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As we know, the world today is unimaginable without electricity. Large scale
electrical energy production largely depends on the use of turbines. Nearly all
of the world's power that is supplied to a major grid is produced by turbines. A
turbine is a simple device with few parts that uses flowing fluids (liquids or
gases) to produce electrical energy. Fluid is forced across blades mounted on a
shaft, which causes the shaft to turn. The energy produced from the shaft
rotation is collected by a generator which converts the motion to electrical
energy using a magnetic field.
The controlling of the turbines was done initially by mechanical governors.
Now, with the technological advancement, they are replaced by the electronic
Steam turbine governing is the procedure of controlling the flow rate of steam
into a steam turbine so as to maintain its speed of rotation as constant.
This project is dedicated to the study and design of a Current to Pressure
Converter, which converts the electric signal from the governor to the hydraulic
signal, which further controls the servomechanism.
It forms an integral part of the controlling. CPC quickly and accurately converts
the input signal into a proportional output pressure. This is important as the
turbine should function as expected in load variant conditions and also stop in
abnormal conditions.

SST600. a wide network of Sales and Service offices across the country as well as over 500 channel partners. innovator and implementer of leading-edge technology enabled solutions operating in the core business segments of Industry. Currently. providing direct employment to over 18.000 persons. SST700. The Siemens Group in India comprises of 17 companies. SST300. The Group’s business is represented by various companies that span across these various segments.. Healthcare and Infrastructure and Cities. Energy.. SST500. It also has a service shop to meet offsite overhaul/repair requirements. SST400. the group has 21 manufacturing plants. and SST800..About SIEMENS. Turbines manufactured here are SST100. About SIEMENS-Maneja Unit This plant comes under energy sector (oil and gas division) and mainly manufactures steam turbines (up to 50 MW). The Siemens Group in India has emerged as a leading inventor. SST200. Role of CPC in control circuit .

. The relation between frequency & rotation in 4-pole generator is given by Where N = Rpm of turbine f = Frequency P = number of poles  So for F= 50Hz. to convert current into pressure. But in steam turbine. CPC (current to pressure converter) is one type of solenoid operated direction control valve. i. the force is given to the spool of the DCV (Direction control valve). So.  CPC receives current as an input signal (4 to 20 mA: SIEMENS parameter (not fixed all time)). wear and friction problems now it is replaced by electronic governors.. P=4.  As the name suggests.  Initially when steam/gas turbines developed mechanical governors are used. LOAD SPEED Steam Flow Rate And vice versa. constant speed is maintained if. which controls the steam flow rate in turbines. its main function is to generate a pressure signal. but due to less efficiency.  Where is CPC used?  Basically it is control valve so it can be used to provide controlled pressure. By means of magnet. N=1500 RPM  So at different load speed should be same else constant frequency may not be maintained.  Why Steam Flow Rate control is required in turbines?  For getting electricity at constant frequency turbine should rotate at constant speed. (Hydraulic). .e. it is used to control pressure in the servomotor.

Due to this. the spool position will change. due to which. Rough Line diagram of existing CPC :- (Note : All parameters according to SIEMENS. A and T port will be connected. .)  In figure : F1 = Magnetic force F2 = Spring force F3 = Hydraulic force P = Pressure inlet A = Pressure to actuator T = Tank  Working of CPC in brief: CPC receives 9 bar pressure from the lube oil system line. the desired pressure oil is passed in actuator (A) line. When we need a lower pressure in actuator (A) line according to signal. ports A and P will get connected.  To increase the pressure in actuator. According to the received signal from electronic governor magnetic force acts against spring.

. (“Servo” is used when we control big thing by small thing). As magnet is receives low current to produce high pressure. low current to high voltage (24 V DC) circuit required.  So there are two sections in CPC:1) Electronic 2) Mechanical  So briefly we can say this is mechatronics project. which further controls steam flow.  CPC controls servomotor.