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Processing and coloration of Bamboo fibers

Bamboo fibers:
• Regenerated cellulose fiber produced from bamboo pulp

Bamboo Refined through Multi purpose Converted in to

pulp hydrolysis - bleaching fiber

Physical and chemical properties of bamboo fibers are nearly close to viscose
• Good durability
• Stability
• Moderate tenacity
• Good spin ability
• Good hydrophilic nature
• Excellent permeability
• Soft feel
• Excellent dyeing behaviour
• Color vibrancy
• Anti microbial property

Characteristics of Bamboo fiber:

Natural antibacterial:
• Owns a unique anti bacteria agent “bamboo kun”. – imparts the natural
functions of anti bacteria and deodorization.
• Content of bamboo fiber in blended yarn decides the anti bacterial
behavior of the final product. Higher the bamboo content, better the anti
bacterial properties.
• Keep 70% bamboo fiber in blended yarn in order to obtain satisfactory anti
bacterial effect.
• Natural antibacterial function of bamboo fiber differs largely from that of
chemical additive or finishes applied on the fabric. The later often tend to
cause skin allergy when applied in apparel.
• Anti bacterial function of bamboo fabric continues even after fifty washing.
Green and bio degradable:
• Bamboo products are 100% biodegradable in soil by microorganism and
sunshine and the decomposition process doesn’t cause pollution to

Breathable and cool:

Cross section filled with Better moisture Absorb and evaporate

various micro-gaps and absorption and human sweat in seconds
micro-holes ventilation

• Apparel made from bamboo fibers keep body temperature 1 – 2 C lower

than normal apparels in hot summer.

Soft in touch:
• Being regenerated, softness in inherent property.
• Gives hygienic and delicate touch to skin.

Luxurious and shiny appearance:

Cross section filled with Better dye Appears lustrous and shiny
various micro-gaps and uptake

Low tenacity:
• Dry tensile strength is merely 2.33 CN/Tex and wet tensile strength is 60%
lower than dry tensile strength i.e. 1.37 CN/Tex.
• Requires special care at different stage of production right from spinning
to final finishing stage of the garment.

Processing of bamboo fibers:

• Sensitive to both acid and alkali in pretreatment.
• Has low tensile strength hence low or negative tension is applied during
the process.
• Reactive dyes can react better with bamboo fiber molecules under weak
alkaline conditions.
Process sequence for pure Bamboo fabric or Bamboo/ Cotton blended fabric:

Light singeing: Surface may have a lot of floss,

Gassing speed: 80 – 100M/Min cotton seed shell or naps.
Burner temperature: 1100 C If gassing does not process
Burner fire should be even. completely, cloth cover will not get
Gassing result should reach to grade a satisfying result.
3 – 4. Remaining floss may cause dye
unevenness, colour fading and
even defect on cloth cover in
subsequent dyeing.

Enzyme desizing: Use high activation, high stability

Press Enzyme desizing process: and selective enzyme to remove
Tinozym L40 2 – 5 ml/kg starch sizing agent.
Ultravon GP 3 – 4 ml/kg Enzyme applied should not damage
(humectation & wash agent) fiber properties.
Magle expression: 100% Enzyme need to be kept active in
Soakage temp.: R.T. to 90 C the pH range 5 to 9.
Stacking time: 6 –18 hours Recommended is enzyme Tinozym
Wash in hot water L 40

Enzyme desizing:
Non continuous Enzyme desizing process:
Tinozym L40 1 - 3 ml/kg
Ultravon EL 1 - 2 ml/kg
(humectation & floatation agent)
Temp.: 60 to 90 C
Time: 30 – 60 min
Wash in hot water

Scouring / Bleaching: Bleaching improves whiteness.

For Fabric: For bamboo / cotton blend,
Tinoclarite CSW 2 - 4 g/l bleaching is essential in order to
Caustic soda 1 – 3 g/l have better homogeneity in dye up
Hydroperoxidation (35% ) 8 – 10 ml/l take.
Temp.: 90 to 98 C
Time: 40 – 60 min

For Yarn:
Tinoclarite CSW 1 – 2 g/l
Caustic soda 1 g/l
Hydroperoxidation (35% ) 5 – 8 ml/l
Temp.: 90 to 98 C
Time: 40 – 60 min
Mercerization: Improves fiber’s absorbance of
For Fabric: dyestuffs
Caustic soda 210 – 240 g/l It can increase the brightness of
Temperature R.T. dyed fabric due to plain surface and
Time 40 – 60 sec even luster.
It can upgrade garments properties
such as draping, softness to a
substantial degree.

For 100 % bamboo fabric:
• Same dyeing mechanism as for cellulosic.
• Relatively easy to dye 100% bamboo yarn or bamboo fabric.
For bamboo/cotton blended fabric:
• Bamboo fiber has multi hole texture and serrated cross section.
• Its dye uptake speed is slower than cotton fiber.
• May result in shade variation or less homogeneity in colour.
• Select the dyes which has similar dyeing dynamic curve, similar absorbance, and similar
fasting temperature / time to both bamboo and cotton.

For fabric:
• Apply intermittent drying.
• Direct drying through single or multi cylinder dryers may cause defects like yellowing, harsh
hand feel, weft sloping and high shrinkage etc..
For dyed yarns:
• Use infrared loose drying in order to ensure even evaporating, upgrade hand feeling, avoid
cohering and tenacity decreasing which may affect the subsequent processing.

Softening proces:
For fabric:
• Apply to improve surface smoothness and to reduce fiber to fiber friction.
For dyed yarns:
• A little silicone oil should also be added in order to improve its smoothness and weaving