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**Notes on Partile Physi
s
**

Manas Maity

Department of Physi
s, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan 731235

1

This is a
olle
tion of random notes from various sour
es. It will be good to take them as pointers

to the resour
es whi
h you
an peruse yourself.

Some useful web resour
es are listed below.

publi .web. ern. h/publi

**Intordu
es CERN - the most important parti
le Physi
s laboratory at this moment - to general
**

publi
; has several links of interest to pages whi
h explain the resear
h programme at CERN.

ern
ourier.
om

www.symmetrymagazine.org/
ms

lega
y.kek.jp/kek-news/

quarknet.fnal.gov

**Gateway to various edu
ational and informative resour
es.
**

ms.web.
ern.
h

**Information of the CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Visva-Bharati is part of
**

this experiment.

atlas.web.
ern.
h

Information of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). ATLAS and CMS experiments have similar physi
s programme and are
ompetitors.

pdg.lbl.gov

**Details of parti
le properties (mass, lifetime, spin, ...), review arti
le are parti
ularly useful
**

www-sk.i
rr.u-tokyo.a
.jp/sk/index-e.html

**Probably the best known non-a
elerator based parti
le physi
s programme
**

www.amanda.u
i.edu/publi
_info.html

**A neutrino experiment in Antarti
a,
han
e to meet the penguins!
**

i
e
ube.wis
.edu

**Antarti
a again, su
essor of AMANDA, deep in the i
e ...
**

ams.
ern.
h

**Into outerspa
e, International Spa
e Station a
tually - in sear
h of anti-matter, 'dark matter', ...
**

www.ino.tifr.res.in/ino

India's own large s ale Parti le Physi s experiment understanding the elusive neutrinos.

Last modied on June 8, 2012

Contents

1 Units and Dimensions

4

2 Conservation Laws in Parti le Intera tions

5

3 Relativisti Kinemati s

6

3.1 Four Ve
tors . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.2 Lorentz Transformation . . . . . . .

3.3 Four Velo
ity . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.4 Mandelstam Variables . . . . . . . . . .

3.5 Referen
e Frames . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.6 Pion De
ay π − → µ−ν . . . . . . . . .

3.6.1 Lorentz Invariant Quantities

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6

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4 CP violation

10

4.1 Indire
t CP-Violation: Experimental status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

4.2 Time Reversal Symmetry Violation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

5 Dira
Equation and Gamma Matri
es

5.1

5.2

5.3

5.4

5.5

5.6

5.7

**Denitions and Prpoerties of Gamma Matri
es . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
**

Dira
-Pauli Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Weyl Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Properties of Gamma Matri
es . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Dira
Equation and Completeness Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Proje
tion Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Tra
e and Contra
tion Theorems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16

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17

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6 Neutrino Os
illation

20

6.1 Observing Neutrinos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

6.1.1

**Neutrino Dis
overy by Cowan and Reines
**

2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

. . . . . . . . . . . .4 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Current status of parti le physi s . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . 31 8. .2. . . . 8. . . .Higgs me hanism. . . 9 Parti le Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Solar Neutrino . . . Ele tron Neutrino Appearen e: T2K Result June. . . . . . . . .1 Beyond the Standard Model : SUSY . . . . 8. . . . . . . 29 7. . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . .1 Double Beta De ay . 8. . .1. . . . . . . . . . .1. . 31 32 33 33 34 35 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 CONTENTS 6. . .3 6. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Neutrinos hange personality . Neutrino Dete tors . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . .5 6. . . .2 R-parity & Proton De ay . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . .1. . . 30 8 Beyond the Standard Model 31 8. . . . . . .1 Spontaneous symmetry breaking. . . .2 Neutrinoless Double Beta De ay . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Proton De ay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 6. . . . . . . . . . . . 29 7. . . . . . . .2 Problems with the Standard Model . . . . . . . . . . Results . . . . . .1. . Theoreti al Understanding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 22 26 27 27 7 Mis ellaneous 29 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2011 . . . . . . . .

61 × 1026 GeV 1 m = 5.Chapter 1 Units and Dimensions Conversion Fa tor 1 kg = 5.33 MeV.f m Energy of a photon of wavelength λ(f m) E= hc 1240 = MeV λ λ 4 .s = 6.07 × 1015 GeV−1 1s ~ = c = 1 Unit Dimension GeV GeV−1 GeV−1 GeV/c2 ~c/GeV ~/GeV ~ = 6.s.5822 × 10−25 GeV. ~c = 197.5822 × 10−22 MeV.

we get pe = 1.7819 MeV . KEe = . 5 .Chapter 2 Conservation Laws in Parti le Intera tions Conservation of energy-momentum in beta de ay.188 MeV. Considering two-body de ay of a free neutron and the relevant masses.

Lorentz Transformation (LT) equations may be writtes as: a0 = a′0 coshξ + a′3 sinhξ a3 = a′0 sinhξ + a′3 coshξ (3.b = 3 X aµ bµ = µ=0 X µ.3) .Chapter 3 Relativisti Kinemati s 3. In addition LT satises the following onditions: det L = +1. ie the the produ t of two LTs is again a LT.ν gµν aµ bν = a0 b0 − ~a~b 1 0 0 0 0 −1 0 0 g = (gµν ) = (gµν ) = 0 0 −1 0 0 0 0 −1 3. Rapidity (ξ ) is dened as β= v = tanhξ.1) (3. γβ = sinhξ c su h that −1 ≤ β ≤ +1 maps into −∞ ≤ tanh ξ ≤ +∞.2 Lorentz Transformation A Lorentz Transformation is a linear transformation that leaves the s alar produ t a. γ = coshξ. ⇒ ie. For two onse utive LT with β1 and β2 we have tanhξ3 = β3 = β1 + β2 = tanh (ξ1 + ξ2 ) 1 + β1 β2 6 (3.2) The Lorentz Transformations (LT) form a group. spatial ree tion is ex luded L00 ≥ 1. ⇒ sign of the 0- omponent of a time-like ve tor remain invariant.1 Four Ve tors Dot produ t of two four-ve tors a.b invariant ⇒ L has to satisfy gL−1 g = LT L an be expressed as a boost followed by a 3-dim rotation.

~v ) . example 6.4) (3. t.3 7 RELATIVISTIC KINEMATICS Four Velo ity Ordinary velo ity is dened as ~v = d~x dt whi h does not transform like the spa e omponents of a four ve tor.E2 − p~1 .5) (3. mγ~v p = mu = mγ (c. m2 in CM frame: p~1 = −p~2 p1 . 3. ~v) = c u= Invariant quantities Griths. u are dened as s t u s+t+u = = = = = = = = s+t+u = (pA + pB )2 = (pC + pD )2 (pA − pC )2 = (pB − pD )2 (pA − pD )2 = (pB − pC )2 (pA + pB )2 + (pA − pC )2 + (pA − pD )2 3p2A + p2B + p2C + p2D + 2pA (pB − pC − pD ) 3p2A + p2B + p2C + p2D + 2pA (pB − pA − pB ) 3p2A + p2B + p2C + p2D − 2p2A p2A + p2B + p2C + p2D m2A + m2B + m2C + m2D (3.p~2 = E1 E2 + |p~1 |2 ⇒ (p1 .6) (3.4 Mandelstam Variables Consider an intera tion A + B → C + D. 2) of mass m1 . u2 = c2 dτ dt Four-momentum or energy-momentum four ve tor is dened as ( m is the rest mass of the parti le) E . p199.7 Consider two parti les (1.CHAPTER 3. Considering energy-momentum onservation: pA + pB = pC + pD The Mandelstam variables s.p2 )2 = E12 E22 + |p~1 |4 + 2|p~1|2 E1 E2 Now for the parti les we an write m21 = E12 − |p~1 |2 m22 = E22 − |p~1 |2 ⇒ m21 m22 = E12 E22 + |p~1 |4 − p~1 |2 E12 + E22 (p1 .7) .p2 = E1 .p2 )2 − (m1 m2 )2 = |p~1 |2 E12 + E22 + 2E1 E2 = |p~1 |2 (E1 + E2 )2 3. Proper velo ity is dened as (τ = dt/γ ) dx dx =γ = γ (c.

s + m2A − m2B = (EA + EB )2 + m2A − m2B = EA2 + EB2 + 2EA . ⇒ |p~µ | = |p~ν | Total energy before the de ay : Eπ = mπ c2 1/2 ν is assumed massless. Target Frame (TF). Eν = |p~ν |c.5 Referen e Frames 1. 0) s = (EA + EB )2 − |~pA |2 = EA2 + m2B + 2EA . ⇒ p~µ = −p~ν . EAB = 2 s 2mB In the CM frame we have |~pA| = |~pB |. parti le b is at rest in the beam frame.EB + m2A + |~pA |2 ∵ EB2 − m2B = |~pB |2 = |~pA |2 = EA2 + 2EA . Laboratory Frame (LF): The frame of the experimental setup. Colliding Beam Frame (CBF): If the olliding beams are at an angle θ. 0) = (mB . if parti le a is at rest in the target frame. 4. In sed target experiments. 2.mB s − m2A − m2B ∴ EAB = 2mB 3.EB + m2A − m2B = EA2 + 2EA . Hen e.mB − |~pA |2 = m2A + m2B + 2EA . In CM frame √ 8 RELATIVISTIC KINEMATICS s represents the energy available for the intera tion. Beam Frame (BF): Kinemati ally equivalent. ~pA ) . Centre of Mass Frame (CMF): 3. pB = (EB . 3. Hen e p~µ + p~ν = 0.6 Pion De ay π − → µ− ν Consider the rest frame of the pion: total momentum before the de ay = 0. TF and LF are the same. If the two beams have equal momenta and θ = 0 then CBF and CMF be omes the same. Eµ = m2µ c4 + |p~µ |2 c2 From energy momentum onservation: Eπ = Eµ + Eν mπ c2 = |p~ν |c + m2µ c4 + |p~µ |2 c2 1/2 .CHAPTER 3. Hen e. Show that the energy of A in the CM frame (EACM ) and in the frame of B (EAB ) are given by respe tively: EACM = s + m2A − m2B s − m2A − m2B √ .EB + EA2 = 2EA (EA + EB ) s + m2A − m2B s + m2A − m2B √ = ∴ EACM = 2 (EA + EB ) 2 s In the rest frame of B we have: pA = (EA . where energy momenta of the initail and nal parti les are measured.

6. pA = pB + pC Now in the rest frame of A we have.8) .1 1/2 1/2 + m2C + |~pC |2 1/2 = mA − m2C + |~pC |2 1/2 = m2A + m2C + |~pC |2 − 2mA m2C + |~pC |2 mA = m2B + |~pB |2 Lorentz Invariant Quantities (3.CHAPTER 3. from momentum onservation P~A = 0 = P~B + P~C ⇒ P~B = −P~C From energy onservation we an write EA = EB + EC EB EB2 3. 9 RELATIVISTIC KINEMATICS mπ c2 − |p~µ |c = m2µ c4 + |p~µ |2 c2 1/2 m2π c4 + |p~µ |2 c2 − 2mπ |p~µ |c3 = m2µ c4 + |p~µ |2 c2 c m2π − m2µ |p~µ | = 2mπ Consider a two-body de ay A → B + C.

This dis overy showed that Weak intera tions violate not only the harge- onjugation symmetry (C) and parity (P). Only a weaker version of the symmetry ould be preserved by physi al phenomena. violating CP symmetry. sin e they rely on the assumption that the matter-antimatter imbalan e was present at the beginning. This would have resulted in a sea of photons in the universe with no matter. after the Big Bang. one of whi h is the existen e of CP violation during the extreme onditions of the rst se onds after the Big Bang. but also the fa t that it is so nearly a symmetry reated a great puzzle. The dis overy sho ked parti le physi ists and its impli ations are very fundamental both for parti le physi s and osmology. regarded as one of the basi prin iples of quantum eld theory. Val Fit h with o-workers provided lear eviden e that CP symmetry ould be broken. but also their ombination (CP). physi al laws must have a ted dierently for matter and antimatter. The rst of these. the reversed motion is also an allowed one. parity. i. there should have been total an ellation of both. rather than onsisting of equal parts of matter and antimatter. or on other admittedly exoti assumptions. CP violation implied non onservation of T.Chapter 4 CP violation 4.e. as su h. Besides C and P.1 Indire t CP-Violation: Experimental status In 1964. a violation of the CP-symmetry is equivalent to a violation of the T-symmetry. Sin e this is quite evidently not the ase. provided that the long-held CPT theorem was valid. The Standard Model ontains only two ways to break CP symmetry. there is a third operation. whi h was CPT-symmetry. and time reversal are applied together. ele trons with positrons. neutrons with anti-neutrons. It an be demonstrated that to reate an imbalan e in matter and antimatter from an initial ondition of balan e. The la k of an exa t CP symmetry. dis ussed 10 . winning them the 1980 Nobel Prize. the Sakharov onditions must be satised. In other words. CP violation and the matter-antimatter imbalan e: One of the unsolved theoreti al questions in physi s is why the universe is made hiey of matter. too. In this theorem. The ombination of CPT is thought to onstitute an exa t symmetry of all types of fundamental intera tions. Be ause of the CPT-symmetry. protons should have an elled with anti-protons. The Big Bang should have produ ed equal amounts of matter and anti-matter if CP-symmetry was preserved. James Cronin. whi h orresponds to reversal of motion. Invarian e under time reversal implies that whenever a motion is allowed by the laws of physi s. and so on for all elementary parti les. time reversal (T). harge onjugation. Explanations whi h do not involve CP violation are less plausible.

CP VIOLATION 11 .CHAPTER 4.

in experiments on K mesons at CERN in Geneva and at the Fermi National Laboratory in Illinois. Neutral kaons . The violation was not in the observed de ay. a system that an be in two dierent states will not immediately pi k one: It will temporarily live in both states at the same time. the ee ts of the dire t type of CP violation are extremely subtle to dete t. but one would expe t this to lead to either no CP violation or a CP violation that is many. B 0 's have the ability to turn into their antiparti les. it would seem that the urrent Standard Model has gaps (other than the obvious one of gravity and related matters) or physi s is otherwise in error. many orders of magnitude too large. On the other hand. but an a ount for only a small portion of CP-violation. involving the weak for e. Among the many ways the mesons an de ay. the K's would have no preferen e between the two personas.K 0 and K¯0 . has been experimentally veried. it will only be aught in either persona. and weren't dis overed until 1999.what physi ists all indire t CP violation. Cronin and Fit h knew they had dis overed CP violation from an indire t lue. Hen e a neutral K that's left alone will be simultaneously itself and its anti-self. Moreover. but in the state of the parti le that was de aying . looking at the de ay patterns of millions of neutral B and anti-B mesons. This fa t enabled BaBar and the Belle experiment at the KEK laboratory in Japan to measure indire t CP violation for B mesons in a landmark 2001 result. Physi ists had long predi ted that CP violation should also appear in the weak-for e phenomena involving B mesons. But Cronin and Fit h's data. a ording to the prin iples of quantum me hani s. In a perfe tly CP-invariant world. After they emerge from the ollisions of ele trons and positrons. and has not been found experimentally. is in the QCD Lagrangian. It is predi ted to be su ient for a net mass of normal matter equivalent to only a single galaxy in the known universe. The BaBar team has studied the thousands of gigabytes of data produ ed by the BaBar dete tor sin e it started operations in 1999. and they live an existen e that's unevenly split between the two states. . but when it hits a parti le dete tor. revealed that the K's existen e was unevenly split. the s ientists were looking for the rare events that turned Bs0 → K + π − and B¯s0 → K − π + . The se ond of these. Sin e the Standard Model does not a urately predi t this dis repan y. Now. the mesons live for less than a millionth of a se ond before de aying into other parti les.CHAPTER 4. BaBar has now dis overed dire t CP violation for B mesons. oming from the quantum interferen e of the two states. experiments to probe these CP-related gaps may not require the pra ti ally impossible-to-obtain energies that may be ne essary to probe the gravity-related gaps (see Plan k mass). Like the K 0 's. Only the a t of measuring the state will for e the parti le to de ide for one or the other.have the property that they an spontaneously transform into their anti-parti les. CP VIOLATION 12 above.

9 × 10−10 s and τ2 = 5 × 10−8 s are seen in the de ay rate . .1: Two dierent lifetimes in K 0 de ays.CHAPTER 4. CP VIOLATION 13 Figure 4. τ1 = 0. proper de ay time graph. Histori ally strange parti les de aying into 2π and 3π were known as θ and τ .vs.

CP VIOLATION 14 .CHAPTER 4.

29 × 10−25 e.CHAPTER 4. The experimental limit so far is: d < 0.2 CP VIOLATION 15 Time Reversal Symmetry Violation If time-reversal symmetry is broken then neutrons would have ele tri dipole moment.cm . 4.

2) γ µ = (β.5) where the Dira Gamma matri es are dened as 5.7) The γ matri es have the following forms in Dira -Pauli representation: 0 γ = I 0 0 −I i . β~ α) 5 0 1 2 3 γ = iγ γ γ γ (5.P~ + mβ where αi and β are 4 × 4 matri es. αi = 0 σi σi 0 (5.1 Denitions and Prpoerties of Gamma Matri es Conseider the Dira Hamiltonian: (5.1) H=α ~ . α2 . γ = 0 I I 0 (5.6) where I is the unit 2 × 2 matrix and σ i are the Pauli spin matri es: σx = 0 1 1 0 . α3 and β anti ommute with ea h other • α12 = α22 = α32 = β 2 = I The Dira Equation may be written as (iγ µ ∂µ − m) ψ = (6 p − m) ψ = 0 (5.4) (5.3) (5. γ = 0 σi −σi 0 16 5 .2 Dira -Pauli Representation In Dira -Pauli representation β = I 0 0 −I .Chapter 5 Dira Equation and Gamma Matri es 5. σz = 1 0 0 −1 (5.8) . The relativisti energy-momentum relation H 2 = |P~ |2 + m2 demands the following properties: • α1 . σy = 0 −i i 0 .

19) (5.15) (γ µ )† = γ 0 γ µ γ 0 The properties of γ 5 are: 5.11 . −~p) = v(E. γ5 2 (5.16) Dira Equation and Completeness Relations (p / − m) u(p) (p / + m) v(p) u¯(p) (p / − m) v¯(p) (p / + m) where u(−E.17) (5. = I. (5. γ 1 = γ 2 = γ 3 = −I γ µ γ ν = −γ ν γ µ (µ 6= ν) (5.20) . γ 5 } = 0 (5.10) Properties of Gamma Matri es The Dira gamma matri es have the following properties: 2 2 2 2 γ0 = I.12) Equations 5.3 DIRAC EQUATION AND GAMMA MATRICES 17 Weyl Representation In Weyl representation β = 0 I I 0 . γ = 0 σi −σi 0 5 .4 0 I I 0 i .9) The γ matri es have the following forms in Weyl representation: 0 γ = 5.13) {γ µ . 3) γ5 † = γ5.5. 2.CHAPTER 5.5 = γ 0. ~p) = = = = 0 0 0 0 (5. γ ν } = 2g µν I where g 00 = 1 = −g 11 = −g 22 = −g 33 . g µν = 0(µ 6= ν). 5. αi = −σi 0 0 σi (5. {γ µ .18) (5. Hermitian onjugates are given by γ0 whi h an be written as † γk † = −γ k (k = 1.11) (5.12 may be omprehensively written as (5. γ = −I 0 0 I .14) (5.

proje tion operators are dened as: 1 0 0 5 PR = 1+γ = 0 1 2 1 1 0 5 PL = 1−γ = 0 0 2 (5.CHAPTER 5.23) = 0 φ (5. using the properties of γ matri es that PL + PR = 1 PL2 = PL .33) . PR γ µ = γ µ PL (5.27) (5.21) (5. Similarly PR γ µ PR = 0.28) (5.24) It an be readily shown. PR2 = PR PL† = PL . 5.25) (5. Hen e the rst two terms vanish: ψγ µ ψ = ψPR γ µ PL ψ + ψPL γ µ PR ψ = ψ L γ µ ψL + ψ R γ µ ψR (5.32) This is important .30) These relations may be used to establish the following important relationship: ¯ µ ψ = ψ¯ (PL + PR ) γ µ (PL + PR ) ψ ψγ ¯ L γ µ PL ψ + ψP ¯ R γ µ PR ψ + ψP ¯ R γ µ PL ψ + ψP ¯ L γ µ PR ψ = ψP (5.29) We an use the above properties to establish some signi ant relationships: ψ L = PL ψ = (PL ψ)† γ 0 = ψ † PL† γ 0 = ψ † PL γ 0 = ψ † γ 0 PR ψ L = ψPR ψ R = ψPL (5.26) (5.31) Sin e PL γ µ = γ µ PR . Similarly it an be proved that: ψψ = ψ PR2 + PL2 ψ = ψPR PR ψ + ψPL PL ψ = ψ L ψR + ψ R ψL (5. PL γ µ PL = γ µ PR PL = 0.22) The proje tion operator proje ts out the upper or the lower half of a Dira spinor: 1 5 PL u = (1 − γ ) 2 1 5 PR u = (1 + γ ) 2 χ φ χ φ = χ 0 (5.6 DIRAC EQUATION AND GAMMA MATRICES 18 Proje tion Operators Working with Weyl or hiral representation of γ matri es.ve tor like intera tions onserve heli ity. PR† = PR PL PR = PR PL = 0 PL γ µ = γ µ PR .

b.c)(b.CHAPTER 5.37) (5. T r(αA) = αT r(A).42) (5.b −2γ σ γ λ γ ν .d)(b.36) (5.d) + (a.b 4 −2γ ν .41) (5. γµ6 aγ µ = −26 a 4g νλ .43) Proof: Using the property of γ -matri es and tra e theorem (γ µ γ ν + γ ν γ µ = 2g µν ) . 5. T r(AB) = T r(BA) (5. T r(I) = 4 T r (γ µ γ ν ) = 4g µν .40) Tra e of the produ t of an odd number of gamma matri es is zero. γµ6 a6 bγ µ = 4a. T r (6 a6 b6 c6 d) = 4 ((a.d) − (a.c)) (5.39) The following tra e theorems are obvious: T r(A + B) = T r(A) + T r(B).38) (5.35) (5. γµ6 a6 b6 cγ µ = −26 c6 b6 a (5. T r γ µ γ ν γ λ γ σ = 4 g µν g λσ − g µλ g νσ − g µσ g νλ T r (6 a6 b) = 4a.7 DIRAC EQUATION AND GAMMA MATRICES 19 Tra e and Contra tion Theorems gµν g µν 6 a6 b+ 6 b6 a γµ γ µ γµ γ ν γ µ γµ γ ν γ λ γ µ γµ γ ν γ λ γ σ γ µ = = = = = = 4 2a. (T r(AB) = T r(BA)) we an write 1 1 T r (γ µ γ ν + γ ν γ µ ) = T r (2g µν I) = 4g µν 2 2 µν ν µ λ σ = (2g − γ γ ) γ γ = 2g µν γ λ γ σ − γ ν γ µ γ λ γ σ = 2g µν γ λ γ σ − γ ν 2g µλ − γ λ γ µ γ σ T r (γ µ γ ν ) = γ µγ ν γ λγ σ = = = µ ν λ σ ∴ Tr γ γ γ γ = ⇒ 2T r γ µ γ ν γ λ γ σ = ⇒ T r γ µγ ν γ λγ σ = 2g µν γ λ γ σ − 2g µλ γ ν γ σ + γ ν γ λ γ µ γ σ 2g µν γ λ γ σ − 2g µλ γ ν γ σ + γ ν γ λ (2g µσ − γ σ γ µ ) 2g µν γ λ γ σ − 2g µλ γ ν γ σ + 2g µσ γ ν γ λ − γ ν γ λ γ σ γ µ T r 2g µν γ λ γ σ − 2g µλ γ ν γ σ + 2g µσ γ ν γ λ − γ ν γ λ γ σ γ µ 2T r g µν γ λ γ σ − g µλ γ ν γ σ + g µσ γ ν γ λ ∵ T r(AB) = T r(BA) 4 g µν g λσ − g µλ g νσ + g µσ g νλ .34) (5.b)(c.

6. The ν¯e 's intera ted with protons in a tank of water. All three neutrinos an parti ipate in this intera tion. of the order of 5-15 MeV.2 MeV The ν ontinues on with slightly less energy. • Charged Current (CC) intera tion: a ν(¯ ν ) onverts the n(p) in a nu leus to a p(n). reating neutrons and positrons. • Elasti S attering (ES) intera tion: a ν ex hanges a Z 0 with an ele tron.1 Neutrinos may be dete ted using dierent methods. disso iating it from the atom. Heavy water has a large ross se tion for neutron apture and emits a photon with Eγ ≈ 6 MeV . Ethreshold = 250 KeV For ES we need Eν > 250 KeV . all three neutrino avours are equally likely to parti ipate in this intera tion. νe + n → p+ + e− . depending on the physi s motivation and Eν .Chapter 6 Neutrino Os illation Observing Neutrinos 6. and is dete table. ν¯e + p+ → n + e+ .1 Neutrino Dis overy by Cowan and Reines Cowan and Reines used a nu lear rea tor as the sour e of neutrino with ux 5 × 1013 s−1 cm−2 .1. e+ + e− → γ + γ 20 . Ea h positron reated a pair of photons when it annihilated with an ele tron. For νµ to parti ipate in su h an intera tion would have required Eν > 105 MeV . This was mu h higher than any other radioa tive sour es. νx + e− → νx + e− . ν¯e + p+ → n + e+ νe +37 Cl →37 Ar + e− Ethreshold = 814 KeV νe +37 Ga →37 Ge + e− Ethreshold = 233 KeV The e− arries o most of the ν 's energy. • Neutral Current (NC) intera tion: ν ex hanges a Z 0 and disso iates the deuteron: νx + d → p + n + νx . to a ount for the mass of µ. Ethreshold = 2.

These experiments are alled radio- hemi al experiments. ν 's are produ ed in the ore of the sun. propagate to the surfa e of the and rea h Earth.CHAPTER 6. whi h is the basis of the Standard Solar Model(SSM). Solar ν 's are produ ed in a variety of pro esses as shown in the following hart. Kamiokande and SuperKamiokande (SK) are water Cerenkov dete tors looking mainly for the ES pro ess. Gallex and GNO use 37 Ga. NEUTRINO OSCILLATION 21 The gamma rays were dete ted by pla ing a s intillator material in a tank of water.1. SAGE. Both the rates of these pro esses and the orresponding Eν are dierent. The harged lepton is dete ted by its Cerenkov radiation. Flux of solar ν s is al ulated on the basis of the SSM. The s intillator material gives o ashes of light in response to the gamma rays and the light ashes are dete ted by photomultiplier tubes. They also dete ted the n by adding admium hloride into the tank. be ause of the wide range of matter density and the great distan e from the Sun to the Earth. The Sun as a well-dened neutrino sour e also provides extremely important opportunities to investigate nontrivial neutrino properties su h as nonzero mass and mixing. The experimental resear h on solar ν 's started in late sixties with the experiment at Homestake using 37 Cl.2 Solar Neutrino Observation of solar ν 's is dire tly related to the theory of stellar stru ture and evolution. These dete tors an measure the . 108 Cd has large ross-se tion for neutron apture and emits a γ when it absorbs a n n +108 Cd →109 Cd∗ →109 Cd + γ The arrangement was su h that the γ from the Cd would be dete ted 5 µs after the γ 's from the positron to establish that it was produ ed by a neutrino. 6.

300 ft) underground and onsists of a ylindri al stainless steel tank that is 41. 6. travel almost straight through the dete tor and produ e rings with sharp edges and the harged parti le an be learly identied. NEUTRINO OSCILLATION 22 energy and dire tion of the ν at real time.3 Neutrino Dete tors Neutrino dete tors around the world seem to see eviden e that ν s are not really massless. Not only do they have non-zero masses. From February 2011 the Super-Kamiokande experiment is re eiving pure νµ beams from Japan Proton A elerator Resear h Complex (J-PARC).000 m (3. It an distinguish CC and NC rea tions. as was thought so far.3 m in diameter holding 50.2 m in height and outer dete tor (OD) whi h onsists of the remaining tank volume. The tank volume is divided by a stainless steel superstru ture into an inner dete tor (ID) region that is 33. The Super-K water Cherenkov dete tor has an ee tive volume of 22. Observing os illations νµ → νe (ele tron neutrino appearan e) is the primary goal of the T2K experiment. Astrophysi s and Cosmology.5 kton within its ylindri al Inner Dete tor (ID). in ontrast. the intera tion vertex. Highly relativisti µs. Be ause of the angular resolution they an distinguish ν s oming from the Sun from other sour es.CHAPTER 6.8 m in diameter and 36. Multiple s attering of ele trons is large and they produ e fuzzy rings. Intera tion rates of pro esses involving ν s are very low. The proje tion of this radiation is a ring on the wall of the dete tor and re orded by the PMTs. Tokai where the νµ s are produ ed.000 tons of ultra-pure water. Using the timing and harge information re orded by ea h PMT. ring dire tion and avour of the in oming ν are determined. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is also a Cerenkov dete tor. This is not only one of the rst pie es of eviden e for physi s beyond the SM of Parti le Physi s but also important for Nu lear and Parti le physi s. A ν intera tion (CC or NC) an produ e a harged parti le that moves faster than the speed of light in water and produ e Cherenkov radiation.146 photomultiplier tubes (PMT) 51 m in diameter that fa e the ID and 1885 (20 m diameter) PMTs that fa e the OD. The Super-Kamiokande Dete tor The Super-Kamiokande is lo ated 1. There is a Tyvek and bla ksheet barrier atta hed to the superstru ture that opti ally separates the ID and OD.1. Mounted on the superstru ture are 11. dierent spe ies (or avours ) of ν s seem to mix and os illate into one another as they traverse through the osmos. lled with heavy water. . The distan e travelled by the νµ 's is 295 km.4 m tall and 39. In order to be most sensitive su h experiments are done deep inside mines or deep inside mountains.

While new data is no longer being taken the SNO ollaboration will ontinue to analyze the data taken during that period for the next several years. surrounded by an ultra pure H2 O shield.2) The dete tor was turned on in May 1999. and was turned o on 28 November 2006. Canada.CHAPTER 6.1) (6. . Ontario. SNO measured 8 B solar neutrinos via the CC and NC rea tions: νe + d → e− + p + p νe + d → νe + p + n (6. This experiment used 1000 tons of ultra pure heavy water (D2 O) ontained in a spheri al a ryli vessel. NEUTRINO OSCILLATION 23 The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a neutrino observatory lo ated about 2 km underground in Sudbury.

The dete tor has modular design so that it an start data taking before the omplete dete tor is assembled. In a later phase it may get ν beam from CERN/FNAL/KEK.CHAPTER 6. harge indenti ation apability 4.5 T magneti eld for harge identi ation. Initially it will take atmospheri ν data and re onrm os illation. Dete tor Choi e: a large magnetized Iron CALorimeter . house other experiments whi h require low osmi ray ba kground 3. The modules will have 140 layers of 6 m thi k iron plates and 192 layers of Resistive Plate Chambers will a t as dete tion layers. There will be 1. Dete tor requirement . 7. 5. alled the ICAL. . 6. NEUTRINO OSCILLATION 24 KamLAND Experiment KamLAND is a 1-kTon ultra-pure liquid s intillator dete tor lo ated at Kamiokande in Japan.large mass dete tor. The primary goal of the KamLAND experiment was to study long-baseline (180 km) neutrino os illation using ν e s emitted from nu lear power rea tors. build an underground fa ility whi h an be used mainly as a neutrino physi s laboratory due to the low osmi ba kground 2.16 m × 16 m × 12 m. There will be 3 modules . The India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) The main issues regarding INO are: 1.

CHAPTER 6. The hosen site for INO will have a very low osmi ray ux. . NEUTRINO OSCILLATION 25 INO will probably house more than one type of dete tors. The issues in neutrino physi s require study of neutrinos over the entire energy spe trum .sub-MeV (solar/ supernovae) to GeV (atmospheri / a elerator) to TeV (ultra-high energy osmi ray) and may need a wide range of dete tor systems.

• The Kamland rea tor neutrino experiment has measured the ele tron antineutrino ux from nearby rea tors and the results are onsistent with the solar neutrino os illations.06 ± 0.59−.21−.005+0.015 Radio hemi al.26 (stat) ± .03 ± 0. is in a ordan e with the the Standard Solar Model (SSM.465 ± 0.CHAPTER 6. (in units of 106 cm−2 s−1 ).4 NEUTRINO OSCILLATION 26 Results Experiment Measured Ratio Te hnique Data Taking Homestake Kamiokande SAGE Super-Kamiokande SNO (CC) 0. while the CC intera tions show that the νe omponent is redu ed by the time it rea hes the Earth.54 ± 0. Bah all & Pis onneault).58 ± 0. as measured in NC intera tions.38(syst) • SuperKamiokande observed os illation in atmospheri neutrinos.27(stat) ± . Ga Water Cerenkov Water CerenKov 1970-1995 1986-1995 1990-2006 19961998 - • The results from SNO learly indi ate that the total neutrino ux from the sun.016 −0.07 (stat). 6.08 (syst) O +. .1.10 −0.33 ± 0.07 0.31 φSN ES = 2. O +.03 0.21 ± .10(syst) O φSN N C = 5. Cl Water Cerenkov Radio hemi al.08 .06 φSN CC = 1.05 0.08+0.

R= RM C νe + ν¯e where the MC assumes no os illation of the produ ed neutrinos. Also shown are the best-t expe tation for dierent theoreti al predi tions.5 Ele tron Neutrino Appearen e: T2K Result June. 1. 6.5 su h ba kground events were expe ted to be dete ted and thereby the probability of the existen e of ele tron neutrino appearan e is estimated to be 99. 6. The number of neutrino events depend on the zenith angle of the in ident neutrino.6 Theoreti al Understanding Now similar to the os illation seen in neutral kaon system it is postulated that the avour eigenstates of ν 's are a tually superposition of mass eigenstates. The experiments observing atmospheri neutrinos measure the ratio of ratios RData νµ + ν¯µ . In the urrent T2K experiment. it was possible to observe an indi ation that νµ are able to transform into νe over a distan e of 295 km.1.3 suggesting the appearan e of νe for the rst time.CHAPTER 6. When νe s intera t with matter.3) . However. ele trons are produ ed in harged urrent (CC) Weak intera tion. ele trons are also observed with some probability in ba kground events other than the νe appearan e. 2011. 2011 The T2K experiment has dete ted 88 neutrino events.1. Of these 6 andidate events have been learly identied as νe events from the data olle ted before Mar h 11. NEUTRINO OSCILLATION 27 The above plots show results from the Super-Kamiokande experiment with atmospheri neutrinos. For the rst time. Ratio of the data to the MC events (points) where the MC do not in lude the ee t of neutrino os illation as a fun tion of the re onstru ted L/E together with the best-t expe tation for 2-avor νµ ↔ ντ os illations (solid line). νe ν1 νµ = M ν2 ντ ν3 (6. The error bars are statisti al only.

10) Using this result we may write νµ (t) = cosθ12 . In this ase (where θ12 is the mixing angle between the rst two generations: νe νµ νµ νe Equivalently we an write cosθ12 sinθ12 ν1 = −sinθ12 cosθ12 ν2 = ν1 cosθ12 + ν2 sinθ12 = −ν1 sinθ12 + ν2 cosθ12 ν1 = νµ cosθ12 − νe sinθ12 ν2 = νµ sinθ12 + νe cosθ12 (6. For simpli ity onsider a two-generation mixing only.6) (6.ν2 (t) νµ (t) = cos2 θ12 .8) The time evolution of the mass eigenstates may be written as ν1 (t) = ν1 (0)e−iE1 t .4) (6. ν1 (0) = νµ (0)cosθ12 .CHAPTER 6. ν2 (t) = ν2 (0)e−iE2 t (6.11) and in terms of the intensities .e−iE1 t + sin2 θ12 . ν2 . ν3 are the mass eigen states and M is the unitary mixing matrix. Hen e.5) (6.ν1 (t) + sinθ12 . NEUTRINO OSCILLATION 28 where ν1 .e−iE2 t νµ (0) (6.9) Suppose we had only νµ at the beginning. ν2 (0) = νµ (0)sinθ12 (6.7) (6.

2 .

Iµ (t) .

.

νµ (t) .

.

cos ((E1 − E2 )t) = Iµ (0) .sin2 θ12 . = cos4 θ12 + sin4 θ12 + 2cos2 θ12 .

νµ (0) .

sin 2 Using the fa t that the ν has to onserve momentum. (6.sin2 θ12 . 2 = cos2 θ12 + sin2 θ12 − 2cos2 θ12 . Ei2 = p2 + m2i ⇒ Ei ∼ p + m2i 2p Iµ (t) 1.14) Equation 6.13) (6.13 gives the survival probability of the νµ s and 6.. . SK. The best estimate of ∆m212 and sin2 (2θ12 ) obtained from results of all solar neutrino data (SNO.12) t = 1 − sin (2θ12 )..27∆m212 L 2 2 P (νµ → νe ) = 1 − P (νµ → νµ ) = sin (2θ12 ). E in GeV and L in m.14. Data from these are used in 6.13 and 6. In a elerator based ν experiments usually a dete tor is pla ed near the sour e (near dete tor) and one at a long distan e from the sour e.sin Iµ (0) E 1.sin E ∆m212 = |m1 2 − m22 | in (eV )2 .14 gives the appearen e probability of the of νe s assuming two-avour os illation. it is not ertain m1 < m2 . sin2 (2θ12 ) ≈ 0. (1 − cos ((E1 − E2 )t)) E1 − E2 2 2 (6. .27∆m212 L/E).27∆m2 L 2 2 ⇒ = P (νµ → νµ ) = 1 − sin (2θ12 ).8 Sin e the expression involves sin2 (1.) and the Kamland experiment is: ∆m212 ≈ 8 × 10−5 .

unstable nu lei de ay by onverting a neutron in the nu leus to a proton and emitting an e− and an ν¯e . and two e− and two ν¯e are emitted. it has been observed for only 11 isotopes. the double-beta de ay is so rare that it is nearly impossible to observe against the ba kground of other de ays.Chapter 7 Mis ellaneous 7. only eleven isotopes have been experimentally observed undergoing two-neutrino double-beta de ay: 48 Ca. For a nu lide with number AZ X. 130 Te. In double-beta de ay. apable both of double-beta de ay and other de ays. However. and all of them have a mean lifetime of more than 1019 yr.known as ββ2¯νe pro ess. Double ele tron apture is a de ay mode whi h is inverse of double beta de ay. 150 Nd. In the simplest theoreti al treatment of ββ0ν (light neutrino ex hange). In most ases.1 Double Beta De ay In the pro ess of beta minus de ay. binding energy and the transition 76 Ge → Se 32 34 Although eorts to observe the pro ess date ba k to 1948. Double beta de ay is a radioa tive de ay pro ess where a nu leus releases two ele trons (and two ν¯e as a single pro ess . two neutrons in the nu leus are onverted to protons. In this mode of de ay. 100 Mo. Sin e 76 33 As has smaller binding energy. 82 Se. However. 96 Zr. two of the orbital ele trons are aptured by two protons in the nu leus. in essen e the two neutrinos annihilate ea h other. More than 60 naturally o urring isotopes are apable of undergoing double-beta de ay. 238 U. it was not observed in a laboratory setting until 1986. 130 Ba. double ele tron apture is only possible if the mass of the nu lide of AZ−2 X is lower. 76 Ge. Many isotopes are. 116 Cd. or 29 .2 Neutrinoless Double Beta De ay If the neutrino is a Majorana parti le (meaning that the antineutrino and the neutrino are a tually the same parti le). Note that neutrinoless double beta de ay violates lepton number (L). Example: 78 36 Kr + 2e →34 Se + 2νe 7. the nal nu leus must have a larger binding energy than the original nu leus. in theory. and at least one type of neutrino has non-zero mass (whi h has been established by the neutrino os illation experiments). 76 76 the transition 32 Ge →33 As via single β -de ay is not possible. Double-beta de ay is the rarest known kind of radioa tive de ay. the 76 34 Se nu leus has higher 76 via double β -de ay is allowed. 128 Te. In order for beta de ay to be possible. then neutrinoless double-beta de ay (ββ0ν ) may be possible. forming − 78 two neutrons.

Some theoreti al models predi t proton lifetime in the range 1034 − 1036 years. the lower limit on the proton lifetime rea hed 1.7 kg-y of data from 76 Ge ) that ββ0ν de ays have been observed. • Total lepton number is not a onserved quantity . in near future either proton de ay will be observed or these models will be tested by data. observation of proton de ay will be denite signature of New Physi s. it is highly ontroversial and not a epted by most physi ists. In this pro ess total lepton number is violated and would be eviden e of physi s beyond the Standard Model. Other possible me hanisms of ββ0ν have been predi ted by models whi h in orporates violation of lepton number. So. The observation of ββ0ν de ay would have profound impli ations. The neutrinos in the above diagram are virtual parti les.8 kton. So. • It would show that neutrinos are massive Majorana parti les and not Dira type.CHAPTER 7. the total kineti energy of the two ele trons would be approximately the dieren e in binding energy between the initial and nal state nu lei (with the re oil of the nu leus a ounting for the rest of the available energy). India had a proton de ay and neutrino dete tion fa ility deep underground in the Kolar Gold Field (KGF) running till late eighties. Although there is a laim by some members of the Hydelberg-Mos ow Group ( using 71. Other experimental results so far indi ate half-life of su h de ays to be > 1021 years. Kamioka observatory will run the dete tor and a umulate more data in quest of the proton de ay phenomena. MISCELLANEOUS 30 equivalently. Although violation of B and L are not possible in the SM.01 × 1034 years. • measurement of the rate will help in determining masses of neutrinos. the two ele trons are emitted ba k-to-ba k to onserve momentum. there is no fundamental reason why it should not happen and many theoreti al models (in luding supersymmetry) predi ts su h violations. To a very good approximation. one nu leon absorbs the neutrino emitted by another nu leon of the same nu leus (see the Feynman diagram below).neutrino os illation has already established lepton avour violation. 7. With only the two ele trons in the nal state.year exposure of Super-Kamiokande(1996-2008). π 0 → γ + γ A ording to the preliminary result of proton de ay sear h using data from a 172. . The KGF experiment put important lower limit on proton lifetime.3 Proton De ay Proton is the lightest baryon and hen e its de ay violats baryon number (B). One of the predi ted proton de ay modes: p → e+ + π 0 .

1 • Current experimental data is best des ribed by the Standard Model (SM) of parti le physi s: • SM : Uni ation of Ele tromagneti and Weak for es.) +|(i∂µ − g τ.M. for e is photon and that of the Weak for e are W + .Wµ − g/ Y /2Bµ φ|2 − V (φ) − (G21 Lφ 2 • SM does not predi tthe masses of the parti les (fermions and ve tor bosons) . • The Goldstone Boson is eaten up by gague eld and a third polarisation state appears. It is built on the union of gague invarien e and Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking. Uni ation of Ele tromagneti and Weak intera tion was done by Glashow. 31 .c. it has to be experi- mentally determined. To explain the masses of W ± and Z 0 Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking and Higgs me hanism have been introdu ed. • The SM Lagrangian is 1 1 ¯ µ (i∂µ − g 1 τ.Wµ − g / Y /2Bµ )L + Rγ ¯ µ (i∂µ − g / Y /2Bµ )R L = − Wµν .they are measured experimentally and their properties t well to the SM.W − and Z 0 bosons.This is known as Higgs Me hanism. The fermions of the SM a quire their masses through their intera tions with the Higgs boson. • The SM parti les get mass through their intera tions with the Higgs.1 Spontaneous symmetry breaking.Higgs me hanism.B µν + Lγ 4 4 2 1 ¯ R + G2 Lφ ¯ c R + h. The mediator of the E.1. The photon is massless and the Weak mediators are massive. • Mass of the Higgs boson an not be dire tly predi ted from the theory.W µν − Bµν .Chapter 8 Beyond the Standard Model Current status of parti le physi s 8. Weinberg and Salam. 8.

• From the measurement of properties of weak intera tion it has been expt. This results in mass Hiera hy problem.1.CHAPTER 8.resulting < H >= (m2H /2λ). 8. The m2H re eives enormous quantum orre tions from vitual ee t of every parti le(fermions) dire tly or indire tly ouples to Higgs Field. and m2H = (−100GeV )2 .This will o ur if m2H < 0. .2 Neutrinos hange personality • A ording to the SM neutrinos are hargeless. • The SM requires a Non Vanishing VEV p for H(Higgs Mass) at a minimum potential. massless and parti ipate only in Weak intera - tions. BEYOND THE STANDARD MODEL 32 • The Higgs potential is written as V (φ) = −µ2 + λ(φ† φ)2 and Lφ = −|Dµ φ|2 − V (φ) • The Higgs s alar is yet to be seen dire tly. al ulated average value is about< H >= 174GeV .

It is a broken symmetry in the va uum state hosen by nature. Q|boson >= |f ermion > Q and Q† are fermioni operator and they arry 1/2 spin angular momentum whi h yields supersymmetry is also a spa etime symmetry. • Uni ation of the fundamental intera tions is not possible in the SM. • Eviden e of ν mixing and their mass needs expansion of the theory beyond the minimal SM. . BEYOND THE STANDARD MODEL 33 • Experiments looking for solar and atmospheri neutrinos have seen eviden e that ν 's hange avor(νe → ντ . Problems with the Standard Model 8. • Radiative orre tion to Higgs mass and the Hierar hy problem are not explained by SM properly.1 Beyond the Standard Model : SUSY • Supersymmetry is a popular theory whi h tries to remove the short omings of the SM.neutrino os illation • Os illation proves avour eigenstate of neutrino is superposition of mass eigenstates . νµ .2 • SM is an ad ho theory.2.) . • CP violation is not properly explained in the SM.neutrinos have mass. • The mass hierar hy problem stems from the fa t that masses.CHAPTER 8. 8. in parti ular s alar masses are not stable to radiative orre tion whi h shows s alar masses are quadrati ally divergent. All these ne essitates a theory beyond the SM. • There is no dire t measurement of their masses and most likely ν 's have very tiny masses. Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking and the Higgs me hanism of attributing masses to the SM parti les are introdu ed by hand. While fermion masses also re eive radiative orre tions whi h logarithimi ally divergent. • It is a highier order fermion-boson symmetry . • Q|f ermion >= |boson >.

We expe t to see some eviden e of SUSY at Tevatron and LHC if the SUSY parti les are ≈ 1 T eV .The B or L No. • It is theoreti ally possible that in some intera tions R-parity may be violated .2.R(B) and that of RHS is R(C).(L) violation. • R parity is dened by R = (−1)3B+L+2s For SM parti les R = 1 and for supersymmetri parti les R = −1. • It is a multipli ative quantum number.CHAPTER 8. Now there are very strong limits(life time of proton is near about 1031 years) on R-Parity violations. The SUSY partner of quarks (q ) are squarks (q˜) and those of leptons (ℓ) are sleptons (ℓ˜). No SUSY parti le has yet been seen experimentally.they annot be rulled out either. 8.the violation may be in B or L. There is no dire t eviden e for SUSY. . q˜ and ℓ˜ are s alar parti les. In an intera tion A + B → C + D the ombined R-parity of the LHS is R(A). • Sear h of SUSY is still negative. • Conservation of B and L leads to a new symmetry: R-parity.2 R-parity & Proton De ay • The introdu tion of Supersymmetry leads to baryon no.R(D) • R-Parity violation has not been observed in nature. BEYOND THE STANDARD MODEL 34 • All the SM parti les have their supersymmetri partners.This an be disastrous leads to proton de ay. violating de ay pro esses have never been seen experimentally.(B) or lepton no. But no de ay pro ess has yet been observed experimentally where B or L has been violated.

BR(Z → q¯q) = 69.5 .99+. EM W.000009 * 1776.029 −0.00 ± 0.00000004 * 105.1 GeV 4. EM S.06 % 35 .2± 2.1 . EM W. W. EM S. W. W.26 * νe µ νµ τ ντ spin Charge Flavour Intera tions 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 -1 0 -1 0 -1 0 Le = 1 Le = 1 Lµ = 1 Lµ = 1 Lτ = 1 Lτ = 1 W. EM W.Chapter 9 Parti le Data Leptons Mass (MeV) e .11 GeV 80 . EM S.91 ± 0.658369± .0021 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 +2/3 -1/3 +2/3 -1/3 +2/3 -1/3 U=1 D = -1 C=1 S = -1 T=1 B = -1 S.9 GeV Mass (GeV) 0 80.025 91. EM spin Charge For e De ay 1 1 1 0 ±1 0 EM W W ℓ¯ νℓ 3×(10. EM W.27+0. EM S.8 MeV 1.07 −0.80 ± 0.130 MeV 171.0023)%.09)%. EM W. W.51099892± . EM S.6 ± 0.27 )% ℓℓ¯ 3×(3. BR(Z → ν ν¯) = 20.1876 ± .3658 ± 0.06 %.4. W.4. q1 q¯2 ( 67.398 ± 0. EM * Solar and atmospheri ν experiments indi ate Mν 6= 0 Quarks u d s t b IVB γ W Z Mass spin Charge Flavour Intera tions 1.0 MeV 4 . W.

26 0+ (1++ ) De ay K0 X.11 1+ (1−− ) 0− (1−− ) φ0 1019.69%) π + π − (69.031 )% (0.28 −. K¯0 X (47%) D¯0 X(79 ± 4)% D 0 X(8.17 )%. K¯0 X (61%) K0 X (54%) K0 X. π − e+ν¯e (40. Mesons π+ π0 η0 36 PARTICLE DATA Mass (MeV) IG (JPC ) 139.04%) π 0 π 0 π 0 (19. π + π − π 0 (22.5 782.6 ± 0.9 ± 1. π + π−π 0 (15.0015) × 10−12 B± 5279.52%) π + π − π 0 (12.29 1 − (0 ) 2 (1.576 ± .9%) K L K S ( 34.91.30 1 − (0 ) 2 (1.0005) × 10−10 π 0 π 0 (30.0006 1− (0−+ ) 547.009) × 10−12 J/ψ(1S) Υ(1S) 3096.011 0− (1−− ) 9460. µ+ µ− (5.7 ± 0.8958 ± .016 1 − (0 ) 2 K0 K0S 497.51± .29) %.93%) ggg(81.020 0− (1−− ) φ0 1680 ± 30 0− (1−− ) K+ 493.5708 ± .CHAPTER 9.4 1. π + π + π − ( 5. π + π 0 ( 21.06 )%.28)% hadrons (87.00035 1− (0− ) 134.040 ± .6)×10−17 µ+ νµ γγ 2γ (39.916 ± 0.024 1 − (0 ) 2 Lifetime (s) (2.87 ± .4)%.8958 ± .614 ± 0.43 ± 0.24 )% K + K − ( 48.020) × 10−8 D± D0 1869.48 ± 0. π + π − γ (4.2384 ± .6 ± 0.14 )%.13 ± .17 ± 0.43 ± .3%) ¯∗ KK (1. π − µ+ν¯µ (27.68 ± 0.7 ± 0.50 ± 0.0005) × 10−10 (1.26) %.3 ± 0.0024) × 10−8 µ+ νµ ( 63.2%) ρπ.12 0+ (0−+ ) ρ0 ω0 775.7)% τ + τ − (2.7)%.455 ± 0.5)% e+ e− (5.1)% µ+ µ− (2.05)% .6033 ± .116 ± .6 ± 0.9766 ± .4± .75 ± . π 0 e+ νe ( 4.07)% e+ e− (2.20 1864.0005) × 10−8 (8.0007) × 10−12 (0.54%) K0L (5.17 1(0− ) 1(0− ) (0.011) × 10−12 B0 5279.11) % ππ π + π − π 0 (89.7)% D − X(9.48 ± 0.2%) π + e−νe .59± .4101 ± 0. π 0 γ (8.55%) π + µ−νµ .1 ± 0.525 ± .84 ± 0.92 +.94%).62 ± 0.2)% Ds+ X(7. 3π 0 (32.3 )% + ℓ νℓ X(10.677 ± 0.99 ± 0.8± .638 ± .

+.011)×10−10 nπ − 1314.29 (. Ξ− π 0 ( 8.015)×10−10 ∆π + 1672.13 (1.00008 1232 > 1033 yrs 885.07 (. nπ + 1192.6± .821± .6± .8± .020)×10−10 pπ − .56536± . Ξ0 π − ( 23.639± .035 (7. uud.00008 939. udd.479± .642± .632± .45± .7)×10−20 Λγ 1197.449± .0026)×10−10 pπ 0 .683± . Baryons p+ n0 ∆++.4 )% .8 De ay pe¯ νe Nπ 1115.006 (2.7± . 0.31± .90± .4± .CHAPTER 9.011)×10−10 ΛK− ( 67.8018± . ddd) Λ uds + Σ uus 0 uds Σ Σ− dds 0 Ξ uss − Ξ uss Ω− sss Mass(MeV) Lifetime (s) 938.37± .030 (1.20 (2.83± . nπ 0 1189.09)×10−10 ∆π 0 1321.07 )%.27203± .7 )%. −1 37 PARTICLE DATA uud udd (uuu.

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