Hellenic math problems

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Hellenic math problems

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2009

Competition Committee

Athens, 2009

( ) 34

106 79

. 3616532 - 3617784 - Fax: 3641025

e-mail : info@hms.gr

www.hms.gr

34, Panepistimiou (leftheriou Venizelou) Street

GR. 106 79 - Athens - HELLAS

Tel. 3616532 - 3617784 - Fax: 3641025

e-mail : info@hms.gr

www.hms.gr

Frontispiece:

The image on the front page represents the Discobolus statue (Olympic discus

thrower) which was made by Myron, one of the best sculptors of ancient Greece.

Myron, who lived in 5th-century BC in Athens, was a well-known member of a new

school of Greek art that incorporated motion into free-standing statues. In this

case, Myron has caught a discus thrower at the peak of his backswing, poised for

eternity just before spinning his body in powerful rotations to give the discus even

greater speed at the moment of release. History does not record whether

Discobolus recognized a particular Olympic athlete, but Myron is known to have

produced other statues honouring specific heroes. In any event, it has evolved into

a powerful symbol of the spirit of Olympic athletic competition.

The original Discobolus statue was never recovered; an exact copy of

the statue however is placed at the entrance of Panathinaikon Stadium in Athens,

where the first modern Olympic Games were held in 1896.

Contents

1.

2.

3.

4.

4.

5.

Preface . 4

26th Hellenic Mathematical Olympiad 2009

A. Juniors .. 5

B. Seniors7

Selection examinations 2009

A. Juniors ..13

B. Seniors ..17

Mediterranean Mathematical Competition 2009 ....... 24

26th Balkan Mathematical Olympiad (Kragujevac) 27

13th Junior Balkan Mathematical Olympiad (Sarajevo) 32

Preface

On November 3, 2008, more than 12.000 students from all Hellenic High

Schools (Gymnasiums and Lyceums) took part in the first round of the 69st National Math Competition THALES. The best 1.500 students qualified and took part

in the second round of the 69st National Math Competition EUCLIDES, held in

January 17, 2009. From this competition about 300 students qualified and took part

in the 26th Hellenic Math. Olympiad ARCHIMEDES, held in Athens on February 21, 2009. The best 50 students (25 Juniors) qualified to take part in the Selection Examination for the completion of the Greek teams for the 11th Junior Balkan

Math. Olympiad (JBMO), the 26th Balkan Math. Olympiad (BMO) and the 50th International Mathematical Olympiad. This year the Selection Examination was almost the same with the 10th Mediterranean Mathematical Competition 2009 (memorial Peter O Halloran).

The Hellenic team for the IMO 2009 consists of the students:

Giechaskiel Ilias

Logothetis Fotios

Papadimitriou Dimitrios

Pappelis Konstantinos

Taratoris Evangelos

Zadik Ilias

Twelve days of training were offered to the selected team for the IMO 2009.

Moreover, a training program was offered some Saturdays from November 2008 to

May 2009 to all students wanting to attend.

Athens, July 2009

The competition Committee

of the Hellenic Math. Society

ARCHIMEDES

February 21, 2009

A. Juniors

Problem 1

2

If the number 9 n 2 31 is integer, find the possible values of n .

n 7

Solution

We have

9n 2 31 9(n 2 7) 32

32

9 2

.

n2 7

n2 7

n 7

n 2 7 8 , we conclude:

n2 7

8 , 1 6 , 3 2

n 2 1, 9 , 2 5 n

1, 1, 3 , 3 , 5 , 5 .

Alternatively, we can solve the problem by solving the given equation with respect to n 2 and in the sequel determining the suitable values of for which n 2 is

a nonnegative integer.

Problem 2

From the vertex of an equilateral triangle we draw the ray x which intersect the side at . On x we consider a point such that . Find

.

the angle

First solution

Since , point is the circumcircle of the triangle A. The angle is inscribed to the circle C , BA and so:

1

3 0 0 .

2

Second solution

From and = , we have = ,

and the triangle is isosceles. We draw the altitude from , let , .

Then is also median and bisector of the angle

BZ meets AE at K. Then the triangles and

are equal because they have:

.

= , common side and

and since

Therefore we have:

it follows that

.

60

Finally we get

90

90 60 300 .

Problem 3

We consider the numbers

1 3 5

595 597

2 4 6

596 598

...

a n d ...

4 6 8

598 600

5 7 9

599 601

Prove that: () ,

()

1 .

5990

2 2

2

, 1, 2 , ..., 2 9 9 . Since

2 3

2 1

2

for every * ,

0

2 2

2 3

and so for 1, 2,..., 299 , by multiplying by parts the above 299 inequalities we

obtain

2

1 2 3

1

1

1

.

2

2

599 600 601 100 599

5990

5990

Problem 4

In the figure we see the paths connecting the square

(point ) with the school of a city (point ). In the

square there are k pupils starting to go to the school.

They have the possibility to move to the right and up. If

the pupils are free to choose any allowed path, determine the minimum value of k

so that in any case at least two pupils to follow the same path.

Solution

In the figure they are shown all possible allowed paths starting from the square

and leading to the school.

According to the rule it is clear that in the

nodes 1 , 2 , 3 and 1 , 2 , 3 , there is only one

possible path to choose..

Counting easily we find that all possible paths

are 20. Therefore, according to the pigeonhole principle, at least two pupils will follow the same path ,

If the number of the pupils is k 21 . Hence the

minimum value of k is 21.

B. Seniors

Problem 1

Determine the values of the positive integer n for which

9n 1

n7

is rational.

Solution

It is enough to prove that there exist a, b * with a, b 1 such that:

9n 1 a 2 .

2

n7

b

(1)

n

7a2 b2

7 (a 2 9b 2 ) 64b 2

64b 2

7

2

2

2

2

9b a

9b a

9b 2 a 2

(2)

from (2) we get that n is integer, if and only if 9 b 2 a 2 is a divisor of 64.

Since a, b and n are positive integers, it follows that 9 b 2 a 2 8 , and hence:

9 b 2 a 2 3b a 3b a 8,16, 32, 64 .

(3)

multiple of 2 and 3b a 3b a . Therefore from relation (3) the possible cases

are the following:

3b

a , 3b a 4 , 2

3 b

a , 3 b a 8 , 4

3b

a , 3 b a 1 6 , 2

a , b 1,1 a , b 2, 2 a , b 7, 3 .

we have the values n 1 or n 11.

Problem 2

A triangle is given and let its circumcenter and 1 , 1 , 1 the middles

of its sides , and , respectively. We consider the points 2 , 2 , 2 such

the lines 2 , 2 , 2 are concurrent.

Solution

2 1 , we find: 2 2 .

If 2 meets

in ratio 2 .

Let now C the point of intersection of the lines 2 and . Then we have

2

C

C

Comments

(1) If 1 , then C coincides with the barycenter of the triangle .

(2) If 2 , then C coincides with the center of the Eulers circle of the triangle . In this case the triangles and 2 2 2 are equal and they have the

same Euler circle.

(3) In any case the triangles and 2 2 2 are similar with their sides parallel. The one triangle is the image of the other with respect to a homothety, and

thus we may have a solution using homotheties.

(4) The problem can be solved by using Analytic Geometry or complex numbers.

Problem 3

If the nonnegative real numbers x, y and z have sum 2, prove that:

x 2 y 2 y 2 z 2 z 2 x 2 xyz 1.

Solution

We will use the well-known inequality 2 2 2 , which is valid for all

10

x 2 y 2 y 2 z 2 z 2 x 2 xyz

1

2 x 2 y 2 2 y 2 z 2 2 z 2 x 2 2 xyz

2

1

2 xy xy 2 yz yz 2 zx zx 2 xyz

2

1

xy x 2 y 2 yz y 2 z 2 yz y 2 z 2 2 xyz

2

1

xy yz zx x 2 y 2 z 2 xyz 2 yzx 2 zxy 2 2 xyz

2

1

xy yz zx x 2 y 2 z 2 xyz x y z 2

2

1

xy yz zx x 2 y 2 z 2 ,

(since x y z 2).

(1)

x 2 y 2 y 2 z 2 z 2 x 2 xyz

1

xy yz zx x 2 y 2 z 2 ,

(2)

x y z or x y, z 0 or y z , x 0 or z x, y 0 .

Since x y z 2 , equality holds when:

x , y , z

2 2 2

, , 1,1, 0 1, 0,1 0,1,1 .

3 3 3

(3)

2

2

putting 2 xy 2 yz 2 zx , x 2 y 2 z 2 . Thus we have

1

1

xy yz zx x 2 y 2 z 2 2 xy 2 yz 2 zx x 2 y 2 z 2

2

4

2

1 2 xy 2 yz 2 zx x 2 y 2 z 2

1

4

x y z 1.

4

2

16

x 2 y 2 y 2 z 2 z 2 x 2 xyz 1.

2 xy 2 yz 2 zx x 2 y 2 z 2 ,

which in consideration with (3) gives:

x ,

y, z

1 , 1 , 0

1 , 0 , 1

0 , 1 , 1 .

(4)

11

Problem 4

Let z1 , z2 , z3 , z4 , z5 , z6 be six pairwise different complex numbers which their

images 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 are consecutive points of the circle with center

z1w2 z3 w z5 0

() ,

z 2 w 2 z 4 w z6 0

()

z1 z2 z2 z3 z3 z4 z4 z5 z5 z6 z6 z1 3 z1 z4 3 z2 z5 3 z3 z6 .

()

Solution

() Since w is a root of the equation z 2 z 1 0 , we have w 2 w 1 0 .

Multiplying both parts by w , :

3

w3 w 2 w 0 w 3

w 2w

1 1 w 1 .

0

w 2 w 1 , we find:

z1( 1 w) z3w z5 0 z1 z1w z3w z5 0 ( z 3 z 1 )w z 1 z 5 .

Hence

().

( z3 z1 )w z1 z5 z3 z1 w z1 z5 z 3 z 1 z 1 z 5

z1w2 z3( w2 1) z5 0 z1w2 z3w2 z3 z5 0 ( z1 z3 )w2 z5 z3 .

Hence we have

( z1 z3 )w2 z5 z3 z1 z3 w2 z5 z3 z3 z1 z5 z3

().

z1 z 3 z 3 z 5 z 5 z1 ,

() Similarly, using relation ()) we prove that the triangle 2 4 6 is equilateral.

From

known

proposition

of

Euclidean

Geometry

we

have

have:

12

z1 z 2 z6 z1 z1 z 4 .

(1)

z 2 z 3 z 3 z 4 z 3 z6 .

(2)

z 4 z 5 z 5 z6 z 2 z 5 .

(3)

Summing up by parts the relations (1), (2) and (3) and using the equalities

z1 z 4 z 3 z6 z 2 z 5

we find:

z1 z2 z2 z3 z3 z4 z4 z5 z5 z6 z6 z1

3 z 1 z 4 3 z 2 z 5 3 z 3 z6 .

13

April 11, 2009

A. Juniors

Problem 1

A pupil has 7 pieces of paper. He chooses some of them and cuts each of them

into seven pieces. In the sequel, he chooses some of the pieces and cuts each of

them into seven pieces. He continues this procedure many times with the pieces he

has in hands every time. Is it possible to have some time 2009 pieces of paper?

Solution

Let he choose at the beginning

seven pieces. Then he will have totally 7 1 71 7 61 pieces of paper. Suppose that in the next step he chooses 2 pieces of paper and cuts each of them into

seven pieces. Then he will have totally 7 61 2 7 2 7 6(1 2 ) pieces of

paper. If he continues this procedure times, then he will have totally

7 6(1 2 ) pieces of paper. Therefore we are looking for the value of

satisfying the equation

7 6(1 2 ) 2009 6(1 2 ) 2002 ,

which is absurd, because 2002 is not divided by 6. Hence it is not possible for him

to have some time 2009 pieces of paper.

Problem 2

Let ABCD be a convex quadrilateral inscribed in a circle (O, R ) . With centers

the vertices of the quadrilateral and radius R we draw circles C A A, R , C B B , R ,

C C C , R , C D D , R . Circles CA and CB meet at K , circles CB and CC

(Points K , L, M , N are the second common points of the corresponding circles,

given that all of them pass through point O ). Prove that the quadrilateral KLMN is

parallelogram

.

First solution

14

The line segment AB connects the centers of the circles C A and CB , and therefore it is the perpendicular bisector of the common chord OK . Since the circles

C A and CB have the same radius, the quadrilateral AOBK is rhombus. Thus point

K1 is the middle of AB .

and N1 is the middle of AD .

From the triangles OKL , OLM , OMN and ONK we conclude that: KL K1 L1 ,

LM L1M 1 , MN M 1 N1 and NK N1 K1 (because the line segments K1 L1 , L1M 1 ,

M 1 N1 and N1 K1 connect the middles of the sides of a triangle).

Hence the quadrilaterals KLMN and K1 L1M 1 N1 have their sides parallel. But we

know that the middles of the sides of a quadrilateral define a parallelogram. So the

quadrilateral KLMN is parallelogram.

Second solution

Since the line segment KO is the common chord of the equal circles C A and

CB , it is the perpendicular bisector of the line of the centers AB and vise versa.

15

AK OB .

(1)

CL OB .

(2)

(3)

KL AC .

Working similarly we can prove that the quadrilateral MNAC is parallelogram

and that

(4)

NM AC .

From (3) and (4) it follows that KLMN is parallelogram

Problem 3

Let , , are positive integers such that the number

2 3

2 3

2 2 2

is integer.

Solution. First of all, it is easy to see that:

1 2 2 3 3 2 4 3 , with 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 1 3 and 2 4 .

In fact, we can write the first relation in the form

1 3

2 ( 4 2 ) 3 ,

1 3

2

The converse is clear.

Let now 2 3 . Then and , that is

2 3

2 .

Hence we have:

16

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

( )2 2 ( )( ),

and so .

Problem 4

Determine positive integers x, y, z which satisfy the system

x y z xy yz zx

xyz 1.

and have the least possible sum.

First solution

We write the system in the form

xy yz zx x y z

xyz 1 .

(2)

xyz xy yz zx 1 x y z

xyz xy yz zx x y z 1 0

xy z 1 x z 1 y z 1 z 1 0

z 1 xy x y 1 0

z 1 x 1 y 1 0

x 1 or y 1 or z 1.

For x 1, from (1) and (2) we have yz 1 , which have the solutions

y, z a,

1

, a 0 ,

a

x, y, z 1, a,

1

, a 0.

a

x, y, z a,1,

1

1

or x, y, z a, ,1 , a 0.

a

a

x y z 1 a

(1)

1

1 2 3 .

a

17

Equality holds for a 1 , it follows that between the solutions of the system, the

x, y, z 1,1,1 is that having the least possible sum x y z .

Second solution

Let ( x, y, z ) is the solution of the system with the least possible sum. Then,

from the inequality of arithmetic geometric mean we have

x yz 3

xyz x y z 3 ,

3

while equality holds for x y z .

Hence the least possible value of the sum x y z , between the solution of the

given system is 3 and it happens for x y z .

For x y z ,

from

the

equation

xyz 1, x, y, z 0 ,

it

follows

that

B. Seniors

Problem 1

If a is an even positive integer and a n a n 1 ... a 1 , n * , is a perfect square, prove that a is a multiple of 8.

Solution

Since a is an even positive integer, it follows that is odd. Therefore A will

be a perfect square of an odd integer, that is

2 1 4 2 4 1 4 1 1,

2

where is a positive integer. Since one of the two integers and 1 is even, we

have

4 1 1 8 1, where is appositive integer

1 a n a n 1 ... a 8 a a n 1 ... a 1 8

8 a a n 1 ... a 1 8 a , since 8, a n 1 ... a 1 1.

Problem 2

18

Let the triangle ABC has barycenter G and circumcenter O . The perpendicular

bisectors of GA , GB and GC intersect at the points A1 ,B1 ,C1 . Prove that O is the

barycentre of the triangle A1B1C1 .

Solution

Let D, E, F be the middles of the sides BC, AC, AB , respectively.

Let, also B1C1 , A1C1 , A1B1 be the perpendicular bisectors of the line segments

GA , GB and GC , respectively. Then the points A1 , B1 and C1 are the circumcen-

and therefore they will pass through the circumcenter O of the triangle ABC .

Next, we will show that A1D , B1E and C1F are the medians of the triangle

A1B1C1 . Let the extension of A1D , meets B1C1 at N . We will prove that N is the

E 90o ), we have M A E

From the inscrible quadrilateral AMEB1 ( M

19

E 90 o ), we get

E . Also, from the inscrible quadrilateral DOEC ( D

MB

1

D EO

N . Therefore the triangles ADC and B NO are similar, and so

EC

1

NB1 AD .

=

NO CD

From

the

inscrible

F MC

F x

MA

1

and

quadrilateral

similarly

from

(1)

AMFC1

DOFB

F 90 o ),

(M

F 90 ),

(D

o

we

we

have

obtain

that FBD FO

1

NC1 AD .

(2)

NO BD

From (1) and (2) we get NB1 NC1 . In a similar way we prove that B1E , C1F

Problem 3

Find all triples of real numbers (x, y, z) which are greater than 3 and satisfy the

equality:

( x 2)2 ( y 4) 2 ( z 6) 2

36 .

y z 2 z x4 x y6

Solution

Since x, y, z are greater than 3, it follows that y z 2, z x 4, x y 6 are

positive. Thus, from Cauchy-Schwarz inequality we get:

(x 2)2 ( y 4)2 (z 6)2

2

( y z 2) (x z 4) (x y 6) (x y z 12)

y z 2 x z 4 x y 6

( x 2) 2 ( y 4)2 ( z 6) 2 1 ( x y z 12) 2 .

y z 2 x z 4 x y 6 2 ( x y z 6)

( x y z 12)2

72 ,

( x y z 6)

(1)

( y z ) x 2 1

x2

y4

z6

( x z ) y 4( 1) .

y z 2 x z 4 x y6

( x y ) z 6( 1)

(2)

20

( x y z 12) 2

( x y z 12) 2

2

,

( x y z 6)

( x y z 12) 18 18

2

2

4 18 72 2 4 18 4 182 0 36 0,

18

it follows that

( x y z 12) 2

72 .

( x y z 6)

x y z 12 36 x y z 24

(3)

(4)

( x y z 12) 2

72 ,

( x y z 6)

and thus equations (2) are (4) are valid, and hence we have the system

(2 1)( x y z ) 12( 1)

1.

x y z 24

y z x 4

.

x z y 8 x, y, z 10,8, 6

x y z 12

taking in mind that it satisfies the equation x y z 24 .

Problem 4

In the plane are given different points such that any three of them are not

collinear. We color these points red, green and black. In the sequel we consider all

line segments with ends these points and we correspond to each of them an

algebraic value according to the following rules:

1) If at least one of the ends of the line segment is black, then it has algebraic

value 0.

2) If both ends of the line segment have the same colour, red or green then it has

the algebraic value 1.

21

3) If ends of the line segment have different colour red or green, then it has the

Determine the least possible value of the sum of algebraic values of the all line

segments.

Solution

From the three rules for the determination of the algebraic value of the line

segments we have the following table:

Let now that we have red, green and black points. Then it is clear

that .

The red points determine line segments having their ends red and so

2

they have algebraic values 1. The green points determine line segments

2

with both ends green and therefore with algebraic values 1. The number of the line

segments having ends with different colors, red or green, and so with algebraic

value -1, are . All the other line segments have algebraic value 0, because they

have at least one of their ends black.

The sum of the algebraic values of all existing line segments is:

!

!

( 2)!2 ! ( 2)!2 !

2 2

( 1)

2

( 1)

2

2

2 2 2

2

2

2

2

- - -

(because )

.

2

22

(1)

Equality in the last relation holds, if and only if and 0 .

2

For example, for 4 , we have the following result:

2

2

We check now when equality holds in the last relation. We observe that the

case odd ( 2 1 ) comes from the case even ( 2 ) by adding one

more point. The point we add in the case even ( 2 ) can be blank, red or

green, and so we have the following cases:

Case 1

Let the point we add is blank. Then the new produced line segments have algebraic values 0 and the equality in this case holds when: 1 and 1 .

2

The sum of all algebraic values is: 1 .

2

23

Case 2

Let the point we add is red. We had red and green points: 1 . Now

2

1

with the new point we can create

line segments having algebraic value 1 and

2

-1

line segments having algebraic value -1. Equality in this case holds when

1 ,

1 and 0 .

2

2

Case 3

If the point we add is green, in a similar way we conclude that the equality

holds when 1 , 1 and 0 Again: 1 .

2

From all the above we conclude that the least possible value of is

24

Problem 1

x1 , x2 ,..., xn in the closed interval [-4; 2] such that the following three conditions are fulfilled:

- the sum of these real numbers is at least n :

- the sum of their squares is at most 4n :

- the sum of their fourth powers is at least 34n :

Solution

Since the data of the problem concern n real numbers x1 , x2 ,..., xn in the closed

P x x 4 x 2 x 1 ,

2

P x x 4 x 2 x 1 0 .

2

(1)

Adding by parts the inequalities coming from (1) for x x1 , x2 ,..., xn , and taking

n

i 1

i 1

i 1

4 , b are equal to 1 and c are equal to 2. Then we have a b c n

and from the data of the problems we have the inequalities

c 5a

4a b 2c a b c

b 4a

16a b 4c 4 a b c

.

256a b 16c 34 a b c

222a 33b 18c

By multiplying both parts of the first inequality with 18 and the second with

33 and summing the produced inequalities by parts we get the inequality

25

which in combination with the inequality 222a 33b 18c gives:

33b 18c 222a ,

which is valid, if and only if b 4a , c 5a , that is

a b c 10a or 10a n .

Therefore the numbers x1 , x2 ,..., xn there exist, if and only if, n is a multiply

by taking m times the number -4, 4m times the number 1 and 5m times

the number 2.

Problem 2

26

Problem 3

Solution

Problem 4

Let x,y,z be positive real numbers. Prove that

xy

x

.

2

2

z

2x

cyclic xy x y

cyclic

Solution

Given inequality is equivalent to:

1

1

1

1

1

1

.

x y

y z

z x

z

x

y

1

1

1

2

2

2

y x

z y

x z

x

y

z

becomes:

x

y

z

a, b, c abc 1 , so our inequality

y

z

x

1

1

1 a

a

1

1

1 b

b

27

1

1

1 c

c

1

1

1

.

2a 2b 2c

After some computations and also using abc 1 , this becomes equivalent to:

3 a b c 3 ab bc ca ab bc ca a b c

ab bc ca 2 ab bc ca a b c a b c 2

12 4 a b c ab bc ca

.

9 2 ab bc ca 4 a b c

becomes:

3S 3P SP 12 4S P

P2 PS S 2 9 2P 4S

and abc 1 ). Therefore:

4S 3 4S 2 S 12PS , PS 2 S PS 3PS , 3P 2 S 3 32 S 27S ,

P 3 P 2 P 32 P 9P, 6 P 2 6 P P 6 3P 18P.

finished. Equality is obviously achieved when

S 2 3P 9 a b c 1 x y z .

28

Kragujevac, Serbia, April 30, 2009

Problem 1

Solve in the set of positive integers the equation

3x 5 y z 2 .

Solution

Working with respect modulo 3 in both sides of the equation we get that

z 2 (1) y (mod 3) .

When y is even, we have z 2 1(mod 3) , (impossible). Hence

y 2 y1 1 , y1 0,1, 2,...

(1)

z 2 ( 1) x 1y (mod 4).

Hence we have

x 2 x1 , x1 1, 2,...

(2)

32 x1 52 y1 1 z 2 52 y1 1 (3x1 z )(3x1 z )

(3)

We have that (3, z ) 1 , (otherwise 3|z, which is absurd according to (3)) and so

(3x1 z,3x1 z ) 2 3x1 , 2 z 2 3x1 , z 2 .

have

(3x1 z ,3x1 z ) 1 .

Moreover,

from

(3),

since 52 y1 1 , 3x1 z 0 ,

we

get

3x1 z 0

and

x1

3x1 z 1 ,

3x1 z 52 y1 1 .

23x1 52 y1 1 1

Now we distinguish the cases:

(4)

2

29 x2 51y1 1(mod 24) 9 x2 3(mod12) ,

29

which is absurd, because the left half side gives always remainder 9, when divided

by 12.

If x1 2 x2 1 , then (4) can be written as

239 x2 525 y1 1.

(5)

If

If y2 0 , then equation (5) has not solutions, where as for y2 1 , substituting

62 x2 543 y2 1 1(mod 7) 62 x2 2064 y2 1(mod 7)

62 x2 (1)1y2 1(mod 7)

62 x2 0(mod 7), absurd.

Hence the given equation has the unique solution (x, y ,z)=(2, 1, 2).

Problem 2

Line MN is parallel to the side BC of the triangle ABC , where M , N are

points of the sides AB, AC , respectively. Lines BN and CM meet at point P

The circumcircles of the triangles BMP and CNP intersect at two different

points P Q . Prove that : BAQ CAP .

Solution

, PAN

and QAP

x. From the inscribed quadrilaterals

We put BAQ

and QNC

BPQ

QCN

QPC

MBQ

,

MBQ

and therefore the quadrilaterals AMQC and ABQN are inscrible. From the hypothesis of the problem we observe that at point P are concurrent the Cevian lines

passing through the vertices of the triangles ABC and QMN .

Using trigonometric form of Cevas theorem we have the relations:

sin ACP

sin CBP

sin BAP

1,

sin PCB

sin PBA

sin PAC

(1)

30

sin NQP

sin MNP

sin QMP

1.

(2)

From the inscribed quadrilaterals MBQP, PQCN , ABQN , AMQC and the

relation MN BC , we obtain the angle equalities

x, PAC

, QMP

NQP

,

PBQ QAN x, ACP

BAP

MNP

, PNQ

MAQ

,

NMP

, PCB

, PBA

PQM

PCQ

CBP

sin x

sin

sin

sin x

cos x cos 2 x cos x cos 2 x cos 2 x cos 2 x ,

1800 , it follows that: .

from which , given that x BAC

It is enough to prove that AQ , AP are isogonal conjugates of the sides AB , AC .

If AP meets side BC at T , then from the theorem of Ceva we have:

BT CN AM

(3)

1.

TC NA MB

31

AM NA ,

(4)

MB CN

and hence from (3) and (4), it follows that BT TC , that is point T is the middle

of the side BC . Hence, it is enough to show that AQ is a symmedian of the trian-

gle ABC . Equivalently, it is enough to show that point Q satisfies the equality:

QK AB

,

QL AC

(5)

where QK AB and QL AC .

But the triangles QBM , QNC are congruent, because they have:

MPB

and QMB

,

NPC

NQC

QPB

QCN

MQB

from the inscribed quadrilaterals NPQC and MBQP . Thus we have:

QK MB AB

, (since MN BC ).

QL NC AC

Problem 3

912 rectangle is partitioned into unit squares. The centres of all the unit

squares, except for the four corner squares and the eight squares sharing a common

side with one of them, are coloured red. Is it possible to label these red centres

C1 , C2 ,...., C96 in such a way that the following two conditions are both fulfilled:

(i) the distances C1C2 , C2C3 , ...., C95C96 , C96 C1 are all equal to 13 ,

(ii) the closed broken line C1C2 ....C96C1 has a centre of symmetry.

Solution

Such a broken line does not exists. To show this, color the red point squares in

a chess pattern (black and white), so that every two red points at distance 1 lie in

squares of different color. It is easy to see that any two red points at distance

13

lie on squares of different colors, so black and white alternate along the broken

line. Also, the center of symmetry of the line must coincide with that of the set of

points, and thus with that of the rectangle.

Consider now the points 2, 2 and 8,11 (as usual the point i, j is the

center of the unit square in the i -th row and the j -th column). The line can be divided in two parts one leading from A to B , and the other from B to A. If they

32

are symmetric to each other, each of them must consist of 96:2=48 edges. So an

even number of edges connect A to B, hence A and B must lie in squares of same

color, which is not true.

So, each pert is symmetric to itself (since the symmetrical of the pert leading

from A to B, can only be the other part, case dismissed in the above, or itself; and

same for the part leading from B to A), and each part contains an odd number of

edges. Since the edges can be divided in symmetric pairs, each part must contain

some edge symmetric to itself. Only two such edges are possible: one joining 4,5

and 6,8 , and the other joining 6,5 and 4,8 .

Consider now the point 2, 2 . It can only be joined to 5, 4 and 4,5 , so the

line must include these two edges. A similar consideration for the points 8, 2 ,

8,11 2,11 shows that the line must include the edges 4,5 2,2 5,4

8, 2 6,5 4,8 2,11 5,9 8,11 6,8 4,5 . But this is a closed broken

line that does not contain all the points, a contradiction.

Problem 4

Let * 1, 2,3,... be the set of positive integers. Find all functions

f : * * such that

f f m 2 f n

2

*

2n 2 , for all m, n .

Solution

First we prove that f is injective. In fact, for any fixed n , if f m1 f m2 ,

then:

m12 2n 2 f f m1 2 f n

2

f f m

2

2 f n

2

2

n2 ,

whence

f m 2 f n f p 2 f q m 2 2n 2 p 2 2q 2

2

(1)

f 5a 2 f a f 3a 2 f 3a 3 f 3a 27 .

2 2

2 2

2 2

2 2

2 2

Also, from (1) we have

33

2 f 4a 2 2 f 2a 2 f 5a 2 f a 2 24 .

2

x, y 4, 2 , it follows that f 2a 2 2 and f 4a 2 4 .

Using (1) again we can have

f

k 4 a

2 2

2f

k 3 a

2 2

2f

k 1 a

2 2

f ka 2 ,

2

f ka 2 k , by induction on k . Then f a 2 a f 1 and thus a 1 . Hence

the problem.

Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 25-30 June 2009

Problem 1.

Let ABCDE be a convex pentagon such that AB CD BC DE and k a circle

with center on side AE that touches the sides AB, BC , CD and DE at points

P, Q, R and S (different from vertices of the pentagon) respectively. Prove that

lines PS and AE are parallel.

Problem 2.

Solve in non-negative integers the equation

2 a 3b 9 c 2 .

Problem 3.

Let x, y, z be real numbers such that

0 x, y , z 1 and xyz 1 x 1 y 1 z .

equal to 1 .

4

Problem 4.

Each one of 2009 distinct points in the plane is colored in blue or red, so that on

every blue-centered unit circle there are exactly two red points. Find the greatest

possible number of blue points.

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