Factor against Horizontal Load = 163.161 / 78.9806 = 2.066

FOS is greater than min required FOS, Hence OK

given value of dispersion angle = 20 degree

Let us consider no wedge to support uplift load

As wedge is not present so dispersion is to be started from top of block

Chapter 6

6.3 Deadman Guy Anchor US 3

Height of water effecting the weight of concrete = 12 - 8 = 4 ft

Weight of Concre Block = LxBxHx unit wt of concrete = 10 x 4 x 5 x 0.15 =

30 kip

reduction of concrete weight due to buoyancy = 4 x 4 x 10 x 62.4/1000 =

9.984 kip

So, total buoyant weight of concrete = 30-9.984 = 20.016Kip

Weight of soil over top of anchor in a truncated pyramid = 61.98 Kip

Uplift Resistance due to Soil/Concrete Adhesion = 69.3 Kip

6.3 Deadman Guy Anchor US 3

Kip

Allowable anchor uplift resistance = V = 48.024 Kip

Net Safety factor = 151.296 / 48.024 = 3.151

Safety Factor against Horizontal Load = 1.5

FOS is greater than min required FOS, Hence OK

Now Design check for the top & front face rebar are to be

done

Top Rebar Design Check

Vertical Force (V)= 48.024 Kip

Figure 6-15: Top rebar force diagram

Force/Length = w=V/L = 4.8024 Kip

Bending Moment = w.L2/8 = 60.03 ft kip

Factored Moment M = 60.03 x 1.3 = 78.039 ft kip

Strength of concrete = 4 Ksi

Strength of Steel = 60 Ksi

= 0.9

= 0.85 - 0.05x (fc-4)

0.85>= >=0.65

= 0.85

width (B) = 4 ft

Effective Depth = Deff = D-clear cover-Tie bar dia -0.5xtop rebar dia

Chapter 6

6.3 Deadman Guy Anchor US 3

Figure 6-16: Bending moment diagram - top

Area of each top rebar = 0.601015625 sq.inch

Total area of Top Rebars = As = 2.4040625 Ksi

a = As.fy/(.fck.B) = 0.883847 inch

Resisting Moment = M1 = .As.fy.(deff-a/2) = 603.1 ft kip

ratio = 603.099 / 78.039 = 7.729 >1, Hence OK

Resisting Moment is greater than Factored Moment, Hence Safe

Vertical Force (V)= 78.9806 Kip

Length (L) = 10 ft

Force/Length = w=V/L = 7.89806 Kip/ft

Bending Moment = w.L2/8 = 98.726 ft kip

Factored Moment M = 128.3438 ft kip

Figure 6-17: Bending moment diagram - front face

Strength of Steel = 60 Ksi

= 0.9

= 0.85 - 0.05x (fc-4)

0.85>= >=0.65

= 0.85

width (B) = 5 ft

Effective Depth = Deff = D-clear cover-Tie bar dia -0.5xtop rebar dia

6.4 Deadman Guy Anchor US 4

Area of each front rebar = 0.601015625 sq.inch

Total area of Front Rebar = As = 1.803046875 sq.inch

a = As.fy/(.fck.B) = 0.530308 inch

Resisting Moment = M1 = .As.fy.(deff-a/2) = 356.39 ft kip

ratio = 356.394 / 128.3438 = 2.777 >1, Hence OK

Resisting Moment is greater than Factored Moment, Hence Safe

6.3.4 Comparison

Table 6-8: Deadman Anchor (US)verification example 3 comparison

Reference STAAD.foundation Percent

Value of

Result

Result

Difference

Sliding Resistance (Kip)

163.161

163.306

Negligible

Uplift Resistance (Kip)

151.296

151.355

Negligible

Horizontal FOS

2.066

2.064

Negligible

Vertical FOS

3.151

3.153

Negligible

factored moment resisted by

78.039

78.011

Negligible

top rebar ( ft kip)

Max moment capacity

603.099 602.06

Negligible

(vertically hogging) (ft kip)

factored moment resisted by

128.3438 128.361

Negligible

front rebar (ft kip)

Max moment capacity

356.394

355.775

Negligible

(horizontally hogging) (ft kip)

6.4.1 Reference

6.4.2 Problem

Design an anchor block for a guy rod supporting the following load conditionAxial Tension = 250 Kip

Slope with Horizontal = 50 degree

Min area required for guy rod =4.167 sq.inch, (i.e if single rod is used, then

min dia of rod required = 2.4 inch).

Chapter 6

6.4 Deadman Guy Anchor US 4

Figure 6-18: Deadman Anchor Guy Tension Block section

FOS against sliding = 2

Ultimate Load Factor = 1.3

Material SpecificationAssume Strength of Concrete = 4 Ksi

Strength of Steel = 60 Ksi

Strength of Gye Rod steel = 60 Ksi

unit weight of Concrete = 150 lb/cu.ft

unit weight of Soil = 62.4 lb/cu.ft

Soil & GWT condition

Layer

Index No

1

2

3

4

5

6

8

Layer

Type

sand

silt

silt

silt

silt

silt

silt

Depth of Cohesion

Angle of

Layer

(psf)

Friction

(0-3)

0

20

(3-5)

500

22

(5-8)

800

15

(8-10)

800

20

(10-12)

850

15

(12-20)

850

15

(20-below) 850

15

Assume soil cone angle of uplift = 28 degree

Dry Density

(pcf)

104

105

105

106

106

106

106

6.4 Deadman Guy Anchor US 4

6.4.3 Solution

First let us calculate the Horizontal & Vertical components of Axial Tension at guy rod

Horizontal component of load (H) = P.cos = 250 x Cos 50 = 160.6297 Kip

Properties of soil (divided into relevant small strips each max 1/2 ft thick)

Kp=tan2 (450+/2)

Kp=tan2 (450-/2)

Note: is in degree

Pa = .h.Kp

So Pa or a particular layer = Pa of previous layer + .h.Ka

Where:

Ka= Active EP coeff of the present layer

= Soil density of Soil at present layer

h= Thickness of present layer)

Pp= .h.Kp + 2C.Kp

So Pp or a particular layer = Pp of previous layer + .h.Kp

Where

Kp= Passive EP coeff of the present layer

= Soil density of Soil at present layer

h= Thickness of present layer

C= Cohesion of Present layer

Note: Here = Density of soil which is used when soil layer is above GWT

If Soil layer is below GWT then submerged density of soil (-soil) is used

Adhesion factor = 0.31 + 0.34/C

<=1

C= Cohesion in Kip/ft 2 unit

Chapter 6

6.4 Deadman Guy Anchor US 4

Figure 6-19: Dispersion of soil against vertical uplift diagram

6.4 Deadman Guy Anchor US 4

Tot Passive resistance per unit length = 34451.907 lb/ft

Length = 12 ft

Verification Manual 351

Chapter 6

6.4 Deadman Guy Anchor US 4

Allowable Horizontal Load on Anchor = 160.6297 Kip

Safety Factor against Horizontal Load = 413.423 / 160.6297 = 2.574

FOS is greater than min required FOS, Hence OK

given value of dispersion angle = 28 degree

Let us consider wedge at all sides with dimension of 0.5 ft

As wedge is present so dispersion is to be started from bottom of block

Height of water effecting the weight of concrete = 16 - 9 = 7 ft

Weight of Concrete Block = LxBxHx unit wt of concrete = 12 x 6 x 8 x 0.15 =

86.4 kip

6.4 Deadman Guy Anchor US 4

31.4496 kip

So, total buoyant weight of concrete = 86.4-31.4496 = 54.9504Kip

Weight of soil over top of anchor in a truncated pyramid = 491.29 Kip

Uplift Resistance due to Soil/Concrete Adhesion = 172.97 Kip

Therefore, Total resistance against uplift = 54.9504 + 491.29 + 172.97 =

719.211 Kip

Allowable anchor uplift resistance = V = 191.5676 Kip

Net Safety factor = 719.211 / 191.5676 = 3.755

Safety Factor against Horizontal Load = 1.5

FOS is greater than min required FOS, Hence OK

Top Rebar Design Check

Figure 6-20: Top rebar force diagram

Length (L)= 12 Kip

Force/Length = w=V/L = 15.9639666666667 Kip

Bending Moment = w.L2/8 = 287.352 ft kip

Factored Moment M = 287.352 x 1.3 = 373.55 ft kip

Strength of concrete = 4 Ksi

Strength of Steel = 60 Ksi

Figure 6-21: Bending moment diagram - top

Chapter 6

6.4 Deadman Guy Anchor US 4

= 0.9

= 0.85 - 0.05x (fc-4)

0.85>= >=0.65

= 0.85

width (B) = 6 ft

Effective Depth = Deff = D-clear cover-Tie bar dia -0.5xtop rebar dia

Hence, deff = 92.19 inch

Area of each top rebar = 0.601015625 sq.inch

Total area of Top Rebar = As = 3.60609375 Ksi

a = As.fy/(.fck.B) = 0.883847 inch

Resisting Moment = M1 = .As.fy.(deff-a/2) = 1488.8 ft kip

ratio = 1488.835 / 373.5576 = 3.986 >1, Hence OK

Resisting Moment is greater than Factored Moment, Hence Safe

Vertical Force (V)= 160.6297 Kip

Length (L) = 12 ft

Force/Length = w=V/L = 13.3858083333333 Kip/ft

Bending Moment = w.L2/8 = 240.945 ft kip

Factored Moment M = 313.2285 ft kip

Strength of concrete = 4 Ksi

Figure 6-22: Bending moment diagram - front face

= 0.9

= 0.85 - 0.05x (fc-4)

0.85>= >=0.65

= 0.85

width (B) = 8 ft

6.4 Deadman Guy Anchor US 4

Effective Depth = Deff = D-clear cover-Tie bar dia -0.5xtop rebar dia

Hence, deff = 68.19 inch

Area of each front rebar = 0.601015625 sq.inch

Total area of Front Rebar = As = 3.60609375 sq.inch

a = As.fy/(.fck.B) = 0.662885 inch

Resisting Moment = M1 = .As.fy.(deff-a/2) = 1101.2 ft kip

ratio = 1101.17 / 313.2285 = 3.516 >1, Hence OK

Resisting Moment is greater than Factored Moment, Hence Safe

6.4.4 Comparison

Table 6-10: Deadman Anchor (US)verification example 4 comparison

Reference STAAD.foundation Percent

Value of

Result

Result

Difference

Sliding Resistance (Kip)

413.423

413.174

negligible

Uplift Resistance (Kip)

719.211

719.281

negligible

Horizontal FOS

2.574

2.571

negligible

Vertical FOS

3.755

3.756

negligible

factored moment resisted by

373.5576 373.447

negligible

top rebar ( ft kip)

Max moment capacity (ver1488.835 1486.29

negligible

tically hogging) (ft kip)

factored moment resisted by

313.2285 313.359

negligible

front rebar (ft kip)

Max moment capacity (hor1101.17

1099.277

negligible

izontally hogging) (ft kip)

Chapter 6

6.4 Deadman Guy Anchor US 4

Section 7

7.1 Drilled Pier Foundation 1 API

7.1.1 Reference

API RP 2A-WSD

7.1.2 Problem

Design axial capacity for drilled pier with the given data: Design Method: API

Load Fy= 100 kip, fc= 4 ksi, fy= 60 ksi, Straight pier, pier diameter= 2 ft, pier height= 30

ft, water level at 40 ft.

Soil Profile by Layer

1. Sand, 8 ft deep, angle of friction 30 deg, Avg Density 108 lb/ft 3,

Density- Loose

2. Sand, 13 ft deep, angle of friction 34 deg, Avg Density 110 lb/ft 3,

Density- Medium

3. Clay - , 9 ft deep, cohesion 2 kip/ft 2, Avg Density 110 lb/ft 3,

Density- Dense

Elasticity of Soil 0.3 ksi

Chapter 7

7.1 Drilled Pier Foundation 1 API

Figure 7-1: Pier Elevation

Factor of safety

End bearing - 3

Skin Friction - 3

% of Capacity Used

End bearing - 100%

Skin Friction - 100%

Neglected zone for skin friction

Top - 5ft

Bottom - Pier Dia = 2ft

Concrete Properties

fc= 4ksi

Ec= 3605ksi

7.1 Drilled Pier Foundation 1 API

Density= 150lb/ft 3

Rebar Properties

fy= 60ksi

Es= 29000ksi

7.1.3 Solution

Critical Depth

Critical depth is set to be calculated by program

Po= (Soil Density of respective layer x Depth to the center of the layer)

Effects of water and critical depth are also considered calculating Po

Effective Overburden Pressure (lb/ft2)

Layer1

432

Layer2

1579

Layer3

2789

Layer

Skin Friction

Factor from API RP 2A-WSD 6.4.2

= Cohesion / Effective Overburden Pressure

Layer

Layer1

Layer2

Layer3

0

0

0.7171

= 0.5 x -0.5

<=1.0

= 0.5 x -0.25

>1.0

Layer

Layer1

Layer2

Layer3

0

0

0.59045

Chapter 7

7.1 Drilled Pier Foundation 1 API

K Coefficient of lateral earth pressure from API RP 2A-WSD 6.4.3

K=0.8 (for straight pier)

Friction angle between soil and pier

Calculated based on API RP 2A-WSD Table 6.4.3-1

Shaft friction (f), from API RP 2A-WSD 6.4.2 & 6.4.3

For cohesive soil layerf = x c

For cohesionless soil layerf = K xPo x tan

Layer

Layer1

Layer2

Layer3

125.788

589.040

1180.889

Qf = f x As

Layer

Layer1

Layer2

Layer3

Total Skin Friction

Qf (kip)

6.3228

48.1136

66.7777

121.214

Qf (modified) is calculated by considering top and bottom neglect layer

Layer

Layer1

Layer2

Layer3

Total Modified Skin

Friction

Qf_modified

(kip)

2.3711

48.1136

51.9382

102.423

Base Resistance

Unit end bearing (q), from API RP 2A-WSD 6.4.2 & 6.4.3

For cohesive soil layer q = 9 x c

For cohesionless soil layer q =po x Nq

Layer

Layer1

Layer2

Layer3

q (kip)

5.184

31.58

18.0

End Bearing for each layer (Qp), from API RP 2A-WSD 6.4.1

Qp = q x Ap

7.2 Drilled Pier Foundation 2 API

Layer

Layer1

Layer2

Layer3

Qp (kip)

16.286

99.211

56.549

Unfactored Capacity

Factored Capacity

7.1.4 Comparison

Table 7-1: Drilled Pier (API) verification example 1 comparison

STAAD.foundation Reference

Value of

Difference

Result

Result

UnfactoredTip

56.571 kip

56.549 kip

Negligible

Resistance

Unfactored Skin

102.487 kip

102.423 kip Negligible

Resistance

Unfactored Total Axial

144.916 kip

144.834 kip Negligible

Capacity

FactoredTip Resistance 18.857 kip

18.849 kip

Negligible

Factored Skin Resistance 34.162 kip

34.141 kip

Negligible

Factored Total Axial

48.305 kip

48.278 kip

Negligible

Capacity

7.2.1 Reference

API RP 2A-WSD

7.2.2 Problem

Design axial capacity for drilled pier with the given data: Design Method:API

Load Fy= 100kip, fc= 4ksi, fy= 60ksi, Straight pier, pier diameter= 4ft, pier height= 39ft,

water level at 50ft.

Chapter 7

7.2 Drilled Pier Foundation 2 API

Soil Profile by Layer

1. Clay - , 6ft deep, cohesion 1kip/ft 2, Avg Density 105lb/ft 3, Density- Very Loose

2. Clay - , 13ft deep, cohesion 1.1kip/ft 2, Avg Density 110lb/ft 3, Density- Medium

3. Clay - , 8ft deep, cohesion 2kip/ft 2, Avg Density 111lb/ft 3, Density- Dense

4. Clay - , 12ft deep, cohesion 3kip/ft 2, Avg Density 113lb/ft 3, Density- Very Dense

Elasticity of Soil 0.3ksi

K = 0.8

Factor of safety

End bearing - 3

Skin Friction - 3

% of Capacity Used

End bearing - 100%

Skin Friction - 100%

Neglected zone for skin friction

Top - 5ft

Bottom - Pier Dia = 4ft

Concrete Properties

fc= 4ksi

Ec= 3605ksi

Density= 150lb/ft 3

Rebar Properties

fy= 60ksi

Es= 29000ksi

7.2 Drilled Pier Foundation 2 API

Figure 7-2: Pier Elevation

7.2.3 Solution

Critical Depth

Critical depth is set to be calculated by program

Po= (Soil Density of respective layer x Depth to the center of the layer)

Effects of water and critical depth are also considered calculating Po

Chapter 7

7.2 Drilled Pier Foundation 2 API

315

1345

1874

1566

Layer

Layer1

Layer2

Layer3

Layer4

Skin Friction

Factor from API RP 2A-WSD 6.4.2

= Cohesion / Effective Overburden Pressure

Layer

Layer1

Layer2

Layer3

Layer4

3.1746

0.8178

1.0672

1.9157

Factor

Layer

0.55

0.55

0.55

0.55

Layer1

Layer2

Layer3

Layer4

K=0.8 (for straight pier)

Friction angle between soil and pier

Calculated based on API RP 2A-WSD Table 6.4.3-1

Shaft friction (f), from API RP 2A-WSD 6.4.2 & 6.4.3

For cohesive soil layerf = x c

For cohesionless soil layerf = K xPo x tan

Layer

Layer1

Layer2

Layer3

Layer4

550

605

1100

1650

Qf = f x As

Layer

Layer1

Layer2

Qf (psf)

41.469

98.835

7.2 Drilled Pier Foundation 2 API

Layer

Layer3

Layer4

Total Skin Friction

Qf (psf)

110.584

248.814

499.702

Qf (modified) is calculated by considering top and bottom neglect layer

Layer

Layer1

Layer2

Layer3

Layer4

Total Skin Friction

Qf_modified

(psf)

6.9115

98.835

110.584

165.876

382.206

Base Resistance

Unit end bearing (q), from API RP 2A-WSD 6.4.2 & 6.4.3

For cohesive soil layerq = 9 x c

For cohesionless soil layerq =po x Nq

Layer

Layer1

Layer2

Layer3

Layer4

q (psf)

9000

9900

18000

27000

End Bearing for each layer (Qp), from API RP 2A-WSD 6.4.1

Qp = q x Ap

Layer

Layer1

Layer2

Layer3

Layer4

Qp (psf)

113.097

124.407

226.195

339.292

Q

p_bott

= 339.292 kip

Unfactored Capacity

Chapter 7

7.3 Drilled Pier Foundation 3 FHWA

Factored Capacity

7.2.4 Comparison

Table 7-2: Drilled Pier (API) verification example 2 comparison

STAAD.foundation Reference

Value of

Difference

Result

Result

UnfactoredTip

339.429 kip

339.292 kip Negligible

Resistance

Unfactored Skin

382.486 kip

382.206 kip Negligible

Resistance

Unfactored Total Axial 648.371 kip

647.985 kip Negligible

Capacity

FactoredTip Resistance 113.143 kip

113.097 kip Negligible

Factored Skin

127.495 kip

127.402 kip Negligible

Resistance

Factored Total Axial

216.124 kip

215.995 kip Negligible

Capacity

7.3.1 Reference

FHWA-IF-99-025

7.3.2 Problem

Design axial capacity for drilled pier with the given data: Design Method:FHWA

Load Fy= 100kip, fc= 4ksi, fy= 60ksi, Straight pier, pier diameter= 2ft,

pier height= 30ft, water level at 40ft.

Soil Profile

1. Sand, 8ft deep, angle of friction 30deg, Avg Density 108lb/ft 3, N60- 11

2. Sand, 13ft deep, angle of friction 34deg, Avg Density 110lb/ft 3, N60- 14

3. Clay - , 9ft deep, cohesion 2kip/ft 2, Avg Density 110lb/ft 3, N60- 16

Elasticity of Soil 0.3ksi

366 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

7.3 Drilled Pier Foundation 3 FHWA

Factor of safety

End bearing - 3

Skin Friction - 3

% of Capacity Used

End bearing - 100%

Skin Friction - 100%

Neglected zone for skin friction

Top - 5ft

Bottom - Pier Dia = 2ft

Concrete Properties

fc= 4ksi

Ec= 3605ksi

Density= 150lb/ft 3

Rebar Properties

fy= 60ksi

Es= 29000ksi

Chapter 7

7.3 Drilled Pier Foundation 3 FHWA

Figure 7-3: Pier Elevation

7.3.3 Solution

Critical Depth

Critical depth is set to be calculated by program

Po= (Soil Density of respective layer x Depth to the center of the layer)

Effects of water and critical depth are also considered calculating Po

7.3 Drilled Pier Foundation 3 FHWA

Layer1

432

Layer2

1579

Layer3

1925

Layer

Skin Friction

Factor from FHWA-IF-99-025 Eqn 11.6

= 0.55

Layer

0

0

0.55

Layer1

Layer2

Layer3

Layer

Layer1

Layer2

Layer3

0.9017

0.8536

0

Assumed to be same as soil friction angle

Shaft friction (f), from FHWA-IF-99-025 Eqn 11.16 & 11.17

For cohesive soil layerf = x su

For cohesionless soil layerf = x vi

Layer

Layer1

Layer2

Layer3

389.50

1347.86

1100.0

Rs = f x As

Layer

Layer1

Layer2

Layer3

Total Skin Friction

Rs (kip)

19.578

110.095

62.204

191.877

Qf (modified) is calculated by considering top and bottom neglect layer

Chapter 7

7.3 Drilled Pier Foundation 3 FHWA

Layer

Layer1

Layer2

Layer3

Total Modified Skin

Friction

Rs_modified

(kip)

7.342

110.095

48.381

165.817

Base Resistance

Unit end bearing (q), from FHWA-IF-99-025 Eqn 11.1, 11.2 & 11.4a

For cohesive soil layerq = 9 x c

For cohesionless soil layerq =po x Nq

Layer

Layer1

Layer2

Layer3

q (kip)

13.2

15.6

5.611

End Bearing for each layer (Qp), from FHWA-IF-99-025 Eqn 10.2

RB = q x Ap

Layer

Layer1

Layer2

Layer3

RB (kip)

41.469

49.009

17.628

Un-factored Capacity

Factored Capacity

7.4 Drilled Pier Foundation 4 FHWA

7.3.4 Comparison

Table 7-3: Drilled Pier (FHWA) verification

STAAD.foundation

Value of

Result

UnfactoredTip

17.635 kip

Resistance

Unfactored Skin

165.884 kip

Resistance

Unfactored Total Axial

169.376 kip

Capacity

FactoredTip Resistance 5.878 kip

Factored Skin Resistance 55.295 kip

Factored Total Axial

56.459 kip

Capacity

example 3 comparison

Reference

Difference

Result

17.628 kip

Negligible

165.817 kip

Negligible

169.308 kip

Negligible

5.876 kip

55.272 kip

56.436 kip

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

7.4.1 Reference

FHWA-IF-99-025

7.4.2 Problem

Design axial capacity for drilled pier with the given data: Design Method:FHWA

Load Fy= 100kip, fc= 4ksi, fy= 60ksi, Straight pier, pier diameter= 4ft, pier height= 39ft,

water level at 50ft.

Soil Profile

1. Clay - , 6ft deep, cohesion 1kip/ft 2, Avg Density 105lb/ft 3, N60 10

2. Clay - , 13ft deep, cohesion 1.1kip/ft 2, Avg Density 110lb/ft 3, N60 12

3. Clay - , 8ft deep, cohesion 2kip/ft 2, Avg Density 111lb/ft 3, N60 14

4. Clay - , 12ft deep, cohesion 3kip/ft 2, Avg Density 113lb/ft 3, N60 15

Elasticity of Soil 0.3ksi

Factor of safety

End bearing - 3

Skin Friction - 3

% of Capacity Used

End bearing - 100%

Skin Friction - 100%

Neglected zone

for skin frictionTop - 5ft

Bottom - Pier Dia = 4ft

Verification Manual 371

Chapter 7

7.4 Drilled Pier Foundation 4 FHWA

Concrete Properties

fc= 4ksi

Ec= 3605ksi

Density= 150lb/ft 3

Rebar Properties

fy= 60ksi

Es= 29000ksi

Figure 7-4: Pier Elevation

7.4.3 Solution

Critical Depth

Critical depth is set to be calculated by program

7.4 Drilled Pier Foundation 4 FHWA

Po= (Soil Density of respective layer x Depth to the center of the layer)

Effects of water and critical depth are also considered calculating Po

Effective Overburden Pressure (lb/ft2)

315

1345

1874

1380

Layer

1

2

3

4

Skin Friction

Factor from FHWA-IF-99-025 Eqn 11.6

= 0.55 (for all layers)

Layer

1

2

3

4

0.55

0.55

0.55

0.55

= 0 (for all layers)

Friction angle between soil and pier

Assumed to be same as soil friction angle

Shaft friction (f), from FHWA-IF-99-025 Eqn 11.16 & 11.17

For cohesive soil layerf = x su

For cohesionless soil layerf = x vi

Layer

1

2

3

4

550

605

1100

1650

Rs = f x As

Chapter 7

7.4 Drilled Pier Foundation 4 FHWA

Layer

Rs (kip)

41.469

98.835

110.584

248.814

499.702

1

2

3

4

(Total Skin Friction)

Qf (modified) is calculated by considering top and bottom neglect layer

Rs_modified

(kip)

1

6.912

2

98.835

3

110.584

4

165.876

(Total Modified Skin 382.206

Friction)

Layer

Base Resistance

Unit end bearing (q), from FHWA-IF-99-025 Eqn 11.1, 11.2 & 11.4a

For cohesive soil layerq = 9 x c

For cohesionless soil layerq =po x Nq

Layer

1

2

3

4

q (kip)

3.646

3.880

5.611

27

End Bearing for each layer (Qp), from FHWA-IF-99-025 Eqn 10.2

RB = q x Ap

Layer

1

2

3

4

RB (kip)

45.815

48.759

70.510

339.292

Un-factored Capacity

7.5 Drilled Pier Foundation 5 VESIC

Factored Capacity

7.4.4 Comparison

Table 7-4: Drilled Pier (FHWA) verification

STAAD.foundation

Value of

Result

Unfactored Tip

339.429 kip

Resistance

Unfactored Skin

382.360 kip

Resistance

Unfactored Total Axial

648.246 kip

Capacity

FactoredTip Resistance 113.143 kip

Factored Skin Resistance 127.453 kip

Factored Total Axial

216.082 kip

Capacity

example 4 comparison

Reference

Difference

Result

339.292 kip Negligible

382.206 kip

Negligible

647.985 kip

Negligible

113.097 kip

127.453 kip

213.658 kip

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

7.5.1 Reference

Alternate Vesic Method

7.5.2 Problem

Design axial capacity for drilled pier with the given data: Design Method: Alternate Vesic

Method

Load Fy= 100kip, fc= 4ksi, fy= 60ksi, Straight pier, pier diameter= 2ft,

pier height= 30ft, water level at 40ft.

Soil Profile

1. Sand, 8ft deep, angle of friction 30deg, Avg Density 108lb/ft 3,

2. Sand, 13ft deep, angle of friction 34deg, Avg Density 110lb/ft 3,

3. Clay, 9ft deep, cohesion 2kip/ft 2, Avg Density 110lb/ft 3,

Chapter 7

7.5 Drilled Pier Foundation 5 VESIC

Elasticity of Soil 0.3ksi

Factor of safety

End bearing - 3

Skin Friction - 3

% of Capacity Used

End bearing - 100%

Skin Friction - 100%

Neglected zone for skin friction

Top - 5ft

Bottom - Pier Dia = 2ft

Concrete Properties

fc= 4ksi

Ec= 3605ksi

Density= 150lb/ft 3

Rebar Properties

fy= 60ksi

Es= 29000ksi

7.5 Drilled Pier Foundation 5 VESIC

Figure 7-5: Pier Elevation

7.5.3 Solution

Critical Depth

Critical depth is set to be calculated by program

Po= (Soil Density of respective layer x Depth to the center of the layer)

Effects of water and critical depth are also considered calculating Po

Chapter 7

7.5 Drilled Pier Foundation 5 VESIC

432

1579

1925

Layer

1

2

3

Skin Friction

Adhesion Factor for Drilled Pier in Cohesive Soil

= 0.55

Layer

0

0

0.55

1

2

3

K Coefficient of lateral earth pressure

K=0.8 (for straight pier)

Lateral Earth Pressure and Friction Angle Factor

Layer

0.462

0.540

0

1

2

3

Friction angle between soil and pier

Assumed to be same as soil friction angle

Shaft friction (f), from Alpha or Beta Method

For cohesive soil layerf = x c

For cohesionless soil layerf = K xPo x tan

Layer

1

2

3

199.532

852.039

1100

tan(1) = 0.675

Skin Friction Resistance (Qf), from FHWA-IF-99-025 Eqn 10.2

Rs = f x As

Layer

1

2

3

(Total Skin Friction)

Rs (kip)

10.030

69.596

62.204

141.829

7.5 Drilled Pier Foundation 5 VESIC

Qf (modified) is calculated by considering top and bottom neglect layer

Rs_modified

(kip)

1

3.761

2

69.596

3

48.381

(Total Modified Skin

121.737

Friction)

Layer

Base Resistance

Cohesive Soil (Bottom Layer)

Factor F = 1

r

Factor N

cp

=9

Factor N

qp

=0

Unit end bearing (q), from FHWA-IF-99-025 Eqn 11.1, 11.2 & 11.4a

For cohesive soil layer q = Fr x Nqp x c

For cohesionless soil layer q =po x Nqp

Layer

1

2

3

q (psf)

0

0

18000

End Bearing for each layer (Qp), from FHWA-IF-99-025 Eqn 10.2

RB = q x Ap

Layer

1

2

3

RB (kip)

0

0

56.549

Un-factored Capacity

Chapter 7

7.6 Drilled Pier Foundation 6 Vesic

Factored Capacity

7.5.4 Comparison

Table 7-5: Drilled Pier (Vesic) verification example 5 comparison

STAAD.foundation Reference

Value of

Difference

Result

Result

UnfactoredTip

56.571 kip

16.549 kip

Negligible

Resistance

Unfactored Skin

121.824 kip

121.737 kip

Negligible

Resistance

Unfactored Total Axial 164.253 kip

164.149 kip Negligible

Capacity

FactoredTip Resistance 18.857 kip

5.516 kip

Negligible

Factored Skin

40.608kip

40.579 kip

Negligible

Resistance

Factored Total Axial

54.751 kip

54.716 kip

Negligible

Capacity

7.6.1 Reference

Alternate Vesic Method

7.6.2 Problem

Design axial capacity for drilled pier with the given data: Design Method: Alternate Vesic

Method

Load Fy= 100kip, fc= 4ksi, fy= 60ksi, Straight pier, pier diameter= 4ft, pier height= 39ft,

water level at 50ft.

Soil Profile

1. Clay - , 6ft deep, cohesion 1kip/ft 2, Avg Density 105lb/ft 3, Density- Very Loose

2. Clay - , 13ft deep, cohesion 1.1kip/ft 2, Avg Density 110lb/ft 3, Density- Medium

3. Clay - , 8ft deep, cohesion 2kip/ft 2, Avg Density 111lb/ft 3, Density- Dense

4. Clay - , 12ft deep, cohesion 3kip/ft 2, Avg Density 113lb/ft 3, Density- Very Dense

Elasticity of Soil 0.3ksi

Factor of safety

End bearing - 3

Skin Friction - 3

380 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

7.6 Drilled Pier Foundation 6 Vesic

% of Capacity Used

End bearing - 100%

Skin Friction - 100%

Neglected zone for skin friction

Top - 5ft

Bottom - Pier Dia = 4ft

Concrete Properties

fc= 4ksi

Ec= 3605ksi

Density= 150lb/ft 3

Rebar Properties

fy= 60ksi

Es= 29000ksi

Chapter 7

7.6 Drilled Pier Foundation 6 Vesic

Figure 7-6: Pier Elevation

7.6.3 Solution

Critical Depth

Critical depth is set to be calculated by program

Po= (Soil Density of respective layer x Depth to the center of the layer)

Effects of water and critical depth are also considered calculating Po

7.6 Drilled Pier Foundation 6 Vesic

Layer

1

2

3

315

1345

1874

Skin Friction

Adhesion Factor for Drilled Pier in Cohesive Soil

= 0.55 (All layers)

K=0.8 (for straight pier)

Lateral Earth Pressure and Friction Angle Factor, = 0 (All layers)

Friction angle between soil and pier

Assumed to be same as soil friction angle

Shaft friction (f), from Alpha or Beta Method

For cohesive soil layerf = x c

For cohesionless soil layerf = K xPo x tan

Layer

1

2

3

4

550

605

1100

1650

tan( ) = 0

1

Rs = f x As

Layer

1

2

3

4

(Total Skin Friction)

Rs (kip)

41.469

98.835

110.584

248.814

499.702

End Bearing for each layer (Qp), from FHWA-IF-99-025 Eqn 10.2

RB = q x Ap

Layer

1

2

3

4

RB (kip)

0

0

0

339.292

Verification Manual 383

Chapter 7

7.6 Drilled Pier Foundation 6 Vesic

End Bearing for bottom Layer, RB_bott = 339.292 kip

Un-factored Capacity

Factored Capacity

7.6.4 Comparison

Table 7-6: Drilled Pier (Vesic) verification example 6 comparison

STAAD.foundation Reference

Value of

Difference

Result

Result

UnfactoredTip

339.429 kip

339.292 kip Negligible

Resistance

Unfactored Skin

382.360 kip

382.206 kip Negligible

Resistance

Unfactored Total Axial 648.246 kip

164.149 kip Negligible

Capacity

FactoredTip Resistance 113.143 kip

113.097 kip Negligible

Factored Skin

127.453 kip

127.402 kip Negligible

Resistance

Factored Total Axial

216.082 kip

54.716 kip

Negligible

Capacity

Section 8

Plant Foundation

8.1 Vertical Vessel Foundation 1

8.1.1 Input Parameters

Geometric Description

Vessel Geometry

Effective Height, Hve = 10ft

Effective Diameter, Dve = 4ft

Center of Gravity, CG = 10 ft

Pedestal Geometry

Height, Tp = 1 ft

Diameter, Dp = 5 ft

Footing Geometry

Minimum Footing Diameter = 10 ft

Maximum Footing Diameter = 10 ft

Minimum Footing Depth = 2 ft

Maximum Footing Depth = 2 ft

Chapter 8

8.1 Vertical Vessel Foundation 1

Figure 8-1: Tank and foundation elevation

Figure 8-2: Anchor bolt plan

Bolt Diameter, BD = 1.5 in.

Sleeve Diameter, SD = 2 in

Number of Anchor Bolts, Nb = 16

Effective Embedment Depth, heff = 1.5 ft

8.1 Vertical Vessel Foundation 1

Design Parameters

Soil

Soil Depth, Ts = 0 ft

Soil Density, Vsoil = 110 pcf

Allowable Soil Bearing Pressure, SBC = 3.8 ksf

Concrete

Cover, cc = 0.25 ft

Concrete Density, Vc = 15o pcf

Concrete strength, f'c = 4 ksi

Reinforcement

fy = 60 ksi

Bar Type : Imperial

Minimum Bar Diameter = 4

Maximum Bar Diameter = 11

Stability

Minimum Stability Ratio = 1.5

Table 8-1: Primary load description

Axial Force Base Moment (ft Load Types

(kip)

kip)

Empty Load (De)

10

0

Operating Load

20

0

(Do)

Test Load (Dt)

0

0

Erection Load (Dr)

0

0

Live Load (Dl)

0

0

Base Shear

(kip)

0

0

0

0

0

8.1.2 Solution

Wind Load

Wind Load Calculation per ASCE 7-05

Partial Wind Case: Percentage of wind = 50%

Wind Speed, V = 0 mph

Verification Manual 387

Chapter 8

8.1 Vertical Vessel Foundation 1

Exposure category D, Case 2

Wind Directionality Factor, Kd = 0.95 ................................per ASCE 7-05 Table 6-4

Topographic Factor, Kzt = 1 ................................per ASCE 7-05 Fig. 6-4

Importance factor, IW = 1.15 ................................per ASCE 7-05 Table 6-1

Gust Effect Factor, G = 0.85 ................................per ASCE 7-05 Table 6.5.8

Net Force Coefficient, C f = 0.9 ................................per ASCE 7-05 Gig. 6-20 & Fig. 6-21

Table 8-2: Wind loads

Elevation

Kz

Pressure Width Area Shear Moment

1

1.03023

0

4

4

0

0

11

1.03023

0

4

40

0

0

Total Wind Shear = 0 kip

Total Wind Moment = 0 kip-ft

Seismic Load

Importance Factor, I = 1

Fundamental Period, T = 6 s

Long Period, TL = 12 s

Site Class C

Spectral Response Acc. Parameter at Short Period, Ss = 0

Spectral Response Acc. Parameter at 1 Sec, S1 = 0

Short Period Site Coefficient at 0.2s Period, Fa = 1.2

Long Period Site Coefficient at 1.0s Period, Fv = 1.7

Design Spectral Response Acc. Parameter st Short Period, SDS = 0

Design Spectral Response Acc. Parameter at 1 sec, SD1 = 0

Response Modification Factor, R = 2

Cs = 0

Empty Seismic = C s x De = 0 kip

Operating Seismic = C s x Do = 0 kip

Test Seismic = C s x Dt = 0 kip

8.1 Vertical Vessel Foundation 1

Table 8-3: Applied Load Combinations - Allowable Stress Level

Load

Erection Live User User User

Empty Operating Wind Seismic Test

Load Load Load

Case

Load Load 1

2

3

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

2

0

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

3

0

1

0

0.7

0

0

0

0

0

0

4

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

5

0

0.9

0

0.7

0

0

0

0

0

0

6

0.9

0

0

0.7

0

0

0

0

0

0

7

0

0

1

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

8

0

0 0.83

0 0.83

0

0

0

0

0

Table 8-4: Applied Load Combinations - Strength Level

Load

Erection Live User User User

Empty Operating Wind Seismic Test

Load Load Load

Case

Load Load 1

2

3

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

3

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

4

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

5

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

6

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

7

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

8

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Table 8-5: Applied Load at Top of

Pedestal - Allowable Stress Level

Load

Axial Shear Moment

Case

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

(kips)

(kips)

(kip-ft)

20

2o

20

10

18

9

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Governing Loads

Axial = 20 kip

Shear = 0 kip

Chapter 8

8.1 Vertical Vessel Foundation 1

Moment = 0 ft-kip

Table 8-6: Applied Load at Top of

Pedestal - Strength Level

Load Axial Shear Moment

Case

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

(kips)

(kips)

(kip-ft)

10

o

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Governing Loads

Axial = 10 kip

Shear = 0 kip

Moment = 0 kip

Pedestal Design

Fu = 56.64 kip

Check for minimum pedestal dimension is done in accordance with PIP STE 03350 Sect.

4.5.1

Minimum Pedestal Dimension = 15.625 ft

Factored O.T.M. At Base Of Pedestal = 0 kip-ft

Seismic Load Governing, hence use Vessel Operating Weight

Nominal Axial Load (Empty/Operating), Du = 56.64 kip

Weight of Pedestal = 3.1066 kip

Dowel Circle Diameter, Dc = BCD

Number of Dowels, Nd = 32

Tensile Force In Each Dowel Per PIP STC03350 4.5.4

F =4 M

u

/(N D ) - 0.9 (D +W

uped

ped

A

s_ped_req

= F /( f ) = -8.192(10)-3 in2

u

Dowel Bar Size Provided = 5

Area of Steel Provided = -0.00819 in2

Area of steel required in pedestal, As, req = (dd)2 x pi/4 = 0.307 in2

Potential Conc. Failure Area per PIP STC03350 Fig. A, An = 5.5086 ft 2

390 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

8.1 Vertical Vessel Foundation 1

Compressive Force In Each Dowel Based on PIP STC03350 4.6.2

P =M

u

/D +0.9 (D +W

uped

) = 11.769 kip

ped

d = 0.625 in

b

F = P /A = 0.015 ksi

c

Beta = 1

Weight of Soil = 0 kip

Design Results

Stability Ratio is calculated based on PIP STE03350 Eqn. 15

Table 8-7: Stability Ratio

Load

Stability

Eccentricity

Case

Ratio

1

0

0

2

0

3

0

4

0

5

0

6

0

7

0

8

0

Soil bearing calculations are per PIP STE03350 4.7.2

Table 8-8: Soil Bearing Check

Load

Max Soil

Min Soil

Case Bearing (ksf) Bearing (ksf)

1

0.2414

0.2414

2

0.2414

0.2414

3

0.2414

0.2414

4

0.4582

0.4582

5

0.2173

0.2173

6

0.4123

0.4123

7

0

0

8

0

0

Max Diagonal Soil Bearing Pressure, fdia = 0.4582 ksf

Max Diagonal Soil Bearing Pressure, fflat = 0.4233 ksf

Chapter 8

8.1 Vertical Vessel Foundation 1

Concrete Design

One Way Shear

Figure 8-3: One-way shear dimensions

Location of Shear check from Face of Footing, X2 = 1.0006 ft

Shear Stress, Vu = 0.266 ksf

Factored Shear Stress Capacity per ACI318-05 Eqn. 11-3, VC = 13.66 ksf

Figure 8-4: Two-way shear check

Punching Shear Force, Vu = 6.463 kip

Factored Shear Capacity, Vc = 1019.8 kip

Reinforcement Calculations

Required development length for bars

8.1 Vertical Vessel Foundation 1

Available development length for bars (From face of Pedestal to face of Footing) = 2.724551

ft

m = f / (0.85 f ) = 17.647

y

2 m R / f = 2.597(10)-3

n

Ast,req = d 1ft = 0.018 in2

min = 0.0018

Minimum Area of Steel Required

Ast,min = min d 1 ft = 0.447 in2

Spacing Required, s = 8 in.

Area of Steel Provided

A

st_prov

b

Bar Size = 5

Final Dimensions

Footing Diameter, Df = 10 ft

Footing Thickness, Tf = 2 ft

Chapter 8

8.2 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design

8.1.3 Comparison

Table 8-9: Vertical Vessel verification example 1 comparison

Hand CalPercent DifSTAAD.foundation

culations

ference

Footing Diagonal

10

10

none

Footing Thickness

2

2

none

Footing Soil Bear0.458

0.496

8%

ing

Stability Check

0

0

n/a

One Way Shear

0.266

0.266

0%

Check

Punching Shear

6.463

6.564

2%

Check

Reinforcement Pro0.460

0.447

3%

vided

Note: Soil Bearing values are generated from graph; %diff also contains human errors.

8.2.1 Input Parameters

Geometrical Description

Vessel Geometry

Effective Height, Hve = 50 ft

Effective Diameter, Dve = 13 ft

Center of Gravity, CG = 8 ft

Pedestal Geometry

Height, Tp = 4 ft

Diameter, Dp = 14 ft

Footing Geometry

Minimum Footing Diameter = 16 ft

Maximum Footing Diameter = 24 ft

Minimum Footing Depth = 1 ft

Maximum Footing Depth = 16 ft

8.2 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design

Figure 8-5: Tank and foundation elevation

Figure 8-6: Anchor bolt plan

Bolt Diameter, BD = 168 in.

Sleeve Diameter, SD = 1.5 in

Number of Anchor Bolts, Nb = 14

Effective Embedment Depth, heff = 0.167 ft

Chapter 8

8.2 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design

Design Parameters

Soil

Soil Depth, Ts = 2 ft

Soil Density, Vsoil = 110 pcf

Allowable Soil Bearing Pressure, SBC = 4 ksf

Concrete

Cover, cc = 0.25 ft

Concrete Density, Vc = 15o pcf

Concrete strength, f'c = 4 ksi

Reinforcement

fy = 60 ksi

Bar Type : Imperial

Minimum Bar Diameter = 4

Maximum Bar Diameter = 11

Stability

Minimum Stability Ratio = 1.5

Table 8-10: Primary load description

Axial Force

Base Moment (ftLoad Types

(kip)

kip)

Empty Load (De)

-28

0

Operating Load

-66

0

(Do)

Test Load (Dt)

-73

0

Erection Load

-70

0

(Dr)

Live Load (Dl)

0

0

Wind Load

Wind Load Calculation per ASCE 7-05

Partial Wind Case: Percentage of wind = 50%

Base Shear

(kip)

0

0

0

0

0

8.2 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design

Exposure category C, Case 2

Wind Directionality Factor, Kd = 0.95 ................................per ASCE 7-05

Table 6-4

Topographic Factor, Kzt = 1 ................................per ASCE 7-05 Fig. 6-4

Importance factor, IW = 1.15 ................................per ASCE 7-05 Table 6-1

Gust Effect Factor, G = 0.85 ................................per ASCE 7-05 Table 6.5.8

Net Force Coefficient, C f = 0.8 ................................per ASCE 7-05 Gig. 6-20

& Fig. 6-21

Elevation

Kz

2

0.848884

15

0.848884

20

0.901885

25

0.945265

30

0.982253

40

1.043581

50

1.093775

52

1.102844

Pressure Width Area

0.028727

13

26

0.028727

13

169

0.030521

13

65

0.031989

13

65

0.033241

13

65

0.035316

13

130

0.037015

13

130

0.037322

13

26

Shear

Moment

0.507899 0.507899

3.301344 28.06143

1.349026 23.60796

1.413912 31.81303

1.469238 40.40405

3.121944

109.268

3.272105 147.2447

0.659847 33.65219

Total Wind Moment = 414.449 ft-kip

Seismic Load

Importance Factor, I = 1

Fundamental Period, T = 4.1 s

Long Period, TL = 12 s

Site Class C

Spectral Response Acc. Parameter at Short Period, Ss = 0.105

Spectral Response Acc. Parameter at 1 Sec, S1 = 0.043

Short Period Site Coefficient at 0.2s Period, Fa = 1.2

Long Period Site Coefficient at 1.0s Period, Fv = 1.7

Design Spectral Response Acc. Parameter st Short Period, SDS = 0.084

Design Spectral Response Acc. Parameter at 1 sec, SD1 = 0.049

Response Modification Factor, R = 2

C s = 5.973x10-3

Chapter 8

8.2 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design

Operating Seismic = C s x Do = 0.394 kip

Test Seismic = C s x Dt = 0.436 kip

Table 8-12: Applied Load Combination - Allowable Stress Level

Load

Erection Live User User User

Empty Operating Wind Seismic Test

Load Load Load

Case

Load Load 1

2

3

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

2

0

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

3

0

1

0

0.7

0

0

0

0

0

0

4

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

5

0

0.9

0

0.7

0

0

0

0

0

0

6

0.9

0

0

0.7

0

0

0

0

0

0

7

0

0

1

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

8

0

0 0.83

0 0.83

0

0

0

0

0

Table 8-13: Applied Load Combination - Strength Level

Load

Erection Live User User User

Empty Operating Wind Seismic Test

Load Load Load

Case

Load Load 1

2

3

1

0

1.4

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

0

1.2

0

0

0

0 1.6

0

0

0

3

0

1.2

1.6

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

4

0

1.2

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

5

0.9

0

1.6

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

6

0

0.9

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

7

0.9

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

8

0

0

1.6

0

0

0.9

0

0

0

0

9

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

10

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Table 8-14: Applied Load at Top of

Pedestal - Allowable Stress Level

Load Axial

Shear

Moment

(kip-ft)

Case (kips) (kips)

1

66

0

0

2

66 15.09532 414.5593

3

66 0.275945 2.207563

4

28

15.09532 414.4493

5

59.4 0.275945 2.207563

6

25.2 0.117068 0.936542

7

70 7.547658 207.2797

8

60.59 6.264556 172.0421

398 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

8.2 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design

Governing Loads

Axial = 70 kip

Shear = 15.09532 kip

Moment = 414.5593 ft-kip

Table 8-15: Applied Load at Top of

Pedestal - Strength Level

Load Axial

Shear

Moment

(kips)

(kip-ft)

Case (kips)

1

92.4

0

0

2

79.2

0

0

3

79.2 24.15251 663.2949

4

79.2 0.394208 3.153661

5

25.2 24.15251 663.2949

6

59.4 0.394208 3.153661

7

25.2 0.16724 1.337917

8

63

12.07625 331.6474

Governing Loads

Axial = 92.4 kip

Shear = 24.15251 kip

Moment = 663.2949 kip

Pedestal Design

Fu = 56.64 kip

Check for minimum pedestal dimension is done in accordance with PIP STE 03350 Sect.

4.5.1

Minimum Pedestal Dimension = 2.0833 ft

Factored O.T.M. At Base Of Pedestal = 759.9049 kip-ft

Seismic Load Governing, hence use Vessel Operating Weight

Nominal Axial Load (Empty/Operating), Du = 56.64 kip

Weight of Pedestal = 97.42292 kip

Dowel Circle Diameter, Dc = BCD = 1.333 ft

Number of Dowels, Nd = 32

Tensile Force In Each Dowel Per PIP STC03350 4.5.4

F =4 M

u

/(N D ) - 0.9 (D +W

uped

ped

A

s_ped_req

= F /( f ) = 1.473 in2

u

Chapter 8

8.2 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design

Minimum Dowel Reinforcement per PIP STC03350 4.5.5 : #5 - 32

Dowel Bar Size Provided = 5

Area of Steel Provided = 1.472746 in. 2

Potential Conc. Failure Area per PIP STC03350 Fig.

An = 0.060107

Compressive Force In Each Dowel Based on PIP STC03350 4.6.2

P =M

u

/D +0.9 (D +W

uped

) = 728.889 kip

ped

F = P /A = 84.211 ksi

c

Design Results

Stability Ratio is calculated based on PIP STE03350 Eqn. 15

Table 8-16: Stability Ratio

Load

Stability

Eccentricity

Case

Ratio

1

0

0

2

2.376857

3.36579

3

0.017400

459.778

4

2.913937

2.74543

5

0.017975

445.060

6

0.009203

869.292

7

1.165810

6.86219

8

1.012977

7.89752

Soil bearing calculations are per PIP STE03350 4.7.2

Max Diagonal Soil Bearing Pressure, fdia = 2.10298 ksf

Max Diagonal Soil Bearing Pressure, fflat = 1.94299 ksf

8.2 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design

Concrete Design

One Way Shear

Figure 8-7: One-way shear dimensions

Location of Shear check from Face of Footing (X2) = 0.904783 ft

Shear Stress, Vu = 4.185682 ksf

Factored Shear Stress Capacity VC per ACI318-05 Eqn. 11-3 = 13.66104 ksf

Figure 8-8: Two-way shear check

Punching Shear Force, Vu = 17.5799 kip

Factored Shear Capacity, Vc = 661.6144 kip

Reinforcement Calculations

Required development length for bars

Chapter 8

8.2 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design

Available development length for bars (From face of Pedestal to face of Footing) =

1.628742 ft

Rn = Mu / (0.9 1ft d2) = 0.079 ksi

m = fy / (0.85 fc) = 17.647

2 m Rn / fy = 0.047

A

p

st_req

min

= 0.0018

A

st_min

=p

min

Spacing Required

s = 18 in.

Area of Steel Provided

A

st_prov

b

Bar Size = 5

Final Dimensions

Footing Diameter = 16 ft

Footing Thickness = 1 ft

8.3 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design

8.2.2 Comparison

Table 8-17: Vertical Vessel verification example 2 comparison

Hand CalPercent DifSTAAD.foundation

culations

ference

Footing Diagonal

16

16

0

Footing Thickness

1

1

0

Footing Soil Bear2.1030

2.102

0

ing

Stability Check

2.7454

2.748

0

One Way Shear

4.1857

4.193

0

Check

Punching Shear

17.58

17.951

2

Check

Reinforcement Pro0.20453

0.18765

9

vided

8.3.1 Input Parameters

Geometric Description

Vessel Geometry

Effective Height, Hve = 30 ft

Effective Diameter, Dve - 10 ft

Center of Gravity, CG = 8 ft

Pedestal Geometry

Height = 2 ft

Diameter = 12 ft

Footing Geometry

Minimum Footing Diameter = 14 ft

Maximum Footing Diameter = 16 ft

Minimum Footing Depth = 1 ft

Maximum Footing Depth = 2 ft

Chapter 8

8.3 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design

Figure 8-9: Tank and foundation elevation

Figure 8-10: Anchor bolt plan

Bolt Diameter, BD = 132 in.

Sleeve Diameter, SD= 1.5 in.

Number of Anchor Bolts, Nb = 11

Effective Embedment Depth, heff = 0.167 fyt

8.3 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design

Design Parameters

Soil

Soil Depth, Ts = 2 ft

Soil Density, Vsoil = 110 pcf

Allowable Soil Bearing Pressure, SBC = 4 ksf

Concrete

Cover, cc = 0.25 ft

Concrete Density, Vc = 15o pcf

Concrete strength, f'c = 4 ksi

Reinforcement

fy = 60 ksi

Bar Type : Imperial

Minimum Bar Diameter = 4

Maximum Bar Diameter = 11

Stability

Minimum Stability Ratio = 1.5

Table 8-18: Primary load description

Axial Force

Base Moment (ftLoad Types

(kip)

kip)

Empty Load (De)

-20

0

Operating Load

-40

0

(Do)

Test Load (Dt)

-60

0

Erection Load (Dr)

-30

0

Live Load (Dl)

0

0

Base Shear

(kip)

0

0

0

0

0

8.3.2 Solution

Wind Load

Wind Load Calculation per ASCE 7-05

Partial Wind Case: Percentage of wind = 50%

Wind Speed, V = 90 mph

Verification Manual 405

Chapter 8

8.3 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design

Exposure category B, Case 2

Wind Directionality Factor, Kd = 0.95 ................................per ASCE 7-05 Table 6-4

Topographic Factor, Kzt = 1 ................................per ASCE 7-05 Fig. 6-4

Importance factor, IW = 1.15 ................................per ASCE 7-05 Table 6-1

Gust Effect Factor, G = 0.85 ................................per ASCE 7-05 Table 6.5.8

Net Force Coefficient, C f = 0.8 ................................per ASCE 7-05 Gig. 6-20 & Fig. 6-21

Table 8-19: Wind loads

Elevation

Kz

Pressure Width Area

Shear

Moment

1

0.57472

0.01302

10

10 0.088534 0.044267

15

0.57472

0.01302

10

140

1.23948 9.915838

20

0.623954 0.014135

10

50 0.480594 8.410392

25

0.66503 0.015066

10

50

0.512232 11.52522

30

0.700591 0.015871

10

50 0.539622 14.83962

Total Wind Shear = 2.86 kip

Total Wind Moment = 44.735 ft-kip

Seismic Load

Importance Factor, I = 1

Fundamental Period, T = 4.1 s

Long Period, TL = 12 s

Site Class C

Spectral Response Acc. Parameter at Short Period, Ss = 1.997

Spectral Response Acc. Parameter at 1 Sec, S1 = 0.805

Short Period Site Coefficient at 0.2s Period, Fa = 1

Long Period Site Coefficient at 1.0s Period, Fv = 1.3

Design Spectral Response Acc. Parameter st Short Period, SDS = 1.332

Design Spectral Response Acc. Parameter at 1 sec, SD1 = 0.697

Response Modification Factor, R = 2

C s = 0.805

Empty Seismic = C s x De = 1.701 kip

Operating Seismic = C s x Do = 3.402 kip

Test Seismic = C s x Dt = 5.103 kip

8.3 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design

Table 8-20: Applied Load Combination - Allowable Stress Level

Load

Erection Live User User User

Empty Operating Wind Seismic Test

Load Load Load

Case

Load Load 1

2

3

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

2

0

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

3

0

1

0

0.7

0

0

0

0

0

0

4

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

5

0

0.9

0

0.7

0

0

0

0

0

0

6

0.9

0

0

0.7

0

0

0

0

0

0

7

0

0

1

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

8

0

0 0.83

0 0.83

0

0

0

0

0

Table 8-21: Applied Load Combination - Strength Level

Load

Erection Live User User User

Empty Operating Wind Seismic Test

Load Load Load

Case

Load Load 1

2

3

1

0

1.4

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

0

1.2

0

0

0

0 1.6

0

0

0

3

0

1.2

1.6

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

4

0

1.2

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

5

0.9

0

1.6

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

6

0

0.9

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

7

0.9

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

8

0

0

1.6

0

0

0.9

0

0

0

0

9

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

10

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Table 8-22: Applied Load at Top of

Pedestal - Allowable Stress Level

Load Axial Shear Moment

Case

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

(kips)

(kips)

(kip-ft)

40

40

40

20

36

18

30

49.8

0

2.8605

2.3816

2.8605

2.3816

1.1908

1.4302

1.1871

0

44.735

19.053

44.735

19.053

9.5264

22.368

18.565

Chapter 8

8.3 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design

Governing Loads

Axial = 49.8 kip

Shear = 2.86046 kip

Moment = 44.73534 kip-ft

Table 8-23: Applied Load at

Top of Pedestal - Strength

Level

Load Axial Shear Moment

Case (kips) (kips) (kip-ft)

1

56

0

0

2

48

0

0

3

48 4.5767 71.577

4

48 3.4023 27.218

5

18 4.5767 71.577

6

36 3.4023 27.218

7

18

1.7011 13.609

8

27 2.2884 35.788

Governing Loads

Axial = 56 kips

Shear 4.57674 kips

Moment = 71.5765 ft-kip

Pedestal Design

Fu = 56.64 kip

Check for minimum pedestal dimension is done in accordance with PIP STE 03350 Sect.

4.5.1

Minimum Pedestal Dimension = 2.08333 ft

Factored O.T.M. At Base Of Pedestal = 80.730 kip-ft

Seismic Load Governing, hence use Vessel Operating Weight

Nominal Axial Load (Empty/Operating), Du = 56.64 kip

Weight of Pedestal = 35.788 kip

Dowel Circle Diameter, Dc = BCD = 1.333 ft

Number of Dowels, Nd = 32

Tensile Force In Each Dowel Per PIP STC03350 4.5.4

F =4 M

u

/(N D ) - 0.9 (D +W

uped

ped

8.3 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design

s_ped_req

= F /( f ) =0.116 in2

u

Dowel Bar Size Provided = 5

Area of Steel Provided = 0.11582 in2

Area of steel required in pedestal, As, req = (dd)2 x pi/4 = 0.307 in2

Potential Conc. Failure Area per PIP STC03350 Fig. A, An = 0.075956ft 2

Compressive Force In Each Dowel Based on PIP STC03350 4.6.2

P =M

u

/D +0.9 (D +W

uped

) = 135.957 kip

ped

d = 0.625 in

b

F = P /A = 12.43 ksi

c

Beta = 1

Weight of Soil, W

soil

= 9.477 kip

Design Results

Stability Ratio is calculated based on PIP STE03350 Eqn. 15

Table 8-24: Stability Ratio

Load

Stability

Eccentricity

Case

Ratio

1

0

0

2

0.4864

14.392

3

0.2390

29.291

4

0.5949

11.766

5

0.2480

28.222

6

0.1495

46.825

7

0.2676

26.159

8

0.1853

37.780

Soil bearing calculations are per PIP STE03350 4.7.2

Table 8-25: Soil Bearing Check

Load

Max Soil

Min Soil

Case Bearing (ksf) Bearing (ksf)

1

0.6751

0.2453

2

0.8672

0.3164

3

0.7695

0.2808

4

0.7440

0.7440

5

0.7449

0.2539

6

0.5402

0.5402

7

0.7100

0.2137

8

0.8152

0.3399

Max Diagonal Soil Bearing Pressure, fdia = 0.8672 ksf

Max Diagonal Soil Bearing Pressure, fflat = 0.8012 ksf

Verification Manual 409

Chapter 8

8.3 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design

Concrete Design

One Way Shear

Figure 8-11: One-way shear dimensions

Location of Shear check from Face of Footing, X2 = 0.814963 ft

Shear Stress, Vu = 0.90518 ksf

Factored Shear Stress Capacity per ACI318-05 Eqn. 11-3, VC = 13.66104 ksf

Figure 8-12: Two-way shear check

Punching Shear Force, Vu = 12.085 kip

Factored Shear Capacity, Vc = 589.61 kip

Reinforcement Calculations

Required development length for bars

8.3 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design

Available development length for bars (From face of Pedestal to face of Footing) = 1.538921

ft

Rn = Mu / (0.9 1ft d2) = 0.014 ksi

m = fy / (0.85 fc) = 17.647

2 m Rn / fy = 7.944(10)-3

A

st,req

min

= 0.0018

A

st,min

min

d 1 ft = 0.188 in2

Area of Steel Provided

A

st_prov

b

Bar Size = 5

Final Dimensions

Footing Diameter = 14 ft

Footing Thickness = 1 ft

Chapter 8

8.4 Vertical Vessel Seismic Load Generation 1

8.3.3 Comparison

Table 8-26: Vertical Vessel verification example 3 comparison

Hand CalPercent DifSTAAD.foundation

culations

ference

Footing Diagonal

14

14

none

Footing Thickness

1

1

none

Footing Soil Bear0.8672

0.835

4%

ing

Stability Check

11.766

12.898

9%

One Way Shear

0.9052

1.13

20%

Check

Punching Shear

12.085

12.338

2%

Check

Reinforcement Pro0.2045

0.1878

9%

vided

1

Location Santa Ana California

S1 = 0.5312, Spectral Response Acceleration at Short Periods determined in accordance

with ASCE 7 11.4.1

Ss = 1.378, Spectral Response Acceleration at Period of 1 sec determined in accordance with

ASCE 7 11.4.1

Site Class = A, Based On Soil Prorperties In Accordance With ASCE 7 Chapter 20

R = 2, Response modification Coefficient per ASCE 7 Tables 15.4-1 or 15.4-2

I = 1.25, Importance Factor per ASCE 7 11.5.1

T = 3 sec., Fundamental Period of Vessel

TL = 12 sec., Long-Period Transition Perios per ASCE 7 12.8.2

Empty Weight Of Vessel = 100 kips

Operating Weight of Vessel = 200 kips

Center of Gravity Of Vessel From Top Of Pedestal (CG) = 120 in.

Fa = 0.8 Short-Period Site Coeffiecient per ASCE 7 11.4.3

Fv = 0.8 Long-Period site Coefficient per ASCE 7 11.4.3

SDS = 0.735, Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter at short periods per ASCE 7

11.4.4

SD1 = 0.283, Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter at period of 1 sec per ASCE

7 11.4.4

C s = 0.059, Seismic Response Coefficient Per ASCE 7 12.8.1.1

Empty Load Case Base Shear = 5.902 kip

8.5 Vertical Vessel Seismic Load Generation 2

Operating Load Case Base Shear = 11.804 kip

Empty Load Case Earthquake Moment = 59.021 kip ft

Operating Load Case Earthquake Moment = 118.043 kip ft

Comparison

Table 8-27: Vertical Vessel verification example 4 comparison

Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of

Result

Result

ference

Base Shear Empty Case

5.902132222

5.902

0.0022403

(kip)

Base Shear Operating

11.80426444

11.804

0.0022403

Case (kip)

Base Moment Empty

59.02132222

59.021

0.00054595

Case (kip ft)

Base Moment Operating 118.0426444

118.043

0.00030121

Case (kip ft)

2

Location Yorba Linda California

Spectral Response Acceleration at Short Periods determined in accordance with ASCE 7

11.4.1, S1 = 0.857367

Spectral Response Acceleration at Period of 1 sec determined in accordance with ASCE 7

11.4.1, SS = 2.09511

Site Class = B, Based On Soil Properties In Accordance With ASCE 7 Chapter 20

Response modification Coefficient per ASCE 7 Tables 15.4-1 or 15.4-2, R = 2

Importance Factor per ASCE 7 11.5.1, I = 1.0

Fundamental Period of Vessel, T = 6 sec.

Long-Period Transition Period per ASCE 7 12.8.2, TL = 5 sec.

Empty Weight Of Vessel = 100 kip

Operating Weight of Vessel = 200 kip

Center of Gravity Of Vessel From Top Of Pedestal, CG = 10 ft

Short-Period Site Coefficient per ASCE 7 11.4.3, FA = 1

Long-Period site Coefficient per ASCE 7 11.4.3, FV = 1

SDS = 1.397, Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter at short periods per ASCE 7

11.4.4

SD1 = 0.572, Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter at period of 1 sec per ASCE 7

11.4.4

C S = 0.04, Seismic Response Coefficient Per ASCE 7 12.8.1.1

Empty Load Case Base Shear

Verification Manual 413

Chapter 8

8.6 Vertical Vessel Seismic Load Generation 3

Operating Load Case Base Shear

Shearoperating = C S x Operatingwt = 7.939 kips

Empty Load Case Earthquake Moment

Moment empty = Shearempty x CG = 39.693 kip*ft

Operating Load Case Earthquake Moment

Moment operating = Shearoperating x CG = 79.386 kip*ft

Comparison

Table 8-28: Vertical Vessel verification example 5 comparison

Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of

Result

Result

ference

Base Shear Empty Case

3.9693

3.969

0.007

(kip)

Base Shear Operating

7.9386

7.939

0.005

Case (kip)

Base Moment Empty

39.693

39.69

0.007

Case (kip ft)

Base Moment Operating

79.3858

79.39

0.005

Case (kip ft)

3

Location San Antonio, Texas

Spectral Response Acceleration at Short Periods determined in accordance with ASCE 7

11.4.1, S1 = 0.034656

Spectral Response Acceleration at Period of 1 sec determined in accordance with ASCE 7

11.4.1, SS = 0.12141

Site Class = C, Based On Soil Properties In Accordance With ASCE 7 Chapter 20

Response modification Coefficient per ASCE 7 Tables 15.4-1 or 15.4-2, R = 3

Importance Factor per ASCE 7 11.5.1, I= 1.5

Fundamental Period of Vessel,T = 4 sec.

Long-Period Transition Period per ASCE 7 12.8.2, TL = 12 sec.

Empty Weight Of Vessel = 100 kips

Operating Weight of Vessel = 200 kips

Center of Gravity Of Vessel From Top Of Pedestal, CG = 10 ft

Short-Period Site Coefficient per ASCE 7 11.4.3, FA = 1.2

Long-Period site Coefficient per ASCE 7 11.4.3, FV = 1.7

414 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

8.7 Vertical Vessel Seismic Load Generation 4

SDS = 0.097, Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter at short periods per ASCE 7

11.4.4

SD1 = 0.039, Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter at period of 1 sec per ASCE 7

11.4.4

C S = 4.91x10-3, Seismic Response Coefficient Per ASCE 7 12.8.1.1

Empty Load Case Base Shear

Shearempty = C S x Empty wt = 0.491 kips

Operating Load Case Base Shear

Shearoperating = C S x Operatingwt = 0.982 kips

Empty Load Case Earthquake Moment

Moment empty = Shearempty x CG =4.91 kip*ft

Operating Load Case Earthquake Moment

Moment operating = Shearoperating x CG = 9.819 kip*ft

Comparison

Table 8-29: Vertical Vessel verification example 6 comparison

Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of

Result

Result

ference

Base Shear Empty Case

0.49096

0.491

0.0081

(kip)

Base Shear Operating

0.98192

0.982

0.0081

Case (kip)

Base Moment Empty

4.9096

4.91

0.0081

Case (kip ft)

Base Moment Operating

9.8192

9.82

0.0081

Case (kip ft)

4

Location New York, New York

Spectral Response Acceleration at Short Periods determined in accordance with ASCE 7

11.4.1, S1 = 0.0937194

Spectral Response Acceleration at Period of 1 sec determined in accordance with ASCE 7

11.4.1, SS = 0.42416

Site Class = D

Site Class Based On Soil Properties In Accordance With ASCE 7 Chapter 20

Response modification Coefficient per ASCE 7 Tables 15.4-1 or 15.4-2, R = 3

Importance Factor per ASCE 7 11.5.1, I= 1.0

Fundamental Period of Vessel,T = 4 sec.

Verification Manual 415

Chapter 8

8.8 Vertical Vessel Seismic Load Generation 5

Long-Period Transition Period per ASCE 7 12.8.2, TL = 12 sec.

Empty Weight Of Vessel = 100 kips

Operating Weight of Vessel = 200 kips

Center of Gravity Of Vessel From Top Of Pedestal, CG = 10 ft

Short-Period Site Coefficient per ASCE 7 11.4.3, FA = 1.461

Long-Period site Coefficient per ASCE 7 11.4.3, FV = 2.4

SDS = 0.413, Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter at short periods per ASCE 7

11.4.4

SD1 = 0.15 Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter at period of 1 sec per ASCE 7

11.4.4

C S = 0.012, Seismic Response Coefficient Per ASCE 7 12.8.1.1

Empty Load Case Base Shear

Shearempty = C S x Empty wt = 1.25 kips

Operating Load Case Base Shear

Shearoperating = C S x Operatingwt = 2.499 kips

Empty Load Case Earthquake Moment

Moment empty = Shearempty x CG = 12.496 kip*ft

Operating Load Case Earthquake Moment

Moment operating = Shearoperating x CG =24.992 kip*ft

Comparison

Table 8-30: Vertical Vessel verification example 7 comparison

Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of

Result

Result

ference

Base Shear Empty Case

1.249592

1.25

0.03264

(kip)

Base Shear Operating

2.499184

2.499

0.00736295

Case (kip)

Base Moment Empty

12.49592

12.496

0.0006402

Case (kip ft)

Base Moment Operating

24.99184

24.992

0.0006402

Case (kip ft)

5

Location Nashville, Tennessee

Spectral Response Acceleration at Short Periods determined in accordance with ASCE 7

11.4.1, S1 = 0.145056

8.8 Vertical Vessel Seismic Load Generation 5

Spectral Response Acceleration at Period of 1 sec determined in accordance with ASCE 7

11.4.1, SS = 0.32156

Site Class = E, Based On Soil Properties In Accordance With ASCE 7 Chapter 20

Response modification Coefficient per ASCE 7 Tables 15.4-1 or 15.4-2, R = 2

Importance Factor per ASCE 7 11.5.1, I= 1.0

Fundamental Period of Vessel,T = 12 sec.

Long-Period Transition Period per ASCE 7 12.8.2, TL = 8 sec.

Empty Weight Of Vessel = 100 kips

Operating Weight of Vessel = 200 kips

Center of Gravity Of Vessel From Top Of Pedestal, CG = 10 ft

Short-Period Site Coefficient per ASCE 7 11.4.3, FA = 2.271

Long-Period site Coefficient per ASCE 7 11.4.3, FV = 3.365

SDS = 0.487, Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter at short periods per ASCE 7

11.4.4

SD1 = 0.325, Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter at period of 1 sec per ASCE 7

11.4.4

C S = 9.039x10-3, Seismic Response Coefficient Per ASCE 7 12.8.1.1

Empty Load Case Base Shear

Shearempty = C S x Empty wt = 0.904 kips

Operating Load Case Base Shear

Shearoperating = C S x Operatingwt = 1.808 kips

Empty Load Case Earthquake Moment

Moment empty = Shearempty x CG = 9.039 kip*ft

Operating Load Case Earthquake Moment

Moment operating = Shearoperating x CG =18.077 kip*ft

Comparison

Table 8-31: Vertical Vessel verification example 8 comparison

Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of

Result

Result

ference

Base Shear Empty Case 0.903868649

0.904

0.01452995

(kip)

Base Shear Operating

1.807737298

1.808

0.01452995

Case (kip)

Base Moment Empty

9.038686492

9.039

0.00346839

Case (kip ft)

Base Moment Operating 18.07737298

18.077

0.00206331

Case (kip ft)

Chapter 8

8.9 Vertical Vessel Seismic Load Generation 6

6

Location Santa Ana California

S1 = 0.5312, Spectral Response Acceleration at Short Periods determined in accordance

with ASCE 7 11.4.1

Ss = 1.378, Spectral Response Acceleration at Period of 1 sec determined in accordance with

ASCE 7 11.4.1

Site Class = A; Based On Soil Properties In Accordance With ASCE 7 Chapter 20

R = 2, Response modification Coefficient per ASCE 7 Tables 15.4-1 or 15.4-2

I = 1.0, Importance Factor per ASCE 7 11.5.1

TL = 12 sec., Fundamental Period of Vessel

Long-Period Transition Period per ASCE 7 12.8.2

Empty Weight Of Vessel, Ewt = 100 kip

Operating Weight of Vessel, Operatingwt = 200 kip

Center of Gravity Of Vessel From Top Of Pedestal, CG = 9 ft

Fa = 0.9, Short-Period Site Coefficient per ASCE 7 11.4.3

Fv =0.8, Long-Period site Coefficient per ASCE 7 11.4.3

SDS = 0.735, Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter at short periods per ASCE 7

11.4.4

SD1 = 0.283, Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter at period of 1 sec per ASCE

7 11.4.4

C S = 0.024, Seismic Response Coefficient Per ASCE 7 12.8.1.1

Base Shear Based on Operating Load Condition

V = Cs Operating

wt

= 4.722 kip

Comparison

Table 8-32: Vertical Vessel verification example 9 comparison

Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of

Result

Result

ference

Seismic Response Coef0.02361

0.024

1.631

ficient (C s)

Base Shear Operating

4.722

4.722

0.006

Case (kip)

Generation 7

Location Yorba Linda California 92887

8.11 Vertical Vessel Seismic Load Generation 8

S1, 0.8574, Spectral Response Acceleration at Short Periods determined in accordance with

ASCE 7 11.4.1

SS = 2.0951, Spectral Response Acceleration at Period of 1 sec determined in accordance

with ASCE 7 11.4.1

Site Class = B, Based On Soil Properties In Accordance With ASCE 7 Chapter 20

R = 2, Response modification Coefficient per ASCE 7 Tables 15.4-1 or 15.4-2

I = 1.0, Importance Factor per ASCE 7 11.5.1

T = 4 sec., Fundamental Period of Vessel

TL = 12 sec., Long-Period Transition Period per ASCE 7 12.8.2

Empty Weight Of Vessel = 100 kip

Operating Weight of Vessel = 200 kip

Center of Gravity Of Vessel From Top Of Pedestal, CG = 2.5 ft

Fa = 1, Short-Period Site Coefficient per ASCE 7 11.4.3

Fv = 1, Long-Period site Coefficient per ASCE 7 11.4.3

SDS = 1.397, Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter at short periods per ASCE 7

11.4.4

SD1 = 0.572, Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter at period of 1 sec per ASCE 7

11.4.4

C S = 0.071, Seismic Response Coefficient Per ASCE 7 12.8.1.1

Base Shear Based on Operating Load Condition

V = Cs Operating

wt

= 14.289 kip

Comparison

Table 8-33: Vertical Vessel verification example 10 comparison

Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of

Result

Result

ference

Seismic Response Coef0.0715

0.071

0.63

ficient (C s)

Base Shear Operating

14.289

14.289

0.002

Case (kip)

Generation 8

Location Mountain Valley 73062

S1 = 0.0884, Spectral Response Acceleration at Short Periods determined in accordance

with ASCE 7 11.4.1

SS = 0.329, Spectral Response Acceleration at Period of 1 sec determined in accordance with

ASCE 7 11.4.1

Site Class = C, Based On Soil Properties In Accordance With ASCE 7 Chapter 20

Chapter 8

8.12 Vertical Vessel Seismic Load Generation 9

R = 2, Response modification Coefficient per ASCE 7 Tables 15.4-1 or 15.4-2

I = 1.0, Importance Factor per ASCE 7 11.5.1

T = 3 sec., Fundamental Period of Vessel

TL = 12 sec., Long-Period Transition Period per ASCE 7 12.8.2

Empty Weight Of Vessel = 100 kip

Operating Weight of Vessel = 200 kip

Center of Gravity Of Vessel From Top Of Pedestal, CG = 2.5 ft

Fa = 1.2, Short-Period Site Coefficient per ASCE 7 11.4.3

Fv = 1.7, Long-Period site Coefficient per ASCE 7 11.4.3

SDS 0.263, Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter at short periods per ASCE 7

11.4.4

SD1 = 0.1, Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter at period of 1 sec per ASCE 7

11.4.4

C S = 0.017, Seismic Response Coefficient Per ASCE 7 12.8.1.1

Base Shear Based on Operating Load Condition

V = Cs Operating

wt

=3.339 kip

Comparison

Table 8-34: Vertical Vessel verification example 11 comparison

Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of

Result

Result

ference

Seismic Response Coef0.0167

0.017

1.787

ficient (C s)

Base Shear Operating

3.339

3.339

0.007

Case (kip)

Generation 9

Location San Bernadino 92411

S1 = 1.415, Spectral Response Acceleration at Short Periods determined in accordance with

ASCE 7 11.4.1

SS = 2.984, Spectral Response Acceleration at Period of 1 sec determined in accordance

with ASCE 7 11.4.1

Site Class = D, Based On Soil Properties In Accordance With ASCE 7 Chapter 20

R =2, Response modification Coefficient per ASCE 7 Tables 15.4-1 or 15.4-2

I = 1.0, Importance Factor per ASCE 7 11.5.1

T = 3.5 sec., Fundamental Period of Vessel

TL = 12 sec., Long-Period Transition Period per ASCE 7 12.8.2

Empty Weight Of Vessel = 100 kip

420 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

8.13 Vertical Vessel Wind Load Generation 1

Operating Weight of Vessel = 200 kip

Center of Gravity Of Vessel From Top Of Pedestal, CG = 9 ft

Fa = 1, Short-Period Site Coefficient per ASCE 7 11.4.3

Fv = 1.5, Long-Period site Coefficient per ASCE 7 11.4.3

SDS = 1.989, Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter at short periods per ASCE 7

11.4.4

SD1 = 1.415, Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter at period of 1 sec per ASCE 7

11.4.4

C s = 0.202, Seismic Response Coefficient Per ASCE 7 12.8.1.1

Base Shear Based on Operating Load Condition

V = Cs Operating

wt

= 40.429 kip

Comparison

Table 8-35: Vertical Vessel verification example 12 comparison

Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of

Result

Result

ference

Seismic Response Coef0.2021

0.202

none

ficient (C s)

Base Shear Operating

40.429

40.429

none

Case (kip)

Vessel Data

Height of Vessel, H = 60 ft

Diameter of Vessel, D = 15 ft

Vessel Time Period, t = 5 sec.

Pedestal height Above Ground = 1 ft

Vessel Frequency, f = 1/t = 0.2 Hz

Wind Parameters

Wind Speed = 80 mph

Wind Directional Factor, Kd = 0.95, per ASCE 7-05 6.5.6.6

Wind Exposure = C

Exposure Case = 2

Topographic Factor, Kzt = 1.0, per ASCE 7-05 6.5.7.2

Importance factor, I = 1.15, per ASCE 7-05 6.5.5

Gust Wind Effect Factor, G = 0.85, per ASCE 7-05 6.5.8

Net Force Coefficient, C f = 1, per ASCE 7-05 Fig. 6-20 & 6-21

Verification Manual 421

Chapter 8

8.14 Vertical Vessel Wind Load Generation 2

Velocity Pressure

Exposure Coefficient, Kz, per ASCE 7-05 6.5.6.6

Design Wind Pressure per ASCE 7-05 6.5.10

q = 0.00256 K K V I G C

z

F=q G C A

z

M = F x Moment Arm

Kz

0.849

0.849

0.902

0.945

0.982

1.044

1.094

1.137

1.141

qz

(psf)

15.195

15.195

16.143

16.920

17.582

18.680

19.578

20.344

20.415

A

(ft2)

15

210

75

75

75

150

150

150

15

F (kip)

0.194

2.712

1.029

1.079

1.121

2.382

2.496

2.594

0.260

13.867

M (ft kip)

0.097

21.698

18.010

24.269

30.823

83.823

112.329

142.663

15.748

448.995

Total Moment at Top of Pier = 448.995 ft kip

Comparison

Table 8-36: Vertical Vessel verification example 13 comparison

Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of

Result

Result

ference

Wind Shear on Top of

13.867

13.867

none

Pier (kip)

Wind Moment of Top of

448.995

448.898

negligible

Pier (ft kip)

Vessel Data

Height of Vessel, h = 74 ft

Diameter of Vessel, D = 20 ft

Vessel Time Period, t = 5 sec.

Pedestal height Above Ground = 3 ft

8.14 Vertical Vessel Wind Load Generation 2

Vessel Frequency, f = 1/t = 0.2 Hz

Wind Parameters

Wind Speed = 90 mph

Wind Directional Factor, Kd = 0.95, per ASCE 7-05 6.5.6.6

Wind Exposure = D

Exposure Case = 2

Topographic Factor, Kzt = 1.0, per ASCE 7-05 6.5.7.2

Importance factor, I = 1.15, per ASCE 7-05 6.5.5

Gust Wind Effect Factor, G = 0.85, per ASCE 7-05 6.5.8

Net Force Coefficient, C f = 0.8, per ASCE 7-05 Fig. 6-20 & 6-21

Velocity Pressure

Exposure Coefficient, Kz, per ASCE 7-05 6.5.6.6

Design Wind Pressure per ASCE 7-05 6.5.10

q = 0.00256 K K V I G C

z

F=q G C A

z

M = F x Moment Arm

Kz

1.030

1.030

1.083

1.126

1.162

1.222

1.270

1.311

1.347

1.369

qz

(psf)

23.339

23.339

24.536

25.507

26.329

27.680

28.775

29.702

30.509

31.019

A

(ft2)

20

280

100

100

100

200

200

200

200

140

F

(kip)

0.317

4.444

1.668

1.734

1.790

3.764

3.913

4.039

4.149

2.953

28.77

M (ft kip)

0.159

35.550

29.198

39.026

49.235

131.756

176.103

222.171

269.700

217.046

1169.945

Total Moment at Top of Pier = 1169.945 ft kip

Chapter 8

8.15 Vertical Vessel Wind Load Generation 3

Comparison

Table 8-37: Vertical Vessel verification example 14 comparison

Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of

Result

Result

ference

Wind Shear on Top of

28.774

28.774

none

Pier (kip)

Wind Moment of Top of 1169.945

1168.516

0.12

Pier (ft kip)

Vessel Data

Height of Vessel = 74 ft

Diameter of Vessel = 20 ft

Vessel Time Period, t = 5 sec.

Pedestal height Above Ground = 3 ft

Vessel Frequency, f = 1/t = 0.2 Hz

Wind Parameters

Wind Speed = 110 mph

Wind Directional Factor, Kd = 0.95, per ASCE 7-05 6.5.6.6

Wind Exposure = B

Exposure Case = 2

Topographic Factor, Kzt = 1.0, per ASCE 7-05 6.5.7.2

Importance factor, I = 1.15, per ASCE 7-05 6.5.5

Gust Wind Effect Factor, G = 0.85, per ASCE 7-05 6.5.8

Net Force Coefficient, C f = 0.8, per ASCE 7-05 Fig. 6-20 & 6-21

Velocity Pressure

Exposure Coefficient, Kz, per ASCE 7-05 6.5.6.6

Design Wind Pressure per ASCE 7-05 6.5.10

q = 0.00256 K K V I G C

z

F=q G C A

z

M = F x Moment Arm

8.16 Vertical Vessel Wind Load Generation 4

Kz

0.575

0.575

0.624

0.665

0.701

0.761

0.811

0.854

0.892

0.917

qz

(psf)

19.449

19.449

21.115

22.505

23.709

25.740

27.434

28.901

30.203

31.037

A

(ft2)

20

280

100

100

100

200

200

200

200

140

F (kip)

0.265

3.703

1.436

1.530

1.612

3.501

3.731

3.931

4.108

2.955

26.771

M (ft kip)

0.132

29.625

25.127

34.433

44.336

122.522

167.899

216.183

266.993

217.169

1124.42

Total Moment at Top of Pier = 1124.42 ft kip

Comparison

Table 8-38: Vertical Vessel verification example 15 comparison

Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of

Result

Result

ference

Wind Shear on Top of

26.771

26.771

none

Pier (kip)

Wind Moment of Top of

1124.42

1123.23

0.11

Pier (ft kip)

Vessel Data

Height of Vessel = 22 ft

Diameter of Vessel = 6 ft

Vessel Time Period, t = 5 sec.

Pedestal height Above Ground = 2 ft

Vessel Frequency, f = 1/t = 0.2 Hz

Wind Parameters

Wind Speed = 110 mph

Wind Directional Factor, Kd = 0.95, per ASCE 7-05 6.5.6.6

Wind Exposure = B

Exposure Case = 2

Topographic Factor, Kzt = 1.0, per ASCE 7-05 6.5.7.2

Importance factor, I = 1.15, per ASCE 7-05 6.5.5

Verification Manual 425

Chapter 8

8.17 Horizontal Vessel Applied Loads 1

Gust Wind Effect Factor, G = 0.85, per ASCE 7-05 6.5.8

Net Force Coefficient, C f = 0.8, per ASCE 7-05 Fig. 6-20 & 6-21

Exposure Coefficient, Kz, per ASCE 7-05 6.5.6.6

Design Wind Pressure per ASCE 7-05 6.5.10

q = 0.00256 K K V I G C

z

F=q G C A

z

M = F x Moment Arm

Kz

0.575

0.575

0.624

0.657

qz

A

(psf) (ft2)

19.449 6

19.449 84

21.115 30

22.245 24

F

(kip)

0.079

1.111

0.431

0.363

1.984

M (ft kip)

0.040

8.888

7.538

7.987

24.452

Total Moment at Top of Pier = 24.452 ft kip

Comparison

Table 8-39: Vertical Vessel verification example 16 comparison

Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of

Result

Result

ference

Wind Shear on Top of

1.984

1.984

none

Pier (kip)

Wind Moment of Top of

24.452

24.293

negligible

Pier (ft kip)

Pier Design Philosophy

Vessel Loads

You are provided an option of making both piers identical, engineering and installation

errors can be avoided by doing so. If making them identical does not lead to economical

solution, then check applied load distribution, follow PIP 4.3

Operating Load = 106 kip

Empty Load = 92 kip

Test Load = 118 kip

426 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

8.17 Horizontal Vessel Applied Loads 1

A major difference between pier loads is caused by longitudinal seismic load (i.e., when

vessel is located in higher seismic area). Thermal load and bundle pull force also contribute

towards the difference.

Thermal Load = 0 kip

Live Load = 0 kip

Erection Load = 110 kip

Anchor bold dia., Db = 1 in

BP = 0 kip

Bolt spacing = 9 in

Bolt edge dist. = 6 in

center-to-center = 2 in

Vessel CG from Top of Pier = 7 ft - 5ft/2 = 4.5 ft

Tan to Tan Length, L = 23.5 ft

CL to CL of AB, Lab = 11 ft

Vessel Outer Dim including Insulation = 42 in

% Distribution For Vertical Loads At Fixed End = 40%

% Distribution For Vertical Loads At Sliding End = 60%

CG to Bott of Baseplate = 10 ft

Empty Load at fixed end = 36.8 kip

Operating Load at fixed end = 42.4 kip

Earthquake Loads

Transverse Earthquake Load Operating Condition

Bottom of the Base Plate to HPFS (est) = 10 kip

Longitudinal Earthquake Load Operating Condition = 15 kip

Transverse Earthquake Load Empty Condition = 9 kip

Longitudinal Earthquake Load Empty Condition= 10 kip

X = long

Z = trans

Wind Loads

= 0.4

Verification Manual 427

Chapter 8

8.17 Horizontal Vessel Applied Loads 1

Transverse Wind Load on Vessel = 10 kip

Longitudinal Wind Load on Vessel = 3.5 kip

Longitudinal Wind Load on Pier = 0.5 kip

Table 8-40: Service level load combinations per PIP

Load

EQ

EQ

W

W

Empty Operating Test Thermal Bundle

Live Erection

Comb.

Trans Long Trans Long

1

0

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

0

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

3

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

4

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

5

0

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

6

0

1

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

7

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

8

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

9

0

0.9

0

0

0

0.7

0

0

0

0

0

10

0

0.9

0

0

0

0

0.7

0

0

0

0

11

0.9

0

0

0

0

0.7

0

0

0

0

0

12

0.9

0

0

0

0

0

0.7

0

0

0

0

13

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

14

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

15

0

0

0.83

0

0

0

0

0.415 0

0

0

16

0

0

0.83

0

0

0

0

0

0.415 0

0

17

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

Table 8-41: Strength level load combinations per PIP

Load

EQ

EQ

W

W

Empty Operating Test Thermal Bundle

Live Erection

Comb.

Trans Long Trans Long

1

0

1.4

0

1.4

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

0

1.2

0

1.2

0

0

0

0

0

1.6

0

3

0

1.2

0

0

0

0

0

1.6

0

0

0

4

0

1.2

0

0

0

0

0

0

1.6

0

0

5

0

1.2

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

6

0

1.2

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

7

0.9

0

0

0

0

0

0

1.6

0

0

0

8

0.9

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1.6

0

0

9

0

0.9

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

10

0

0.9

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

11

0.9

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

12

0.9

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

13

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1.6

0

0

0.9

14

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1.6

0

0.9

15

0

0

1.2

0

0

0

0

0.8

0

0

0

8.17 Horizontal Vessel Applied Loads 1

Load

EQ

EQ

W

W

Empty Operating Test Thermal Bundle

Live Erection

Comb.

Trans Long Trans Long

16

0

0

1.2

0

0

0

0

0

0.8

0

0

17

0.9

0

0

0

1.6

0

0

0

0

0

0

Table 8-42: Service level loads applied at the top of the top of the

fixed pier

Axial

Transverse Longitudinal

Load

Longitudinal Transverse

Load

Moment

Moment (ftComb.

Shear (kip) Shear (kip)

(kip)

(ft-kip)

kip)

1

42.4

0

0

0

0

2

42.4

0

0

0

0

3

42.4

0

5

0

0

4

42.4

2.25

0

0

0

5

42.4

0

7

0

0

6

42.4

10.5

0

0

0

7

36.8

0

5

0

0

8

36.8

2.25

0

0

0

9

38.16

0

4.9

0

0

10

38.16

7.35

0

0

0

11

33.12

0

4.41

0

0

12

33.12

4.9

0

0

0

13

44.0

0

5

0

0

14

44.0

2.25

0

0

0

15

39.176

0

2.075

0

0

16

39.176

0.9338

0

0

0

17

36.8

0

0

0

0

Table 8-43: Strength level loads applied at the top of the top of the

fixed pier

Axial

Transverse Longitudinal

Load

Longitudinal Transverse

Load

Moment

Moment (ftComb.

Shear (kip) Shear (kip)

(kip)

(ft-kip)

kip)

1

59.36

0

0

0

0

2

50.88

0

0

0

0

3

50.88

0

4

0

0

4

50.88

3.6

0

0

0

5

50.88

0

7

0

0

6

50.88

10.5

0

0

0

7

33.12

0

4

0

0

8

33.12

3.6

0

0

0

9

38.16

0

7

0

0

10

38.16

10.5

0

0

0

11

33.12

0

6.3

0

0

12

33.12

7

0

0

0

13

39.60

0

4

0

0

Chapter 8

8.18 Horizontal Vessel Applied Loads 2

Axial

Transverse Longitudinal

Load

Longitudinal Transverse

Load

Moment

Moment (ftComb.

Shear (kip) Shear (kip)

(kip)

(ft-kip)

kip)

14

39.60

3.6

0

0

0

15

56.64

0

2

0

0

16

56.64

1.8

0

0

0

17

33.12

0

0

0

0

Comparison

Hand Calculation results exactly match the results of STAAD.foundation analysis.

Pier Design Philosophy

Vessel Loads

You are provided an option of making both piers identical, engineering and installation

errors can be avoided by doing so. If making them identical does not lead to economical

solution, then check applied load distribution, follow PIP 4.3

Operating Load = 150 kip

Empty Load = 100 kip

Test Load = 160 kip

A major difference between pier loads is caused by longitudinal seismic load (i.e., when

vessel is located in higher seismic area). Thermal load and bundle pull force also

contribute towards the difference.

Thermal Load = 0

Bundle Pull Force = 0

Live Load = 0

Erection Load = 110 kip

Anchor bold dia., Db = 1 in

BP = 0 kip

Bolt spacing = 9 in

Bolt edge dist. = 6 in

center-to-center = 2 in

Vessel CG from Top of Pier = 7 ft - 6.5ft/2 = 3.75 ft

Tan to Tan Length, L = 23.5 ft

8.18 Horizontal Vessel Applied Loads 2

CL to CL of AB, Lab = 11 ft

Vessel Outer Dim including Insulation = 42 in

% Distribution For Vertical Loads At Fixed End = 40%

% Distribution For Vertical Loads At Sliding End = 60%

CG to Bott of Baseplate = 10 ft

Empty Load at fixed end = 40 kip

Operating Load at fixed end = 60 kip

Earthquake Loads

Location Corona 92880

S1 = 0.882, Spectral Response Acceleration at Short Periods determined in accordance with

ASCE 7 11.4.1

SS = 2.296, Spectral Response Acceleration at Period of 1 sec determined in accordance with

ASCE 7 11.4.1

Site Class = D, Based On Soil Properties In Accordance With ASCE 7 Chapter 20

R = 1, Response modification Coefficient per ASCE 7 Tables 15.4-1 or 15.4-2

I = 1.15, Importance Factor per ASCE 7 11.5.1

T = 6 sec., Fundamental Period of Vessel

TL = 12 sec., Long-Period Transition Periods per ASCE 7 12.8.2

Center of Gravity Of Vessel From Top Of Pedestal = 7 ft +10.416 ft - 5 ft =

fa = , Short-Period Site Coefficient per ASCE 7 11.4.3

fv = , Long-Period site Coefficient per ASCE 7 11.4.3

SDS = 1.53, Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter at short periods per ASCE 7

11.4.4

SD1 = 0.882, Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter at period of 1 sec per ASCE 7

11.4.4

C S = 0.074, Seismic Response Coefficient Per ASCE 7 12.8.1.1

Base Shear Based on Operating Load Condition = 11.029 kip

Base Shear Based on Empty Load Condition = 7.352 kip

Transverse Earthquake Load Operating Condition = 11.029 kip

Longitudinal Earthquake Load Operating Condition

Transverse Earthquake Load Empty Condition= 7.352 kip

Longitudinal Earthquake Load Empty Condition= 7.352 kip

Wind Loads

Transverse Wind Load on Vessel = 10 kip

Chapter 8

8.18 Horizontal Vessel Applied Loads 2

Bottom of the Base Plate to HPFS (est)

= 0.4

Longitudinal Wind Load on Vessel = 3.5 kip

Longitudinal Wind Load on Pier = 0.5 kip

Transverse Wind Moment at top of pedestal = 20 ft-kip

X = long

Z = trans

Longitudinal Wind Load at top of pedestal = 10 ft-kip

Table 8-44: Service level load combinations per PIP

Load

EQ

EQ

W

W

Empty Operating Test Thermal Bundle

Live Erection

Comb.

Trans Long Trans Long

1

0

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

0

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

3

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

4

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

5

0

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

6

0

1

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

7

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

8

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

9

0

0.9

0

0

0

0.7

0

0

0

0

0

10

0

0.9

0

0

0

0

0.7

0

0

0

0

11

0.9

0

0

0

0

0.7

0

0

0

0

0

12

0.9

0

0

0

0

0

0.7

0

0

0

0

13

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

14

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

15

0

0

0.83

0

0

0

0

0.415 0

0

0

16

0

0

0.83

0

0

0

0

0

0.415 0

0

17

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

Table 8-45: Strength level load combinations per PIP

Load

EQ

EQ

W

W

Empty Operating Test Thermal Bundle

Live Erection

Comb.

Trans Long Trans Long

1

0

1.4

0

1.4

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

0

1.2

0

1.2

0

0

0

0

0

1.6

0

3

0

1.2

0

0

0

0

0

1.6

0

0

0

4

0

1.2

0

0

0

0

0

0

1.6

0

0

5

0

1.2

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

6

0

1.2

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

7

0.9

0

0

0

0

0

0

1.6

0

0

0

8

0.9

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1.6

0

0

9

0

0.9

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

8.18 Horizontal Vessel Applied Loads 2

Load

EQ

EQ

W

W

Empty Operating Test Thermal Bundle

Live Erection

Comb.

Trans Long Trans Long

10

0

0.9

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

11

0.9

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

12

0.9

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

13

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1.6

0

0

0.9

14

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1.6

0

0.9

15

0

0

1.2

0

0

0

0

0.8

0

0

0

16

0

0

1.2

0

0

0

0

0

0.8

0

0

17

0.9

0

0

0

1.6

0

0

0

0

0

0

Table 8-46: Service level loads applied at the top of the top of the

fixed pier

Axial

Transverse Longitudinal

Load

Longitudinal Transverse

Load

Moment

Moment (ftComb.

Shear (kip) Shear (kip)

(kip)

(ft-kip)

kip)

1

60

0

0

0

0

2

60

0

0

0

0

3

60

0

2.5

5

0

4

60

1.125

0

0

10

5

60

0

5.404

20.27

0

6

60

5.404

0

0

20.27

7

40

0

2.5

5

0

8

40

1.125

0

0

10

9

54

0

3.783

14.19

0

10

54

3.783

0

0

14.19

11

36

0

2.522

9.457

0

12

36

2.522

0

0

9.457

13

44

0

2.5

5

0

14

44

1.125

0

0

10

15

53.12

0

1.038

2.075

0

16

53.12

0.467

0

0

4.150

17

40

0

0

0

0

Table 8-47: Strength level loads applied at the top of the top of the

fixed pier

Axial

Transverse Longitudinal

Load

Longitudinal Transverse

Load

Moment

Moment (ftComb.

Shear (kip) Shear (kip)

(kip)

(ft-kip)

kip)

1

84

0

0

0

0

2

72

0

0

0

0

3

72

0

4

8

0

4

72

1.8

0

0

16

5

72

0

5.404

20.27

0

6

72

5.404

0

0

20.27

Chapter 8

8.18 Horizontal Vessel Applied Loads 2

Axial

Transverse Longitudinal

Load

Longitudinal Transverse

Load

Moment

Moment (ftComb.

Shear (kip) Shear (kip)

(kip)

(ft-kip)

kip)

7

36

0

4

8

0

8

36

1.8

0

0

16

9

54

0

5.404

20.27

0

10

54

5.404

0

0

20.27

11

36

0

3.602

13.509

0

12

36

3.602

0

0

13.509

13

39.6

0

4

8

0

14

39.6

1.8

0

0

16

15

76.8

0

2

4

0

16

76.8

0.9

0

0

8

17

36

0

0

0

0

Comparison

Hand Calculation results exactly match the results of STAAD.foundation analysis.

Section 9

Technical Support

These resources are provided to help you answer support questions:

l

and track a service ticket using Bentley Systems' online site for reporting problems or

suggesting new features. You do not need to be a Bentley SELECT member to use

Service Ticket Manager, however you do need to register as a user.

knowledge base for solutions for common problems.

Design/w/Structural_Analysis_and_Design__Wiki/structural-product-technotesand-faqs.aspx Here you can find detailed resolutions and answers to the most common questions posted to us by you.

Post questions in the BeCommunity forums to receive help and advice from fellow

users.

Chapter 9

D

Deadman Anchors

321

Drilled Pier

357

E

Eccentricity

88

I

Index

Indian Code

125

IS 456

125

P

Plant Foundation

385

A

ACI 318

201, 321

AS3600

Australian

General Isolated Footing

14,

16

U

United States Code

201

V

Vertical Vessel Foundation 1

385

3, 6

B

British

Combined Foundation

Isolated Foundation

71, 77

38, 44, 53,

62, 88

83

British Code

23

BS8110

23

C

Canadian Code

99

CSA A23.3

99

Figures

Figure 1-1: Australian code General isolated foundation

15

17

20

24

24

24

27

28

30

31

33

47

48

50

51

52

63

69

Chapter 11

Figures

72

76

78

82

84

89

91

100

106

113

116

117

119

120

123

126

128

129

130

132

134

139

141

146

151

158

159

162

165

169

171

174

177

181

183

Figures

189

197

197

Figure 4-24: Shear Force (kN, top) and Bending Moment (kNm, bottom) diagrams

199

202

Figure 5-2: Considered sections for two-way (bo) and beam (bw) action

203

204

207

211

216

218

221

230

234

236

237

238

239

239

241

243

247

252

254

255

259

261

265

267

272

274

276

278

281

282

Verification Manual 441

Chapter 11

Figures

283

285

288

290

291

293

296

298

298

303

305

307

313

315

324

325

326

328

328

329

331

333

336

336

337

341

342

344

345

346

346

348

350

353

353

Tables

354

358

363

368

372

377

382

386

386

392

392

395

395

401

401

404

404

410

410

Tables

Table 1-1: Australian verification example 1 comparison

14

16

22

26

26

32

38

44

53

62

71

77

83

Verification Manual 443

Chapter 11

Tables

88

98

105

112

115

122

124

129

133

138

140

145

150

158

164

170

176

182

183

188

190

196

199

206

210

215

220

229

233

240

246

253

258

264

266

Tables

271

273

280

281

287

289

295

302

311

320

322

330

331

334

338

339

342

347

348

355

361

366

371

375

380

384

387

388

389

389

389

390

391

391

394

Chapter 11

Tables

396

397

398

398

398

399

400

403

405

406

407

407

407

408

409

409

412

413

414

415

416

417

418

419

420

421

422

424

425

426

428

428

Table 8-42: Service level loads applied at the top of the top of the fixed pier

429

Table 8-43: Strength level loads applied at the top of the top of the fixed pier

429

432

Tables

432

Table 8-46: Service level loads applied at the top of the top of the fixed pier

433

Table 8-47: Strength level loads applied at the top of the top of the fixed pier

433

Chapter 11

Tables

685 Stockton Drive, Exton, PA 19341 USA

+1 (800) 236-8539

www.bentley.com

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