A detailed dossier on the very foundations of integration

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A detailed dossier on the very foundations of integration

© All Rights Reserved

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Strategy for integrating

Z

We use substitution:

If n is odd use substitution with u = sin x, du = cos xdx and convert the remaining factors of cosine

using cos2 x = 1 sin2 x. This will work even if m = 0.

Example

Z

If m is odd use substitution with u = cos x, du = sin xdx and convert the remaining factors of cosine

using sin2 x = 1 cos2 x. This will work if n = 0.

Example

Z

If both powers are even we reduce the powers using the half angle formulas:

1

sin2 x = (1 cos 2x)

2

1

cos2 x = (1 + cos 2x)

2

Alternatively, you can switch to powers of sine and cosine using cos2 x + sin2 x = 1 and use the reduction

formulas from the previous section.

Example

Z

Z

If m is even and m > 0, use substitution with u = tan x, and use one factor of sec2 x for du = sec2 dx.

Use sec2 x = 1 + tan2 x to convert the remaining factors of sec2 x to a function of u = tan x. This works

even if n = 0 as long as m 4.

R

Example sec4 x tan xdx

If n is odd and m 1 use substitution with u = sec x, du = sec x tan x dx, and convert remaining

powers of tan to a function of u using tan2 x = sec2 x 1. This works as long as m 1.

R

Example

sec3 x tan xdx.

If m odd and n is even we can reduce to powers of secant using the identity sec2 x = 1 + tan2 x.

R

Example

sec x tan2 xdx (see integral of sec x and sec3 x below.)

To evaluate

Z

Z

sin(mx) cos(nx)dx

Z

sin(mx) sin(nx)dx

cos(mx) cos(nx)dx

sin((m n)x) = sin(mx) cos(nx) cos(mx) sin(nx)

sin((m + n)x) = sin(mx) cos(nx) + cos(mx) sin(nx)

cos((m n)x) = cos(mx) cos(nx) + sin(nx) sin(mx)

cos((m + n)x) = cos(mx) cos(nx) sin(nx) sin(mx)

to get

1

sin((m n)x) + sin((m + n)x

2

1

cos((m n)x) cos((m + n)x

sin(mx) sin(nx) =

2

1

cos(mx) cos(nx) =

cos((m n)x) + cos((m + n)x

2

R

Example

sin 7x cos 3xdx

sin(mx) cos(nx) =

Example

Z

sec xdx =

1dx = x + C.

Example

Z

sec xdx = ln | sec x + tan x| + C

Proof

Z

sec xdx =

sec x

sec x + tan x

sec x + tan x

Z

dx =

dx

sec x + tan x

Using the substitution u = sec x+tan x, we get du = sec2 x+sec x tan x giving us that the above integral

is

Z

1

du = ln |u| = ln | sec x + tan x| + C.

u

Example

Z

sec xdx =

sec2 x sec x dx

use integration by parts with u = sec x, dv = sec2 xdx to get (a recurring integral)

Z

Z

Z

Z

3

2

2

sec xdx = sec x sec x dx = sec x tan x tan x sec x dx = sec x tan x (sec2 x 1) sec x dx

Z

= sec x tan x

Solving for

sec x tan x 1

+

sec xdx =

2

2

3

sec x dx +

sec1 xdx =

sec x dx

sec x tan x 1

+ ln | sec x + tan x| + C.

2

2

In fact for n 3, we can derive a reduction formula for powers of sec in this way:

Z

secn2 x tan x n 2

sec xdx =

+

n1

n1

n

secn2 xdx.

Example

Z

tan xdx =

1dx = x + C.

Example

Z

tan xdx = ln | sec x| + C

Proof

sin x

dx

cos x

Using the substitution u = cos x, we get du = sin x giving us that the above integral is

Z

1

du = ln |u| = ln | sec x| + C.

u

tan xdx =

Example

Z

tan xdx =

Example

Z

tan xdx =

Z

tan xdx

tan2 x

+ ln | sec x| + C.

2

In fact for n 2, we can derive a reduction formula for powers of tan x using this method:

Z

tann1 x

tan xdx =

n1

n

tann2 xdx

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