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You are on page 1of 7

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/eswa

rotor control system

Ferdose Ahammad Shaik, Shubhi Purwar , Bhanu Pratap

M.N. National Institute of Technology, Allahabad, India

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Keywords:

Twin rotor MIMO system

Neural network

Chebyshev polynomials

State observer

a b s t r a c t

This paper addresses the problem of observer design for the twin rotor multi-inputmulti-output (MIMO)

system which is a nonlinear system. Exact knowledge of the dynamics of twin rotor MIMO system (TRMS)

is difcult to obtain but it is highly desired that the observer can dominate the effects of unknown nonlinearities and unmodeled dynamics independently to prevent the state estimations from diverging and

to get precise estimations. The unknown nonlinearities are estimated by Chebyshev neural network

(CNN) whose weights are adaptively adjusted. Lyapunov theory is used to guarantee stability for state

estimation and neural network weight errors. A comparative experimental study is presented to demonstrate the enhanced performance of the proposed observer.

2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

In this paper, the observer design of an experimental propeller

setup called the twin rotor multi-inputmulti-output system is

proposed. The TRMS (TRMS 33-949S user manual 2006) is a laboratory setup designed for control experiments. In certain aspects,

its behavior resembles that of a helicopter which is typically

described as having unstable, nonlinear and coupled dynamics.

The modeling and controller design of TRMS has been addressed

in the literature (Juang, Huang, & Liu, 2008; Kaloust, Ham, & Qu,

1997; Khan & Iqbal, 2003; Wen & Lu, 2008).

Design of adaptive observers for multi-inputmulti-output

(MIMO) nonlinear systems is one of the active areas of research,

the signicance of which cannot be underestimated in problems

of system identication or output feedback control. For singleinputsingle-output (SISO) linear time invariant plants, the adaptive observer design has been largely investigated (Ioannou &

Sun, 1995; Narendra & Annaswamy, 1989) and the references

therein. Several conventional nonlinear observers such as high gain

observers and sliding mode observers (Jo & Seo, 2000; Nicosia,

Tomei, & Tornambe, 1989; Nicosia & Tornambe, 1989) are only

applicable to systems with specic model structures. However,

for most practical processes, dening an exact model is a hard task

or is not possible at all. The observer design problems are more

challenging in the presence of unknown nonlinearities. The growing need of the industry for tackling complex problems and the

capability of neural networks (NN) for approximating functions

Corresponding author.

E-mail address: spurwar@rediffmail.com (S. Purwar).

0957-4174/$ - see front matter 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.eswa.2011.04.107

& White, 1989) have motivated NN based identication and control approaches. In Vargas and Hemerly (2001), Abdollahi, Talebi,

and Patel (2006), Kim and Lewis (1997) and Liu (2009), NN based

identication and estimation schemes have been proposed that relaxed the restrictive assumption on the system dynamics. Most of

the NN observers proposed in the literature establish the efcacy of

their methodology through simulation studies. The observer presented in Abdollahi, Talebi, and Patel (2002) was based on a general model of MIMO nonlinear systems and was shown to be

experimentally stable, but no mathematical proof was given to

support the experiments. Most of the NN based observer design

techniques are based on multilayer feedforward networks such

as multilayer perceptron (MLP) trained with backpropogation or

more efcient variations of this algorithm. As an alternative to

MLP, there has been considerable interest in radial basis function

(RBF) networks, primarily because of its simpler structure. A RBF

network has been proposed for observer design of nonlinear systems (Lee & Blaabjerg, 2007; Stepanyan & Hovakimyan, 2007). In

these networks, choosing an appropriate set of RBF centers for

effective learning still remains a problem.

A Chebyshev neural network proposed in Namatame and Ueda

(1992) can be used for function approximation and pattern classication with faster convergence and lesser computational complexity than an MLP network. A dynamic nonlinear system

identication methodology using CNN is reported in Patra and

Kot (2002). Here, it is pointed out that CNN has universal approximation capability and has faster convergence than a MLP network.

Similarly, Purwar, Kar, and Jha (2007, 2008) establish the efcacy

of CNN in the areas of on-line system identication and tracking

controller for robot manipulators respectively.

13044

One of the aims of this paper is to test the practicality of designing an adaptive observer using CNN. In the proposed work CNN is

used for estimating the unknown nonlinearities of the TRMS. The

online weight adaptation laws for the CNN are such that they guarantee the stability of the overall scheme. The magnitude of the

observation error depends mainly on the CNN, the feedback functions to be used for the online weight adaptation laws and other

design parameters. The experimental results presented reveal that

substantial improvement in the performance of the proposed

adaptive observer was achieved compared with the local state

observer for nonlinear systems presented in Jo and Seo (2000).

The local state observer presented in Jo and Seo (2000) utilizes

the co-ordinate change which transforms a given system into an

approximate normal form. Moreover, complete knowledge of

system nonlinearities needs to be known a priori. The detailed local

state observer design of the TRMS is presented in the Appendix.

The preliminary work of this research is carried out in Shaik and

Purwar (2009) where simulation results are presented.

The remainder of the paper is arranged as follows. In Section 2,

the TRMS system is introduced and the parameters of the system

specied. The proposed CNN observer is introduced in Section 3.

In Section 4, the stability analysis is given. The observer performance is demonstrated in Section 5 by providing experimental

results on the TRMS. The experimental results reveal the advantages of the proposed observer and the effect of learning rate. Finally

concluding remarks are made in the last section.

2. 2-DOF TRMS system and model

control experiments. Apart from the mechanical units, the electrical unit (placed under the tower) plays an important role for TRMS

control. It allows for measured signals transfer to the PC and control signal application via an I/O card. The mechanical and electrical units provide a complete control system setup. This device is a

multivariable, nonlinear and strongly coupled system, with degrees of freedom on the pitch and yaw angle denoted by w and

u, respectively. The state of the beam is described by four process

variables: horizontal and vertical angles measured by position sensors tted at the pivot, and two corresponding angular velocities.

Two additional state variables are the momentum of the dc motors.

In a normal helicopter, the aerodynamic force is controlled by

changing the angle of attack. The laboratory setup in Fig. 1 is so

constructed that the angle of attack is xed. The aerodynamic force

is controlled by varying the speed of the rotors. Therefore, the control inputs are the supply voltage of the dc motors. A change in the

voltage value results in a change in the rotation speed of the propeller. This further results change in the corresponding position

of the beam (Juang et al., 2008). The system parameters of the

TRMS are given in Table 1.

The momentum equation for the vertical movement is given as

(TRMS 33-949S user manual 2006)

M1 MFG M Bw MG ;

I1 w

M1 a1 s21 b1 s1 ;

gravity momentum

MFG Mg sin w;

As shown in Fig. 1 the TRMS mechanical unit has two rotors

placed on a beam together with a counterbalance whose arm with

a weight at its end is xed to the beam at the pivot and it determines a stable equilibrium position. The beam is pivoted on its

base in such a way that it can rotate freely both in the horizontal

and vertical planes. Either the horizontal or the vertical degree of

freedom can be restricted to 1 degree of freedom using nylon

screws found near pivot point. At both ends of the beam there

are rotors (the main and tail rotors) driven by dc motors. The main

rotor produces a lifting force allowing the beam to rise vertically

making a rotation around the pitch axis. While, the tail rotor is

used to make the beam turn left or right around the yaw axis.

The whole unit is attached to the tower allowing for safe helicopter

MBw B1w w_

0:0326

_2

sin 2w u

2

_ cos w:

MG kgy M1 u

rst order transfer function thus in Laplace domain the motor

momentum is described by

s1

k1

u1 :

T 11 s T 10

Table 1

TRMS system parameters.

Symbol

Parameter

Value

Unit

I1

I2

a1

b1

a2

b2

Mg

B1w

B1u

kgy

k1

k2

T11

T10

T21

T20

Tp

T0

kc

Moment of inertia of horizontal rotor

Static characteristic parameter

Static characteristic parameter

Static characteristic parameter

Static characteristic parameter

Gravity momentum

Friction momentum function parameter

Friction momentum function parameter

Gyroscopic momentum parameter

Motor 1 gain

Motor 2 gain

Motor 1 denominator parameter

Motor 1 denominator parameter

Motor 2 denominator parameter

Motor 1 denominator parameter

Cross reaction momentum parameter

Cross reaction momentum parameter

Cross reaction momentum gain

6.8 102

2 102

0.0135

0.0924

0.02

0.09

0.32

6 10 3

1 10 1

0.05

1.1

0.8

1.1

1

1

1

2

3.5

0.2

kg m2

kg m2

Nm

N m s/rad

N m s/rad

s/rad

13045

M 2 M Bu M R

I2 u

M 2 a2 s22 b2 s2 ;

_

M Bu B1u u

MR

kc T 0 s 1

M1 :

T p s 1

10

s2

k2

u2 :

T 21 s T 20

11

represented in the state-space form as follows:

d

w w_

dt

d _

a1

b1

Mg

B1w _ 0:0326

_2

w

w s21 s1

sin w

sin2wu

dt

2I1

I1

I1

I1

I1

kgy

_ a1 s21 b1 s1

coswu

I1

d

u u_

dt

B

d

a

b

1:75kc

u_ 2 s22 2 s2 1u u_

a1 s21 b1 s1

dt

I2

I2

I2

I2

d

T

k

s1 10 s1 1 u1

dt

T 11

k11

d

T

k

s2 20 s2 2 u2

dt

T 21

T 21

one hidden layer and linear activation functions of the output layer. If

all the activation functions of the hidden layer satisfy the Riemann

integrable condition, then the feed forward neural network can always

be represented as a Chebyshev neural network (Lee & Jeng, 2008).

Thus the architecture of the CNN consists of two parts; namely,

numerical transformation part and learning part. Numerical transformation deals with the input to the hidden layer by approximate

transformable method. The transformation is the functional expansion (FE) of the input pattern comprising of a nite set of Chebyshev polynomials. As a result the Chebyshev polynomial basis

can be viewed as a new input vector. The learning part is a functional- link neural network based on Chebyshev polynomials. The

network is shown in Fig. 2. The output of the single layer neural

network is given by

gx W T /x; u ex

12

15

where W is the weights of the neural network and e(x) is the CNN

functional reconstruction error vector and kek 6 eN which is

bounded. Based on the approximation property of CNN, there exist

ideal weights W.

The ideal weights are bounded by known positive values so that

kWkF 6 W M :

16

y w uT

chosen and here x is a scalar quantity.

The following theorem states the function approximation capability of CNN.

^ T /^x; u;

g^x W

17

where W

/^x; u 1 T i ^x1 T i ^x2 T i ^x3 T i ^x4 T i ^

x5 T i ^x6

T i u1 T i u2 T .

In this paper, the order i is taken as 2.

and

13

s1 is a momentum of main rotor and s2 is the momentum of tail

rotor.

Consider a nonlinear MIMO system

_

xt

f x; u;

3. Neural observer design

3.1. Structure of neural network

The NN structure used in this paper is a single layer Chebyshev

neural network. CNN is a functional link network (FLN) based on

Chebyshev polynomials. One way to approximate a function by a

polynomial is to use a truncated power series. The power series

expansion represents the function with very small error near the

point of expansion, but the error increases rapidly as we employ

it at points farther away. The computational economy to be gained

by Chebyshev series increases when the power series is slowly

convergent. Therefore, Chebyshev series are frequently used for

approximations to functions and are much more efcient than

other power series of the same degree. Among orthogonal polynomials, the Chebyshev polynomials occupy an important place,

since, in the case of a broad class of functions, expansions in

Chebyshev polynomials converge more rapidly than expansions

in other set of polynomials. Hence, we consider the Chebyshev

polynomials as basis functions for the neural network. The Chebyshev polynomials can be generated by the following recursive formula (Lee & Jeng, 2008)

T i1 x 2xT i x T i1 x;

18

y Cxt;

T 0 x 1;

14

the system.

By adding and subtracting Ax, (18) becomes

x_ Ax gx; u;

19

y Cx;

(A, C) is observable.

It is assumed that f(x, u) is unknown and hence g(x, u) is unknown function. It is approximated by using (17).

x1

x2

x6

WT

.

:

g ( x , u )

Functional

Expansion

.

:

u1

u2

Fig. 2. Structure of CNN.

13046

1 T

~ y

~;

y

2

23

~ y C^

where y

x.

The backpropogation algorithm with e-modication term is given

as

^_ g @J qky

^

~kW;

W

^

@W

24

Dene

^ T /^x; u:

netW^ W

According to the chain rule of calculus we may express the gradient as

@J

^

@W

Fig. 3. Neural network observer schematic.

and any nite T > 0, we have kx(T)k < 1 and ky(T)k < 1.

Assumption A2. The vector elds f : X U Rn is continuous with

respect to their arguments, and satises a local Lipschitz condition

so that the solution x(t) of the differential equation (18) is unique

for any initial condition x0 2 X and u 2 U.

The observer is given by Abdollahi et al. (2006)

20

where ^

x denotes the state of the observer and G is the observer gain

selected such that A GC is a Hurwitz matrix. The structure of the

observer is shown in Fig. 3.

Dene the observer error as

~x x ^x:

21

Differentiating (21) and using (15), (17), (19), and (20) gives

~x_ Ac ~x W

~ @ ~x @netW^

@J @ y

@ ~x

~T C

y

/^x; u:

~ @ ~x @netW^ @ W

^

@y

@netW^

25

In order to guarantee that the solution to the differential equation described by (18) exists and is unique for any initial condition

x0 2 X and u 2 U, we impose the following mild assumptions.

^t C ^xt;

y

22

~ W W

^ and Ac = A GC.

where W

Using appropriate weight tuning laws for the parameter vector

^ as given in (28), the closed loop stability analysis is presented in

W

the next section.

4. Stability analysis

Once the structure of the neural network is known, the weight

updating mechanism is usually dened in such a way that the stability is guaranteed. The weight updating mechanism is based on

the modied backpropogation algorithm plus an e-modication

term to guarantee its robustness. The following theorem gives

the main result of the paper.

Theorem 2. Consider the plant model (12) and (13) and observer

model (20) satisfying Assumptions A1 and A2. If the weights of the

CNN are updated according to (28) then the following errors are

~ and output error

bounded: estimation error ~

x, weight error W

~ y C^

y

x.

@ ~x_

@ ~x

A GC

I;

@netW^

@netW^

26

@ ~x

A1

c :

@netW^

27

^_ g/^x; uy

~T CA1

~ ^

W

c qkykW:

28

~ gives

Differentiating W

~_ g/^x; uy

~T CA1

~ ^

W

c qkykW:

29

1 T

1

~

~ T W;

~x P~x trW

2

2

30

ATc P PAc Q ;

where Q is positive denite matrix.

Differentiating (30)

~_

~ T W

L_ ~xT P~x_ trW

31

~ T g/^x; uy

~T CA1

L_ ~xT PW

c

^

~ T qky

~kW;

W

32

Dene l1 gC T CA1

c .

Then,

1

~ T /^x; u xt

L_ ~xT Q ~x ~xT PW

2

~ T /^x; u~xT l1 W

~ T qkC ~xkW W

~

tr W

33

~ T W W

~ 6 W M kWk

~ kWk

~ 2;

trW

~ T /^x; u~xT l1 6 / kWkk

~ ~xkkl1 k;

trW

M

34

13047

we get

1

~

^x; u x

L_ 6 kmin Qk~xk2 k~xkkPkkWk/

2

~ ~xkkl1 k W M kWk

~ kWk

~ 2 qkC ~xk:

/M kWkk

35

kl1 k

.

2

Dene k1

2 ~ 2

Adding and subtracting by k1 kWk

k~

xk

h

1

~ qkCk k2

kWk

L_ 6 kmin Qk~xk2 kPkx

1

2

i

2 ~ 2

~

kWkkPk/M /M kl1 k W M qkCk k1 kWk k~xk

10

15

20

25

30

Time [s]

36

0.1

2qkCk

observed pitch angle

0.2

-0.1

Dene

k2

0.3

2

k1

2

k2 k~xk

h

1

qkCk k21 k22 qkCk k21

L_ 6 kmin Qk~xk2 k~xk kPkx

2

i

~ 2 k1 kWk2 k~xk;

k2 kWk

37

observed yaw angle

2

1

0

-1

-2

10

15

20

25

30

Time [s]

Fig. 5. Actual and estimated states of TRMS system with neural observer.

k~xk >

2

kmin Q

qkCk k1 k2

kPkx

Table 2

RMS value of state estimation error with different learning

rates with q = 0.5.

38

k2

1

and q P kCk

.

Thus, L_ is negative outside a compact set which implies the

uniform boundedness of estimation error, weight error and output

error.

5. Experimental results

First, a detailed simulation study of the proposed observer is

carried out. Simulation results of the proposed observer show reliable performance and acceptable computation time for real-time

implementation. In order to test the applicability of the proposed

observer in practical problems, experiments have been carried

out on the real-time 2-DOF TRMS system using MATLAB real-time

tool box and Advantech PCI1711 card.

0.3

actual pitch angle

observed pitch angle

0.2

0.1

0

-0.1

10

15

20

25

30

E1rms

E3rms

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

0.0111

0.0059

0.0040

0.0030

0.0026

0.0023

0.0514

0.0263

0.0175

0.0126

0.0101

0.0088

The local state observer designed (A10) is implemented on

real-time TRMS system with the observer parameters as

k1 = 100, k2 = 10, k3 = 10, k4 = 100, k5 = 10, k6 = 10, k7 = 10,

k8 = 10, k9 = 10, k10 = 10, k11 = 10, k12 = 10. The initial conditions

for both the TRMS system and observer are taken as zero. The

system is operated in the open loop with the main rotor and tail

rotor inputs as u1 = u2 = 0.2sin(0.4t) + 0.4sin(0.6t) + 0.05sin(0.8t).

The inputs and outputs of the TRMS system are given as the input

to the observer. Fig. 4 shows the response of the actual state and

the observer state. From the response it can be observed that, the

error between the actual and the observer states during the steady state is bounded with in a small region. The efciency of this

observer will depend on the accuracy of the model. Hence, we

need a priori knowledge about the system dynamics. It does not

guarantee global stability.

5.2. NN observer

Time [s]

implemented on the TRMS system using the following parameters

2

actual yaw angle

observed yaw angle

-1

G

0

10

15

Time [s]

20

25

30

Fig. 4. Actual and estimated states of TRMS system with local state observer.

20

1

7

0 5 where A11 A22 A33

and

0

20

0

0 A33

4 4 4 4 4 4 T

6

A4 0

-2

A11

A22

4 4 4 4 4 4

A Chebyshev neural network is used to approximate the nonlinearities in the system with six neurons in the output layer

with linear activation function. The inputs to the network are

13048

Acknowledgment

0.02

local state observer

NN observer

0.01

Technology, Government of India under Grant SR/S3/EECE/004/

2008.

0

-0.01

Appendix A

-0.02

0

10

15

20

25

30

Time [s]

0.1

local state observer

NN observer

0.05

(1995) is applied to the TRMS. Let us consider the TRMS to be described by the state space representation

x_ f x gxu

A1

y hx

0

-0.05

-0.1

0

10

15

20

25

30

Rn, and h : Rn ? Rp is a Cr function. We assume that

f(0) = 0, h(0) = 0, i.e., 0 2 Rn is an equilibrium point of the unforced

system.

Time [s]

Fig. 6. State estimation error of TRMS system with local state observer and neural

observer.

Table 3

RMS value of observer error with local state observer and neural observer.

Neural observer (with g = 3000 and q = 0.5)

E1rms

E3rms

0.0040

0.0023

0.0263

0.0088

about x = 0 if there exist smooth functions ri(x), i = 1, . . ., m such

that

hx /1 x r0 x; u

Lf gu /i x /i1 x ri x; u

i 1; ; m 1

A2

where the functions ri(x, u), i = 1, . . ., m are O(x, u)2 and a(x) is O(x)0.

Dene

Ux u1 x; ; un xT

A3

r1 x; u 3

6 r2 x; u 7

7

6

2

^4 , ^

^

x2 , ^

x3 , x

x5 , ^

x6 , u1, and u2. The tuning of the neural network

x1 , ^

weights is done online. The initial weights of the neural network

are selected as small random numbers. The initial conditions for

TRMS system and for the observer are taken the same as in previous case. The system is operated in the open loop with the

main rotor and tail rotor inputs also same as in previous case.

Fig. 5 shows the response of the actual state and observer state

with g = 3000 and q = 0.5.Table 2 shows the root mean square of

NN observer error for different learning rates and with constant

damping q = 0.5. E1rms and E3rms indicate the RMS value of error

between the actual and observer states. It can be seen that the

RMS value of the error is decreasing with an increase in the

learning rate g.

Fig. 6 shows the observer error of TRMS system with local state

observer and neural observer and Table 3 shows the RMS value of

errors with two observers. In the case of the local state observer,

the system model is assumed to be completely known whereas

in the neural observer the unknown nonlinearities are estimated

using CNN. It can be seen that the response of the observer is improved using neural network.

rx; u 6

6

4

..

.

7

7

5

A4

rn x; u

Theorem 1A. Let us consider, the system (A1) has a relative degree m

then a local observer is given by Ioannou and Sun (1995)

1

@ U^x

^x_ f ^x g^xu

Ky h^x:

@ ^x

A5

where the matrix K is selected so that the solution of (A5) satises the

following condition

; 8t 0

A6

Given d1 > 0, d2 > 0, d3 > 0, b > 0 and a > 0. provided that kxtk < d1 ;

kutk < d2 8t P 0 and k^

x0 x0k < d3 .

The dynamic state space representation of Twin rotor MIMO

system which is given in equation (12), which can be represented

as follows:

3

x4

97 2

68

0

6 < aI 1 x25 bI 1 x5 BI1W x2 0:0326

sin2x1 x24 = 7

2I1

1

1

7 6

6 1

7

6 : Mg

0

kgy

6 I sinx1 I cosx1 x4 a1 x25 b1 x5 ; 7 6

7 6

6

1

1

6

7 60

6

x4

x_ 6

o 7

7 60

6 n

6 a2 x2 b2 x B1u x 1:75kc a x2 b x 7 6

k11

4

1 5

1 5

7 6

6 I2 6 I2 6

I2

I2

7 6

6

7 4 T 11

6

T 10

7

6

T 11 x5

0

5

4

20

TT 21

x6

2

6. Conclusion

In this paper, a nonlinear state observer design for 2-DOF twin

rotor MIMO system using neural networks is presented. It is assumed that the nonlinearities present in the system are unknown.

A functional link neural network with Chebyshev polynomials is

used to approximate the nonlinearities. As the neural network

structure is single layer network, it is computationally fast and simple. The tuning of neural network weights is done online. The

experimental results have been carried out on the real-time TRMS

system. The experimental results presented reveal that substantial

improvement in the performance of the proposed adaptive observer was achieved compared with the local state observer for nonlinear systems presented in Ioannou and Sun (1995).

y x1 x3 T D hx

where

_

x w w_ u u

s1 s2 T : State vector;

0 7

7

7

0 7

7

u

0 7

7

7

0 7

5

k22

T 21

A7

u2 T : Input vector;

u u1

References

System (A7) has a vector relative degree of [3, 3] about the origin

and the corresponding U(x) can be chosen as

x1

7

6

x3

7

6

7

6

7

6

x2

7

6

Ux 6

7

x4

7

6

7

6 b1

Mg

Kg y

B1 w

6 I x5 I sinx1 I1 x2 I1 b1 cosx1 x4 x5 7

5

4 1

1

B1 u

b2

1:75

x

x

K

b

X

6

4

c

1

5

I2

I2

I2

As a result, we have

A8

7

6

0

7

6

7

6

7

6

0

7

rx; u 6

7

6

0

7

6

7

6 a1 2 0:0326

K

y

g

6 I1 x5 2I sin2x1 x24 I a1 cosx1 x4 x25 7

5

4

1

1

a2 2

kc a1

2

x

1:75x

5

I2 6

I2

A9

and hence Theorem 1A can be applied. Thus, from (A5) the observer

for the TRMS system turns out to be as follows

3

^x

8

9

2

7

6 < a1 ^x2 b1 ^x5 B1W ^x 0:0326 sin2^x2 ^x2

0

=

4

7

6 I1 5 I1

2I1

I1

7

6

6

6 : Mg sin^x kgy cos^x ^x a ^x2 b ^x ; 7 6 0

1

1 4

1 5

1 5

7 6

6

I1

I1

7 60

6

7 6

x4

^x_ 6

7 60

6 n

o

7 6

6 a2 2 b2

B1u

2

c

^

^

7 6 k11

6 I ^x6 I ^x6 I ^x4 1:75k

a

x

x

1 5

1 5

I2

2

2

2

7 6T

6

7 4 11

6

T 10

7

6

^

T 11 x5

5

4

0

T 20

^

T 21 x6

2

3

0

0 7

7

7

1

0 7

@ U^x

7

u

Ky h^x

0 7

7

@ ^x

7

0 7

5

k22

T 21

A10

where

6

6

6

6

@ U^x

K 6

6

@ ^x

6

6

4

k1

k5

k2

k6

k3

k4

k7

k8

ak1 bk5 ck7 dk9

ak2 bk6 ck8 dk10

ek1 fk5 gk7 hk9 29 k11 ek2 fk6 gk8 hk10 29 k12

3

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

5

and h are the nonlinear functions given by:

1 16000cos^x1 231sin^x1 ^x4 ^x5

100

1

; b

;

:

:

20 cos^x1 ^x4

231

77 20 cos^x1 ^x4

^x1 ^x5

3400

1

;d

;

c

:

20 cos^x1 ^x4

231 20 cos^x1 ^x4

1 16000cos^x1 231sin^x1 ^x4 ^x5 :14

1

14

;f :

;

e

:

9000

20 cos^x1 ^x4

30 20 cos^x1 ^x4

0:258cos^x1 ^x5 1:11cos^x1 ^x4 22:2

17

14

; h :

:

g

20 cos^x1 ^x4

45 20 cos^x1 ^x4

a

13049

Abdollahi, F., Talebi, H. A., & Patel, R. V. (2002). A neural network based observer for

exible joint manipulators. In Proceedings of the 15th IFAC world congress

automatic control, Barcelona, Spain.

Abdollahi, F., Talebi, H. A., & Patel, R. V. (2006). A stable neural network based

observer with application to exible joint manipulators. IEEE Transactions on

Neural Networks, 17(10), 118129.

Funahashi, K. (1989). On the approximate realization of continuous mappings by

neural networks. Neural Networks, 2(3), 183191.

Hornick, K., Stinchombe, M., & White, H. (1989). Multilayer feedforward networks

are universal approximators. Neural Networks, 2(5), 359366.

Ioannou, P. A., & Sun, J. (1995). Robust adaptive control. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:

Prentice Hall.

Jo, Nam H., & Seo, Jin H. (2000). A state observer for nonlinear systems and its

application to ball and beam system. IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control,

45(5), 968973.

Juang, J. G., Huang, M. T., & Liu, W. K. (2008). PID control using prescribed genetic

algorithms for MIMO system. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics,

Part C, 38(5), 716727.

Kaloust, J., Ham, C., & Qu, Z. (1997). Nonlinear autopilot control design for

a 2-DOF helicopter model. IEE Control Theory Applications, 144(6), 612

616.

Khan, K. U., & Iqbal, N. (2003). Modeling and controller design of twin rotor system/

helicopter lab process developed at PIEAS. In Proceedings of IEEE-INMIC (pp.

321326).

Kim, Y. H., & Lewis, F. L. (1997). A dynamic recurrent neural network based

adaptive observer for a class of nonlinear systems. Automatica, 33(8), 1539

1543.

Lee, K. B., & Blaabjerg, F. (2007). Robust and stable disturbance observer of servo

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Cybernetics, Part B, 28(6), 925935.

Liu, Y. (2009). Robust adaptive observer design for nonlinear systems with

unmodeled dynamics. Automatica, 45, 18911895.

Namatame, A., & Ueda, N. (1992). Pattern classication with Chebyshev neural

networks. International Journal of Neural Networks, 3, 2331.

Narendra, K. S., & Annaswamy, A. M. (1989). Stable adaptive systems. Englewood

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