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Expert Systems with Applications 38 (2011) 1304313049

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Expert Systems with Applications


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/eswa

Real-time implementation of Chebyshev neural network observer for twin


rotor control system
Ferdose Ahammad Shaik, Shubhi Purwar , Bhanu Pratap
M.N. National Institute of Technology, Allahabad, India

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Keywords:
Twin rotor MIMO system
Neural network
Chebyshev polynomials
State observer

a b s t r a c t
This paper addresses the problem of observer design for the twin rotor multi-inputmulti-output (MIMO)
system which is a nonlinear system. Exact knowledge of the dynamics of twin rotor MIMO system (TRMS)
is difcult to obtain but it is highly desired that the observer can dominate the effects of unknown nonlinearities and unmodeled dynamics independently to prevent the state estimations from diverging and
to get precise estimations. The unknown nonlinearities are estimated by Chebyshev neural network
(CNN) whose weights are adaptively adjusted. Lyapunov theory is used to guarantee stability for state
estimation and neural network weight errors. A comparative experimental study is presented to demonstrate the enhanced performance of the proposed observer.
2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction
In this paper, the observer design of an experimental propeller
setup called the twin rotor multi-inputmulti-output system is
proposed. The TRMS (TRMS 33-949S user manual 2006) is a laboratory setup designed for control experiments. In certain aspects,
its behavior resembles that of a helicopter which is typically
described as having unstable, nonlinear and coupled dynamics.
The modeling and controller design of TRMS has been addressed
in the literature (Juang, Huang, & Liu, 2008; Kaloust, Ham, & Qu,
1997; Khan & Iqbal, 2003; Wen & Lu, 2008).
Design of adaptive observers for multi-inputmulti-output
(MIMO) nonlinear systems is one of the active areas of research,
the signicance of which cannot be underestimated in problems
of system identication or output feedback control. For singleinputsingle-output (SISO) linear time invariant plants, the adaptive observer design has been largely investigated (Ioannou &
Sun, 1995; Narendra & Annaswamy, 1989) and the references
therein. Several conventional nonlinear observers such as high gain
observers and sliding mode observers (Jo & Seo, 2000; Nicosia,
Tomei, & Tornambe, 1989; Nicosia & Tornambe, 1989) are only
applicable to systems with specic model structures. However,
for most practical processes, dening an exact model is a hard task
or is not possible at all. The observer design problems are more
challenging in the presence of unknown nonlinearities. The growing need of the industry for tackling complex problems and the
capability of neural networks (NN) for approximating functions

Corresponding author.
E-mail address: spurwar@rediffmail.com (S. Purwar).
0957-4174/$ - see front matter 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.eswa.2011.04.107

and dynamical systems (Funahashi, 1989; Hornick, Stinchombe,


& White, 1989) have motivated NN based identication and control approaches. In Vargas and Hemerly (2001), Abdollahi, Talebi,
and Patel (2006), Kim and Lewis (1997) and Liu (2009), NN based
identication and estimation schemes have been proposed that relaxed the restrictive assumption on the system dynamics. Most of
the NN observers proposed in the literature establish the efcacy of
their methodology through simulation studies. The observer presented in Abdollahi, Talebi, and Patel (2002) was based on a general model of MIMO nonlinear systems and was shown to be
experimentally stable, but no mathematical proof was given to
support the experiments. Most of the NN based observer design
techniques are based on multilayer feedforward networks such
as multilayer perceptron (MLP) trained with backpropogation or
more efcient variations of this algorithm. As an alternative to
MLP, there has been considerable interest in radial basis function
(RBF) networks, primarily because of its simpler structure. A RBF
network has been proposed for observer design of nonlinear systems (Lee & Blaabjerg, 2007; Stepanyan & Hovakimyan, 2007). In
these networks, choosing an appropriate set of RBF centers for
effective learning still remains a problem.
A Chebyshev neural network proposed in Namatame and Ueda
(1992) can be used for function approximation and pattern classication with faster convergence and lesser computational complexity than an MLP network. A dynamic nonlinear system
identication methodology using CNN is reported in Patra and
Kot (2002). Here, it is pointed out that CNN has universal approximation capability and has faster convergence than a MLP network.
Similarly, Purwar, Kar, and Jha (2007, 2008) establish the efcacy
of CNN in the areas of on-line system identication and tracking
controller for robot manipulators respectively.

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F.A. Shaik et al. / Expert Systems with Applications 38 (2011) 1304313049

One of the aims of this paper is to test the practicality of designing an adaptive observer using CNN. In the proposed work CNN is
used for estimating the unknown nonlinearities of the TRMS. The
online weight adaptation laws for the CNN are such that they guarantee the stability of the overall scheme. The magnitude of the
observation error depends mainly on the CNN, the feedback functions to be used for the online weight adaptation laws and other
design parameters. The experimental results presented reveal that
substantial improvement in the performance of the proposed
adaptive observer was achieved compared with the local state
observer for nonlinear systems presented in Jo and Seo (2000).
The local state observer presented in Jo and Seo (2000) utilizes
the co-ordinate change which transforms a given system into an
approximate normal form. Moreover, complete knowledge of
system nonlinearities needs to be known a priori. The detailed local
state observer design of the TRMS is presented in the Appendix.
The preliminary work of this research is carried out in Shaik and
Purwar (2009) where simulation results are presented.
The remainder of the paper is arranged as follows. In Section 2,
the TRMS system is introduced and the parameters of the system
specied. The proposed CNN observer is introduced in Section 3.
In Section 4, the stability analysis is given. The observer performance is demonstrated in Section 5 by providing experimental
results on the TRMS. The experimental results reveal the advantages of the proposed observer and the effect of learning rate. Finally
concluding remarks are made in the last section.
2. 2-DOF TRMS system and model

control experiments. Apart from the mechanical units, the electrical unit (placed under the tower) plays an important role for TRMS
control. It allows for measured signals transfer to the PC and control signal application via an I/O card. The mechanical and electrical units provide a complete control system setup. This device is a
multivariable, nonlinear and strongly coupled system, with degrees of freedom on the pitch and yaw angle denoted by w and
u, respectively. The state of the beam is described by four process
variables: horizontal and vertical angles measured by position sensors tted at the pivot, and two corresponding angular velocities.
Two additional state variables are the momentum of the dc motors.
In a normal helicopter, the aerodynamic force is controlled by
changing the angle of attack. The laboratory setup in Fig. 1 is so
constructed that the angle of attack is xed. The aerodynamic force
is controlled by varying the speed of the rotors. Therefore, the control inputs are the supply voltage of the dc motors. A change in the
voltage value results in a change in the rotation speed of the propeller. This further results change in the corresponding position
of the beam (Juang et al., 2008). The system parameters of the
TRMS are given in Table 1.
The momentum equation for the vertical movement is given as
(TRMS 33-949S user manual 2006)

M1  MFG  M Bw  MG ;
I1  w

where the nonlinear static characteristic

M1 a1  s21 b1  s1 ;

gravity momentum

MFG Mg  sin w;
As shown in Fig. 1 the TRMS mechanical unit has two rotors
placed on a beam together with a counterbalance whose arm with
a weight at its end is xed to the beam at the pivot and it determines a stable equilibrium position. The beam is pivoted on its
base in such a way that it can rotate freely both in the horizontal
and vertical planes. Either the horizontal or the vertical degree of
freedom can be restricted to 1 degree of freedom using nylon
screws found near pivot point. At both ends of the beam there
are rotors (the main and tail rotors) driven by dc motors. The main
rotor produces a lifting force allowing the beam to rise vertically
making a rotation around the pitch axis. While, the tail rotor is
used to make the beam turn left or right around the yaw axis.
The whole unit is attached to the tower allowing for safe helicopter

friction forces momentum

MBw B1w  w_ 

0:0326
_2
 sin 2w  u
2

and gyroscopic momentum

_  cos w:
MG kgy  M1  u

The motor and the electric control circuit are approximated by a


rst order transfer function thus in Laplace domain the motor
momentum is described by

s1

k1
 u1 :
T 11 s T 10

Table 1
TRMS system parameters.

Fig. 1. The twin rotor MIMO system.

Symbol

Parameter

Value

Unit

I1
I2
a1
b1
a2
b2
Mg
B1w
B1u
kgy
k1
k2
T11
T10
T21
T20
Tp
T0
kc

Moment of inertia of vertical rotor


Moment of inertia of horizontal rotor
Static characteristic parameter
Static characteristic parameter
Static characteristic parameter
Static characteristic parameter
Gravity momentum
Friction momentum function parameter
Friction momentum function parameter
Gyroscopic momentum parameter
Motor 1 gain
Motor 2 gain
Motor 1 denominator parameter
Motor 1 denominator parameter
Motor 2 denominator parameter
Motor 1 denominator parameter
Cross reaction momentum parameter
Cross reaction momentum parameter
Cross reaction momentum gain

6.8  102
2  102
0.0135
0.0924
0.02
0.09
0.32
6  10 3
1  10 1
0.05
1.1
0.8
1.1
1
1
1
2
3.5
0.2

kg m2
kg m2

Nm
N m s/rad
N m s/rad
s/rad

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F.A. Shaik et al. / Expert Systems with Applications 38 (2011) 1304313049

The momentum equation for the vertical movement is given as

M 2  M Bu  M R
I2  u

where the nonlinear static characteristic

M 2 a2  s22 b2  s2 ;

friction forces momentum

_
M Bu B1u  u

and MR is the cross reaction momentum approximated by

MR

kc T 0 s 1
 M1 :
T p s 1

10

Again the DC motor with the electrical circuit is given by

s2

k2
 u2 :
T 21 s T 20

11

The complete dynamics of the TRMS system (1)(11) can be


represented in the state-space form as follows:

d
w w_
dt
d _
a1
b1
Mg
B1w _ 0:0326
_2
w
w s21 s1 
sin w 
sin2wu
dt
2I1
I1
I1
I1
I1
kgy
_ a1 s21 b1 s1

coswu
I1
d
u u_
dt
B
d
a
b
1:75kc
u_ 2 s22 2 s2  1u u_ 
a1 s21 b1 s1
dt
I2
I2
I2
I2
d
T
k
s1  10 s1 1 u1
dt
T 11
k11
d
T
k
s2  20 s2 2 u2
dt
T 21
T 21

Theorem 1. Assume a feed forward MLP neural network with only


one hidden layer and linear activation functions of the output layer. If
all the activation functions of the hidden layer satisfy the Riemann
integrable condition, then the feed forward neural network can always
be represented as a Chebyshev neural network (Lee & Jeng, 2008).
Thus the architecture of the CNN consists of two parts; namely,
numerical transformation part and learning part. Numerical transformation deals with the input to the hidden layer by approximate
transformable method. The transformation is the functional expansion (FE) of the input pattern comprising of a nite set of Chebyshev polynomials. As a result the Chebyshev polynomial basis
can be viewed as a new input vector. The learning part is a functional- link neural network based on Chebyshev polynomials. The
network is shown in Fig. 2. The output of the single layer neural
network is given by

gx W T /x; u ex

12

15

where W is the weights of the neural network and e(x) is the CNN
functional reconstruction error vector and kek 6 eN which is
bounded. Based on the approximation property of CNN, there exist
ideal weights W.
The ideal weights are bounded by known positive values so that

kWkF 6 W M :

16

Then an estimate of g(x) can be given by

The output is given by

y w uT

where Ti(x) is a Chebyshev polynomial i is the order of polynomials


chosen and here x is a scalar quantity.
The following theorem states the function approximation capability of CNN.

^ T /^x; u;
g^x W

17

^ is the estimate of the ideal weight W


where W
/^x; u 1 T i ^x1 T i ^x2 T i ^x3 T i ^x4 T i ^
x5 T i ^x6
T i u1 T i u2 T .
In this paper, the order i is taken as 2.

and

13

where w is the pitch (elevation) angle, u is the yaw (azimuth) angle,


s1 is a momentum of main rotor and s2 is the momentum of tail
rotor.

3.2. Observer design


Consider a nonlinear MIMO system

_
xt
f x; u;
3. Neural observer design
3.1. Structure of neural network
The NN structure used in this paper is a single layer Chebyshev
neural network. CNN is a functional link network (FLN) based on
Chebyshev polynomials. One way to approximate a function by a
polynomial is to use a truncated power series. The power series
expansion represents the function with very small error near the
point of expansion, but the error increases rapidly as we employ
it at points farther away. The computational economy to be gained
by Chebyshev series increases when the power series is slowly
convergent. Therefore, Chebyshev series are frequently used for
approximations to functions and are much more efcient than
other power series of the same degree. Among orthogonal polynomials, the Chebyshev polynomials occupy an important place,
since, in the case of a broad class of functions, expansions in
Chebyshev polynomials converge more rapidly than expansions
in other set of polynomials. Hence, we consider the Chebyshev
polynomials as basis functions for the neural network. The Chebyshev polynomials can be generated by the following recursive formula (Lee & Jeng, 2008)

T i1 x 2xT i x  T i1 x;

18

y Cxt;

T 0 x 1;

14

where u 2 Rmu is the input vector and x 2 Rn states y 2 Rmy output of


the system.
By adding and subtracting Ax, (18) becomes

x_ Ax gx; u;

19

y Cx;

where g(x, u) = f(x, u)  Ax and A is a Hurwitz matrix selected so that


(A, C) is observable.
It is assumed that f(x, u) is unknown and hence g(x, u) is unknown function. It is approximated by using (17).

x1
x2
x6

WT
.
:

g ( x , u )

Functional
Expansion

.
:

u1
u2
Fig. 2. Structure of CNN.

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F.A. Shaik et al. / Expert Systems with Applications 38 (2011) 1304313049

Consider the cost function as

1 T
~ y
~;
y
2

23

~ y  C^
where y
x.
The backpropogation algorithm with e-modication term is given
as

^_ g @J  qky
^
~kW;
W
^
@W

24

where g is the learning rate and q is damping coefcient.


Dene

^ T /^x; u:
netW^ W
According to the chain rule of calculus we may express the gradient as

@J
^
@W
Fig. 3. Neural network observer schematic.

Assumption A1. For any u 2 U and any nite initial condition x0


and any nite T > 0, we have kx(T)k < 1 and ky(T)k < 1.
Assumption A2. The vector elds f : X  U Rn is continuous with
respect to their arguments, and satises a local Lipschitz condition
so that the solution x(t) of the differential equation (18) is unique
for any initial condition x0 2 X and u 2 U.
The observer is given by Abdollahi et al. (2006)

20

where ^
x denotes the state of the observer and G is the observer gain
selected such that A  GC is a Hurwitz matrix. The structure of the
observer is shown in Fig. 3.
Dene the observer error as

~x x  ^x:

21

Differentiating (21) and using (15), (17), (19), and (20) gives

~ T /^x; u W T /x; u  /^x; u ex;


~x_ Ac ~x W

~ @ ~x @netW^
@J @ y
@ ~x
~T C
y
/^x; u:
~ @ ~x @netW^ @ W
^
@y
@netW^

25

From (22) we get

In order to guarantee that the solution to the differential equation described by (18) exists and is unique for any initial condition
x0 2 X and u 2 U, we impose the following mild assumptions.

^x_ t A^x g^^x; u Gy  C ^x;


^t C ^xt;
y

22

~ W W
^ and Ac = A  GC.
where W
Using appropriate weight tuning laws for the parameter vector
^ as given in (28), the closed loop stability analysis is presented in
W
the next section.
4. Stability analysis
Once the structure of the neural network is known, the weight
updating mechanism is usually dened in such a way that the stability is guaranteed. The weight updating mechanism is based on
the modied backpropogation algorithm plus an e-modication
term to guarantee its robustness. The following theorem gives
the main result of the paper.
Theorem 2. Consider the plant model (12) and (13) and observer
model (20) satisfying Assumptions A1 and A2. If the weights of the
CNN are updated according to (28) then the following errors are
~ and output error
bounded: estimation error ~
x, weight error W
~ y  C^
y
x.

@ ~x_
@ ~x
A  GC
 I;
@netW^
@netW^

26

@ ~x
 A1
c :
@netW^

27

By using (25) and (27) in (24) the learning rule becomes

^_ g/^x; uy
~T CA1
~ ^
W
c  qkykW:

28

~ gives
Differentiating W

~_ g/^x; uy
~T CA1
~ ^
W
c qkykW:

29

Consider a positive denite Lyapunov function

1 T
1
~
~ T W;
~x P~x trW
2
2

30

where P is a positive denite matrix which satisfying

ATc P PAc Q ;
where Q is positive denite matrix.
Differentiating (30)

~_
~ T W
L_ ~xT P~x_ trW

31

Substituting (22) and (29) in (31) gives

~ T /^x; u xt ~xT PAc ~x trW


~ T g/^x; uy
~T CA1
L_ ~xT PW
c
^
~ T qky
~kW;
W

32

where xt W/x; u  /^x; u ex.


Dene l1 gC T CA1
c .
Then,

1
~ T /^x; u xt
L_  ~xT Q ~x ~xT PW
2


~ T /^x; u~xT l1 W
~ T qkC ~xkW  W
~
tr W

33

Applying the following inequalities to (33)

~ T W  W
~ 6 W M kWk
~  kWk
~ 2;
trW
~ T /^x; u~xT l1 6 / kWkk
~ ~xkkl1 k;
trW
M

34

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F.A. Shaik et al. / Expert Systems with Applications 38 (2011) 1304313049

we get

1
~

^x; u x
L_ 6  kmin Qk~xk2 k~xkkPkkWk/
2
~ ~xkkl1 k W M kWk
~  kWk
~ 2 qkC ~xk:
/M kWkk

35

kl1 k
.
2

Dene k1
2 ~ 2
Adding and subtracting by k1 kWk
k~
xk

h
1
~ qkCk  k2
  kWk
L_ 6  kmin Qk~xk2 kPkx
1
2
i
2 ~ 2
~
kWkkPk/M /M kl1 k W M qkCk  k1 kWk k~xk

10

15

20

25

30

Time [s]

36

Yaw angle [rad]

Adding and subtracting

0.1

kPk/M /M kl1 k W M qkCk


2qkCk 

actual pitch angle


observed pitch angle

0.2

-0.1

Dene

k2

pitch angle [rad]

0.3

2
k1
2
k2 k~xk

h
1
 qkCk  k21 k22  qkCk  k21
L_ 6  kmin Qk~xk2 k~xk kPkx
 2
i
~ 2  k1 kWk2 k~xk;
k2  kWk
37

actual yaw angle


observed yaw angle

2
1
0
-1
-2

10

15

20

25

30

Time [s]
Fig. 5. Actual and estimated states of TRMS system with neural observer.

which is negative as long as

k~xk >

2
kmin Q

 qkCk  k1 k2
kPkx

Table 2
RMS value of state estimation error with different learning
rates with q = 0.5.

38

k2

1
and q P kCk
.
Thus, L_ is negative outside a compact set which implies the
uniform boundedness of estimation error, weight error and output
error.

5. Experimental results
First, a detailed simulation study of the proposed observer is
carried out. Simulation results of the proposed observer show reliable performance and acceptable computation time for real-time
implementation. In order to test the applicability of the proposed
observer in practical problems, experiments have been carried
out on the real-time 2-DOF TRMS system using MATLAB real-time
tool box and Advantech PCI1711 card.

Pitch angle [rad]

0.3
actual pitch angle
observed pitch angle

0.2
0.1
0
-0.1

10

15

20

25

30

E1rms

E3rms

500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000

0.0111
0.0059
0.0040
0.0030
0.0026
0.0023

0.0514
0.0263
0.0175
0.0126
0.0101
0.0088

5.1. Local state observer


The local state observer designed (A10) is implemented on
real-time TRMS system with the observer parameters as
k1 = 100, k2 = 10, k3 = 10, k4 = 100, k5 = 10, k6 = 10, k7 = 10,
k8 = 10, k9 = 10, k10 = 10, k11 = 10, k12 = 10. The initial conditions
for both the TRMS system and observer are taken as zero. The
system is operated in the open loop with the main rotor and tail
rotor inputs as u1 = u2 = 0.2sin(0.4t) + 0.4sin(0.6t) + 0.05sin(0.8t).
The inputs and outputs of the TRMS system are given as the input
to the observer. Fig. 4 shows the response of the actual state and
the observer state. From the response it can be observed that, the
error between the actual and the observer states during the steady state is bounded with in a small region. The efciency of this
observer will depend on the accuracy of the model. Hence, we
need a priori knowledge about the system dynamics. It does not
guarantee global stability.
5.2. NN observer

Time [s]

The designed neural network based observer (20) has been


implemented on the TRMS system using the following parameters

yaw angle [rad]

2
actual yaw angle
observed yaw angle

-1

G
0

10

15
Time [s]

20

25

30

Fig. 4. Actual and estimated states of TRMS system with local state observer.



20
1
7
0 5 where A11 A22 A33
and
0
20
0
0 A33


4 4 4 4 4 4 T

6
A4 0

-2

A11

A22

4 4 4 4 4 4

A Chebyshev neural network is used to approximate the nonlinearities in the system with six neurons in the output layer
with linear activation function. The inputs to the network are

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F.A. Shaik et al. / Expert Systems with Applications 38 (2011) 1304313049

Acknowledgment

Pitch angle error[rad]

0.02
local state observer
NN observer

0.01

This work was supported by the Department of Science and


Technology, Government of India under Grant SR/S3/EECE/004/
2008.

0
-0.01

Appendix A
-0.02
0

10

15

20

25

30

Time [s]

yaw angle error [rad]

0.1
local state observer
NN observer

0.05

Here, the local state observer presented in Ioannou and Sun


(1995) is applied to the TRMS. Let us consider the TRMS to be described by the state space representation

x_ f x gxu

A1

y hx

0
-0.05
-0.1
0

10

15

20

25

30

where x 2 Rn ; u 2 Rmu ; y 2 Rmy ; f and g are C r vector elds on


Rn, and h : Rn ? Rp is a Cr function. We assume that
f(0) = 0, h(0) = 0, i.e., 0 2 Rn is an equilibrium point of the unforced
system.

Time [s]
Fig. 6. State estimation error of TRMS system with local state observer and neural
observer.

Table 3
RMS value of observer error with local state observer and neural observer.

Local state observer


Neural observer (with g = 3000 and q = 0.5)

E1rms

E3rms

0.0040
0.0023

0.0263
0.0088

Denition 1A. A nonlinear system has robust relative degree m


about x = 0 if there exist smooth functions ri(x), i = 1, . . ., m such
that

hx /1 x r0 x; u
Lf gu /i x /i1 x ri x; u

i 1;    ; m  1

A2

where the functions ri(x, u), i = 1, . . ., m are O(x, u)2 and a(x) is O(x)0.
Dene

Ux u1 x;    ; un xT

A3

r1 x; u 3
6 r2 x; u 7
7
6
2

^4 , ^
^
x2 , ^
x3 , x
x5 , ^
x6 , u1, and u2. The tuning of the neural network
x1 , ^
weights is done online. The initial weights of the neural network
are selected as small random numbers. The initial conditions for
TRMS system and for the observer are taken the same as in previous case. The system is operated in the open loop with the
main rotor and tail rotor inputs also same as in previous case.
Fig. 5 shows the response of the actual state and observer state
with g = 3000 and q = 0.5.Table 2 shows the root mean square of
NN observer error for different learning rates and with constant
damping q = 0.5. E1rms and E3rms indicate the RMS value of error
between the actual and observer states. It can be seen that the
RMS value of the error is decreasing with an increase in the
learning rate g.
Fig. 6 shows the observer error of TRMS system with local state
observer and neural observer and Table 3 shows the RMS value of
errors with two observers. In the case of the local state observer,
the system model is assumed to be completely known whereas
in the neural observer the unknown nonlinearities are estimated
using CNN. It can be seen that the response of the observer is improved using neural network.

rx; u 6
6
4

..
.

7
7
5

A4

rn x; u
Theorem 1A. Let us consider, the system (A1) has a relative degree m
then a local observer is given by Ioannou and Sun (1995)


1
@ U^x
^x_ f ^x g^xu
Ky  h^x:
@ ^x

A5

where the matrix K is selected so that the solution of (A5) satises the
following condition

k^xt  xtk  bk^x0keat

; 8t  0

A6

Given d1 > 0, d2 > 0, d3 > 0, b > 0 and a > 0. provided that kxtk < d1 ;
kutk < d2 8t P 0 and k^
x0  x0k < d3 .
The dynamic state space representation of Twin rotor MIMO
system which is given in equation (12), which can be represented
as follows:

3
x4
97 2
68
0
6 < aI 1 x25 bI 1 x5  BI1W x2 0:0326
sin2x1 x24 = 7
2I1
1
1
7 6
6 1
7
6 : Mg
0
kgy
6  I sinx1  I cosx1 x4 a1 x25 b1 x5 ; 7 6
7 6
6
1
1
6
7 60
6
x4
x_ 6
o 7
7 60
6 n
6 a2 x2 b2 x  B1u x  1:75kc a x2 b x 7 6
k11
4
1 5
1 5
7 6
6 I2 6 I2 6
I2
I2
7 6
6
7 4 T 11
6
T 10
7
6
 T 11 x5
0
5
4
20
 TT 21
x6
2

6. Conclusion
In this paper, a nonlinear state observer design for 2-DOF twin
rotor MIMO system using neural networks is presented. It is assumed that the nonlinearities present in the system are unknown.
A functional link neural network with Chebyshev polynomials is
used to approximate the nonlinearities. As the neural network
structure is single layer network, it is computationally fast and simple. The tuning of neural network weights is done online. The
experimental results have been carried out on the real-time TRMS
system. The experimental results presented reveal that substantial
improvement in the performance of the proposed adaptive observer was achieved compared with the local state observer for nonlinear systems presented in Ioannou and Sun (1995).

y x1 x3 T D hx

where

_
x w w_ u u

s1 s2 T : State vector;

0 7
7
7
0 7
7
u
0 7
7
7
0 7
5
k22
T 21

A7

F.A. Shaik et al. / Expert Systems with Applications 38 (2011) 1304313049

u2 T : Input vector;

u u1

References

y w uT : Output of the system:


System (A7) has a vector relative degree of [3, 3] about the origin
and the corresponding U(x) can be chosen as

x1

7
6
x3
7
6
7
6
7
6
x2
7
6
Ux 6
7
x4
7
6
7
6 b1
Mg
Kg y
B1 w
6 I x5  I sinx1  I1 x2  I1 b1 cosx1 x4 x5 7
5
4 1
1
B1 u
b2
1:75
x

x

K
b
X
6
4
c
1
5
I2
I2
I2
As a result, we have

A8

7
6
0
7
6
7
6
7
6
0
7
rx; u 6
7
6
0
7
6
7
6 a1 2 0:0326
K
y
g
6 I1 x5 2I sin2x1 x24  I a1 cosx1 x4 x25 7
5
4
1
1
a2 2
kc a1
2
x

1:75x
5
I2 6
I2

A9

and hence Theorem 1A can be applied. Thus, from (A5) the observer
for the TRMS system turns out to be as follows
3
^x
8
9
2
7
6 < a1 ^x2 b1 ^x5  B1W ^x 0:0326 sin2^x2 ^x2
0
=
4
7
6 I1 5 I1
2I1
I1
7
6
6
6 :  Mg sin^x  kgy cos^x ^x a ^x2 b ^x ; 7 6 0
1
1 4
1 5
1 5
7 6
6
I1
I1
7 60
6
7 6
x4
^x_ 6
7 60
6 n
o
7 6
6 a2 2 b2
B1u
2
c
^
^
7 6 k11
6 I ^x6 I ^x6  I ^x4  1:75k
a

x
x
1 5
1 5
I2
2
2
2
7 6T
6
7 4 11
6
T 10
7
6
^
 T 11 x5
5
4
0
T 20
^
 T 21 x6
2

3
0
0 7
7
7

1
0 7
@ U^x
7
u
Ky  h^x
0 7
7
@ ^x
7
0 7
5
k22
T 21

A10

where

6
6
6


6
@ U^x
K 6
6
@ ^x
6
6
4

k1
k5

k2
k6

k3
k4
k7
k8
ak1 bk5 ck7 dk9
ak2 bk6 ck8 dk10
ek1 fk5 gk7 hk9 29 k11 ek2 fk6 gk8 hk10 29 k12

3
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
5

where k1, k2, . . ., k12 are the observer parameters and a, b, c, d, e, f, g,


and h are the nonlinear functions given by:
1 16000cos^x1  231sin^x1 ^x4 ^x5
100
1
; b
;
:
:
20  cos^x1 ^x4
231
77 20  cos^x1 ^x4
^x1 ^x5
3400
1
;d
;
c
:
20  cos^x1 ^x4
231 20  cos^x1 ^x4
1 16000cos^x1 231sin^x1 ^x4 ^x5 :14
1
14
;f :
;
e
:
9000
20  cos^x1 ^x4
30 20  cos^x1 ^x4
0:258cos^x1 ^x5 1:11cos^x1 ^x4  22:2
17
14
; h :
:
g
20  cos^x1 ^x4
45 20  cos^x1 ^x4
a

13049

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