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Comintern 7th World
Congress Part 3: The
Working Class Against
Fascism Response

The Working Class
Against Fascism

Georgi Dimitrov
193 5 London: Modern Books


the relationship of class forces.. that communists skilfully wield the wca pon of Mar. ~one of l hi: speakers n una . not infrequently obse rved in our comr ades . when lacking the knowledge or ability fo r Marxist-Leninist analysis. 10 This cuani mity may undoubtedly be regarded as one of th l. lifeless fo rmulas and ready-m ade patterns. at the prescnt Congress. u tab/is lzillg u nit). a nd plan their activity and struggle accord ingly. and the lev'el of influence of the Communist Party necessary to render such a revolutio nary way out of the crisis possible.Od political solidarit)' been r eve. substitute general phrases and slogans sllch as " the revolutionary way out of the c risis /' witho ut making the slightest serious attempt to explain the conditions . ave proposed or to t he rcsolu • J wh ich has been s ubm itted.. the deg ree of revolutionary maturity of the proletariat and the toiling masses.·eakness .sis. has come be full y recognised in o ur ranks.t ~le cighl.d~r d i~ussion we can sta te t hat all t he . lW el1SC interest taken by Ihe Congress in the fund:lmental t ac:o I~ I problems a nd t asks of the struggle of the wor king class tlC:ins t t he offcnsiv(' of capital a n d fa scism . lamely. 1111 SUlIlIn ing up . 3 .! most im portan t pre req uisitesJc:· suc~ess in so\ving. The successful solution of this problem requi res .The W orking Class Against Fascism COlllrade O illlil .l 'The cO l11p~etc una n~ l~lI ty d 15pla~ed at the C~ n~ ress indicates t~ a. Comrades! T h e: \'(!ry full d iscllssion on my r Cl)Ort ShOW5 the: . We must put an end to the state o f affairs in w hich Communists. 1 I" h ob'cCted to t he tactlca me we . W e must mercilessly root out the . 's Spuch i t! R eply 10 t il e Dis"usion . o 110 I ventu re to say that at no ne o f the previous Congresses of the c ommunist I nternational h as such ideological :l."l~d as. cip:l l p roposltlollS contained In t he re por t have met with the "rill iOl' OUS apl)TOV:l I 0 ( h " t eeo ng re ~.dst -Lellillist 111141). lA ppla use. o . fir st. of ac tiOI! of all sccliolls of th oU/o rking ~lass i" Hi e stru gglc against fascis m.. th e paramount ·nifllediate problem of the mt ern atlo nal prolet arian movement .. while carefully studyin g the specific conditions and the alignment of class forces as they develop . against the th reat o f ~g ptrinlist • • • I W:l T. for cutand-dried schemes .t he necessity of revlsm g our pohcy and tact iCS III accordance With 'he ch anged conditions and with d ue rega rd for the most abun" " ( da nt and instructive ex pe ri ence 0 the past few years . Without such an analy sis all these catcb- .

whose every.oben it is a ques tio n of fi g hting an enemy who so subtly :lnd Jesuitically exploits the national sentiments 3nd prejudices of the masses and their ant i·c apitali st inclinatio ns in the interest s of b ig capital .elf.l et'C we arc gomg and th~ struggl~ \\ hlc s o .:mnn frOlit and Iht roblt'nI o f fn!. they did not ~me a guide to the action of the millions. It must b~ said that 'en at this Congre"s the speec hes of some of the com rade!! gave ~~ication of remn ants of formalism.enough...'. at best made them the l)fOpert y of nfr th e sm:lll vanguard of the working our (~Sk5 of the (~:.practice. J\ (( cr a ll..J the orgluzisaliotJ 0/ tile ma. ed I proong . .clsm. every idta reBeets the innermost thoughts and sentiments of mllhons. tht proll I Soc' l III ~is-4:1cm()('rnc). can relieve us of the need to study and t a~e in to account :he speci fic deve. l nt and sometimes apparently thankless organisa.::0l11' pt'Oplc whose brmlls caUse of the J)rolel~nnt. '.unda. t " lI larl)' IHI\OIlG: I IC -mI... Such aft cnemy musl be kll ow n 10 p crf ectio n.' ~ llt.." . ." Thi s warning is Jl:lrticul:1rly to the point v.. not In the language of book fonnulas. identical. rules of struggle.. wh~se.' the masses W I or " n." dly d'-!\'Otcd to t h . hO\\"i:ver correct in 't.St:lhnlst cn res " (oilers in the fight agai nst fa SCism S h I confront t h c . Comrades J The Congress has w~lcomed the ne\\' tacticnllines with great enthusiasm and unanimity . Th ese decisions ~'d not bee-o nle fle sh and blood of the broad mas!les. fO.we mUSt acquire L~nill's and Stalin's art ~f rna 'mg our YCCISlons the proptrty not only of the Commumsts but.tion of fascism .1 r I 311e the wotlons: c. · fTonl t h~ mas. we of ay t lcwo . from O". also of the broade~ masses of the toilers..pale..Irillg "is neck. whither W~ arc lcading tb e tollers.l wen k"oesseS. of course ."'UI I.o• oS bllt th<: trouble WIIS that 1I0t infrequently after hltlo . over'rt1plificd hfeless fo rmula. .'l ry 10 each co unlrr to IllVcstlgate. p.. but in the lang uage of fighters in the cau5'C of the masses. (Applause. We must Jearll to talk to the ~asses. ( ICC 'ISIOIl!S arc to be nllplied to the III 'cul ar ci rcu lIlst:\I\ces of each coun try .' on l)' froill case . No general chaTacteriS3.. a desire made it<..'ould de\'elop of its own accord). We mu st put n stop to ro:: mllee on influence aIone IS no h h I " ' 'he mO':lemttlt (on the ope t at t Ie movement sPontantl y In h' h ' r r . We must without any delay whatever react t o his various manetu\' res. t shp 10 0 ' thiS mstrumen (0 caSC and lose the broad pc:rspcctiv'\! of . "tllcrnl (>COp C "Ielll o f the PfOCCSS\!S /{OIl1j:! Oil W'th ' .P n"'ow make-sh ift polit ics . he prepared to repel bim io any arena and at ally moment.. will confront liS _ ••1 .. to represent as act ually cxis/i'l g what :~ adopted Rood n:s. (~ecisl~ns \"e sha ll be un able to solve t h e CllorIllO~' Leninist. LeKin persisten tly warned us agaiust " ste reotyped methods and mechanical levelling . peal)1. The S tru ggle Again st Fascisltl ""u sl De COll udist d .) 5 . Iht P roblcUl oa I "om p1cx pro hiems wit IIch life it t . t JI5 t' m p t)' phrn ~s wh ich oUly ob words bt<'Om . It is with tbese problems that I should like to deal in my closing 5peech. but it is still better when these are ate ~incd with n well ·considered and critical ~lI>l.x ifl. CaD we assert that we h:l\'c already finally ab:ln(loncd this lonn al :lpproach to adopted decisions? No. w IC IS o ~e 0 our .1111\1(1(' toward s I. With ou t notshC\"i~e ~ff(d to the. ~ neW nne . study and ascertaiD the national peculiarities . . 'h mumst sore. word.1 . I f " It numt'rolls 01 h"r f the claSS SlrUgg e con ronts us now ht devclopment 0 and d nil t in the future.$S 0/ J/a..IX'OP] C who h:1\'c grown nC'. Ye must remember that Witho ut persIstent • menta. partl we have before no\\' IIn :minv)\\-. against rendering t3ctical rules. '11 never 111a k' C r it 1e c om· .~.. ethod lS by W h'IC II t II(!Se. :lIleII IUnds will gi '• Slrugglr. po..{$CS 11\ order to PUt Fourth.':O\'NIlIlU' Il I . ad pting these d CClsLons.s hr1\'c sprulI~ f rOIll t I lCl' r cver)'dup Secon d . ' . Our I CO oglca an poli tical our deciSIOns m O l' ' . . Third. dud S IC\Vi~hout II concrete M nrxi st ' L~:lI. It IS llCCCS$. DeIl\O('" • . • I ' CISIOII S • . Enthusiasm and unanimif)' \I "NY well .lol~ment of fascism and the \'3rious forms of fascist di ct ~tor shlP 10 tl~e individual count: i(!s a~d at its various stages. I k ou.'o pfr. but does not yet ex is l.. lit P I ' s fronl..r ~o. problems t . tie .e1f fel t :1t :inles 10 substitute for the concrete analysis of rcali ty :lnd life's eXperience .:1 Ie rquipped wil h th e COIIIP(I. Inke d. .. tiona wor' o . I pro blem of our (1. we llced ptop Ie who arc unable to make skilful US(! of Lenillist tll eo'y. discover his hidden moves. \Ve must not h esitate even to li6rn from the enemy if that will help us more quickly and more effectively to "/(. the specific national features of bscislIl and map ou t accordingly effect ive mi:thods and forms of struggle agninst fa scism.Juy Gnt le . . some sort of new. \\e Ill'CU 'd 1 ' I d ' .some sort of new scheme. f ullitc·d front . In order to be able to orgamse k. we. • ~ _ .. In ' ~ 1). h h ws the ma SSes w . o r nny of h ' II WI' workers..~s r lla '1'( "~I action wh o l e h c~lrt l. be Rble correctly to prc!i~nt Rnd IIOh 't ~I't Analysis we lIhn~1 lie (he problem o f the prolcl. with n proper comprehension of the ~1Sions adopted and a real und erstanding of the muns and dtC .roach to the coP] s th at confront us . the masses . of our Congress.' ' .

." .s they h:'l\"e been in the French people_ (o.r a .fascIsm holds :it ro ng ~s lt. . . bourgeQis ic. In the colonial and semi-colonial countries there can be no question of the kind o f fa scism that we are accustomed to see in Cerm :my. that the lI atlOnal sentllnen ts of saiJIu system on otl~ lot been hurt o.. {O . Vhat IS trllC a' ouch <!\.te t Ie possl I I } ' f I -• -n "r.opmell~I'o t e aSCI c' ors which impede the onslnugh t of h no. Here we must study and take il1to account the quite different economic. without t.<.:l!' rY Ill ~ on a . such :'IS t.D .<lall ~:No\l '. k~ for ". .c l:. .:. I. • II 1I t I. .t spok.wl. .h IS . I l~( " . -b-'-' .nce favour the deve opmcnt 0 :' I SCISm. f c fascism came to po wer:l considerable Germa ny wherc e\en c or'a _ under the influcnce o f reactionary section of the peasantry \\ !!' p'lrt ' .'\'l.. _. o f wh ich r nlread y ke: in lilY r~port: spOrt would h kcwl~ he.!olmlc nt o f b :. tel f d -'\''''0 1'1111.1V d. .here thts actor I '. ~nd Cachin 1fI~."ly cla sslf~i ng :'Ill reactionary e:lSures of the bo nr g eol:>le as fa SCism and g Olll g as far as calling ~t entire nOIl ... !l' ... . fasci sm III -r:'lncc.5(:S have defi nitely suc(tIf led in block lllg til(: r..erroll eoll..lntlo nal Governm ent 111 Creat Brltam. Nor mus t It be forgotten that the d eveloplllent of fa~ism. Th e: struggle against {nsc islU was 1I 0t streng thened bu. .'(: 11 1 1 cc ntu n l::-.Ill t lOSe Sect.\I s tllg \! 0 . h -( . . . SI'H:'!'IJ. .. ' 0 ___" 1111 " :U.tnes . It is trll t .e'r. 'I )\ oreo ver :I estlmo. .h.1 SuC'h 11 rll . It IS ttl! rc\'olUlions in the elg Itc('n'h '~11 won th e war a nd forced th e Vcr' . is tantamount to misleadi ng th e working class in the struggle against its worst enemy. -ould be shortsightedness no t to no ti-ce the . is (urt~~red by the ~r:nch bourgeoisie's keen fear of losmg ItS polltlcal and mIlitary hegemony in Europe. UI' indlscrtllunn \: thrustLllg .. thnt 1R . - III . rclY ~ll g on the armcd force. .Ironi·rly nppro... \\' IC I cOlllmenced . l a a nd hnl :lI\d . In . coun try \\ h thai France: 1~ a r countries.. Even now we still ha\'e snrvil':lls o f 2 stereotyped nppro:'lch to the queSti 9 1l o r fa sc ism . ' : . :I-. s ~io.. alill over w h l~l~ we M> heartIly r<:JOICe . I \\ _. . " h sevtra'' is true: I ha ' here were no ' Frallce w illc \ wen t I Iroll8 ' a ' thcrearclU . . to cherish ilI u<._ -. .h COlllrAdes T.: ' ~ !I . " .t be .:: that the tOll mg . • ~ f nil ('ountri eS n nd nil I~I' 0 It wO'lllcl bt' I' I:~' 0 ('O\' ef f nlSCIS/lI. 'on wlll <' • I '" .n3 <.. or!!' I ..c: b y m:'lking usc of State apP:lrnlltS. fa.. 6 . _ _ .em plate fa scism in general. . ' there of the faSCIst pen all( to under. us..horc7-.o>:11 ~ •• . .ang..::\'e!oP a:' " ('IIS I ).ft'1-I. nCll t ruh sc( . \VC h:\~'. .ad to faSCI>.:.1 ' G • f h fist mO\'ement 111 I'rance ::Inu III ermany de\'-eI.d no bro:l d b:I"C .. r mUil emllhaticall y ~ once lIlore the full nllportallcc o f the tasks o f th e Frcnch s~r~~l\g claSS ill the st ru~~ l c ag ainst fn'le isln. •• I t'e cI(..:..d what is r"lse 111 t li S C'oll tenhon? I.hstanding th e eX isting ( 1 crcnCes In tht But comrade~ . _ . I\ pnr t fro ll1 Cltt) .le ( • at n c0". --. J . has the parliamentary regime been corrupted to such an enormouS extent and cau ~ed such indignation among the masses as in France. :\ cw Dc-al . . :. Gtrmany \\ ' ~ "es of the pC:lsantry ::Ire p ro-Repub\ ~Ie l ~ . _ " ' Frll..e .no us count ries.:I _ . " .he Nattonal 50Cl311sts (lid not h3\"e in the Reichswehr before their advent to power ..0 7 .e the exa mille o f such countries 3-. I. •t hi n ~ e lsc . carne to power.e \\ '01lid 110 1 Ie . Yll ~o s l a\.I'd OPI1lCll t 0 .J.en . w~l e rc fa scism.:ing int~ account tl ~c speCi fi c featu res o f . more. _ '.1110 tin' calliI' 0 ' ( -. unlllterrupte< g ro\\ I d' ' of 3 fascist coup t:tal. h" 1I0 wII II 1111.lle th e !11..£: h t In t o t Ie stl\lA~ l! C( ( Cllloc r n t ic tradition ..anulq" a _ _ . ' . nre still It' ftOrn ) Olh ca t ~ns. c. F nce the baSIC mn.'cd such a gre:lt pa rt .'e t nl3....> s truggle.'_'" . - • GcmlallY . tn 0. nnd then sough t to b roaden Its .. . n u m ber 0 I f ac. perhaps.: f1i W. sh rNOn and this grently fac lht3tes t Ie o rgy of . I ' Germ an).the fascist m o\~ment in the \'o. b u t hRIIII)('r u s III (.cis · Ol . sue "I n fit c wo u ' d r C5ttl. ~an ce . \Vh cn some comrad es assert t hat Rooscn'1t ' 5 .. _ . rather we:'lkcned in con. political . is tIllS nO. for tX:lmple.ies. 10 contrast with aud " ntl_fasclst.. .m.ions rega rdin g c weakness of fasc l ~m III other countries where it <loes not enjoy tll broad 1II:\5S b aS<. - Hence i~ fo l~ow~ thnt the ~ U C<:tS~" 5Cored by the 3nli-fMCist vtl11cnt III J . of tbe stnte.t a manifestation of such a ste reotyped approach to the question ? One must ind eed be a confirmed addict of the usc of hackneyed schemes not to see that the most reactionary circles of Am ericnn finan ce c apital which are attacking Roosevelt represent first and fo remost the \'ery force which is stimulating and org 3nisin g the fa scist mo vement in the U nited St:ltes. ' One must no 'Iore later in France than in other capitahst COl~n." .o nt1llues to _. not\\ I . fascist demagogy. h-' 0" 'hn' the economic cnSIS. although :. ~n the :'IrlllY. . C ~ II1C cO lllrtlClcs uC I\' \ 'e t l a t.. in no other country. Not to see the bcg innin ~ s o f real fascism in the U nited Stntes behind th~ hypocrit ic31 o l1t pourings o f these c ircles" in defence of the democratic rights of the Americ an citiz.-rr _ .'cp Gcrman)" . 3mong the officers. _ . It31y and other capitalist countries.!l' ' I th 'lIId II II1 CI<. or ~lIld a t ". Further. French .n~ an! Ill .?£ ~t h~ d cvc!opmc ll t o f t~. ' ' t. ~ b. I.l1y in the South. of the po pu nil t 0 " b m u. t~\\'al"(l" fascism than t h ~ :. o f .h' Comra(. \·c r.1m. (eepen allu a I' ~ · • . · ..'1 1 .. ~lllgnrin.Comm u n lst c:'l mp fa "Cist. sequence. . rcpr e~ nt s an e\'er clearer and more l)rOI~ollnced fo rlll. ~cnc ra l' r a nee as i y _ f SCISOI (. Wh lC.contention e li lt \\-as ri-g 1It III th at there was a tendencY am ong'st us to cont.'iClSlI1.

.gl" ..t at o nce with build ing lin . Th ey mu st overcome the preconceived il. blish a genuine nn Ies n f the wor lng .illg th rough t he sa llie '" fl' S ' .HI 10 0 ' " " "'c in the :l ) U llr 1110\'(:".". a nd that this shift o. 11\ • 11 (' pL'Culmf o rm s 0 Il ll OWl. '£ ' hi li l Orl cn 'II cO lIlIIlII C II" of 1'0::11 I c conc retely . . " [ I t he unity of action 0 [ ' At the smu e ttm e. In order t o bri ~lg abou t genuine people's fron t In t hese countn es .1 Ihe tnr!.nH'!1 "i('th or " . d ' 1 tics of al e slrug.t strive . !t11.Ceets with the rCSISIr".cla~ o rganisatio n s. h . united fr Ollt fr om lIelo\\'. to U_:j\ II I .ho shOO whO rC$: ul M Yt~ lo w 100 Ill':tr o r 100 hI' S.asCI . C. com rades . lIwl . front un proletariat.c . 31 f t he practic strtl • Ie and th at the re IS certainly o process.)h ... COIll • 'r)' \ 'nnj:...: n!lll.y upon our resolution and con. hi. After t!wt.('1\..lUtl .bsclst peoplt 's or the ant I t we C:lIl Elot ~t. COl1\1l1l1 l1 !O '£'. 1l.. First loco. o f this anti · [35CIS 1. t nl{ IC lillian ' 'fhen mov(:ment. nce with which faSCism I • £ £' .es of the workers for t hc purpost of brenk inK 1110 '11 th e r<!sistallce of Social · Democracy to the fo rmation of :I do\\ .iftl.t e~ development of the 1100t. mass trade ullions 3nd numerically 13rge Social-Democrattc 1 3rt1es. from bO\'t and rr~m bel ow. t hat in some f<lrm or \\'11 . the peap h' basis I rst3nd th 3t th e ullIted I)ro. 1r tl' Pliftd prO Frotlt.. COl11 fadc5 . the Olle P'. ' . u po agai n st fa5Ci sm ..!>o. lIIlIh:d froll l fwm nbo\'c . ourselves a devotee of cut·and. .. UIlIi'c ~n . lidealiSCd.. 'fhi ~ to he foUow(:d by t hc extcnd\:d peol.jng his pet sc1. (l.. . S II h un al II .rt of those tt1o.. .> o f class fo r c c:oI.11Il' ''>S . t he Communtsts must ~arr)' out an eno rmo u s amount of poli tical and organi satio nal \\'ork amo n~ the masses of the workers. I agree . . [ _ 'st . k' class itself. · (ttil to UI H e ' ." . I '" f the MIlla:. true pedant: trh.• .. 'n'''' el i-Is lie . Some sal' t HI ." ' ~. wall to keep tu~m posed that it IS Im possible to 'ollsly s up .lc's front. UII . That is how m3tt ers s tand in Bel ~ illm and in the Scand'nnnvian cou nt ries where the n umerically sm all Communi st p~rties must fac~ st. " U rho " "Y r:lock ing their brallls OVtr . r d'llIon .. oh:t3rin n Ulllte( li S IS lOW t IIe matter Ilr ods above n11 ill Creat IJrit:lin where the workin~ cbss comst~ses 'th e majo rity of the po pulati on and wherc the bulk of the P~\king class fa Uon's thc lead o f the trade ullio n s and t he Labour ~ 0rt}.J ro interwOvcn. Comr3des! Just ptcture to. .e " o f th e If:'wl la rc \. S\I )S t ihl t' Un(lble to :l. lIllllW 1I". .cd. we mu::. rC.on ?.:-." . n fron t II .pr:. t he e nlistmcnt of other anti · fa '>Cht par ties. blislullcnt of th e ullIted pro. fascism 3S a cO llsequenct connect~' an d ggle agaJll~ .. wan t to "-_ In.lea ~ o£ these lU3SS\!S who .) the re\·ollltl O£n~" .na • 8 1 'hcll.' .(lrt.'!' the an tl . front. .· npp o lue. II J\ftc r wlllch t it(: 1110\'(:II1(:n l IllU!>t be ral scd to :1 !lIghe r !ev(:l . ' ral non · ""'1I1TlIl ~~ . " 11I 1 /lJtII1u1ns .:lUghteT. I till' lIt1i ll'd pro rtaruUi / tonl Some conlrtt< eS b l'~ill . . on. • th at. P [ormation II1to a peopl e s front n tts trans siderable degree. .::. .l t3lk about :J ~ple's (ro nt which C3nnot be formed \\ ithotlt the part icipatio n of the mass wo rkin g. 9 .r egard thei r m~ ss reformist org31l1sat IOIls as already the embodllnen t of proletanan unit)'.. . [ ..o :>lIff"' r rrO. " <r('lc ). k' " let:trJa tries it IS l ' " I the unit<!d wo r ·1Ilg·elass ' d thcn dc\'c op umber of coun n Ie's front . sniper.II.' the pro j_jllSri sl pNPle s " formin. 10tl t . tl ' assing IIltO t Ie 0 l er In tht f n t 3nd t e ' letari3n . Bll t in a Illimber of count ries we shalt not gct ag~~l1d general t alk about t he people ' :-. Ie's front Wit lout securlllg F' or I't cannol • " faSCIst peap 'd' . Ie urt l~r "~I)l e ' s rOil .. .. ~ front from below. .. . I con . t ha t th is i~ I>hcer l\(IIhCn-e . working class . .: '" .rian fr on.:IIR ~t (P roIOllg. . we ~lIecec:d in be)bilisillS' th e ma:. 0 'd "" bot h grouPS .. 'fh crNlft er. .Qnal. In th ese coull tri es t he Communists would comm it a "''ery rious political mi stake if t hey shi rhd th e struggle to est ablish se united proletarian fron t under co\'er of gcncro. .lonc will guarantee s u c~ss in the s trugg le agai n st the offensive o{ capital and fascism. I ' no Ch tne.)eme WI '. k olh t fr('qu' entl )' 111 ou r ran ·s. · r:1(Io:s n~ I'd 0 t Ie d' ~ )J u l wt.1111 1blem of :lllwi tC1 ..Dcmocracy in a Others argu. si nce th e ~st n ~ o f Social . _et shOO I " .d A' luI \\'1 Assuntilli':.ez:~1 of 0.\: . d nd s to a c . They must con vince t hese masses th a t the e stablishment of:1 united front wi th Ole Communi sts m ean s a sh ift o n t he pa. L' ro» t tUl .r).ly.. ' . . nt on t IS . t he g UI !fig OrCf . stand? Of cou r:. II m. w 0 d til e 1!1I1i· l· nsc u t Peo Ple'.. 1 0 £ sectaria ' n n on sense "IS ~tl I1 to be £oun d qUIte ' this kUl( . n ami t Ie '. and ~ e)\1 and so forth . rl be se . t with \Iller I and IIl1f: k1hn~ Y tlliu tht o '''rrS \\. unles:. ...':cn ' • I -.'011 . 1 f ron t 0 f st rug g e. '-"!ter to s a .l umted pro e o.. dried theories o{ this ki~dh t~o. . thc)" rclll1l\( u s of tho f. . lIut the Ilufo rlunate thin~ i . ition!. 3p:lrt. rc \'olu lio ni :. org:lIuse< n til we htl\ e .wnIIO' rins. whcrc for a broad anti· fa scist loCople's front of strugglc e\'\lst fascism. H oW d oes the mattcr rcall). nee< ess I ' I are qll1t~ . . . solid un ited front of tht .~lr n cn rdlll li nd cQllc rete Shld. a I O:ldl 11<' t\ CCO f <t\ .sses to the position of the class struggle.>cople ' s fron t are mtcr· E\1 cn h :tntt.) pO y ou will say .. \Ve shall not overcome these "j'. ed roleto.

m . '. l1"1l: 1I . . beca" •."C011l1 1l j : ! · k " '" t hbour n 'h ich arc I o"" rcs»ioJl (:\' 0 '.den lOC ' . :-· 1ll :':>!>CS " HIVe " t IC lt 0 .'~rll n' 3n para e w ith "' . 'o u n lOcS • u . 'Oil" • sl1lall oq. :md . b ' se llIn . I nfl I ' f n o. but in view fits illlllOrt:lUcc a fulle r reply mu ~t be given to it. .ClllC nt or :orki ng .cl:lss .1'. wou I '. " I I when It stalks aU. depriving Social...errollx and the prol"t:trt 0. 11 . ' r. " it)' of t IIe \ \'orkln g.oltJta . front ngatllst !> th e qllestlon " til t IIt"S Way Ylt ptete fiIt>. " is well known. .tr " .~ IllllOng t Ie I' . h3vc becn undergoi ng :1 ch :lnge.\lei S. too .. 0 1. " bourgeoiSIe. Ih . Second ."o" nl nll' llontlc .luon (" ll lltll \l s t " "' th e . out. sc(I a s. tron t a .l I'sointe ' . In this matter uniHt.1 n:su "t o f th 10 \ ' (' 11\('1 .. '. . t It where . a\lac\-ang l ' Thus comrades.. co 'k' g clasS was defeated in th~ the workl~g c a · nS why the wor III f the 1l1aln re3S0 ..III to "u\l\el . WOuld tl " • .l-De mocratic policy of class collaborati on with the b ou rgeoisie .. revolutionary Marxism. th e bourgeoisie in a number of count ri es is it self compelled to abandon bourgeois democracy and resort to t he ter roristic form of its dicta torship.llrd. . .I \'c~ n l \l l " '' we s . II Ilrn.giUn:. tnl/ oj tll ll P. h w ill e I' t:\Skli h e r e . corn Ta k e a ('Ou ratic ('C\'o j . nay.:S III( 1& 1\:llio\ • . .:.'lratl ve 1 ' he proletariat IS c t _bourgeois strata pre( om1nale. off(' !l S\ \ ' C ' II HI • ng :unst t l(! llr\:a t 0 " ere. sl. eve IO pl11e lll of th ' erl!>I!>.De moc racy not on ly of its prcvious position in the political system of fi nance capital.lit \Ill .. " 11 alloW me ' b ed even when it st3lks a. " ll crl!' t h. prcpnrc t h e Kroll n d fo r tI (' 1It rnry . ". 11l h can be no genera panacea sun· nd the people's fronl~ t erIeI peoples. a co d the same recipe to a coun ntS for able .. ' ons. I sa Ism... .~ tio lla O n:: 11l1lS. T his sect io n. rind in some countries ac tually impossible. th e Social·Democratic worke rs are becoming revolutionised. par ticula rly Social· bel\lOC r:ltic workers . the U"i/ccl F. ill ' . From this point of view tbe sclf11 .: "!> f ront tlla t Io!~' ncr:l f the \\111 f c1e\'cloptlH~I\t 0 the Il\O\.. e ° l}\. where t try and the urban pet Yd every effort to set up a firrt e the pea~~le more nccessary to b \ elf so that it may be able to it i.c the problem of the proletarl~ ta -e 1 s . ill "~I. b ut al so . Social-Democracy elies for support. if you \\1 ignorance should ~e flo~g t in the cloak of u1llversal ttt. g" the slog-ai.' ro .and SC I1lrad es . . aud if so. It llI ust be borne in mind that in a number of countries the : )Osition o f Social -Democracy in t he bourgeois state .::g e \1 . \1.}4' t be forgotten : 10 all countrit! October one thing must no _ . . regard to all the toilers. o events of 19. und e r the lIlfluen ce of the lessons learnt fr om t1.1 ' _' " . are beginnin g t o tum t o the class struggle against the bourgeoisie.: defeat of the work e rs in Germa n y .' . .:pedi -::ncy of the policy of class collaboration with the bourgeoisie. atHl at ti mes in this I l>eOP C!> ' .: ( . ie. I "".k c" P ohw' <. stro1tJ. ~ (liiTCf<. tarlat :lll .~.till the pri nci lml bulwark f tho. Dutt) touched upon this quest ion... . bo 10 T/tll R olli oj Socia /.'lIt • 'I' " ~ fore a w DY tad:.' 1'(" £ country lit for a \\ .. httng unorkcrs' tUI d I)(:a<:. I .: bourgeoisie.. was on.' . t he so-called :ristocraCy of labour . o n the other hand.D ctlloCFncy and itl A II it 14 de T O. . cl a SS must .~::ilfront of the work~ng ~Ia~~rl '~'itl.0 o u r:-c . grarian revolution. I "'. under the influen ce of the victory of Soci alism in the Soviet Union as a result of Bolshe vik policy :md the a pplication of living.h 'Ithdr:l\\ ln ' (. i!' begi nn ing more a nd more ~o revi se its views :lS to t he e:>. W II(: r(: inl"rerilllist ". I 55 Yet thiS. for it is " Ouest ion wh ich workers o f all tre nds . b b " bourg-eo!>· .."(ll'd!' uI 1111 Il ti ll C o f a g(". " (ll'Ol : . COlliratk s. .. 1. lio nS \\ whert: I I . th. 'C I I~' " '' 1111I 1'01(' \1111('5 ) ."1 "'o . S 0 t e . tytle 0 . Failure to unders tand this is parti cularly harmful in those countries in which the fa scist dictatorship has deprived Social· Democracy of it s legal status . t il' .. under certain conditions. t from .!c''. The joint effec t o f all this has been to make it increasingly difficult. as I IlOil1ted ou t in my report.! at I!> .(C \ 'C ' fhe IS> 1lI0 \ ' CII1Cl tt!> !I ' :l. d lich is in t he process of \ e\' <!ll outstriP 'r)' like Sp~l lI. a nd its a tti~ude towards the bourgeoi sie . _' . De\lloCrncy al Ihe pre. II untnes. tIl g peasantry . the cri sis has thorough ly shaken the position f even t he 1110st secu re sec tio n of th e working.. n of one an ' I ' the apphcatiO to say so to Ign orance:.aria II front. la ll " e ...' f h l)Cople to d islllllte the prolt.... _ nclica h.11)0: to U' IIIO\ .I. ' .. \ Gan it be said thnt.. persec utin g and eve n su ppress· ing it. for Social· Democracy to preserve its form-cr role of bulwark of the . link' 't place as the leading a. OIl.t e est:l 1isht1. here lI" • creflted? " R ble ~ IS ' . omp.' j . -ier for the enelll · 1 the peasr..'" nt of b:ltt l<: agn inst fascis \~ . as we know. whtrt l'Iowe\'er. are askillg' and cannot hel p ask ing. c1 nss front. . fronl 0 :. In the first pl:'ice.lI t 'I $lIIII .. upon which . .'. .. it . in " iew of Ihe IflCtic:l1 problems con fro nting \1 5 .lin& s ide hy sid e w ith thO " .et! pro c· ''\ ~c n er:\ I t)(:0Pleoo...ia l.. Third.a lll' !>:ttl . where? o Some of the comr:_des who par ticipated in the discussion (Col1lrades Florin . ~ '\ GIl 0 !>..-0 d no t u" lI y . a defeat which waS brgely the result of the Socin. wou I(I 11\ " eft.) 3ud-dned schemes.. . parUc~ ar Y (APplause. the pc... ". . a II I' all cases . (Ie' . the J\\OVelllC .:c(" " " .. .cn t time is :. Austria and Spain.-\try III OpPOsItion to make I .. Iy small in numbers . n Iu lion ."e I)roletana fie .er)' important 10 gile fl correct reply to the question of whether ~i!l I . It en!> d tie y-" santr)'. is equivalent. of its legal status .

the revoluTl1honarrS no more effective means of the Democratic workers. The experience of the claSS struggle and the participation of the Social-Democrats in the united front movement will sho w who in that camp will prove to be If left" merely in words and who is really Left. k' d[\~ .o . org nnisations will contilltlGto geDlsle 0 . .st equal guil t before the wo rking class as those who are ~istoricnllY rC~i>on sible fo r having su pported the Social· Democratic policy of class collaboration.:&:. united Jront gO'VCrIIlJlcnt 'Will be a particularly cleaT test. kOIl wi th the poSSI . f n time nS lit( el. individual Social·Democratic degree of de\'el?~n:'ent Social. {ormulM an (1Iall " e5 !IUlI h:'l. . '" Tile United FTont Cm'cTumenl. the aUi· 'ude oj tllc Sociai·Dem ocTals 011 the issu e oj Q. . . d '1\1 . the principal indica tion in every country of whether the previous role in the bourgeois state of the Social-Democratic Party or of its individual parts has changed.\'ho nrc bccom 'n ~ ... ere 1I11\:\. g on In .ft nO thought 0 S li C I ~ Ial. Our assistance to the latter will be the more effective.e m nun I 'ith the Communi sts against the experience in t?e J.' I ' to 11. and if so. p' tics all( " ' 0 __ ..1 these c han ges . mat lc . \cM th at I w\:! f c .ies this will be a 1Il0re or "II st.l on a • .ntg h .. of ceasing l. I. While the attitude of Social.Il. or worke r who con· tin ues to uphold th e disru pti ve tactics of the reactionary SocialJ}eOlcratic Icadc:s. ' I colllJ}' m d'm " a Olorc or eS5 . h . will thereby incur t le:!. nil CO\l llt ncs IS (c\'clopin . to work and fight with .11' orgnni satlonS or pa.'tCn . the touchstone for the policy of Social-Democracy in the given country: either jointly with the faSeist-bound bourgeoisie against the working class. and tactiCS.' { claSS c o .otl~1 the nd~l('CiSiOIt5 COllccnllll~ kl'lI plnec in it s posit io n.' th this ideology 0 t IC'lr o\\:n accord. I ' . I.' I b) ~. OUft 'I\botn~c o f the un ited frOtH (l dis to rtIo n ~_ 0 d will f~l (' ilit 3 t C t Ie s . or jointly with the revolutionary proletariat against fascism and reaction. the Social-Democratic.OclllOC ru1ic lenders . masses themse ves.who co~e out against the united front and thuS directly o r IIl(li rcctly :ud the class en. ' tions or partIeS DemocratIc or~a._. . of the bourgeoiSie. P. or I2 I w~ rk<:~~ nbando ni ng their vncillntion and d ubts thall P:Ut!Clpatlon 11\ the prolda.13 .'" DemocratiC ... r {C<>ll s i ~ t c nt cb ss strugs c: ... the cou rse of dccades. . an 1 . but also for those leading membe rs of SoCi:tI. . it w ill lend to . the policy which in a nutUber of Euro pean countries doomed the revolution in 19 18 and cleared the wny for fascism.'sed will at {l lI ce anc.. . \\'111' pa~t live causes. The nttitude adopted towards th ~ united front is the dividing line between the reactionary sections o f Social-Democracy and the sections that are becoming revolutio nary . led thnt the SocIa .ian united front. "'udent . f I 0 _ _' ..Dem<><:racy participating in a bloc with the bourgeoisie. . \ . e llh \\ 1_ . . wark 'cnt therc cn. d that primarily by utilising their t must be bo:n.Democracy mllst become more workers. m es.Democracy towards the practical realisation of the united proletaria n fro nt is .11 . generally speaking.. . I 0 • ic Parties noW gOI~' ... Wa!l.. When a situation arises in which the Question of creating a united front government becomes a n immediate practical problem. • ' 311011 11 .On . IIlUSt not be 11\1:1. fl ence of tel d' h ' h vho are under the III u .. " .omt strug~b~e \\nnd necessary to fa cilitate and class enemy will It be ~sst development of the Social..rt les .. ' .5oCiBI_Dellloc rnti ~ who .1 ' . . accelerate. :\ 1\(1 workers I :\(Iopt the posItion 0 C 1I!1l11llists without ally inter_ maSS sc:~ c "" '")' unite with the 0 1 ". . And within the Left camp the self_determination of the various elements will take place the SOOner. e m In t e " vhlch as f I ' vith the bourgeol sl~. ng:tin st the cIa!'!!'! enemy.D ctll oc rat~ c wo r~ers .1lIS3 ..gnore . the correctnes. . rntc. Our cfltlcl~m ofd must be based on the experience of s.' " " 10 I IIe I eltCf 0 ' b 0 SOle" t 0 " O (t lO~ · ' 1g to C ..he reac I .. to what extent. o { coni . In so ntC~ . Dclllocra tl c r ~ rtl(:s and orglmisntions who sincerely dc:sirc to adOJlt the revolu tionary class position. lowe r official.c mOCratic Democrat I. h been instille lilt . tJCC t 'deology of class co a ration .latc . .$:11 . \Ve lIlust e\'en ree Il nborntioll with the bour. " the rllllk s of th e Social.. in a comradelY ti~~t... The pro«"'" .n their !!peechu 1Tlen.. not only fOT the SoCial . all f the Soclll WOf ' ln!: '. o \Ve sha ll do all in our power to makr: it easier. to help them free themse ves rom business of the Con~mu~lsts.ore the C .. the more we intensify ou r fight against the reactionary camp of Social.'llll e time w e dec10re that any SoCial -Dcmocratlc lIn C ~lollary.. . . I ' C GenUll n C'OlllnH C' •I.>CCific and s).. 'onar)' clements o . ."(' 1. cnllCISn1 ("6Sit)' o f C(.r I'. It '~f (' IIf policY in f a\.he I>osition of claSS s r. 0 'being regarde :"IS:l suc h C\ ... {rom the posItion 0 t ug~lc agall1st the )OurgC<lISle." .e" ed and prolong ( I~ r<><:ess 1!' \ . The work of explaining the the hold of rcfornllst IdeolOrgyC' lmunism must be carried on IIImeO on d principles nnd progra f h' and must be ndnpte to the patiently. At the 5.Democ ratlc workers ed that ht o~ I' be ' t cannot be e. 0 f ou r POlicy' less I ICU .1 ' s"ges In a lIu . 0 1 ' bT h ' " tially dependent. ~ 5oc i(lI _ D c lll oc r a~y . l!lbilshmg t II! u n ity o f thl! C(lrrc<:t .:tt nn) .:my. eXIst or f course.'\~I?g .. "I No It is our bu smess .I lty tat. this issue will become decisive. ' . the more determinedly the Communists fight for a united front with the Social -Democratic Parties .tilly ' c\'olutl ~ I . of rc" O u tlOlll:. . f b actuated solely by 0 Jcc .

.li lio ns of their (ormatio n . ntnes were government m cou . the Ulllh~( II ~ "a t th e 11111(' IS ul C • t . ' " Ill)' rc po rt II h o ll \ t lie c h a r ne l" fornl j!( Ill' I \\" 15 ~(l!( I .:OI·crJln ICII • . c ne r:iI I :lCI1(':I. h' f the bourgeoISie ' ~ e alter jng to abolish the dlCt:ltOrs liP 0 .. P~li sh Pa. It WOuld u~. .'cta. .... the. it develops and will continue to dcveloll in proportion as furt her progress is made in socialist construction. d· Pl'll sClble slag .. ' front j.l(le.uI< r I'lu ning :lg nins t. 0 .. . w~i~h such fear of formulating j"l(bltlVC dl!mocratlc demands eXIsts til one way or another.. b e pn:scn·b ed In ' be seUled as tht:y arlS<:. Iictatorship.. " " ...'stiOll I \\ ' I of n llY HI ' " . . or a bourgeois dictatorship in its open. Scventh Congress of Soviets ~ t th e same tim e that the last vestiges of bourgeois democracy arc bein g wiped out in the..- pe~~~t':~ve already pointed out in my report.. .. This Soviet democracy presupposes th e vict·. in the crea tio n of cl assless society and in the overcoming of the survivals of capitali sm in economic life and in thc minds of the people.. o\. 1!lIIOC ratl... comrades? It comes from all incorrect. ·011 bol S 0 \\ I· The whole qu es I " noment for the ( Irect overthrow t the deCISive I f · '. . Such ftucst ions will I I .)rolel arian frou t 3ud the WI • t of the UIlI ' .ed . . ad peop t' d.olish P~ rty is. 1 . not ~he only one in . The question or wheth er Commu nists . ism withou t direc tly proceed· :lnti. the ("011 • 0 he Ulllte< o( ' as weI :l~. W e. entire ' IybY act ll~d situation prHail ing at the time . v11. u O . In t d 0 i.n '~ more colllplex th:1II n h). .. . g become the government of countnes where the .'e 1111111 .. capitalist countries. r. ll I I).. ) . con]f:<" ~ -. We are not anarchists and it is no t at all a matter of indifference to us what kind of political regime exists in any given country: whether a bourgeois dictatorship in the form of bourgeois democracy.0 landy reC11)(:S call :I ""ancc .. the great protot ype of .C I. . " . . t h:It '-t dictatorshIP IS Ilnd thnt fASCI~. gOVt'run iCIlI "' 'o rll. and tbe direct and secret ballot is proclaimed by resolu tion o f th e.. the con"I!rsion of private prope rty in the means of product ion into public property.'r. ine .r ~y at th e salll.: b ll I ill d cc(. \Vherc docs til at fear come fro m. To c:o. ' 'fh nt 15 JUS " r . fnst rules lI\ t liS ql u.In t .. .:!IIlOCratlc demands III fI\rder l>~ uot to create (. govern~ent'l nderstand that the establishment It is likeWise not dlfficu t t. e of politicnl shortsightedness 'ntole rab e plec h' I ' case it woul<I be an I .h : ~ o \'ernll\ent WII! . 011 " t tiS wrong as t IC ormc r asscrtioll IN IS . '} I th I only to suppress or .rd . c SlIC..lry of the proletarian rcvolution.a scI:> IICOPe s fr o n l ". \11 to th l! ex ten t that the lo iter wi ll really fl$(lll aRai nst th ~ .iU do all in their power to support a united front government 14 I COillr:lde Lellski poin ted Oll t in his speech that" wbile mobi· )'sing the masses to repel the OIll>lauRh t of fa sciMIl against the r~ghts of the toilo. _ T hIll iii h ow the ques tion ." . .. or the l'I]lplic3 I .. .. . k tlull l'nO U'!:: I ' I fi nd Ih e :11\11 . Ie's front government may mg . Communists . united front government can be sway. ( ' ag lO Ih a lt d ' 0 the cstnbhS IIncnt 0 t Ie prole.orship of the working class and th!! the emocralC I .fnscist people S front w o\'erlhro a ~ ' .s illl l)lifka" :\ not e 0 \ . even with democratic rights and liberties greatly curtailed..dialectical conception of ou r aUitude tow ards bourgeois democ racy .. b<! pre. .:\II(\ ..:r5 . '1\' h gOI 'eru l1l('l1l:: Ill. "1'1Ie .""If be prepare d a bl. . nOll. ' !I i n 1)OII'c r .11 as II' hlle \1 1 . d 1 crea e. •. ·ollid like to IIt h.o u ountries where fascism is not yet of a united front gov:nune~t In c from the creation o f such a t in power is somethm~ dlJ/Oh'CII 'he fascist dictato rship holds .n'II tak e put . n dictators III" d · y slageS III t Ie aSCls cOu ntries t (\fIR 'Izlume) mr ' I· 1 1 there will be 11 0 I " cer taill 1 0 be 1111 IIl c e 1« C )' sUPer.t: lime had i~s i " iv ings about forlllub llllj{ pOl>lttvC (\. the embarki ng of the ovcrwbelming majority of the people on the road to Sociali sm . I I 0 " II'o ultl lIIea n b ut 10 in"i t\: (Util thi S 10 III( .ill th e mo\'~mcn at the particular stnge ~e III a position f . . and I~ " d the esta 'I' ? f the bourgeoISie nn cure th e support 0 f ·Its ales 0'11 it be able in tllat e\'ent to SC' .. f rillS nnd :I II ('OIH ULo n s 1111( cr which c pr~\. .)1II or 3ctioll to the Commulllst Pn..' uSlons ' among the masses.:pcct us O\'er and abo . . II' scheme . ~~ course .. ' united fron l go\'e rn me nt is :III Ll el~ n'" 10 uli "~ '. I (11 r('cIl O Ii . . In the latter countnes OIl crvcrtllrowiJlg fasci st rulo. fascist 15 .O Il ~ . Or. . . I' or examp c... . hich is the proleta ri an dictatorship in the Soviet Union where the iotroduction of equal suffrage .c. rron . lilics to usc t IS a Olle as 'I. 1\'1. be WN to the roa I f ..11 e bourgeo isie is clad in the various countries. ':0 1 .'shmenl 0 ItS o wn power..ted by proletarlRn ( 'I d 'n 10 this: will the prolct3riat ~~ .. But to~day the millio ns o f toilers li ving unde r capitalism are faced with the n ecessity of tnking a d efi nite stand on th es e form s in which the 1'Illc of 1.... 1-': 1i('lI t C nil l)Oss. .1 fh e proceSS 0 . nar and not serious re\'oluuo > ':d su~port :l united front or a ground for refusit~g to create :1 people's front. be form <'< tl llil udc Towa rds Dourg eois Democracy. ' bour eois_democratic re'Vo/uitoli IS eve op. the Communists ~.enemies f the IlcoPh: lUid gra nt rn::ed!. Th is democracy does not repre· 5Cllt a fin al form. ".. '('r n llU' lll . Ix: dl:lermme( · . .rlY o d to Ihl! workin g class. r . arc unswerv ing upholders of Sov iet democr:lcy.

olutioll./i. 'n . II y wh t n t Il~ . _cnm . h had beel! cor rect a ( ew years ".g. ( s:. it is n ecessary first and foremost to discard any cut-and-dried approach to the ques tio n of defence of bourgeois democracy. 268. . . . stt ugl) .!>ta tus o r Its tt~t1t . A Co rrect LjllC A 10 llc Is Nol ElIougll.:an of the '. At . of COl1r$C .I"d to repeal t Ilose s I 0K:l II 'I ..ur tac-t ics .'Ill ".{crCIICC to fear . fill ite choice. IIgaiullt the worki llg hUrl. " The prolet ari at 0 a COU lilril"!i am t I' . p:l rliclliariy in Cerma ny .ISI 1I10VClllell i hega n to raise its head. situation IS qUltc ( .. and of runklllg It to ·( ay.1' . repubhc which was s llppress mg the u=u~llw~. bl' b . :It prescllt .d:. ·: n bourgeois-de lllocrat ic libcrtil" strugg ~ . which had tllkclI place.. were organ ising anti arming 1 9J~ t(ls of thousnnds of storm trooper:. Now the taili ng lion and suppression 0 t~.:.. . 11I:llIIlalll " I10lle tactlca . so the IlfOlda ri at will be unable to preJ):l re for victo ry o' ·cr t he bourgeoisie unless it \\'3ge5 a many-sided.f " . . ' lime ~IllC e s · Tht' et '1 ' I to ch:llleng .d i" Ihe d til tS" X(I\tlJ.• p .. h IV ' ar Rel>ublic not because It was a reJlu '. I I ..ranks .:. . ' 1' 1' ( I ullcltr nil C'Ondl uon~.:( 111 a I c-al\( ·dcath Rc. t (' 5. . Some So'l y tha t t he st ruggle for democratic right5 d ivert t he workers from t he slrugR le for t he prolet:lrian Y 111(1 .... bearing in m ind t hat in history the g rcat revolutio n s hnve grown Oll t o f s m :\l1 movements for the defence of the elementary ri ghts of t he working c1::J. \I11 ( C Anll thc circlllll o.... ti t'hl of wor". ~ of the ran 'h ' Ih~s 11\ • I I In t .SS. I when t h\: entire was ra II ylnK" 1111' 1 r the ball lle r of the Weimar RepUblic .). t lin uc I}c (ore . ut ag alllst t e elm •._ . . 1' tulltion which difTers from l hat which ~csides. we have no~.. 0 11 I • • ( • Now the (aSClsl bl" h most barb:mc regIme a exploIta.lIt of the proletarlRn ( 'fhe Bolsheviks foug ht Ihest II ). r5 gil' '\! t cit ry to obwtll t Ie l.. h f ist auger \\ s . .) --- lt .re . . • democracy. li tor!i I np ' was nn .!> 0 thous. d h number o( countries and it waS agamst bourgeoiS em.. h I to strike.. h" sh . but con to t.I. ·on is atlnd:lIIg uomg<''Ols ~m(). blood 10 \\1 • I ".v: lutiol1ary workers were fa cing in a delllocCDcy t at t h e r . It w ns the mi stake of the COllullu nist!i in clasS lber of cnunl ries . a5 it d id in 19 18-20 . (5 SlrenJ1. IilTerent In I .: le fo r d emocracy call di vert the proleln.'1 CrI'fiIC~"'.hie "Ie for tile pro I etaTl:l ' n d IC ' . when.nns ind ica tes how little our cOlllr:.-.11 Ou: WO I ' H'R clau .)nll . Selected Works.lC. for illstllnee ."' ~ '1 AI r Utl II r J .(' . mber of capi a I . 17 . .0\1 1..I.-::-:--:-:::-:--:"-. counter. 1I't4lS. But in order to be able to link up the s truggle for democratic rights with the s truggle o( the working cl ass (or socialism. . h / /111\ 1I"". . ~-" ured the rig I II (rc{' dom of the p rc l'is .'!C the rn~cist s in C enHlln).11'.. - -. R kgal .i(. G ern. '.. V. CXtCIl.'lnd Il5 1II1iO (.t:ul ce Ihat c\·cn to. Vol... I. Ihat they failed • n~~c intO accoun t Ihe ch:lngc>. ed much of It5 .!>I· ~rorc II ". t he RUS!iIll... Dut a correct line alone is not enough for concrete leadership in the class struggle. eois democracy IS not the S. or obscure.lh to ret:lIn I len} . I·st countries arc !aC'<'d with the .. t ICy o ught n<enl I t ICY were co ./I l 10 r.h adow it.--_. wI ' R / s/llbbo rll sh IlGJ:/ e.<i':!i have mastered th e S xist. for example.. • that t~me! e asc . (Applause . . I t Ill ay not I)c l:I1I\1~ ' to tecn II W Ilat . . These words s h ould be firmly fix ed in th e memo ries o f all our ~lIlradcs. '''''11 "fj"" I. I poSIuon5 . in our . Of course li n t.'ll'd on di l' t tltorsh~P . copi tah st CQlIntnc:. . At eX is ted..ocrac{y t at rating their fire.lan cou lltcr-revo Iullon . S. the fundamental thing is to work out a correct line . con sis tent and rcvolution ary s truggle for democracy..lI .IIll1ne d lale ' I.. dicilltorship in t he (orm o f bourgeOis g th at tllllC It \hvas bo ur eo. or o vcr:.. of the Bri t is h workinH f .. espeCla . In GermAny.' .Lenini. I dt'!'I\OCf M' Y.. Ie against all l~htIC~ictatorship uncier th~ sios. }' we must still nl ake . nth cen l U . d . a: poch of capitalist s tabi lisa tion .OI·. Bolshevik s ruga. w r .d . I . it is clear. Comrades. cracy in au cffort I~ est tl( I~ ~oiJing masses. I d ddt'llce of bou rgeoiS r o f bourgeois democ racy la at that mrlies be<:IIUse Ihe b:l llll ' nd which :lll cOLlIl \er-revolut ioll:lry I• th talld:lttl aroll he victory 0 ( t I Ie pro Ie .' e mcn ta. but ~t\\"et'n proletarian dictators I d f scism be geois democracy an n . th a t fo r the Communist International nnd each o( its Section s ._ . . forces mobllse< • ..• Lenin.goinst the esploltr r!. $ 1.:. ura II fi"ht with" I (Ot! will nal )' Ie.fll edl d I I ~ of :-. . (It. . espectnlly III 19 18-20 d and in 1923.i.!. etc .. revolu tio nary 1Il0\lement of the proletllnat.1' 0/ )'t/J's o . I p:lrties whit-h oppo~cd the es tablish_ stru/:/. not necessi ty of mak l~lg a ~e h'p and bou rgeois dem ocracy. bOII. ( or"'a lll :'lIlg t IClt o r~cs fo r th Frlln« I rtUnlt)' 0 l!> • (II • I h I"wflll oppo . of launching positi ve: democratic r g. But could the Communists maintain thlS stand also when the 16 . On the contr:uy . ' e t tld lleirl~ "ph ol ( (' 'U I.riat from th~ Socialist revolut ion.t'lIlb)' 1111 (011 the ri~hI 0 (l • hiS I How llIany Il'U. 1l5! H ow grcal wefC t I. hc nUlett'e .t mdhod o f approaching such important problems ~f a. chist ond olhc r ~Ig Ihc re \'olut ionary battl es fOIlRht .. ~ue. I ' ( • . .• 1101 "S acute 3S it is to -day . :lnat. I masses 1Il n nu . this question : " Jt would be a fu ndamental mi stnkc to s uppose that t he st ruSf..dill t e c. J·or ln!. in f. I I . j ust as socialis m ca nnot he victOriOliS unless it introduces complete dem oc racy....'llllt on Our 3lt itudt to\\"ard~ ~U~lg:tnce nt the tim e of the OCtObet .--:-. II . bctW("C1l ur .

after a corf(~cht so \Inner in which t he work is organiStd' I t\l=':llenh ..t Part)' t he Soviet 1J\~I1· " . b Win . (nil" carry t le ln Un. \1t I :'. .• . ."'111 . th ~t .line t he Il:l th al1(l the turn s which nalur:lll)' \c3d the masses de te. the slogans of the a rt y .. !-1I0U. of the d ecision s o f the leading .inn Bolshev iks in the period of prCl1arat ion for cU ta October ".were_0 t:lllh". III pOlll 'cs of the R u!>:.. o n . t ... • COllllllllni-. " .. . 111011 i'lf" 10 . line . 11 r('solu ll:ly 0" ('1('''>1 . e all d the s logan:. · 1 '.Att. lloon t ti e . th e full men supervlsmg . bu t as a rt slIl · . The same applies in n o less deg ree to o ur oral agitation and propaganda. lCSC S UCCt~ thnt lICe " " ' )' 1I11 <:.: . ' te(. • te{ " Oll t t lat one 0 . 0.:d . way they worked o ut 1 clership of t . to ge t the m:l~-. Cllfl1l'( (Ill \ VII II! C(IIlIrlhlc .. {'()n ciilio ll :<> 11.' 11/. . '1.<' he fulfil J. 1\' .'!~I~ t~ c~ rt~ be df:l. rlllt! 111M al\ nh'. • . Furthcrmore. " t so to spct\ . in imag es which are familia r (ld intelligible to th e masses. I " ger of being severely damaged lution s nre 111 (a . pp . n th iS .:l "l1I :ltte!" o r. we Cll n see for ou rselves t hat the Bolshev ik s liou r substit ut l.i . . Onl \' incorr1~:lblc bll fcauCrt\ls and e\ leadersh ip of t IlC IIlI'.' " on of success d el)enels . let alo n~ the mnk·and·filc work ers. abo \'e lire ftu:ed w ith the tnsk o f ol"ganl~i n g a united fr ont of \ . " " I'\. . . Without t .t kind and C ea '.Ictor)' n C\. of a fierce ~trll. It . . . t h c: pecu . to tes t and to rcali~ fro m their own 110~rience the correct ness of th ese slo~ ans . As a matter of ~aet if you scan ou r leaflets . 78-9 . lnntles " ..hip of the mnsscs . y moUS ).fascht people's fro nt . allt" (r:lwlIlg .."solu t . . bo or . orgMIISn'l ..'Ion s 0 f t O '..' correct so 1 rrec t politicnl 11Ile laS lcen given Mo re than. w IC I ".. . folloll' up the h b lory o f llolshevhm . a meeting of unemployed in Berlin 19 .. . . '".~ell. . 0 f t he ~t n . o u r Co..:cll lI10 s t c\curl y :lml most vivid ly in . who dis tribute o r o nly read these leaflets risk their very lives by doing so. tty ' the .t of .." t.. W e arc s tillloalh to d ispense with "bstract fo rmulas whi ch we have learnt by rote . . 11\ ' ' a b •' . If we reflec t. Some IX'Oll l..\11 11\ ~ah :\1 t he ~ ." • t dd nnything to these s triking words It is hardly l~ecesshn~Yh ~l~st become a guiding principle in all of Co mrade Stalin. 1 not au tomallct\lly.:i .. \ 'rIIl thes("l' :I t! form 0 f ~C I e t.k' g: .. p ' the" ". f t\ct.tnnd the corn. for ex a mple. " 0 11 t Ie l (':<: ISI01\5 tty wh' ' Comrade Stalin ~J(I : .._ TI I":' • f -. and theses. efl tics as th e sc ience.-. tmsci' o!"\' com(" of It se . .·0 tll:11 :l\h'JlI"'~ dcci~IOll5 \\ill F in-I. • Stali n. " ress IIdopl:o. ' \ l 'lI t i rd v. . broad masses o f t b e ~op "e Into \\-hell oletarHlt t 'Ie .lk the work of o ur ~n. . including th~ th e org ams."tcrful ahilit). thnt wo rkers .': th em to . ...lroc !l1I1I I . " n. \Ve mus t admit quite frankly that in this res pect tbe fasci sts have ofte n proven more dexterous a nd flexible tban many o f our commdes."lIle. but also o f the .eva . .. I:Ith. .. 11 :n ill :'11.. not o nl y o f Party leadership. .J helpin. that Rreatt'st of Vit 111\ Ih(' (nllo\\ t\n(I . They d id not con · ~:se leadershi p of t he Pa rty with Icadcr::.rtics: th abi/il)' to CC"ll Crt d cc isio )ls oj Ikt Another condItion IS e . we s hall rcalise s till m o re clearly the n eed o f writing for the masses in n lnnguagc which they understand. of the l'ilr ty through their ow n experi ence . ~ (. t h . . .you'will find tha t th ey a~e o ft e n written in a language and s tyle SO heavy thnt t hey are difficu lt for even our P nrty functionari e~ 10 unders t And. I Cr!>. .~. lelr correctl y to . II tlOIl COllsls t .. a.'!scd by the h and .:.. . p .." CII I to draw . I " lin.. 1 hIS IS all t more necesSary now. concretdy .:(· . es pecially in fascist countries. l'IHI1IClah:: it in I\.!Ictonc:. •. C~ COnles by Itself... lose w to thlnk 0 COU f1'C."C.HI should IW (lf .Fllf th Rt . Wi'. 0 " d' C:l Ing the P:lrty for mf:th ad 5 0 f ne\'e ding the Jll:l:. ".I . whether it is fulfilled or (nte of the pohtlcnl IOC I . p ' out the Pa rt y m c . his the correct line o f t he Party and the organs. not . lip a ('Qt r ttl " I ' " fr o tH t he hou sct o PS. .not VIc tor}· . but ..I. resol ut io n::. :.erely express the desire! •• a hegulIlIlll>' W Party arc 01 .' UC'c . " Report on the W o rk of the Centm\ Committee.'{" lIlet UX. he broa d masses fl...In tllll b . office rt\ts ~. I MId lis ec lOri S . it mus t be bo:'o e in mind that Ihe br oad I114SSt:S (a nnat assimilat e o ur d u isio tu ulI less we lea r" to s peak IIl e Ian· uage w llicll tll£: "Hi sses IIlId n s ta tld . 18 If \\\e houses of the poli tic:. " \ ..1 strateH Y anel tactics o f the revolu· Ich I treaSlly nr movemen t ... oreler to n Ht"C \ . ..' ' .lndcs III the WII)' ~~ . ... nfte'~'~rl~ ~ccides everything. lea comrade <. ':-. P Rr l~.H! secont.tical' . .'n'o d llcisions 0/ .'ltl~n.'OI1S in favour o f the gen crnllinc of tllt resolut ions t\lId dcc :I~t\ I. The f)()l it ical lind t:lcticnl genius <' I h teenth ..·. "-.. C'(Ultli l ioll'" Inu . .. to the vcr}' ' threshold of lhe rc\'olu· t? . • c an .1 SIIII i " is c\'in._ . wrong . 11\.he pr. \\l e d o 110t always know ~ow to speak sim ply. so that the sacrifices m ade l1Iay no t have been in vain .' .es.Iy 53W the diffcf{:n ce betwccn le:ldership o f the fir.-any ou t t It' III(: 0 the I).." See Socialism Victoricus. i . Communist I"t urla I Clla • .. I in p rn. :llItonHl. .. 1 recnl1.' lt it j". .... . hClr n . I tion o f the problem las ~n found given . neWSpapers . ' • • After t he correct "me has bt.. b "t i .es to llllder:. 11l1m wr 0 .•... .nl I' ' tself comrades . 5 .. III I . on ' t e lil f atl e st r\l s~::le fo r tie on the orgalllsation 0 tlhe ' llrOp~r selec tio n of workers on the line of the Part}fi"1 0" .lo n . lin .:icn sc .

t"nsc e.1> ' cnkcrllln«r '" to I IC sWi nd!" s. the chairman. Many of our com rades think ~1. . . During my report. . Comrade KUlisincn.) The Pl enu m ea s o n us • .' s' Internation:l l h3s lust closed It PI of the Comnlun ..-Transl.on. our best resolutions will remain scraps of paper 11 we Jack· the people who are to put them into effect. received practically 110 attention at thi s Congress. to I>ower It was at Ihe time o f the ~(or~ H itler':J nccC'$Slon . but only a few. .') The plcnum pointed out tha~ wo rklllg class. . a Dolshevik law. SO extremely vital for the Commuuist Parties and the labour movement. C Id h appeal to the unemp oYI:U . lent must be po Itlca IS'C( • L.. There were Illany speakers from various countries. the Sk. ~ e always spoken nnd writt en in highly popular language . lind any satls actIOn III calise then revolutionise.:. too. .. ~ and propnganda..e m~etmg. Also thot agitat ion for CommulIlsm be cond ucted III understandable longung c. T he chainnan "" lit A ComOl unist rose an< . lal ally wark'lIlg ' . c agnn how 5 Ittmg In a co ' eager to hear a eommUlllst ' in 'ho had been so t h e unemp 'oye b d. (Appla use .hi. 21 and tunc· .·e .iglltl r /cl)cI. but I e no doubt that thi ~ comrade voiced in his letter the opinion ba~ d esire of millions o f wo rk ers. The chitf showed the way to e rades is ' to 1uill tllc majority 01 th task ~t puts before Y?U'( r::lgilter. he began in a loud nnd stro~g VOICC.' mer of the hall I observed Wit ." (I.''\"pectfttion what the Communis. . They I1lU S ~ be remindcd o.) "." c " ing the meeting Illnde demagogic III ' "1St :. from the Communists he had " d' vhich wante d 0 . This unfortunately is not the only case of Its kmd In OUr ngtta. In their practical work our Parties have not yet • Cadres-here re ferring to active Party wo rkers tionaries. It is hig h time to put an end once and for all to these. ' f (jill! emp h IlSlse' • I tlndrcds of t iOusaIH S 0 marks it I iig'ure<1 O llt how 1111\11) 1 oo. . the better their agltat. to say the least childish methods of agitation. Comintcrn might with out nlly prcliminnry training be able sec nt once w ll. I . h ' ne strain evidently uuder the Impression He went on m t e s:u .he rank-andf"l worke r who lIIust u uderstalld you.. . and the more form~las ~nd h ses unintelhglble to the masses they usc. .. forgetting that the grcntest leaders and t~oeoreticians of the working c1nss of Ollr epoch. A Nation brothers.a~ u g IIter 1 the unempIOye" moven to raise it to a '.. The r-eport o f the Executive Committee o f the Communist In. ou they speec h Cousuc . . and finally moblilse t em In order to . Or officials.f it . ar h ' 'rll had been drag ~ lt\g o r Illonths • ' d that t e n .' .1 l~n. and the me brothers should ~I~\r~ ~~1 have gone to th e unemployed. ' C' ' Cad rcs· Comrades.t t I t. Nor were such cases confined to Germany. . but t . b" GlI d d nlrea Y cos ~ ker declnred th nt such nllt Its li S the S klarel( npplRuse the spen be shot without an)' ado . Unfortunately. 1l :ll1l cly . . " 1 do not know exnctly who is the author of this letter. . th at all resolutions and decisions 1'~oPted in the fu ture by the Communist lnterulltional be n'ritt cn so th at not o lily trained Communi sts can get th e: " call in$:: . Socia I" ~ OWII cuds. et me real. discussed this questi. "tht Comrndes . an elementary rule: Wh clI writing or spcak illg ahva)rs lla-vc ill mind t." g " authentic deciSions 0 t e enum. I 0 au Jenee \ \VI the COlllltlUllIst got upon tIC pl at forrn let him spenk .I . . ker would h3"e to sa) . And I Was not at all surprised when towards the end the chalrm~n rUdely cut Ollr spea ker short without any protest fro~ th. I mu st state that the problem of cad res. applause.) . and o f what service ~ornllllll1ism is to n~ankind. must beli ctre in )'o u.3t the more . . ' . h . To agitate in such fa shion means to agitate against one's own cause. H (' re f cHe( oClha! trial.. Some Party leaders forget this. 'h' t to a higher level? (Laughter. however. one o f the most important quest ions that confront us.AlIgltte. Illeasc take up the follow. which ~r 1. to whom yo u sp eak.' hen.. . d. every bod)' nW3Ih::u wll I . n order to find out from him what to d~ conc~etely I egan to yawn and display unmistakable signs of dlsappomtment. • f lets th e bnlJcr). Lelzill and $ Ialill. h h ' ·. rea Everyone of li S must make this a . ~ .: ommullIsts want .vritc."Ars ~nd specu l nto r~ .. :W dily understood by the brO:1d masses. that he was exp alOm . ' t 0f man readlllg the materia "'. the fact that first . tio na l work . It' : me. ' I. him but un der the pressure of th llls I I firs t refused to recog . and very str?lIgly. . . . '111 ten de d to politi. 1(\ other Ctl1l . and they o nly in passi ng. att!( of tho~ lI o~or n ed o n fo r scvcrlil mo nths.. l ~ " [n yOllr spce<:h at the words . ney wasted on the tna s ou I ': "ked fo r the fl oor .)le T o th e :l c c O lllp:lniIllC nt of I l ad t the German p . g (IU<!!>t ion. f a ' .1.. f h P' " . ..ternational was discussed for seven days. ttilll ious SWill . to further I~\es committed by th e S kJarck bro t! es. raIse t elr mo\'emen .." Ip~cal all d be read)r to lollow you! Y ou must hal)o in mind ~/Iose lor w ll om you .. " 'd .. received f 20 ' " " " I ( ' rnctcristi e lette r from the fl oor of the: Congress addre:sse:d to • ch . Well what (II·d h c say. enum th salvation of the worklllg e ass.

'.'5 his (!I \.. I he lIl(b l \ II • .. The Communist Party of Germnny.r th ~ rron·". " • C ev .. " .:e~ who :lc t ll~dly harm the cause are p romoted to lead ing posItIons. Part icl!.. agcuts of th e enemy . . I' ' i' . cl~1 men t !Hlt the CIIClIly HUll :> (0\\'11. m~ lIh who \\ cre id\:ological1y and polit ica ll )' h:lrlll fl ~1.o f the Ilormal functions of the Party.' ('II( rcs .\\ Silo" ml.. ot/lo lioll 0/ ead ... \\' ' 10 h ave . she has proved herself. ". ' socicl.a most worthy member of that boey.:llld. \' 31t' ('. Out in the vcry firs t clashes with the cl3SS enemy she proved to be au ex cellen t ag itator and ~:dsli /lg cIlClres.1flre~ II."ibk {or the (l':JoSO n th n t w~ n(\' cOlls ta tltly 100itlR II. the Parties bega n t o be l)Ur$. have sprung from the very depths of the m asses . IlalllS. kt! OWi'lg 01lC'S poop/c . the more so beca\lse th ' . and of their popularity a010ng II~c lIIas~s. munist promoted has contac t with the masse.: IU rI1ed ou t to be agen ts of the c1n.woman.. Party workers were discovered who had .:~·d \If :1i!t. //1 HI tlllI. fr\li~' Cl1lli. Illos.'< .and Correct t~eir wcaknesess and shortcomings .. ) I could POlllt to a number of simil:u cases in several other countrie~.. tion. T her-c are no ideal people. .list't'll»' (M 'h I "II I 'h I ll h"IIP/1" fIIdtrs.. IlIUr<!N:> " t . and therefore a rc not always fortunate . Third. " nOI II /e. I ~I I'olalld nnd in lI u ngary th e veri fi ca. silt ing in the Presidium of this Congrl:!>5..' . .people to bes t adva ntage . . phrasemongers and chatter.. without regard to whether the Com. ho nes. trahllll.!> or not. JUSt becoming re\'olullon:'lry.ant districts should have an appropnate number o f such a ctivists. th e Com.' 10 IIPP(.·.. I · " . mo\'eme-nl is g:'lining momenlu m :In(' b" rm gmg [orward mrOIl! ' . (Applau se.on IS made cxclusivf:\Y o n the basis o f narrow P:lrl y conSi deratIons . .)11 1111011 ' cau". munist Party of China. to our (" ...·.'. fl:l~ l icnlar n rJ:ell cy for the add ' · " oUcy 'wit/. t IS claSS·("OIlS. Fourth. '<-"0. no t on ly workers ' . " ' c> t It :lllu" . . li S cr(':ltcs ti l " l orlur~.. V~ry o flen former members flnd actl\'lsts of the SocI:'lI·OemocT:'ltic Par. Comrade Dolores .for the enlire rc\'OIUlionary labour movement.' bul :1 1111111:1111 m O\'l'lllen! IV nch IS COli ' . " .. . 0 apprccin . e a b il~t)1 to tl se . . • .Communi st .d to cadres is a "cry serious one for OUf Parties .. The eXPtr.'S.11. achie"ed certain successes in this direc. rtm:dlled tlll llotir..'l!lroll o f C:ld n:i IS a l] tI. of • II :: . . . bo. . of col1'.". 22 . For inst:mce .!:: I I IIl1 0 ( 0.. p . tion of clI(lres made II enSH.. On th e other ha nd .'T. It is bad whcll p~omotl." oreol'er. Only recentl y have the Com~ munist Pa rt ies of France and Poland and. " . " [ cadres with their poor theo[.'{"w t c I worker wh o L .." Fo r SOfrlt \\"e a . 10 Il/lfl l\. As n rule the re is no systcmati study of cadres in our Parties. ti. Such 23 . who ha\1e initiative and are st~unch.• "~. Promotion should no\ be solllething ca!>ua \ but . . " . urgen . in the E3St.. ~t re:l1l1 IIlto OU~ T:'I llk s. .'h.. .(I1. \'tr . before its underg roun I period.'OIlS c/cll1('uIS arc In I Ie rOllt (all. ability of the various Party work ers to (llscha rge particula r fUl1 ctlons..IIt' T (.l1 e\·('r b[ e ore partlCIP:lted in .c . rega . lad" in the illegal Communist Part Ies. tions which ~la \'C proouced excellent results.t Commun ists wh o might have bew very use. "rlkul:trh' in f:lsclst counltll. ' atu". 1Il 0~ t cOllrageous and Y on I hC fiIn ~..ettca .:: '· " . IWlble of our cadres III th i: s truJ:i:l c. . as well as for th Young Communist Leagues nnd for all o ther m:lSS o rgalliS:ltion: . t:I .5 . .lIl l i\'l1l1. The pfoblem of what shall be th e corrc. What does a correct policy with regard to cadres imply? First.!>5 enemy and were Ihrown ou t o f the I'ar~y .ou r il . . /n o/". " alltl 'n" line Ou r most cllcrgdlc.". who had :.. We know o f glnrmg eX:lll1ples III o ur P arties of the wro ng ulilisa~ tion of good. it is an}' nOI on'" young rc\'OhlllolHl ry elements. " trl'''' •I. SubSCCluently promoted to the leading body of th e Party. . The mo re imp~rt. . Sometimes morahscrs. .c<lulous\ y conCf:a\cd their identity.. ' ] . C'y . The Queslion of C:l(lres is of. ' :. Second . proper distribution 0/ cad res. les Rlso join us. '. . we must take them as th ey are . c:'l~res re<I~lll'e 51>(-<.71 political mo\'eI1lCllt . when IlU t under the Bohh<:vik lUicro~o(ll.. First o f all we must see to it that the main links of the movement are in the' charge of strong people who ha \'e contacts with the masses. • cillo lIis.I\. We must be able t~ ascertam and ulllise th e valuable qualities of every single acti ve worker. ful had they been g IVen work that they were better fit to do . g."Ollci:n lrat lOli (':II11pS:l1H SII )Jccts to e"cru . d(l ch/r rvr ' y tld"g '1'.' re3son Ihnl ti nder our mflucll cl' the I1l:'l SS u ni led r . ("Iii .uelltly cOllle up against serious politica l proll ems In t elf prnctlca l wo rk Which they must solve for thcmseh 'cs.n g rCt'I.! '\1\ I II! IIn' ( ' • • ..I rltljlwlc 011 the 'lIu..II IS suOrciell1 10 poi nt to tht: (:)( 3ml)\e of eelor :lnd IbrbC III l'rI'IlIce who .. l1aln('1 !lI t unllble 10 ( 0.file Party worker..>I.' r 10 di sco\'er n est...".s of provocat~u r s . h:ld a lso undertaken a study of its cadres. we have :l Span ish ."}'t. Promotion should wkf: !l!ace 011 the ?:l~i s of the.lnn ll" r('pll'lll s illi g the milks . ~~. b u t : n Ihe majority o f C:lSCS promot ions arc made in an unorgalllscd a nd h~phaz:lrd Ill~nll er.. \Vc have eX:II11ples in our Part ies of prolllo. ' . . new C:ldr~s as \\'ell :lS c:lrdully prcservin .:'ISS 1111. .tl bdore . enre of these Parties has shown that 3S soon as th ey began to study their people.pen oC . In capitalist countries it is Dot an easy matter to transfer cadres from one place to ano ther. These ne\\. " • ICy COlllrnd~ . Two years ago she was still a r:Ulk. I r O\\' P" ' ~ ill (. nn~ ~ " ahn t I mlO Jill • ClI'.'13 all~ntlOll .. " IhollSIlllds of new \\'~rklll . that..

and mista kes lI m l cO llc n 'le. ( App/nll s(J . /CllCc· IS called upo n to Ilia). We must place all t he more em phasis 011 these conditions which d e t e r lll i l ~e t he corn. arc s till Ie-gnl bll t Ill :'!)' lose their leg al s tatus to·morrow. The m aterial and m oral assis tance which the I.?h:serva tloll of pre5('n at 10 11 0 " highl)' efliciell t org:lIlls:u loli o f secre .umber of ob51nd u fin d cliffi c u lt i ~s . ('IC. ' . ~c l i fi toke' the (orlll o .' -• In Russian-MOPR. afrnid of tl u u mir'J. 10 connection with t he q u es tion o f cad res permit me.doctr ina~rcs or moral b e rs crowd ing out loynl mnSS wo rkers . Third. Gbilily independently to /illd olle's b04rings and not .~ood s peaker but i s not a man or womall o f actio n . 1\ cer """' 1\1 ( ' ' jelltly prepared or till( erg ro und exist Ihat the Par!le5 nre 5 U . to wit hdraw Pnrl)' workers to I Ie ren r whcucvc learn prompt!) ' re and rcplllec t hem by o th ers.. . alH IS capable o f goi ng into battle and leading thers juto battl e. str uggle illdependelltl y. be .nalional ta bOllr D. who di splays indomi tl\ble fir mness in ht llryi ng out (t ee1"M01l5. genu llle worklll j:t·class leaders? Our lead ing cau res sh ould comb ine the knowled ge of w hat they mu st do-wit h . tl C a ( ler t h e P arty lac ' Rcmcmber the se\'crc osses IC Ollllll ll nist n. Cd . comrlldes. to persecuted revolu tionaries and anti·fasci sts ..'. .~cqtl)I.!! to tnkc re~j)oll. mil)' be :Iblc to w~IlC \~e ll and be a . ("amm C)' con tro . fir st of all. W c 13d to P3y vcr). Wh at s hould be o ur IIIa il! crit eria in sel ecting' cad res ? Firs t . OUld • f (':\refill instructIOn. possessi n~ initiath '(: and contacts ' with. . . (A PP/llI l st' .ayli: . l or Ili r "rrsfJ r:. tloll only I gonc underground. .sen ·olr of the Ill ass movement e"er fresh rei nforcements of new nnd better tlcth'e wo rkers. y O ng to read)" 1U 3dc rules .. nnd obtai n (rom the enormouS re. Second. loyally 10 til e Pari')" tes ted in face of the enemY.. ved th e H\'es and p reser ved th e streng th and fighting capacity of t housan ds u pon thousa nd s o f m ost valuable fighters of the working' class in man)' countries. . '" J: I I tion oC shortco l1l1n /::I • Y a)' guiclnncc . t c'Volu tiona. He l?hO fellr.. to political emig rn nts . who :o-.. rs.$I!Stnn cc IIh ''ilth s)-slr-ma Ie 1I . °.) H :'!\'e there not been ever 50 ~lIny cases of sectarians .-<:t : c1<:ction o f cadres . 1 11I~ :l:. d . \V c rill! r circIlUlslallccshso . ) Ie p ro p~ r . in court.(fcred d uring Its trallSltlon to un.. d . I I ill do only \Ihat I am told .n.lIl battl e . and of revolutionary elements among the peasantry and profes. to cadres WI ll e nab le OUr Pnrties to dcvclop nnd utilise all nVlUl~blc forces to the lltmoSt.) By its activity. in prison. . . fecI the Jife pulse of the masses.llI t y 1'1 no t II leader. ment's and requirements. n eg /' ssist(JIl u to (od . has s. k ( " formn y aC'('()r dI dearly " {~r having "tarte<! the real wor ' 0 reorg 3111 :. ( th 0 \\'5 0 e C " . "" . for example . attachment and profound g ratitude o f hundreds of tho usands of proletarians. has won the affection. . ' h3\'C rcorga lll se t lemsd\'es on' ' . und er th e <hree! henvy . 11 f: who 1!Io unable II displaY li ll·mlme. and are co nvinced through their own experience of their ability as leaders . know their senti. Ou ly he i:-l II rCfl l Bolshcvik lender who does I t loSC hi" hcad at momelL ts of defe:'! t.n. ' b' ' " .. the LL.. ..". eVe r . a rell (c\'e101) and grow bes t when they cur pille-cd in t he IlOsition o f hnv ing to sol ve concrete problems o f "Ire." ~: not I I IInblll::\'ik . and of their determination and seH·sacrifice in struggle. I cI i ffi e t! It i ~s wh ich In Illfr la('k 01 f\l ~Hb. ( li ll ) I fi nd prol>el'ly o vercome . who does not gel a swelled .. Those: of u s who b:\\'e been ill jail h a\'e foun d o u t d irec t I } ' t h ro ugh our own experience the eno rmou s sig n ifi cance of the activity o f the LL.. the m:tf.. . Bolsll evi I~ sta Ill i lIa . .0 d nt mome nts o f S UCC(:5'I .a rd t " ing in t he struggli': lIinst th e class enemy ns well :1$ ill thei r irreconcilable 01>p05i. D. because in prac· tict preference IS \:cry o ft en glv(: n to a comrade \\'ho .D. \Vc II Sixth prop" rare I lUSt .' ( cndres. and are aware that they arc fully t'cpOnsiIJte for thei r decisions.$k ('110011 ~11 e rs 1~ I j'ons id('ral iOIl" .. Bu t II sunll liSt be laken nllo n('('OlI lI Y \\'~ le-cl to do this altoge ther .-Transl.. disci plirlt and Bolshevik I. r ~~ /Jo r~ sibm l y i ll takins dec/l io" s.. org ani sation s ren d..' . d Oy cadres also presupposes . • . absolute devotion to the cause o f the wo. :i~n to all dcv iations fr om t he Dolshc:vik line. inchrd ' " I. -- - -- . IS not as SUIted for the struggle as some ther cO!llr:'!de who perha ps may not be able to write or spt:ak 50 but is a ~tau n ch comrad e . O nly 3 correct policy in regard . dcrg round ' Pnrty 0 ( Gerlllon) condit ions ! Its expe rience should scr~e 3S n serlOliS warll lllg to those of our llarties wh ich to·dn). st rength 0/ 'haracl or 4"d t il e 'w I Il p O'WC t to can y it tllfou gll.".. The prestige of the leaders o f Our Party organisation should be based.L . on the fact that the m asses regard them :lS their leaders. the closest possiblc contact 'willi the masses. t ' 1\ of our Par!lcs lIIallY COlilra es thin" m the Party.. The comrades concerned mus t be wholly absorbed in t he int erests of the masses.1 Ic~:lcrship JlM t icu lnrlr in cOll ll tries whe SI demand . >.'otiol/ 0/ t: ad . to d well nt. in relatio n to t h e cadres of Ihe tabour mo vement.. ence even t hOil S I thc) ' . . rking c lass .that l e " " a r · ' " '" " a SS Ullle PMMllOllnt r ~ po Il S I )1 Ity for th the Pnrtles are I ega . rt'~ Fourth .D.11 " I ( .: r to our prison ers and their families. .so on t he great rotc wh ich t h e lrti c.!II).

"olutionarv soldiers ed' II" .. no poh t. nSSlstmg ·e II rl)' .. inthelrc1ll • ..t of our c(. and even de~rtion .) Such 'orth)' examples o f pro\etan an hcrol sm m u ~ t he . ' ean ' eI· 51'bl) . . nt s amI their fanlilles 5 lOll a meet WIth the pollllcn ellllgf:l · · .categorically nnd as s I:lrply :\S I pO And here n1ll:. Vol. "nr y III . t\ ' 1 0 ( ollr \'ahant . \\ e sun ply h aven't got the ptople. kllOw about rinl of I'l et e Schulz who W:"I S !'>ubsb luell tl" behe:\(' ed b th t h te . ga nda work.. r ' . Bobhevik conduct in cOurt. . the trilll o f the Bulg arian re.'".. advance from th~lr ranks an in creasing number of discontented people who deSire to protest.. ~ost 5) Il'f"" etiollaries of the LL.. nO peoplo. . fij:htutJ: " f II • ' it mll .. .lal conditio countries where II nil ..! the cadres of the labou r 1ll0\. in court. eve . .. ('(Idres recei. ISt of the l · .. ."~I" ~. ~ . ". Comrades! Ollr Party lead ers often com plain that th crt. . ~' . I Pr ./wl rea lly c:onstltllte .' • ·· . "What I s to be Done 1" Sclocted W orks .D.nent. We 5 . '..~hc tn a 0 the railwa)' lIlc n in Rumania. .el l/Zlg tna we .. {or PC:lCC ' dJ'n1. art. Ihllt ' \1' 111 ea '5 dc<.t ( nU.D ...' I . ( I ) '1" • .t' .al leadcrs~ we have no talented o rganisers capable of org:ulIslllg extenSIve and at the same lime uniform and harmonious w ork that would give employment t o all forces even the most inconsiderable. . 0\\11 {orlll 11$ 1).am? n g women . at po I Cc COU lt heanngs III th .. ht . .. nan an a nI! · :lSClst 1110\'(.1rt s uC'("eS'> U. . .h)'sicnlly lind mom I" Y preserv1I1g the ment pM t ICU a . I role 0 f I'h e'.. We do not teach people to benefit by these examples. 'tI Ie anti· •• fn . both good nnd bad. as you know. . who a re ready to render all the assistance they . " (.lc. yellr after renr. t • f th e loi lin.. but is nevertheless more ~lIld m o re. t'r .rnel('r rlllel cajlne lty I . .so:" elll I 1:1t! " C( :l~ a i ll s t f bro.' . . . in surmounting difficulties a nd with· standing teslS. i ~ to (\'1. 27 . words of Lenin : " TIIHC arc 11 0 people-yet thae arc cno rm ous tlUlllb ers oj people." der. J: ro\\.: bourgeOiS ll":d f a~iS l COllrts who have ShOI\'1I thnt.sional I)('OP...~J> I of .~. ' acti\'C IU llt. llI of yOIl ' deh:f. .'n I. \Ve do not \\'h~n i~ . . folio' I h'II: \ 1111 br otl &. . yet eternally new.l:: c!:l.6 I I 110\\' th.. lack of firmne ss .ulleu . I}\.'e their ~st training in til e procrss oj struggle.. ."' which I' rotU' lI . acutely sensed by increasing m asses of the people. Not enough. . that th ey are short o f people for agitational and propa. p't:llist lo' lers III a ea I. I) . in studying Ja'i. III court.. no t -c. m()(lcl~ to be.) iht lions nn .Pf :>.'o llrab/~ eX:l. all rise. war usd ..) Comrlldes.-. I .d .c • f.f (" " ' ' $ 0 Its 0.:lf to the ~pe{". ll t . . ( p. ." '· "m I Wit . n (t Vu(. At the ~a. rttlllt or}:luUS-'l 110 'l1Idy uup<> ..'OI}lc the" ~I't rOSS" of the 1I1111{"(1 .. (ab On countries ' noW '-IIC-fore the. durin~ demonstrntions. III I e!lll . ' n~ e\.. ' . ' . kind of rot and fr ailty in our ranks and PhI' rank s of the \\'orkm ~ cla ss.1I " .l: )COple . bllrl"(WCfa tic approllch all( a so u ll c. .. in crellslIIg IlII y. because we have no luders. ..o ns of fainthear tedness ~~.of/ous\' 11 ' . . h ave l1 ''.. b. . t e 'cry step the enormouS respolI stlJlhty they benr before relllSCn' " If the workill~ class nnd the COIllJ1lUIl1St Internatlona o r th e sue· " cessfu l fu lfilment o f the role lind t:lsks of the I. tess tttede t ail so f . " ' . of react lOll :"II\( I faSC1:-. . bllt unfo rtunately also no t B few ('ases o f pigeon-hellrtedness. fl' 'm ). in the fi Rht again ~ t absolutism. tlpp (ill S!! . UV f .d {".. nellie.!'Iiling there) . f . t Ie 1 1 0 j ." ..D . T o this we cOuld reply in the old.noughthnt is the cry . bcause the working class and the ~n os t dl\'erse strata o f society .. : . e(.l:: I..:leln'lt\" . carcsO e 10 ' . There are eno rmous. . . '1 .. .s (rOil. o f toilil n: po.)' ... an 1Illa )' ot her In ~ s at II' ~IC 1 nt 1I11 mbie exampleli o f proletarian n beroism were displayed .~" of IIll' nrlll) 0 'l1Id socin lb m.)hllbtilll': is ..can... or I IIC I . 11 " .. IC t li . org:1Il1 5:ltloIlS mUSt tlOnnry \\'or".c clIlulated anel what rejected . " f th labour movement. The COllllllUII15tS lind revolu.. 0 . t: Jill 5 an ncelltratlO~1 camps.... 1(' fighters Isnnc"I . . I I ' .. (Pfolo"gcd applausl" ... .r. . 142.. SlIC . etc: . d . . fo r work among Ihe yout h. in jail.1 nds of instances of heroi sm . The good liides should bt: cO t ami hel ll lip a . • of I." t h IS \'x t ."cry.! IS bccomi n$.. We have hundreds of examples of splendid conduct in times of strikes . .:.1thetic care and soliCItude on th e part 0 t Ie org anls. Y' f~ists III Ie tria J :tpant!M: comr:ld "'awn.. ' IL of • '<. G crmany..'e no people.: III • I "!11 IS r:U::Jn.. the VICtllllS of the wor"mg c nSS.'o"s when bours:cols reaction IS (' '{'nt con( I I .. ' ' lIS n nl! . f cOfllradl'S appe arl~l J. II tIC I lIlallI'f e~ t a t l.pula. numbers o f people."icable in the lahour m O'~lllellt tak tude toward. . n h e here in geller:tl.Inples of conduct.. LL. ... OI!C:R~t ti e' . lOu . "LIt hoW lIIany . be or. the intolerableness o f whic h IS n o t yet recognised by all. We often forge t these examples. 11. . ' \ torture chambers and COllcelltmtlOn cant"" stllfenng :"I!:'ony 11 . .. must s t L . ' llh:n!.. alld e.t 0"" a. .Ie spuml ". 1St ac1:Wl il :.ucle o f /1 .:1Il what shou ld I. 11 0 11 · Jo "he\' lk and .I).. SO rt 1> ~ {ronl of the prol l!lRfint rut( Ulilliou .1l1e tune we ha. D. I . .: ates 10 th e Con".to become II ge lllll l\c mass o rgalli ~nti ~ . 10 SIJ<'a k. . l . (IUly o( f1n( I (I'ISCIlarge ItS ' ll • better apprecIate LL.:r 0 f as ll . the trade unions . I." tS on the CrIIllIli al. • cia» ('a ll I('!I . p. .'OIHablc :lnd IlIlJa.. ' k now u . . \ du rlfl ..' · . . Wt have thOll5. be con traste( llst hilistini sm.who a. C I ·mbnICtll .. '''. .111 . to h~h ' ..: g r~wmg up wi th an excc1h:llt ullderS!:IlIdmg: of 1(. ~.tInradc'S and active k III Ii!> n' t t· . (S~ o 'm of ~ppla u s c .'t. These eXrll"plcs mu st be used ~ost extensively il' CdUC3till:. for t he newspape rs .'C. • and t he dn~s strug'. •• s. UUI\IHulh cad res ar.'~ att ' .1.CI 'rile t"ore. . "' " mn b(. • .'ho "r' nctive in the J. \ _. .. tI.s.a ll(" o f it!' "'. II an athtud . th3"t e SUICC .' th fighters in the prolel:·. .-"""'me so mil:> .\ 5Wtly th e COllcl u(. (A PPlflll sc. I Id I' . ' 'Lenin.. I I !Insw~rH\J: .

rather than good.... even o f the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in countries where capitalism is still supreme.. III va rio dutlng s • . d at the head of the masses . of permc lO u .'ri e n tt of the CommulII ~t I a rt)" 111 qu estIOn .holnsticlSIll. Second meth od ....n~t d re I. On return in g to his prac0. th vor' 0 ou your attention to e' uotin that our schools must train." n ." nction .and shoW of lcarni ng. 'or us 51 a"In. h:l S t:lugh t us. reatest master o .)l. I.S .. '.'ng seriously take up the question Wit . th e teachlilgo 'd.gras~ o . P:lrty sc ~ ool s prove to be: suitable . .l~n~.>c<i only :x: ( IM'o vered in .' i\'('s those engflS . .' the lcll c-r of l. J elllll C III "" bo: Ih o roLl~hly f..IS. lIy \VI S les . C3pable of surmounting th~m.. Slwltl1an scd &xpenIce of the revolutionary movement...1l ccessflry to study .II1~~1 a dogma. d leader capable oj /eadi l'R tllC masses to batll e againsl fhe slr u .. d th e t h re3 . and only ~lO\~dentallY touching u ron t he problems of tlH: particular coun try 1'. lenin lions... .'rh' ~" . IS to TI Ie pnnclpa teach the Party aod Young Communist League members there 28 to appl).'I .0 11 . S t!llin. · In t b IS connee I k 1 r Pa. All . t. ht. from one country to another. a5S\Irnnce m cause. . .. . And we n eed them badly thiS very an It does n ot mattc r if such studcnt s be unable to writ e good d.' . tr sc hools. OU r There nre p\ell t )' 0 . rs' caUse .c nln1sm . to defin ite condition5. O llr III cory IS h . [Iy. '-. . . praclical ..Ill ' C italls1l1 · bl " . " ' 31 work t be power 0 Of1 cntation g ' edulprflcl.ably hostile to any But rC1l1 re\·olu. an (~ lradit ions . ns t ICY need air. Only m CIthe eX dentally! .) th eory. 6. purpost: . If t ankug tersm It IS practlca ron or. . f h . OUt words 0 ~ S :I "uiclt: III t I Cl f c\. that our cadres need.' '" Not all gradua tes of o m clalS cll cm y. D.. II · pcol)!e who are front-mnk fighters tilat must leave thelr . y-ua . as so often happens in o ur Parties. may \1'ith the best of intentions result in harm.110 II I . ... H owe '~r.: such t ~)~ore t! cal. and by waged together \\lth an . It seems to me. I ' course of th CIT w a r ' an d Sltu •• 1 nlllSS O'" . 1.powerfu l Bolshevik ulltiring elTort to. I I '_ I ' .. . ' lUOIlS 0 . I be not on y cnuse 0 f ther thnn rank-mal-file workers and but also bec3use thh'Y s. b. nnd d . .. "" . correct utthsatlon of experience does n ot by any means denote m cc llanica l transposilion of ready-made forms and methods of struggle from onf! set of conditions to another set.t we need real. h out any d I' il. -pies of Marx IS]l) -Lell1ll1sm 3S IS based on 3. bill a g uid e to nct inl1.. . It .. m o n s l r. sec I . • " .s f ' .-. the st udent will t hen be able to fmd his bearin gs il e A \\ 'ndependently . • . Illt Th ere nre t wO wa).I l1st an tnemy III I(eneral " h ut agamst n partl(::ulnr. No! 1Il0rali.. fe rti le.\'ork bche III t Ie trnun!) g .• .1I1 01ls . ~ . OUTS is th CommunI!> • IT .. try ing to give: the ~r(' a tesl r)()ssible do'ic of dry learning. . th' cause o f the working class .:s ill 111Iitcd fronl bOdi. "tinite enell1Y· 'or 1 1... US{'fu\IO the worke ' -. . . r o W III t Ie I " lSI be helped to ~ _ " co ndition s where I H:y c all Teally' h' 1111 t lUI III :oIlC I they must be I . .'h '. Lenin. .c Ild c nt /Hltc lical o rRallisc r .]t ng:l. • .sers or adepts at q . . 0\\. theory C ' f rcvolutlon. orge.'ODS of the CommuOIst nterna lona must the toilers.' them 1\. of impcri t. emasculated theof1S.. simple copying of methods and form s o f work.. I a T h ..rty schools .': pU: th that leads to the emancipation of kno . . b" Many have phmscs .~a 5d readiness for self-sacrifice f their bo ld ness an . better than t e y e .cryd rlY . that p1 ob t hemselves WIth r(. ' s s..tor). too) as l o n ~ as t~ey knoW how to organise and lead. . . rnO\'em~l~t. coaching them t hefll to write t heses and resolutions in literar y style. thc Muxi !>t-I". . r th eory is irrecon cii. ag. . as has so often nctually been the case.. Revolutionary theory 15 t he generalised . all.. book knowledge: tun e. h g . prac\1cal study pnncl . 'ork ." f 1~i>le . and they sl4 ch a t ea. the struggle f ' .ii st W3r. theses (though we need t hat vcry much . I" "'Otlc . tramlllg If) th e hll~dflmen t a l .11'" .ic ul ar COun tr ies. ' be f d smithies. «nnil\. f the wo r .:Ta spcd by .'t particularly necessary to draw t"on I conSI . un daunted by difficulties . · . I e student of the c:ltdmal proble ms conct::rIl mg the struggle b~ ~I proletari at in hi s own cou n try. 'l'h"' O "~"lni~llions.s 0 C Irflll" ll ng c~l(l res 111 our P:lrt y schools: Firs l met hod: h:ac hi n ~ people ah.!I~ uni st cadres t he a If. need it as badly as the) ne.. Iron. where these fightmg cadres are to.r'y schools 10 order to turn t em 111to proper org:ulIsat1Oo o .1Y · It IS . It IS n ot pedants . actIVe struggle: out with a red-ho~. I t l'si{le :Ign ins! the 0 ('n sn c 0 caPital lcnl of pr!l<'tl(' 3 . '. hut Its Itvln~ r(!\'ol litionnr}' spl nt . lt I.JrCclse r t llS noc it cal t . · CI ' I1 of ou.ui"isl method It") the concrete sit ull- l~ow in part . truly BolsheV Ik org?llIsers . Bare imitation. .C:he p:lrticul:l r l:lbour. nnd RPI)lIt". " . Com muni sts must carefully ~~i1ise in their countries n ot on ly t he experience of the past but also the experience o f the present struggl(!: of o ther d e tachl~l~nt~ of the international labour movement. It is precisely from the experience of the Ru ssian Bolsheviks that we must learn to apply 29 . cd their daily brcad . . I ." .. d leaders of the maS5(!s. . 'n s l (fl SC1501 an . we.. .: I ' used to S. " I 'as k' 01 our P. (A pplnllsc. !ts h is.y. must scnr the .: s .tract theory. ". ' clarity of \' ~ny futile loying wllb nbstract ' defini. ... . .. '" stereotyped schemcs: both by real. . s arc people o f nctlOll. abst mctlOns . I to rid our work o f deadeni n.ntlOn to equip t he overthrow 0 cap C . h 0 't e " 1 P. C ' ComT:1c1cs . . and becomc on illl/C/. not to the .that impo~S I~PO n t he I Ol1l1n 1 '0 11(11)' tll /'O ' Y.... \Vhocver rca .

. not a Sill!:" ' a more or less serious polilical or puh!ic pcrsoll:lgc that' i~' nglt {ollowing the course o f our Cons. h y Ihl. I I . se h'~s..1. The working class has b ehl11d It tweut)' years o r ric h experience and revolu• 31 .-Vlatof~ cN/firs . "..v~ry trend... .rifl! Sfil lill ' s j"nr!('sS I/('H i'l /fIC e. .£ the lVorklllg cJa~s of e... " 1 I pa rty . The \\'or~ in g cla ss will have to o\'ercome m nn)' al\ ob"o\acle. Many are the 5. 0 / diJJj.'" III l ie 1>11 u J:8 C 1L). at the beginning o f the imperialist \\ar.... il~ terna tiolla l.. It .J.class in the capitali s t cou ntri es is l o-day DO I~nger w h at It.) .. L('IIIII · all( ' S · 'i l'ill ""b· tl <>'r(':1f I(':ac hing of .. nt th e end o f the W3r . in wh ' b the class enemy is endeavouring to keep the to iling lIlaSSes of . In the dttrk nig ht of bourgeois reactio n and fascis ul.e es tablish ment of unity of a ction of the \\'ork in g class . PI o ry :UI< IOld up to J. the g reat capila l o~d jirst but not lasf utate o f the int erna tioll al pro letarint. \.11 alwa}. ...: oomlitioll " O( lifl.·ifi.l n of world 0111... \Ve MC e\'1.'ol .~tI"lllfr t .. d decisions. of cololl lll l pcoplcs and oPpr:OPlt.. . ".. a t slt'p. s within the t ra d ~ UIllOIl'i./IIotlgi' "" J: .fascist yo ut h.!on~ n twa!' to emtHl cipatlon fro m the yokt o caplla ISIll.-ceS5ar}' to promote u ion IInity . om asclSt barbanty a lld the h orrors of imperial . .s. ' I e po ' IIIC..'''. ne. 'U ·itlt Stillitl 's r('. ' I Ira(e . ' • IS l\ .rile). th e intert nahonal Party o f the Bols heviks. I C:oUlrades! NC\'er has ~n}' . the cO ll so lic1ntion o f its (orces III all sph eres of Its activity a nd at all secto rs o ( the cl s trugg le.t al \\'ork and 111 s tr llgg e ..\') 1.·~ e ll emy and d Q ~lll/)'. UllIt)' of action by the orga nisa.. llce~' liSe) I II Ihls urgency of t he qu estions discussed at the CongreSS alld of ...~I by th e interrerence. 10 Ih(' :. lalis '/I I. .to IHlVlg ate among a multitude o f s ubmerged rock s before reachmg safe port. ~.t.1 th e II lIit<'"d tradt' un iOIl". e s tage on ~hat road .italist countries. Il lca . < t ~ or~.. . "mo"s. and wi n o\'('r t hat sect ion of the l oiling ).. Y.<1 other cllemies o f t he people.. r ty and iii jai l. (APP itlll sc.. / • • n. firm us in our belief th at our decisions have ind ced hit th e m:~' (Appla lwl. no r what. It! I ' .ss of C IIlUlIISls MOIISNI slIch keen IIIte l e~1 0 11 the p . lis particu larly of Gumnn fa scis m fu ming a t th e mOll th. s tands O llt like a betlcoll sh . . If') 1t.. 10 ligh t nnd to I('MII. .o f the COllilHunist Parties in Ihe dc5I...:rc. Th e work in g cl ass mus t str i\'\! to secu re th e nmalgllllla f io ll o f all forc('s of t he \\'orking-cb ss youth and o f all org'lIlisaliolls o f the allli.'1I pre:par .. /" .1 But th e \\'. (A PPla tht · we sec a COil fiIrnlat/on · 0 f t IIe enormo us II' 11 PO :I . · .obie . J ..'1'.." ...'mnu.leW.>. \Ve kn ow th at th ere are m any diffi culties ahead. opinion as \I'e \\'illl~SS no w in r~l::Jrd I~ ollr pres<'lIt ConP~blit We llIal' S3}' lI'ilholt[ fCM of exa~R('r:ltloll th ai Ih ere i g l'o5.. was I. talln I tnt Ie. " I Sial ' j.."o. war. Th e work ing class mus t an d will achievc unity o f :Ict ion in 311 spheres of t he labour mo velllent. (rolll the Bolshc\'ik lillC.I' r f'II IiSIII . ~i r l I . Ou r path is not a s mooth. n.ullll/ ' sm .'\:.'1r'· 10 Iearll. iHitllUIJ/jolllli 1111. (1/ II Si' I l(IrkllrY' d IL lIe \Ir III t Rto . I " Q. . ~nsc . p r llde ll ce bof · t he trad~ nions 011 the bour." in Ih l' ('() lIr~ o( the s lrug. d h .'r ifices tha t will be exacted undc:r th e hammer blows of bourgeois reaction and (a~islll . lilt o f th e trade u niO Il 'i I r) lleciflc th ei r problems for th emt It: rig " .ocatc alld cO II " l st~ntly uphold ' .(. 30 . .hip of the proletarin t will have . 1I0 t a S nOt singl(' serious n('wspapcr. Tile frenzied howls of the fa scis ts of a ll CO Unt ...' ill eac h c . office work ers a nd in tellectua ls. In s. obstacles in it s 0\\'11 mid st . • nationalilies arc turned towards Mosco\\' . \V . e_ u•• d. the Communis t Iut ernational . "lIl . our path is no t s trewn with roses. .... I OI p~Ja.. T o clt-pict us COIlUHU Ili:-.I '. ·s n«-C" ... pililc~ly 10 Ctlst ~Sl ( C. cOIlRr<.(r/lC " llon. slllall to wllSp(: . ass d "4' The wo rking dass mus t achieve the unitu of its trad. Thi s will come about the sooner the mo re firm ly a nd r('solutcly we Communis ts and revo · lu tionary workers o f all capitali st cou n t ri es apply in p ractice th e new tactical line adoph:-d by Oll r Congress in rel:tt ion to th e mos t im portant urS{cllt {Illes t io ns o f the int ernatio llal labour mo\'·.Uce o f the ulllte< 0 '" a po .'x ist(:nce of Co mllll1 l1 ist !11T'urs 0 . 1I81. .s with th e closes t a tt ell tionnOt The cyes of millions of workers ..~ cap. as well . lSt TI.<.." 'I Ol lll t r ell. Th e reVOlutionary :. \Ve 111 11'1 he lIhle to o lCIi/ 1i UII" . . o nly fI <'S. t l ~ I( ea 0 crea ting a m · mUIll.': l ' .'. J.outh which has come under th e dem oralising influence o f f:l sciSIll . J>3 rtl~ Ill( 1.·. .:!U lh t m'l e mus t /t-a rll . .." J' (Hul d. d SOllie rdormis t trade u n io n h:adt'r8 attempt to fri ~h len In k:r!l with th~ sp<:cl re of a Irnde union dt:moc rncy Ihe \\ . ..f ''' ''co llcil .ll 1914. C . Yes. tlons 0.' I. OppOllent "! of tra (~ t: union d emo. orking . r ( leu c "~ ." . (I$t'. '5 sheer non .. D" we are decidedly opposed dto any d· o.'1 . . lowanl the das.iOIlS in the trade \lIuon" I t w t . . \ Ve are: prepa red to cOlne to term s as to th~ . ipk.S. rHl\.<I ent('WIl • I " .g h " 0\\_ I~g a . 0" matlus 0/ IHin. i t st ill faces the tas k above all o f rendering completely harm less th e disru ptive role o f t he re ac4 tionary eleme nt s o f Socinl·Democracy .. II •.OIll. .:a5 111 T9 1S. T t\'tf'y d 10 fi nlli . asphalt road..Ira<.:<:. colllradl:!> . lIlIlon. and 0 11 0 1 g i ve up our aSlc point of ' ::iew thnt it is im pcrmi!>sible for trad e u nions to adopt a II r ulr(li posit ion in reg a~<~ to the class s tru ggle bt: t weell the p roletariat lind t he bourgeoiSIe: . . pca~a nI S .. '. I ' /I '>.

e helmsman 0/ lI.· long live ti.O'. II ".. firm .>." ! " H Lo'fl° I. Cayton Street.o. enemy ('1I1l IX! \\'ork~:lIJ)lt! Of alld build soc ia list SOc. " Renewed enthusiastic applause and cheering. · II .')' =' cla~ •• dcfc:ltt.pafn .utdt. ) 0 t Th ert> .lllire wOrld ~1J~f geoisie to turn bock the wh eel of history. Comrade D.arms 0/ th' gre4l Stalin. o f ho w the ow c '. o f the wo rld . No\\' 'h e 1.) e. ' the . • • GrrmllllY. 1ft So let the clarion call of Marx aud Engels.turning forward and will cont iU lie to tt~rn {orwllrd Ull til a \\'orl'5 wid~ Union of Soviet Socialist Repl~bl~cs sh a!1 h:we been esla~ Hshed until the final victory of Socm ilsm throll~hou t the wh I world.e ~jJorking class oj "'e caPital' couII/rh's still lacks. " .kers oj th e W orld.' c.klllt . til e. .sisth oC Ihe Rlobc. »'00 Prtnlllll 00." 1'he German delegatio n o ffe rs a triple" R ~ Front! n Shouts oj I I Long live Comrade S ial.\uslria nnd !.revalUliano " . He'ttm P1&ce... H'K cl . au ex "' "' Ie .'1I. ~\. ~~e. d 'he COnllllu nist Inte rnatto nal.>.s O \ (' r ~ • .III"0 sp. o ne. . o f " 'It U' Ih (! cO llnlr)' 0 SOC III IS III \ Ie n Oll!'l .C. ' Cl. O r".II/! j rom 011 d clr/!o lio ll$. N n ..lIIitr(1) ..t . own "0\'(' f l1lll£-111 C811CS in b I S I I S ' " The bourgeoisie no longe r holds IlIIdl1' ~dcd .ve Comrade Dimitrov ! " are heard in many Inng u:lges. When the singing and cheering subside fo r a moment' Comrade Manuilsky exclaims: ' " L ong live Ill e /aitll/ul and Icsted companio /l·at. (T. (C. The vnst hall resonnds to shouts I I I Hurral. ".d omi nion O \ . . ('/. \\ . (1111 • \ ' lel S COll t rol 0" ..' in th e S relll niH 0 1111:1 . QlI Th~ entire course of historica l de\'c l~pmcnt. II::~.rlllR CX fll ll..' (Loud. prolotlgcd applause. that wheel . culminating io om ovation lasting fifteen to twenty minute5 . e Co mmun. 'fb' delegations of the various countries in turn si ng thei r songS o~ s truggle. . cOlll r:ld f:wours the causc of the working class. E. ~I ~Irel c h 0 (. th e fascis ts of every ~HlC.' ing dA. th e C. . tionary Ifill !I. III valli are t he efio rt ts. . ring out aU more loudly from this platform to the whole world : t W o. It has a tned a nd I I. oj aPPlau$ ..ollts oj greet .Inll . . Lenin and Star the battle cry of th~ Communist Interna tional.s. ill Us O:llll ranks.s but otle thi"g Olat ti. No . The working class possesses n. . errs (lPld sl.. well. .. . . Ullile I (Loud prolonged applause. .~ hilS bef fore .' ".H' () /j $ l('o t k' tOt whole explllUe . ! " U Rot Front! " I I Banzai! ~' All rise and sing t~ Ini e. -s r the reaclion ari~s."otionale.. \·angll • ( 51 ceo&: 'sed a g reat a nd wise leade r ta w .(:'r . Y III "o".st tl:. bitl(!r lessoll!! o f n number o f ddcnts • <!sl_' • ""\.le. ~ '. II. So .