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**Local boiling heat transfer characteristics of ammonia in
**

a vertical plate evaporator

H. Arima*, J.H. Kim, A. Okamoto, Y. Ikegami

Institute of Ocean Energy, Saga University, 1-48, Hirao, Kubara-aza, Yamashiro-machi, Imari, Saga, 849-4256 Japan

article info

abstract

Article history:

Ocean thermal energy conversion systems are expected to be the next-generation energy

Received 27 December 2008

production systems. In these systems, a plate heat exchanger is used for improving the

Received in revised form

power generation efficiency, and ammonia or an ammonia/water mixture is used as

19 September 2009

a working fluid.

**Accepted 26 September 2009
**

Available online 8 October 2009

**In this study, boiling heat transfer coefficients of pure ammonia are measured on
**

a vertical flat PHE (a plate heat exchanger), for elucidating and characterizing the behavior

of ammonia on a compact plate evaporator, a type of PHE

Keywords:

The measurement results show that local boiling heat transfer coefficients increase with

Heat exchanger

increasing vapor quality. Further, the effects of saturation pressure, mass flow rate, and

Plate exchanger

average heat flux on the boiling heat transfer coefficient are elucidated. An empirical

Heat transfer

correlation for the local boiling heat transfer coefficient is derived using the Lockhart-Mar-

Boiling

tinelli parameter. Further, a visualization experiment of boiling phenomena of ammonia is

Ammonia

performed to elucidate the relation between boiling behavior and heat transfer.

Measurement

ª 2009 Elsevier Ltd and IIR. All rights reserved.

**Heat transfer coefficient
**

Visualization

**Caracte´ristiques de transfert de chaleur lors de l’e´bullition
**

locale d’ammoniac dans un e´vaporateur a` plaque verticale

Mots cle´s : E´changeur de chaleur ; E´changeur a` plaque ; Transfert de chaleur ; E´bullition ; Ammoniac ; Mesure ; Coefficient de transfert de

chaleur ; Imagerie

1.

Introduction

**It is well known that greenhouse gases such as CO2 contribute
**

to global warming. Further, abnormal weather conditions

continue to be observed worldwide due to global warming.

**Therefore, the reduction of CO2 emissions has become an
**

important issue worldwide. The best method for the reduction

of CO2 emissions is to reduce the use of fossil fuels such as

petroleum and coal. Furthermore, it is important to employ

renewable energy sources. Recently, ocean thermal energy

* Corresponding author. Institute of Ocean Energy, Saga University, 849-4256 Japan (IOES). Tel.: þ81 955 20 2190; fax: þ81 955 20 2191.

E-mail address: arima@ioes.saga-u.ac.jp (H. Arima).

0140-7007/$ – see front matter ª 2009 Elsevier Ltd and IIR. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2009.09.017

In addition. Further. Inoue et al. Arima et al. However. were calculated. Therefore.l itest. Zamfirescu and Chiriac. few studies (Nishikawa and Fujita. heat flux. for improving the power generation efficiency. the thermal efficiency of the OTEC system is very low.n j k li m Psat q Q T Twall DTsat w x constant [–] constant [–] proportionality factor [(W/m2)(1-n)/K] constant specific heat [J/(kg K)] hydraulic diameter [m] ¼ 2wd /(w þ d) constant [–] fluid-dependent parameter [–] mass flux [kg/(m2 s)] boiling heat transfer coefficient [W/(m2 K)] heat transfer coefficient for two-phase flow and for flow of only a liquid phase in a channel [W/(m2 K)] constant [–] latent heat of vaporization [J/kg] specific enthalpy of preheater inlet [J/kg] specific enthalpy of preheater outlet [J/kg] specific enthalpy of saturated liquid [J/kg] local specific enthalpy of test plate [J/kg] superficial velocity [m/s] thermal conductivity [W/(m K)] distance between two thermocouples [m] mass flow rate [kg/s] saturation pressure (absolute) [Pa] heat flux [W/m2] heat flow [W] temperature [ C] plate wall temperature [ C] wall superheat [K] width of test plate channel [m] vapor quality [–] conversion (OTEC) systems or hot spring thermal energy conversion (STEC) systems have attracted considerable attention as sources of renewable energy. local boiling heat transfers on the working fluid side of the plate evaporator were not determined. no studies have been conducted for measuring the local forced convective boiling heat transfer coefficient of ammonia on a vertical plate evaporator. a small temperature difference between heat sources on surface and in deep ocean water is used.. it is important to improve the heat transfer coefficient of the working fluid. Some studies Dy distance between two neighboring thermocouple wells [m] Greek symbols d height of test plate channel [m] m viscosity [Pa s] r density [kg/m3] Subscripts av average g vapor i position of measuring point in inlet l liquid loc local n number of measuring point out outlet pre preheater sat saturation sus SUS304 test test section wall wall Dimensionless number Bo boiling number [–] ¼ ðGHq fg Þ 0:8 rg 0:5 Co convection number [–] ¼ ð1x x Þ ð rl Þ 2 Fr Froude number with all flow [–] ¼ ðr2GgD Þ h l l Prandtl number of the liquid phase [–] ¼ ðmlkCp Þ Prl l Reynolds number of the vapor phase [–] Reg ¼ (GxDh/mg) Reynolds number of the liquid phase [–] Rel ¼ (G(1-x)Dh/ml) Lockhart-Martinelli parameter for turbulent liquid Xtt and vapor phases [–] (Kushibe et al. However. it is a very good refrigerant from the viewpoint of preserving the quality of the earth’s environment. Hence. because the overall heat transfers coefficients which include boiling heat transfers on the working fluid and heat source side. data on different saturation pressure..out isat. the local convective boiling heat transfer coefficient of ammonia on a plate evaporator (used as a test plate) is measured. Furthermore.360 international journal of refrigeration 33 (2010) 359–370 Nomenclature A b C C1wC5 Cp Dh F Ffl G h hLZ n ifg ipre. suitable design criteria for improving the power generation efficiency of thermal conversion systems with small temperature differences can be established. some studies (Zurcher et al. In these studies. 2002. 2005) determined forced convective boiling heat transfer coefficients of ammonia on the plate evaporator of an experimental OTEC plant. therefore. and saturation pressure on the boiling heat . pure ammonia or ammonia/water binary mixtures are commonly used as the working fluid. average heat flux. effects of mass flux. thus far. therefore. 1977. the use of a low boiling point refrigerant as a working fluid is required in the OTEC system.. 2002) were conducted for measuring the local boiling heat transfer coefficient of ammonia on a horizontal or vertical tube type evaporator. in these studies. the boiling heat transfer performance of ammonia has not yet been elucidated. 2002. and mass fraction were obtained. PHEs facilitate temperature control and provide a large heat transfer area per unit volume Temperatures of both heat sources of the OTEC system are very small. However. plate heat exchangers (PHEs) such as evaporators and condensers are employed in OTEC plants. This is because in an OTEC plant. Using the results of this study.. in the present study. Further. One of the drawbacks of the OTEC system is that it generates less electricity than conventional power plants such as nuclear and thermal power generation plants do. 2003) were conducted for measuring the pool boiling heat transfer of ammonia. Since the ozone depletion potential (ODP) and global warming potential (GWP) of ammonia are zero.in ipre. for improving the performance of PHEs. In these systems.

the state of the working fluid changes from liquid to a two-phase fluid. The test plate consists of a main plate. JIS A-class. Test plate Fig. 2. power 1. The working fluid temperature is measured using resistance thermometers (Hayashi Denko Co. and one flame.). Experimental apparatus and procedure 2.5% of F. flames. The condensed working fluid is stored in a working fluid tank and transported to the working fluid pump. Ltd. ER6. 1 shows a schematic of the experimental apparatus consisting of a plate evaporator (test plate). and working fluid circuit. accuracy of 1% of F. and spacer on the working fluid side are made of SUS304.. and then. Fig. Mitsubishi Electric. approximately 8 K) is pumped up to a preheater using working fluid pump (Teikoku Electric Mfg. two flames. . Moreover.1 mm Fig. The thermocouple sheaths consist of a urethane tube and two fixed K-type thermocouples (0. LF410..) to achieve the recommended vapor quality at the test plate inlet.). 3051CG. Then. range 0w2070 kPa. Co. in order to elucidate the effect of the local boiling heat transfer performance of ammonia on its boiling phenomenon. The area of heat exchanger above the main plate is 250 mm 650 mm. Each TC well is 3 mm in diameter and 38 mm in length. Ltd. The working fluid is heated by the preheater (brazed plate heat exchanger Tokyo Braze Co. respectively.. the two flames have dimensions of 380 mm (width) 850 mm (height) 30 nm (thickness). The test plate has dimensions of 380 nm (width) 850 nm (length) 40 nm (thickness). 1 – Schematic diagram of experimental apparatus.2. Ltd. As a result. respectively. the cross-sectional areas of the flow channels are 2 mm 250 mm (working fluid side) and 10 mm 250 mm (hot source side). the working fluid is flown into the test plate. accuracy of 0.1 kW). and the spacer on the heat source side is made of rubber. it is condensed into liquid using cold water. and the fluid exchanges heat with hot water. Spacers on the working fluid side and heat source side have thicknesses of 2 mm and 10 mm. Further.1. an experiment for the visualization of the interiors of the plate is performed. and flow rates of hot and cold water are measured using magnetic flowmeters (Toshiba. Then. cold water circuit. The main plate. The two-phase fluid is transported to an after-condenser and plate condenser. head 12 m. The channels of the working fluid and hot source consist of the main plate. 3) are inserted for measuring local temperatures. In addition. Further. pressure is measured using a gauge pressure transducer (Toshiba. the hot and cold water are generated by a gas boiler and refrigerator and stored in hot and cold water tanks. the mass flow rate is measured using a Coriolis mass flowmeter (Endress þ Hauser. condenser.S. A subcooled working fluid (ammonia.S. All measured data were recorded using a programmable logic controller (PLC. transfer coefficients of ammonia are examined.). reverse circulation type canned motor pump. Inside the main plate. 2 shows a schematic diagram of the test plate evaporator.. and three flow circuitsda warm water circuit.15 C). there are six thermocouple (TC) wells in which thermocouple sheaths (Fig. and two spacers. The rubber spacer is also used for thermal insulator. the main plate is polished using #2000 sandpaper. MELSEC Q series) connected to a personal computer (PC). Experiment accuracy of less than 0.25% of F. accuracy of 0. an empirical correlation for the local forced convective boiling heat transfer coefficient of ammonia is derived..S. one spacer.international journal of refrigeration 33 (2010) 359–370 361 2.

temperature proofreading is carried out in a constant temperature bath by using thermocouples. 2. Visualized images of the dotted square (having an area of 2500 mm2) are shown in subsequent figures. 4 show a cross section of the sight glass used for visualization. Assuming that local heat fluxes (q) can be estimated from one-dimensional. Boiling phenomena occurring inside the flow channels are observed using images captured using a digital still camera (Pentax *istD).5 mm). A: Working fluid T2 Twall Hot water Urethan tube l2 Plate l1 T1 Fig. Local heat flux The six TC wells. . All data measured using the thermocouples are recorded using a multimeter (Keithley.3.362 international journal of refrigeration 33 (2010) 359–370 Fig. In order to increase the temperature measurement accuracy. The light source is a 250 W cold lamp. The thermocouples are mounted on the surfaces of the sheaths. 2. three sight glasses were placed on the working fluid side. located along the center line of the test plate. The camera shutter speed is 1/4000 s. Therefore. In addition. In order to visualize the boiling phenomena occurring inside the flow channels. are used to measure the local heat flux. (2): Twall ¼ T2 q$l2 ksus (2) where l2 is the distance between the thermocouple and the wall surface. 5.4.1 C accuracy). these images are captured from outside the flow channels. steady-state heat conduction. the distance l1 between the thermocouples is maintained to be sufficiently large (average distance of 33. 2 – Schematic diagram of test plate. 3 – Position of local thermocouple inside the test plate (enlarged view of area A shown in Fig. 2). (1): q ¼ ksus T1 T2 l1 (1) where ksus is the thermal conductivity of SUS304 and T1 and T2 are local temperatures. q can be expressed by Eq. model 2701) connected to the PC. Visualization experiment Fig. The wall temperature of the working fluid side (Twall) is calculated by Eq. in diameter). The sight glass is 45 mm in diameter. the temperature measurement is highly accurate (less than 0. as shown in Fig.

Qn ¼ n .in) is calculated from the fluid temperature and pressure by using the P-Propath computer program package (PROPATH Group. 2006).n) on the test plate is derived using the following method. Fig. m Q1 ¼ q1 A1 (b) in the case that n ¼ 2w6 0 Qn Q 0 þ Qn1 . Then.out ¼ ipre. By the way. the local specific enthalpy (itest. as shown in Fig.out) at the preheater is obtained from the heat transport rate (Qpre) and mass flow rate (m ¼ G d w) for the preheater: ipre. Next. it was assumed that a saturation temperature was fixed. Here. 6 – Schematic diagram of effective heat transfer surface for calculating local enthalpies. 6. 5 – Setup for visualization. However. Qn is calculated from the average value of the heat flow Q0 n and Q0 n-1 Further.n ¼ itest.in þ 363 itest. since change of the saturation temperature by pressure drop was about 0. The local specific enthalpy (itest. the heat flow of each area Q0 n is calculated using the area of each plate part An ¼ yn w.1 ¼ itest. since the inside of a plate has pressure drop. the preheater inlet specific enthalpy (ipre. . since the heat flux of each TC well is different. Here.n is expressed as follows: (a) in the case that n ¼ 1 where DTsat is the wall superheat and Tsat is the bulk temperature of the working fluid side. Qn is obtained from the local heat flux (qn) and the heat transfer area. First. similar to the calculation shown in Eq. derived using the saturation pressure at the plate inlet.in) is defined as being equal to that of the preheater outlet (ipre. it along the flow should be considered in deriving the local saturation pressure and local saturation temperature.out). Finally. the subcooled working fluid is flown into the preheater inlet.n) in each TC well at point n is calculated by adding the increase in stock of the specific enthalpy from a plate entrance. (3): h¼ q q ¼ ðTwall Tsat Þ DTsat (3) Qpre m pipe connecting the preheater and evaporator is sufficiently insulated. itest. The outlet specific enthalpy (ipre.04 C. (1).n1 þ (5) (4) The specific enthalpy of the plate inlet (itest.in þ Q1 . Qn0 ¼ qn An ðn ¼ 2w6Þ m 2 The local vapor quality (xn) is defined as follows: itest. 4 – Cross section of sight glass. The local heat transfer coefficient (h) is calculated by Eq. However. the increase in stock of specific enthalpy between neighboring TC wells is calculated using the heat flow (Qn) between two neighboring TC wells and the mass flow rate (m).international journal of refrigeration 33 (2010) 359–370 φ 45 View area Fig. because the Fig.

that tend to increase with increasing x. The solid line and diamond plots in Fig.2. 8 (b). n ¼ 0. it is known that in case of nucleate boiling region.2. which can be calculated using P-Propath. regardless of the amount of mass flux.9.745 (Stephan and Abdelsalam. Working fluid Ammonia 2 Mass flux G [kg/(m s)] Average heat flux qav [kW/m2] Saturation pressure Psat [MPa] Saturation temperature Tsat [ C] Vapor quality of test plate inlet xtest. 17. 3. 3. The range x > 0. 9(a) and (b) show the plot of measured local boiling heat transfer coefficient hloc versus vapor quality x at various average heat fluxes. 1997). Influence of heat flux Fig.4 Fig.9 13.n isat. the wall superheat is little decrease with increasing x (Tong and Tang.8. DTsat for forced convective boiling is 8 K or 3 K lower than each prediction. Therefore. Local boiling heat transfer 3. 21.7 MPa) with changes in the mass flux and average heat flux. 2000) at Psat ¼ 0.7.in[–] 7. And the short and long dashed line shows a pool boiling prediction. However. (2003) or Inoue et al. h ¼ Cqn (7) where C ¼ 1. Because each mass flux differences is small in itself and the result is close to the pool boiling condition due to the very small mass flux for forced convection experiment. and the saturation pressure in both these cases remains constant at 0. However. although heat transfer by the forced convection is performed.5 kg/(m2 s) and 10 kg/(m2 s). in case of 0. it is considered that the bubble which is generated in the heating surface tends to stagnate into the narrow channel. it was found out that the present result indicates near pool boiling condition. the local heat transfer coefficients remain almost constant with increasing x.7 on Fig.05.9. According to Arima et al. (2002). Therefore. 2003). and the saturation pressure in both these cases remains constant at 0. (2003). which is obtained by Eqs.liq ifg ðn ¼ 1w6Þ (6) where isat.liq is the specific enthalpy of the saturated liquid at the saturation pressure of the plate inlet (Psat) and ifg is the latent heat.7.3 as shown in Fig. 10. It is found that DTsat for forced convective boiling and the result of pool boiling by Arima et al. Because these mass fluxes are small different and mass fluxes of present study are lower than that of previous study. The local heat flux increases linearly with increasing DTsat. However. the local heat flux was not affected by the mass flux in present study. the effect of the wall superheat temperature is very small on the heat flux. n ¼ 2/3 (Nishikawa. (2003) are mostly in agreement. the average heat fluxes in these cases are 15 kW/ m2 and 20 kW/m2. Eq. Experimental results 3. 25 0. the local boiling heat transfer coefficient remains almost constant for a given vapor quality. the mass fluxes in these cases are 7. respectively. Therefore.6 0. At the nucleate boiling region.3 < x < 0.1w0.. 20. wall superheat is constant with increasing x and in case of forced convective heat transfer through liquid film region (forced convective region).41. 0. 7 show that the experimental data of the boiling curve for the pool boiling of ammonia by Arima et al.1. In case of x < 0. 3. (7) has been proposed by Stephan and Abdelsalam (1980) and Nishikawa and Fujita (1977). In general. 9(a). 7 – Boiling curve at Psat [ 0.364 xn ¼ international journal of refrigeration 33 (2010) 359–370 itest. 8. mass fluxes. 1980) and C ¼ 4.7 implies the occurrence of a dry-out. at the forced convective boiling in a vertical tube. the boiling heat transfer coefficient decreases rapidly with increasing x for x > 0.2.2. 8(a) and (b) show that plots of the measured local boiling heat transfer coefficient hloc versus vapor quality x at various Table 1 – Experimental conditions.7 MPa for ammonia. Since change of the gradient of heat transfer was observed bordering on x ¼ 0. In addition. This tendency was observed in the pool boiling curve of ammonia (Arima et al. The same tendency is observed in Fig. 0. The reason why the local heat flux as not affected by the mass fluxes that the result is close to the pool boiling condition.70 MPa.5. Influence of mass flux Fig. Furthermore.1. Boiling curve Fig. the boiling pool boiling correlation of Nishikawa and Fujita (1977) is more agreement compared with that of Stephan and Abdelsalam (1980). The experimental conditions are shown in Table 1. 15 15.3. it is considered that it depends for heat transfer on the amount of bubbles emergence and heat transfer is not influenced by the mass flux. respectively. even if it compares with the prediction of Nishikawa and Fujita (1977). change of the wall superheat temperature is only 2 K against change of heat flux being 10 kW/m2. this tendency shows that an increase in mass flux has almost no effect on the boiling heat transfer coefficient. Therefore.70 MPa.7 MPa. . 7 shows the boiling curve (at Psat ¼ 0. (1) and (3). On the other hand.

0 1.2 Comparisons of previous correlation Comparisons between the existing correlations and present data which are shown in Fig. 8 – Plot of local boiling heat transfer coefficient versus vapor quality at various mass fluxes.4 0. (1992) and Hsieh et al. In the former case.4 0.6 Quality x [-] Quality x [-] qav = 15 kW/m2 qav = 20 kW/m2 0. whereas in the latter case. as shown in Fig.4 kW/m2 9 5 0. 0. However.70 MPa 9 2 G = 7.0 and 24. In addition. s) Pabs = 0. 9.6 Quality x [-] Quality x [-] G = 7.5 kW/m2. The local boiling heat transfer coefficient tends to increase with increasing quality. heating was carried out using a fluid and not a heater.0 G = 7. s) 2 G = 10 kg/(m .5 kW/m 8 7 6 0.4.3. K) Local heat transfer coefficient 2 hloc kW/(m .9 MPa at G ¼ 10. (2002): they reported that the boiling heat transfer coefficient increases with increasing average heat flux.8 10 Local heat transfer coefficient 2 hloc kW/(m . K) 10 qav = 20 kW/m2 Pabs = 0.8 and 0.0 kW/m2 9 qav = 24. s) 8 7 6 5 0. All local boiling heat transfer coefficients tend to increase with decreasing average heat flux and increasing quality. fixed heating is carried out.4 kW/m2 qav = 20. This tendency is different from that observed by Kido et al.0 kg/m2s Fig. 0. heat flux is determined by the balance between heat transfers of the working fluid and warm water. thereby causing a dry-out.4 0.70 MPa 2 qav = 20. The reason for this tendency is considered to be the fact that in their experiments.5 kg/(m2 .8 1. K) a 3. the local boiling heat transfer coefficient decreases with increasing saturation pressure at Psat ¼ 0. at qav ¼ 20.4 kg/(m . 9 – Plot of local boiling heat transfer coefficient versus quality at various heat fluxes. the boiling heat transfer coefficient decreases with increasing average heat flux. even when the operating fluid has an irregular flow with air bubbles. despite the wall superheat being almost constant. The investigation of this phenomenon is the subject of a future study.0 0. 8 are performed.365 international journal of refrigeration 33 (2010) 359–370 a b qav = 15 kW/m2 Pabs = 0. G = 7.5 kg/(m2 .4 0. 9(a). s) 0. Under the same saturation pressure and mass flux.8 1. This is the cause of the increase in the wall superheat with increasing saturation pressure. K) Local heat transfer coefficient hloc kW/(m2 .5 kg/m2s G = 10.0 3.0 kW/m 2 qav = 24. the boiling heat transfer coefficient decreases with increasing saturation pressure. boiling heat transfer decreases for x > 0.2.8 1.0 qav = 15. s) Pabs = 0.2 0.0 .70 MPa 9 8 7 6 5 0. as is the case whose plot is shown in Fig.2 0.5 kW/m2 8 7 6 5 0. 10(a) and (b) show variations in the local boiling heat transfer coefficient hloc with vapor quality x at a given saturation pressure. Therefore. the boiling heat transfer coefficient decreases with increasing saturation pressure at a constant heat flux. it is considered that fluid heating is difficult to heat uniformly.70 MPa qav = 15.0 kg/m2 s. However.85.0 0.2.2 0.6 0. b 10 Influence of saturation pressure Fig. This result is the same as that obtained by Ishibashi and Nishikawa (1969): under a slug and annular flow.6 0. Local heat transfer coefficient hloc kW/(m2 .0 Fig.5 kg/(m2 . Nishikawa and 10 G = 7. s) G = 10 kg/(m2 .

3.5 kg/(m2 .9 MPa 8 7 6 5 0. K) a Pabs = 0. (18) is the general correlation for boiling heat transfer.1 < Co 1. 1989.366 international journal of refrigeration 33 (2010) 359–370 b 10 9 G = 7. Furthermore. F ¼ 15:43. Shah (1982) proposed correlation Eq. (14) and (15) is defined by Eqs.7 for ammonia. C3 ¼ 667:2. C4 ¼ 0:7 (11) Incidentally.0 Pabs = 0. The correlation is expressed using the Lockhart-Martinelli parameter X.0 kg/m2s 0. X was defined as Xtt where the liquid was turbulent and vapor was turbulent flow. which can be expressed as Eq. since a mass flux is very small and the effect by nucleate boiling is large. (12) for local boiling heat transfer on vertical tube. (10) (b) Case nucleate boiling region (at Co > 0. Therefore. 2005).0 kg/(m2 . Fig.8 10 9 Pabs = 0. Generally the correlation in tube experiment is made on the conditions of a high mass flux. s) qav = 20 kW/m2 0. the large heat transfer is shown compared with the correlation. It is found that both correlations cannot predict present data on vertical plate. Eq. 11. s) qav = 20 kW/m2 Pabs = 0. Zamfirescu and Chiriac. It is considered that the reason for disagreement is the magnitude of the present mass fluxes is very smaller than that of assumed in the tube experiment.4 0. (13) to (17) with the value of convection number Co. Wen and Ho.80 MPa Pabs = 0.1 F ¼ 14:7.90 MPa 8 7 6 5 0. (8) for local boiling heat transfer on vertical tube using convection number Co.0 1. constant F in Eqs. hLZ is expressed using the Dittus-Boelter equation as follows: 0:8 kl Gð1 xÞDh Pr0:4 (9) hLZ ¼ 0:023 l Dh ml C1 ¼ 1:1360. In their studies. 2005. (16) and (17). Thus if jbs > jcb. the effect of nucleate boiling will be underestimated. Since the effect of heat transfer by forced convection is quite large. 2002 proposed Ffl ¼ 0..2 0. On the other hand.5 kg/m2s G = 10.6 Quality x [-] Quality x [-] G = 7. If jcb > jbs. On the other hand. hloc ¼ Cl CoC2 þ C3 BoC4 Ffl hLZ (a) Case convective region (at Co < 0.65).0 0.8 1. it was found that the present data was able to be well expressed with the correlation of the pool boiling which derived from Arima’s et al. in present study. 10 – Variations in local boiling heat transfer coefficient with quality at various saturation pressures. On the other hand. hLZ is the heat transfer coefficient for a two-phase flow and for the flow of just the liquid phase in the channel. (8) where. hloc ¼j hLZ (12) The value of j is given by following Eqs. C4 ¼ 0:7 jbs ¼ FBo0:5 exp 2:47Co0:15 Bo > 11 104 Bo < 11 104 (16) (17) The values of both correlations are plotted into Fig. Arima’s correlation is more close to present study data. C1 ¼ 0:6683.65).4 0. the correlation of pool boiling heat transfer by Nishikawa and Fujita (1977) and Stephan and Abdelsalam (1980) are also very smaller than present study data.8 MPa Pabs = 0. Fujita (1977) and Stephan and Abdelsalam (1980) are proposed correlation Eq.70 MPa Local heat transfer coefficient hloc kW/(m2 . j ¼ jcb where. where Prl is the Prandtl number of the liquid phase.(2003) experiment. The parameters C1wC4 are as follows on different Co numbers. C3 ¼ 1058:0. Kandlikar (1990) proposed correlation Eq. (14) (15) when j > jbs and jcb.3. Nondimensional correlation The nondimensional correlations for forced convective heat transfer on different refrigerants were proposed by many researchers (Mandrusiak and Carey. The correlation of Arima et al. (7) for pure ammonia on pool boiling.7 MPa G = 10.0 Fig. K) Local heat transfer coefficient hloc kW/(m2 . Therefore.6 0. C2 ¼ 0:2. 11 shows that the predicted heat transfer coefficients by Shah (1982) and Kandlikar (1990) correlations are very smaller than present study data. fluid-dependent parameter Ffl for ammonia was not given by Kandlikar. . C2 ¼ 0:9.0 jbs ¼ FBo0:5 exp 2:74Co0:1 (b) Case Co 0. (19). j ¼ jbs.2 0. Kushibe et al. jcb ¼ 1:8=Co0:8 (13) (a) Case 0. (2003) is derived by their pool boiling data.

(21) within 25% accuracy. We considered that in the case of low gradient region. 12 shows the correlation obtained in the present study. It is found that almost data can be predicted by Eq. (21).4 (Kandlikar) G = 10 (Kandlikar) G = 7.4. It is found that hloc/hLZ increases with increasing 1 X1 vv .8 2 qav = 20 kW/m Pabs = 0. b hloc 1 ¼A (18) hLZ X where A and b are constants.4 (Shah) G = 10 (Shah) Local heat transfer coefficient hloc kW/(m2 . On the other hand. the gradient for Xvv < 2 differs from that for 1 Xvv > 2. 13 – Comparison of predicted against experimental hloc/hLZ. the correlation cannot predict the measured data. However. (21) can predict experimental results within 25% accuracy for X1 vv > 2. saturation pressures.4 0. Fig. However.5 (Shah) G = 10 (Shah) 10 0. Then. 12. Visualization Visualization of the boiling phenomena of ammonia is carried out under various mass fluxes. K) 10 qav = 15 kW/m2 Pabs = 0. 3. 13 shows that the comparison of predicted by Eq.70 MPa 8 Arima Pool boiling (Stephan) Pool boiling (Nishikawa) Pool boiling (Arima) 6 Nishikawa Shah 4 2 Kandlikar Stephan 0 0.0 0.8 1. (21) against measured the ratio hloc/hLZ. the flow became annular flow when a thin liquid film covered the entire flow channel. This correlation is obtained by the leastsquares method using all data obtained here.5.5 G = 10 G = 7.4.4 0. in the present study.7 which is low vapor quality. because Rel ¼ 40 – 300 (Liquid phase Re number) and Reg ¼ 780 – 3600 (Vapor phase Re number). Fig. K) a Stephan 0 0. This difference in gradients is considered to be due to the difference in flow patterns.4 G = 10 G = 7. (20). whereas in the case of high gradient region. the two-phase flow became slug flow. .0 G = 7. 12 – hloc/hLZ as a function of 1/Xvv.70 MPa 8 Pool boiling (Stephan) Pool boiling (Nishikawa) Pool boiling (Arima) 6 Arima 4 Shah 2 Kandlikar b Local heat transfer coefficient hloc kW/(m2 . the value is larger than 25%. Xtt ¼ Xvv ¼ !0:1 0:9 0:5 rg ml ðturbulent-turbulentÞ rl mg 1x x !0:5 0:5 0:5 rg 1x ml ðlaminar laminarÞ rl mg x (19) (20) The relationship between the ratio hloc/hLZ and X1 vv is shown in Fig. in case of hloc/hLZ < 30 of G ¼ 7. heat fluxes.The range of hloc/hLZ < 30 is indicated X1 vv < 1.6 Quality x [-] Quality x [-] qav = 15 kW/m2 qav = 20 kW/m2 0.2 0. 100 +25% G=7.6 0. 11 – Comparisons of local boiling heat transfer coefficient between present and predicted data.5 (Kandlikar) G = 10 (Kandlikar) G = 7. and vapor qualities.367 international journal of refrigeration 33 (2010) 359–370 G = 7.2 0. However.0 Fig. the measured local heat transfer coefficients are predicted using the correlation Eq.5 G=10 Experimental hloc /hLZ [-] 80 -25% 60 40 20 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Predicted hloc /hLZ [-] Fig. X is defined as Xvv which is expressed as Eq. The solid line in Fig. 1:08 hloc 1 ¼ 16:4 (21) hLZ Xvv The empirical correlation expressed in Eq.0 1. Then. both of the liquid and vapor phases are laminar conditions. The flow pattern in this study is examined in the next Section 3.

qav [ 20 kW/m2. in the case of a high mass flux (Fig. 15(a) and (b) show visualization results at various mass fluxes at a constant vapor quality.63 and Xvv ¼ 3. the all data were plotted into the Hewitt–Roberts map as shown in Fig. forced convection is dominant in the boiling heat transfer under these conditions. In section 3.4.28 and Xvv ¼ 1. On the other hand. 15(b)). 15(b). Psat [ 0. Therefore. Fig. 15(a)). Fig. Since the visualization results in shown Fig.4) . In the case of a low mass flux (Fig. 14(b) shows that instead of bubbles. It is found that the flow pattern consists of bubble flow. similar to the results shown in Fig. 14(a) and (b) show visualization results of boiling of ammonia at various vapor qualities and constant mass flux.2.1. The flow pattern maps for horizontal flow were proposed in some papers. the flow pattern becomes slug flow and annular flow.51) demonstrate that the flow is liquid flow.2. and saturation pressure. The map shows that plots of superficial liquid momentum flux rlj2l versus superficial vapor momentum flux Fig. 14(a) (x ¼ 0. comparison with the existing flow map was performed.68) demonstrate that the flow is a bubble flow and those shown in Fig. Effect of vapor quality Fig.5. As mentioned in Section 3. However. respectively. 15 – Boiling flow patterns at different mass fluxes (Psat [ 0. we can conclude that the classification of the flow pattern according to Xvv is accurate 3. Effect of mass flux Fig. the liquid film that covers the entire visualized area is observed. Therefore. heat flux. 14(a) and (b) is determined by a polynomial interpolation of the vapor quality values measured in the flow direction. The flow patterns shown in Figs. 16. This behavior is also confirmed in the visualization experiment. the boiling heat transfer coefficient for these patterns is almost the same. On the other hand.3. 14 – Boiling flow patterns of ammonia at two different vapor qualities (G [ 10 kg/m2 s. 3. however. heat flux.8 MPa. 1969) and there is no map for vertical upflow in plate. we stated that in the case of X1 vv < 2 and 1 Xvv > 2. The vapor quality x considered for visualization whose results are shown in Fig. It is considered that this flow pattern is annular flow corresponding to flow inside the tube. some intermediate-size bubbles are observed over the entire area. 14(a) shows that some small bubbles appear on the plate surface at x ¼ 0. a liquid film covers the entire visualized area. and saturation pressure.4.7 MPa. the map for vertical upflow in tube has at least the diagram of Hewitt–Roberts map (Hewitt and Roberts.28. qav [ 20 kW/m2) 3. 14(b) (x ¼ 0. 15(a) and (b) are different.368 international journal of refrigeration 33 (2010) 359–370 Fig. we conclude that the flow pattern does not contribute to boiling heat transfer. Flow pattern map In order to consider the flow pattern obtained by visualization. x [ 0.

. H. pp. Heat Transf.S. K. and average heat flux. Suga. In: Proceeding of the Mechanical Engineering Kyushu branch congress. AEREM. E. Heat Mass Transf. 185–196. 22).html.. Uehara.-Y. Y.. Teruya. Therefore. 2005.. No. second ed. (2) The forced convective boiling heat transfer coefficient of ammonia increases with increasing vapor quality x at a constant mass flux. Abdelsalam. However. Mandrusiak. K.. ASME. M. 1) 219–218.. saturation pressure. C. 115–116 (in Japanese). 2005. 2002..N. 53. Convective boiling in vertical channels with different offset strip fin geometries. 1997. and therefore. 22 (No. Ishibashi. Arima.. Heat Mass Transf. M. boiling heat transfer decreases. p. Int. Yoneda. Int.. Studies of Two-Phase Flow Patterns by Simultaneous X-ray and Flash Photography. it is concluded that in the boiling heat transfer under the present experimental conditions.. Heat Mass Transf. Evaporation heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of R-290 (propane). N. Sports.. H. Superficial vapor momentum flux g j g2 [kg/ms2] 105 104 G=7. Monde.. 1st Report: smooth surface. Shah. Trans. K. Nishikawa. J. Kushibe.-Y. 2006. 1980. in the case of x > 0. Lin. 2159. Moreover. J. Miyara... 39. Heat and Mass Transf. 33–42 (in Japanese. Fig.Y. 403–415 (in Japanese. pp. Where. Int. Heat-transfer correlations for natural convection boiling. Japan. an increase in the heat flux and saturation pressure cause a decrease in boiling heat transfer. 2003... Y. On the other hand.. Heat Mass Transf. M. V. M. vol. because both momentum fluxes of present data are very lower than that of general study in tube. Ho.. Ikegami. 4.S. Saturated boiling heat transfer in narrow spaces. it is necessary to examine the map of the vertical plate flow..D. (3) An increase in mass flux has almost no effect on boiling heat transfer. Trans.. Chart correlation for saturated boiling heat transfer equations and further study. Nishikawa.P. In the future. Heat Transf. Roberts. T. Kandlikar. J. Monde. 1791–1806. J.. Tang... 112 (No. L. Y. 1). Carey. It is found that the vertical flow on plate could not be expressed on this map for vertical tube.. 16 shows that all data are in churn flow. In: Memoirs of the Faculty of Engineering. Y. the relation between boiling heat transfer and the flow pattern clearly indicates that boiling heat transfer is dominated by forced convection.M.. ASME J.F. On the Pressure Factor in Nucleate. H. 535–543. for financial support in the form of a grant under their 21st Century COE Program ‘‘Advanced Science and Technology for Utilization of Ocean Energy. 1969) rgj2g. vol. 1982. Subcooled flow boiling heat transfer of r-134a and the associated bubble characteristics in a vertical plate heat exchanger. Taylor & Francis. 88. 1992. Evaporation heat transfer and pressure drop of HCFC22 inside a horizontal rectangular channel. M. 45 (No. 8).. 9).F. 1990. Kyushu University.. JSRAE Trans. Hsieh. Wen. T. 9 (No.nagasaki-u. Chiang. Inoue. G. A. Fujita. jl ¼ Gð1 xÞ=rl (22) jg ¼ Gx=rg (23) Fig. Conclusion The experimental results of the boiling heat transfer coefficients of pure ammonia under forced convective boiling in a vertical flat plate are summarized as follows. 45 (No. the surface wall superheat is 8 K less than that for a pool boiling heat transfer. Science and Technology.5 G=10 Annular 103 369 Whispy annular 102 Bubbly 100 10 Acknowledgement Churn 101 We thank the Ministry of Education. A general correlation for saturated two-phase flow boiling heat transfer inside horizontal and vertical tubes.ac. J.. Hewitt. M. (1) The boiling curve in the case of a forced convective boiling heat transfer shows that in such a heat transfer. Y. 16 – Hewitt–Roberts flow pattern map (Hewitt and Roberts. Boiling Heat Transfer. JSRAE Trans. superficial liquid velocity jl and vapor velocity jg are defined by as follows. K. 14(a) and (b) show that the flow patterns were bubble and annular flow. Nishikawa.. Boiling Heat Transfer and Two-Phase Flow. 1989. Pool boiling heat transfer in binary mixtures of ammonia water. D. 23.7.J. Kido. 111 (No. 4409–4415. Culture. forced convection is dominant. http:// www2. 1977. R-600 . 36. 73–87. Uehara.. 4 (in Japanese)303–341.international journal of refrigeration 33 (2010) 359–370 (5) The results of visualization confirm that the relation between the flow pattern and Xvv is correct. Evaporation heat transfer of ammonia and pressure drop of warm water for plate type evaporator. G. S. 863–866. 2000. 1969.. respectively. a dry-out occurs occasionally.. 1969.jp/PROPATH/p-propath. Y. M.. Tong. H. Monde.mech.. L. Int. Heat transfer in pool boiling of ammonia/water mixture. 2002. 1). 156–165. HMSO. (4) An empirical correlation for the forced convective boiling heat transfer coefficient is derived using the Lockhart-Martinelli parameter. Stephan. 245–302. 12 (No. ASHRAE Trans. However. H. 4).’’ Bubbly-slug -1 10-3 10-2 10-1 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 Superficial liquid momentum flux l jl2 [kg/ms2] references Fig. Mitsutake.. The boiling heat transfer coefficient estimated by this correlation in the range of Xvv > 2 is in good agreement with the measured boiling heat transfer coefficient. Developed and Distributed by PROPATHGroup. Some considerations on the boiling heat transfer of ammonia – water mixtures.

and a mixture of R-290/R-600 in the three-line. 2921–2936. Int. Favrat.370 international journal of refrigeration 33 (2010) 359–370 (butane). 25 (No. Eng. D. Fluid Sci.. . Therm. 45 (No. Zamfirescu. 25 (No. Heat transfer measurements on ammonia forced convection boiling in vertical tubes. 17-18). O. 303–317. Thome. Evaporation of refrigerants in a horizontal tube: an improved flow pattern dependent heat transfer model compared to ammonia data. 529–534. Applied Therm.. F. 2)..R. Chiriac. Exp. C. 2002. Zurcher.. Heat and Mass Transf. J.. J. 7). 2002.

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