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www.elsevier.com/locate/tws

consistent laminated shell element

A.A. El Damatty

a

a,*

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University of Western Ontario, London,

Ontario, Canada N6A 5B9

b

Structural Engineer, Mccavour Eng. Ltd, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada

Received 16 June 1999

Abstract

Due to their high corrosion and chemical resistance, fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) materials

are increasingly being used in the construction of industrial chimneys. The design of a chimney

is governed by wind loads as well as thermal loads resulting from the differences among the

ambient, the operating and the curing temperatures. This study involves an investigation for

the thermal stresses induced in angle-ply laminated FRP chimneys, using an in-house

developed laminated shell element model. The finite element model is verified by performing

thermal analysis of a number of plate and shell problems and comparing the results to those

available in the literature. An extensive parametric study is then conducted using the shell

element model to identify the parameters which significantly affect thermal stresses induced

in FRP chimneys.

The study indicates that the thermal stresses are only affected by the inclination of the

lamina plies, the percentage of fibers content and the through thickness temperature distribution. Analyses also show that localized cracks in the direction perpendicular to the fibers

are expected to occur due to the thermal loads. Finally, thermal stress values that can be used

in the design of FRP chimneys, when cracking is considered, are presented as function of the

through thickness temperature distributions. 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Laminated; Composite; Shell; Finite element; Thermal; FRP chimneys; Design

E-mail address: damatty@julian.uwo.ca (A.A. El Damatty).

0263-8231/00/$ - see front matter 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

PII: S 0 2 6 3 - 8 2 3 1 ( 9 9 ) 0 0 0 4 1 - 5

58

1. Introduction

Due to their high corrosive and chemical resistances, fiber reinforced plastic

materials (FRP) are becoming widely used in the construction of industrial chimneys.

In 1984, Plecnik et al. [1] reported a 52 m height free-standing fiber glass stack

which was manufactured for a sugar processing plant in Moses Lake, Washington,

USA. During the past decade, a large number of FRP chimneys have been built in

North America and in various places around the world. FRP chimneys are commonly

applied in the pulp and paper and the chemical industries where highly corrosive

gases are produced. FRP flue gases have been also built in power generation stations.

FRP stacks are usually constructed from a large number of angle-ply layers. The

constituents of the layers are typically Vinyl Ester resin and E-glass fibers. A 70%

fiber content (based on weight) is typically used in the construction of FRP stacks

(as well as pipes).

No national code currently exists for the design of FRP chimneys. As stated by

Pritchard [2], an attempt is currently undertaken by the International Committee on

Industrial Chimneys, CICIND, to develop such a code. This study is a part of

research program to study the structural performance of FRP chimneys. This investigation focuses on the effect of thermal loads.

This study starts by briefly describing a laminated shell element model which is

employed in performing thermal stress analysis of FRP chimneys. The finite element

model is extended to include thermal loads and is verified using results of thermal

stress analysis for a number of plate and shell problems that are available in the

literature. The finite element model is then used to perform an extensive parametric

study in order to identify the main parameters affecting thermal stresses induced in

FRP chimneys. Practical considerations which should be taken into account in the

thermal stress analysis of FRP chimneys, are discussed. Finally, charts predicting

thermal stresses induced in FRP chimneys as functions of the parameters defining

the through thickness temperature distribution are presented.

To the best of the authors knowledge, no closed form solution is currently available for thermal stresses induced in laminated cylindrical shells as a result of through

thickness temperature changes. Therefore, finite element analysis using shell element

models is the best alternative. Although a large number of finite element investigations have been conducted for thermal stresses induced in various shells of revolution [35], it appears that no attempt has been made to study thermal stresses in

FRP chimneys in particular.

Due to their simplicity, degenerated shell elements which are based on the Mindlin

plate theory, provide a suitable numerical tool for the chimneys application. Degenerated shell elements were first introduced by Ahmed et al. [6] through the nine-node

isoparametric element. However, degenerated isoparametric shell elements have

shown to predict very stiff solutions (locking) when used to model thin plate and

59

developed and used in various shell applications [7,8]. The main advantage of this

element is being free from the spurious shear modes; i.e. does not exhibit locking

when used to model thin shell structures.

In the consistent subparametric shell element, the displacement vector ui is

expressed in terms of the global displacement degrees of freedom u, v and w directed

along the axes x, y and z, respectively, and rotation a and b about the local y and

x axes, respectively. The subparametric shell element is free from the spurious shear

modes because the displacements are approximated using cubic interpolation functions and the rotations are approximated using quadratic interpolation functions. The

consistent shell element has thirteen nodes, ten nodes of which are used to achieve

complete cubic polynomial for the displacements, while six nodes are used to obtain

a complete quadratic polynomial for the rotations as shown in Fig. 1. The limitation

inherent in the element is that it does not include the normal stresses component

perpendicular to the surface (szz) in its formulation.

Different coordinate systems, used in the formulation of the consistent shell

element, are shown in Fig. 1. These coordinate systems are given as:

Fig. 1.

60

2. Local set of axes (x, y and z); x and y are tangent to the surface of the shell,

while z is perpendicular to the surface.

3. Material set of axes (1, 2 and 3), for a certain layer, axes 1 and 2 are tangent to

the surface, while axis 3 is perpendicular to the surface of the shell. Axis 1 is

directed along the fiber direction.

For a certain layer, the angle of orientation q is defined as the angle between the x

and the 1 axes.

2.1. Thermal load vector

The stressstrain relationship for shell structures in the local coordinate system

x,y,z is

sxx

syy

(1)

txz

tyz

where o and so are the initial local strain and stress vectors, respectively. The

matrix [D] is related to the constitutive matrix for orthotropic material [D] using

the following transformation:

[D][Te]T[D][Te]

(2)

The constitutive matrix [D], given by Jones [9], is defined in the material axes

system 123. The matrix [T] represents the transformation matrix relating the local

axes system (x, y and z) to the material axes system (1, 2 and 3). An expression

for [T] is given by Cook et al. [10].

A temperature change T induces initial thermal strains {e12

oL} (in the material

axes 12) which are given by:

e1

a1LT

e2

a2LT

{e } g12 0

12

oL

g13

g23

(3)

where a1L and a2L are the thermal expansion coefficients of the Lth layer in the

direction of material axes 1 and 2, respectively. The transformation matrix [Te] is

applied to {e12

oL} to obtain the local initial strains {eoL} expressed relative to the

local axes x, y and z i.e.

{eoL}[Te]1{e12

oL}

61

(4)

stresses) as

p(1/2) {s}T{e}dv

(5)

and substituting Eq. (1) into Eq. (5) (putting {soL}={0}), the load vector {f} due

to temperature change is obtained using the principle of minimum potential energy

and is then incorporated into the shell element model.

3. Verification of the model

In order to verify the accuracy of the developed finite element model, thermal

analysis of a number of plate and shell problems is performed using the consistent

laminated shell element.

3.1. Isotropic plate subjected to linearly varying temperature change

A simply supported isotropic plate is analyzed under a linearly varying through

thickness temperature distribution. The temperature variation at any point within the

plate is expressed as: T(x,y,z)=TL z/H, where TL is the value of the temperature at

the top and bottom fibers of the plate; z is the coordinate normal to the plate and

measured from the mid-surface; and H is the thickness of the plate. The plate is

simply supported at its four edges.

Results of the analysis are presented using the dimensionless parameter wL, which

is defined as:

wLHw/a1TLA2

where: wL is the central deflection of the plate, a1 is the coefficient of thermal expansion, and A is the length of the plate along the x-axis.

The analyses are conducted for different A/B and H/A ratios; where B is the length

of the plate along the y-axis. Values of the dimensionless parameter wL resulting

from these analyses together with those predicted by Timoshenko et al. [11] are

presented in Table 1 showing an excellent agreement. It should be noted that the

displacements resulting from the thermal analysis of isotropic plate are independent

of the modulus of elasticity of the plate. In the analyses, the Poissons ratio of the

plate is assumed to be 0.3.

3.2. Anti-symmetric angle ply laminate plate subjected to linearly varying

temperature change

An angle ply () square plate is considered for thermal stress analysis using the

consistent shell element. The plate has the same boundary conditions and is subjected

62

Table 1

Results of the analysis of an isotropic plate subjected to linearly varying temperature

wL

H/A

A/B=1.0

0.100

0.075

0.050

0.010

[11]

0.09578

0.09578

0.09578

0.09578

A/B=1.5

CLT

0.09598

0.09601

0.09623

0.09783

[11]

0.05824

0.05824

0.05824

0.05824

A/B=2.0

CLT

0.05832

0.05835

0.05844

0.05928

[11]

0.03702

0.03702

0.03702

0.03702

CLT

0.03706

0.03708

0.03712

0.03749

example. The mechanical properties of the orthotropic lamina along the 12 directions (1 is the fibers direction and 2 is an axis perpendicular to the fibers in the

plane of the plate) are given as: E1=53.8 GPa, E2=17.9 GPa, G12=G13=G23=8.62 GPa,

n12=n13=n23=0.25, a1=6.3106 m/m/C, a2=20.5106 m/m/C. The aspect ratio of

the plate is chosen in such a way that: A/H=100; where A is the length of the plate

and H is the thickness.

The analyses are conducted for various angles of orientation and considering 2

and 4 layers, respectively. Results of the analyses are also presented using the dimensionless parameter wL and are given in Table 2 together with those predicted by a

finite element solution conducted by Wu et al. [12]. An excellent agreement between

the results of two sets of analyses is shown.

3.3. Isotropic cylinder subjected to linearly varying temperature change

A closed form solution for the thermal stress analysis of free standing isotropic

cylinder subjected to through thickness linearly varying temperature is given by

Timoshenko et al. [11]. According to this solution, the longitudinal stress syy and

the circumferential stress sxx at the outer and inner faces of the cylinder evaluated

at a point away from the boundary (either the restrained or the free end) are given

by the following relation:

Table 2

Results of the analysis of an anti-symmetric angle-ply plate subjected to linearly varying temperature

wL

Orientation angle

2 layers

q

0

15

30

45

[12]

0.16711

0.16792

0.16221

0.16071

4 layers

CLS

0.17141

0.16659

0.15525

0.14944

[12]

0.16711

0.15921

0.14419

0.13817

CLS

0.17141

0.16213

0.14573

0.13857

sxxsyy

Ea(T1T2)

2(1n)

63

(6)

T1 and T2 are the temperatures at the inside and outside faces of the shell, respectively. In the above equation, the stresses at the outer face are tensile if T1T2. An

isotropic free standing cylinder having a modulus of elasticity E=36.85 GPa, a Poissons ratio n=0.3, a coefficient of thermal expansion a=7.7106 m/m/C and a

diameter D=3.0 m has been modeled using the consistent laminated shell element.

The cylinder is subjected to the through thickness temperature distribution shown in

Fig. 2. The above parameters are substituted into Eq. (6) to obtain the stresses at a

cross section away from the boundaries. According to Eq. (6), such a section is

subjected to pure circumferential and longitudinal bending stresses (i.e. stresses at

the mid-surface equal zero) which are equal to 2.027 MPa and 2.027 MPa at the

inner and outer faces, respectively. Results of the finite element analysis together

with those predicted by Timoshenko et. al. [11] are presented in Fig. 2 by plotting

the stresses sbx, sby and sax along the length of the cylinder (in this figure y=0

corresponds to the free end), where: sbx is the outer circumferential bending stress,

sby is the outer longitudinal bending stress and sax is the mid-plane circumferential

stress. Fig. 2 shows that the longitudinal bending stress sby vanishes at the free end

and that both sbx, sby approach the exact value (2.027 MPa) away from the boundaries. It is also clear from the figure that a full agreement between the finite element

and the closed form solution is achieved.

Fig. 2. Variation of outer and mid-surface longitudinal and circumferential stresses at free end of cylinder

due to linearly varying temperature change.

64

A four-layer cross-ply (0/90/0/90) cylindrical panel has been considered for

thermal stress analysis. The panel is subjected to uniform temperature field and its

geometry is defined by the following ratios: A/B=1, A/H=100 and R/B=1, where the

variables A, B and R are shown in Fig. 3 and H is the thickness of the shell. Two

types of boundary conditions are considered in the analysis; BC1 has the four edges

of the panel clamped while BC2 has the circular edges (along x-axis) fully clamped

and the straight edges (along y-axis) simply supported.

The layers have the following properties defined in the directions of the material

axes (12): E1=181 GPa, E2=10.3 GPa, G12=G13=7.17 GPa, G23=6.21 GPa,

n12=n13=n23=0.25, a1=0.02106 m/m/C, a2=22.5106 m/m/C. Results of the

analyses are presented using the dimensionless parameter wL and are given in Table

3 together with those predicted by a finite element analysis conducted by Chandrashekhara et al. [13]. It could be concluded from the results shown in Table 3 that

Table 3

Results of the analysis of anti-symmetric cross-ply (0/90/0/90) cylindrical panel subjected to uniform

temperature (A/B=1, A/H=100, R/B=1)

Boundary condition

Source

WL

BC1

[15]

CLS

[15]

CLS

1.4106

1.4470

1.4326

1.4883

BC2

65

the consistent laminated shell element provides a very good agreement with the

analyses conducted by Chandrashekhara et al. [13].

Having verified the accuracy of the consistent laminated shell element when

extended to thermal stress analysis, the finite element model is then used to study

the effect of various parameters affecting thermal stresses induced in FRP chimneys.

FRP chimneys are usually constructed from angle-ply laminates with orientation

angles varies between q=35 and 55. The use of angle-ply laminate in the construction for FRP chimneys is favorable than any other stacking sequence. This configuration minimizes the coupling between extension and bending and between shear

stresses and normal strains. Beside the ease of construction, the angle-ply configuration provides laminate with high in-plane shear stiffness compared to laminate constructed from a cross-ply configuration.

Thermal stresses induced in FRP chimneys depend on the curing temperature of

the composite. Unsaturated polyester and vinyl ester resins, which are commonly

used in the construction of FRP chimneys, are usually cured at a temperature ranging

between 50C and 150C, [14]. In order to study thermal stress resulting from the

difference between the operating and the curing temperatures, a number of FRP

chimneys constructed from a Der41145 matrix reinforced by E-glass fibers are modeled using the consistent laminated shell element. For a 70% fiber content (based

on weight), the mechanical properties for a laminate along the material axes are given

by: E1=36.85 GPa, E2=11.16 GPa, G12=G13=3.36 GPa, G23=4.32 GPa, a1=7.7106

m/m/C, a2=43.4106 m/m/C, where a1 and a2 are the coefficient of thermal

expansion in the fibers direction and perpendicular to the fibers, respectively.

The curing temperature (reference temperature of the composite) is assumed to

be equal to 100C and the chimneys are analyzed at interior (operating) temperature

and exterior (ambient) temperature equal to 70C and 30C, respectively. This

leads to temperature change (relative the curing temperature) at the interior (Tin)

and the exterior (Tout) surfaces of the chimneys equal to 30C and 130C,

respectively. The above mechanical properties and temperature variation are used to

perform a parametric study investigating the effect of various parameters (thickness

of the shell, number of laminate layers, orientation angle of the fibers, diameter and

height of the chimney) on the thermal stresses induced in FRP chimneys during their

operating stage. In all analyses, the boundary conditions are assumed to be full fixation at the bottom of the chimney and free displacements and rotations at the top.

4.1. The effect of the laminate thickness

A FRP chimney having a diameter D=3.0 m and a height L=40.0 m is considered

for thermal stress analysis. The laminate of the chimney consists of 5 angle-ply

layers (55/55 /55/55/55). Notice that these angles are measured relative to

the axis x which is tangent to the surface and located in a horizontal plane. The

66

130 mm. Although, some of these thicknesses will lead to significant thick layers

(which might be unpractical), the purpose of this subsection is to investigate the

effect of varying the total thickness. The effect of varying the number of layers to

produce a certain thickness is investigated later in this paper. The temperature distribution is assumed to be linear with values of 30C and 130C at the interior

and exterior surfaces, respectively (as described in the previous section). The thermal

stresses (circumferential and longitudinal) that result from the analysis are plotted

in Figs. 4 and 5 for a location away from the boundary and for a point located at

the base of the chimney, respectively. Fig. 4 indicates that the thickness has no effect

on the thermal stresses at sections located away from the boundary. This is due to

the fact that by increasing the thickness of the shell, both the initial thermal strains

(external load) and the stiffness of the shell increase and thus the same values of

final thermal stresses are obtained. Fig. 5 shows that up to a thickness of 60 mm,

an increase in the thickness leads to a corresponding slight increase in the thermal

stresses at the base of the chimney. The same figure shows that beyond a thickness

value of 60 mm, stresses become almost constant. This behavior was also reported

for laminated plates by Thangaratnam et al. [15].

In summary, it can be concluded that beyond a certain thickness value, an increase

of the thickness of FRP chimney has no effect on the induced thermal stresses.

4.2. Effect of the diameter of the chimney

A chimney having a height equal to L=40 m, a thickness H=65 mm and consisting

of 5 layers symmetric angle-ply laminate (q55) is considered for thermal stress

Fig. 4. Circumferential and longitudinal stresses of five layers angle-ply (55) FRP chimney versus

the laminate thickness at a section away from the boundaries of the chimney.

67

Fig. 5. Circumferential and longitudinal stresses of five layers angle-ply (55) FRP chimney versus

the laminate thickness at the base of the chimney.

analysis in order to asses the effect of the diameter of the chimney. The temperature

variation follows the linear distribution previously described when studying the effect

of the thickness. The parametric study is performed by varying the diameter of the

chimney in the range between 1.5 m and 6 m. The variation of the thermal stresses

induced at the base of the chimney versus the diameter is presented in Fig. 6. It

could be concluded from the figure that the change in the diameter has no significant

effect on the thermal stresses. In Fig. 7 both the hoop thermal stresses (sx) and the

axial (meridional) thermal stresses (sy) are plotted along the height of one of the

analyzed chimneys. As might be expected, both the hoop and the axial thermal

stresses have rapid fluctuations near the boundaries (for both the fixed and the free

boundaries). In general, the thermal stress distributions show high stress values which

occur very close to the boundaries and are localized in a narrow region.

Fig. 6.

The effect of the diameter on the thermal stresses induced at the base of a FRP chimney.

68

Fig. 7. The hoop and the axial stresses at the inside face along the height of a FRP chimney subjected

to linearly varying temperature.

The effect of the height of the chimney on the induced thermal stresses is studied

by fixing both the diameter and the thickness of the FRP chimney and varying its

height. Analyses indicated that the maximum values of thermal stress (occurring near

the fixed bottom of the chimney) are independent of the height of the chimney. The

stress distributions along the height are typically as shown in Fig. 7; the change of

the height only affects the length of the region having a constant stress distribution.

4.4. The effect of the number of layers and fiber orientation

In this section, the effects of varying both the number of layers (keeping the total

thickness constant) and the orientation of the fibers on the thermal stresses induced

in FRP chimneys are studied. The parametric study is conducted by considering a

FRP chimney having a height L=40 m, a diameter D=3 m and a total thickness H=65

mm. This thickness is achieved by considering 2, 4, 5, 6 and 10 layers laminate,

respectively. The laminates 2, 4, 6 and 10 consist of anti-symmetric angle-ply layers

69

() and the 5 layer laminate is a symmetric angle-ply laminate. For each laminate

configuration, the angle of orientation has been varied between 0 and 90. In Fig.

8, the variations of the maximum along fibers stresses s1 and transverse fibers

stresses s2 (occurring near the base) for the outside face of the chimney are plotted

versus the angle of orientation for different laminate configurations. Fig. 9 shows

similar graphs plotted for the inside face. Both figures indicate that the number of

layers has no significant effect on both the along fibers and the transverse fibers

stresses. It was found that for a certain thickness, the increase in the number of

layers would lead to a decrease in the transverse (interlaminar) shear stresses. As

such, a conservative approach can be adopted by using 10 layers (usually the number

of layers are larger than that) to develop charts for thermal stresses induced in FRP

chimneys. At the inside face of the shell, the increase of the fiber orientation leads

to an increase in the along fibers stresses reaching maximum values at =90 and

also leads to a decrease of the across fibers stresses which reach minimum values

at =90. For the outside face, the increase of the angle ply leads to a slight

decrease in the stresses which is then followed by a significant increase of the stresses

with the angle (at =37.5 for the case of s1).

4.5. Summary of the results of the parametric study

From the above conducted parametric study, it can be concluded that the height,

the diameter, the thickness and the number of layers used to achieve the thickness

have almost no effect on the maximum thermal stresses induced in FRP chimneys.

Fig. 8. The maximum longitudinal and transverse stresses at the outside face of the laminate vs the

angle of orientation.

70

Fig. 9. The maximum longitudinal and transverse stresses at the outside face of the laminate vs the

angle of orientation.

Such stresses are usually very localized in a narrow region near the base of the

chimney. The main parameters affecting the values of the stresses are the temperature

profile, the angle of the orientation of the fibers, the coefficient of thermal expansion

and the modulus of elasticity along the fibers direction. For practical FRP chimneys

consisting of glass fibers and vinyl ester resin, the last two parameters depend mainly

on the percentage of the fibers content.

The practical range for the angle of inclination is between 35 and 55. Examining the stress values shown in Figs. 5 and 6 (these figures represent results for chimney having =55), it can be concluded that the maximum value for the stresses s1

(along the fibers direction) and s2 (perpendicular to the fibers direction) are approximately 100 MPa and 80 MPa, respectively. Typical ultimate bending strengths

(which are double the ultimate axial strengths) along the fibers s1u and perpendicular

to the fibers s2u have approximately the following values s1u=1100 MPa and

s2u=33.5 MPa (for 70% E-glass content based on weight). Comparison between the

induced stresses and the ultimate bending strength indicates that although large factor

of safety is achieved along the fibers direction, the cross fibers direction is unsafe.

As such, one would expect that cracks localized at the bottom part of the chimneys,

parallel to the fibers direction, would occur (independent of the value of the

thickness) due to thermal stresses.

4.6. Practical considerations for attempting design procedure of FRP chimneys

From the above discussions, it is clear that the temperature distribution assumed

in the analysis results in across fibers stresses which are approximately 2.5 times

71

the ultimate stresses in that direction. As such, it is very hard to avoid cracking in

the across fibers direction unless insulation layer has been provided to reduce the

temperature gradient. Moreover, if the design is governed by preventing such cracks,

the fiber reinforcement would be redundant. Knowing that cracks will occur, it has

been decided to analyze the FRP chimneys under thermal loads by assuming that

the stiffness in the direction perpendicular to the fibers almost vanishes (i.e. E2 is

very small). This assumption is made for all layers along the height of the chimney.

The authors believes that this assumption is conservative because, in practice, cracks

will not occur in all layers and not necessary along the whole height of the chimney.

The safety of an FRP chimney analyzed under such an assumption can be checked

by assuring that the stresses along the fibers do not exceed the ultimate strength

divided by a suitable factor of safety and also that the interlaminar shear stresses

are also well below the ultimate shear strength. By assuring that the interlaminar

shear stresses are safe and using an angle-ply configuration, it is expected that the

cracks in one layer will be very much controlled by the stiffness of the two adjacent

layers along the fibers direction. Fig. 10 shows the variation of the along fibers

stresses s1 with the angle ply for a typical FRP chimney using the temperature

distribution described above (after degrading the across fibers stiffness). It should

be noted that the analysis has been performed for a practical range of varying

between 35 and 60. It should be mentioned that the circumferential forces (close

to the boundaries) have changed from tensile to compressive forces after degrading

the lateral modulus of the plies. Consequently, the compressive stresses in the inside

face of the shell have significantly increased compared to the increase of the tensile

stresses at the outside face of the shell. It can be concluded from Fig. 10 that the

Fig. 10. The maximum along fibers stresses at the inner and outer face of the laminate vs the angle of

orientation after degrading the across fibers stiffness of the layers.

72

maximum stresses s1 do not exceed a value of 180 MPa. This value leads to approximately a factor of safety of six when compared to the ultimate strength. In order to

check safety against shear failure, the in-plane shear stress t12 as well as the transverse shear stresses t13 and t23 resulted from the same analyses are plotted in Fig.

11 versus the angle of orientation . The typical values for the ultimate shear strength

in-plane and transverse are given by t12=70.6 MPa, t13=70.6 MPa and t23=18.85

MPa. Comparison between the induced shear stresses and the ultimate ones reveals

that factor of safety of approximately 3.5, 15 and 5.6 are achieved for the in-plane

and the transverse shear stresses, respectively.

4.7. Thermal stress values to be used in practical design of FRP chimneys

As mentioned before, the thermal stresses induced from temperature variation in

FRP chimney depend on the following factors:

1.

2.

3.

4.

Fibers content

Angle of inclination of the fibers

Temperature profile

Type of fibers and resin

Restraining the design to FRP chimneys constructed from vinyl ester resin reinforced

by 70% (based on weight) E-glass fibers, for a certain angle of inclination of the

Fig. 11. The in-plane shear stress t12, transverse shear stress t13, t23, of 10 layer laminate at the bottom

of the chimney after degrading the across fibers stiffness of the layers.

73

fibers, the thermal stresses depend only on the temperature profile. This profile is

governed by two parameters which are:

1. The variation of mid-surface temperature with respect to the curing temperature

Tm.

2. The difference between the temperature at the inside and the outside faces

(T); T=TinsidToutsid.

Using the approach described in the previous section, analyses have been conducted

to determine the maximum stresses s1 as function of Tm and T for two angle

configurations, =35 and 55, respectively. Figs. 12 and 13 show the variation

of the maximum along fibers stresses s1 versus the temperature variation T for

different values of Tm and for =35 and 55, respectively. These graphs can be

used to estimate the stresses induced in a FRP chimney, having the above-described

properties under various temperature variations. Comparison between the two graphs

indicates that in general higher thermal stresses are introduced when the fibers

become more vertically inclined (i.e. =55 leads to higher thermal stresses than

Fig. 12. The along fibers thermal stress of 35 angle-ply FRP chimney for different temperature fields

(degraded across fibers modulus E2=E1/1000).

74

Fig. 13. The along fibers thermal stress of 55 angle-ply FRP chimney for different temperature fields

(degraded across fibers modulus E2=E1/1000).

=35). The shear stresses associated with various temperature profiles are shown

in Tables 4 and 5 for =35 and 55, respectively. It should be noted that the

shear stresses vary linearly with the parameter Tm and independently of T. The

designer of FRP chimney has to assure that a sufficient factor of safety is achieved

against shear failure.

5. Conclusions

In this study, the formulation of the consistent laminated shell element is extended

to include thermal stress analysis. A number of plate and shell structures are modeled

for thermal stress analysis and the results are compared with those available in the

literature. In all examples, the element gives adequate predictions for thermal

stresses. The developed finite element formulation is then used to study the effect

of various parameters which might influence the thermal stresses induced in angleply laminated fiber reinforced plastic chimneys. Results of the parametric study indi-

75

Table 4

The in-plane and transverse shear stresses associated with the along fibers stresses in Fig. 12 for an angleply laminate 35

Middle surface temperature

Tm (C)

t12 (MPa)

t13 (MPa)

t23 (MPa)

0

20

40

60

80

100

0.00

5.22

10.44

15.66

21.88

26.10

0.00

0.14

0.27

0.41

0.54

0.68

0.00

0.25

0.50

0.75

1.00

1.25

Table 5

The in-plane and transverse shear stresses associated with the along fibers stresses in Fig. 13 for an angleply laminate 55

Middle surface temperature

Tm (C)

t12 (MPa)

t13 (MPa)

t23 (MPa)

0

20

40

60

80

100

0.00

5.25

10.5

15.75

21.00

26.25

0.00

0.85

1.70

2.55

3.40

4.25

0.00

0.77

1.52

2.28

3.04

3.80

cate that the thickness, the diameter, the height and the number of laminae have no

significant effect on the induced thermal stresses. Analyses indicate that the thermal

stresses depend mainly on the through thickness temperature distribution (relative to

the curing temperature), the angle of orientation of the fibers, the coefficient of thermal expansion and the modulus of elasticity along the fibers direction. The last two

parameters depend on the fiber content in the matrix. The thermal stress analysis of

typical FRP chimneys shows high stress concentration near the boundaries with inplane across fibers stresses exceeding the typical ultimate strength in this direction.

As such, cracks are expected to occur in FRP chimneys as a result of through thickness temperature variations. However, it is believed that these cracks will be controlled if the interlaminar shear stresses are less than the ultimate shear strength

divided by an appropriate factor of safety.

The analysis then proceeds by assuming a negligible value for the modulus of

elasticity in the direction perpendicular to the fibers. Results of this last set of analysis

indicate that for the practical range of the early mentioned influential parameters,

the along fiber direction stresses as well as the shear stresses of cracked chimneys

are within acceptable values. Finally charts predicting the along fiber thermal stresses

76

induced in typical cracked FRP chimneys (but limited to 70% fiber content and

angles of inclination = 35 and 55) as a function of the through thickness temperature distribution are presented. These stress values can be considered when the

design of a FRP chimney is attempted.

References

[1] Plecnik JM, Whitman WE, Baker TE, Pham MP. Design concepts for the tallest free-standing fiberglass stack. Polymer Composites 1984;5(3):1869.

[2] Pritchard BN. Industrial chimneys: a review of the current state of art. Proc Instn Civ Engrs Structs

Bldgs 1996;116:6981.

[3] Padovan J. Thermoelasticity of cylindrical anisotropic generally laminated cylinders. J Appl Mech

1976;43:12430.

[4] Fettahlioglu OA, Wang PC. Asymptotic solutions for thermal stress and deformation in orthotropic

nonhomogeneous shells of revolution. J Thermal Stresses 1988;11:30524.

[5] Lin TD, Boyd DE. Thermal stresses in multilayer anisotropic shells. J Engng Mech Div, Proc ASCE

1971;97:82945.

[6] Ahmed BMI, Zienkiewicz OC. Analysis of thick and thin shell structures by curved finite elements.

Int J Num Methods Engng 1970;2:41951.

[7] Koziey BL, Mirza FA. Consistent thick shell element. Comp Struct 1997;65(4):53149.

[8] Koziey BL. Formulation and applications of consistent shell and beam elements. PhD thesis, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada, 1993.

[9] Jones RM. Mechanics of composite materials. New York (NY): McGraw Hill Book Company, 1975.

[10] Cook RD, Malkus DS, Plesha ME. Concepts and applications of finite element analysis. New York

(NY): John Wiley and Sons Inc, 1989.

[11] Timoshenko S, Woinowsky-Krieger W. Theory of plates and shells. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1959.

[12] Wu H, Tauchert TR. Thermoelastic analysis of laminated plates. 2: anti symmetric cross-ply and

angle-ply laminates. J Therm Stresses 1980;3:36578.

[13] Chandrashekhara K, Bhimaraddi A. Thermal stress analysis of laminated doubly curved shells using

a shear flexible finite element. Comput Struct 1993;52(5):102330.

[14] Mallick PK. Composites engineering handbook. New York: Macel Dekker, Inc, 1997.

[15] Thangaratnam RK, Palaninathan and Ramachandran J. Thermal stress analysis of laminated plates

and shells. Comput. Struct 1988;30(6):14031411.

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