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MEMOIRS
OP

THE PRETENDERS
AND THEIR ADHERENTS.

I

WITH A GENERAL INDEX. . COMPLETE IN ONE VOLUME. YORK STREET. : BOHN." ETC NEW EDITION. AND ADDITIONAL PORTRAITS. JOHN HENEAGE JESSE.MEMOIRS THE PRETENDERS AND THEIR ADHERENTS. AUTHOR OP "MEMOIRS OF THE COURT OF ENGLAND DURING THE RBIQN OT THB STUARTS. MDCCCLX. LONDON HENRY G. COVENT GARDEN.

JOHN CHILDS AND SON. PRINTERS. .

39 . Death of James II. . CHAPTER to of the Chevalier's Forces.. . . for his Restoration. ment of the Revolution. How viewed by the two Parties. Defeat and Surrender of his Army at Preston. . for his Restoration. Commencetitious Offspring. PAGE CHAPTER I. His Character towards the Close of Life.IttO CONTENTS. Injustice of Depriving the Prince of his natural Rights .13 III. Project of Charles XII. Arrests of his Adherents in England. His Marriage with the Princess His Sobieski. 27 CHAPTER IV. . andTlight to the ConHis Arrival in France. Publicly proclaimed King in Scotland. CHAPTER . of Alberoni for the Invasion of EngProject land. jected Rising of the Pretender's Friends Pro- . . Distressing Situation of the Kin<j and Queen. . Chevalier from France. The Chevalier's Letter to his Sister. . II. . Death of the Queen. Advance of the Duke of Argyll. Birth of the Prince. His Death.. and Accession of George I. and William III.... Retreat Battle of Sheriffmuir. Its Failure. Arrival of the . . thfe broke. . PEINCE JAMES FEEDEBICK EDWABD STUABT. . Inactivity of the Earl of Mar. Project Failure of the Expedition. of Louis XIV.. His Journey to Scoon . and Funeral Obsequies . His Retreat to Montrose. 1 . Arguments for and against his being a surrepopposite Conduct of the French Court. Proceeds to Rome.. Hopes of the Pretender from the Accession of Queen Anne.. Visit to Madrid. and Dismissal of Lord Bolingtinent. The Earl of Mar and other Nobles swear Fealty James the Third.. Unpopularity of the Hanoverians. Dejection of Chevalier.

. . . PACK Birth and early Character of the Princess. . His Trial . Question as to his Place of Burial determined 61 WILLIAM MAXWELL.. His early Attachment to the House of Stuart. Stratagem for her Release. and Defence. and joins the Adherents of the House of Hanover. . Wife . Trial. THE PRINCESS CLEMENTINA MARIA SOBIESKI. Keysler's Character of her in her Fifty. Commemoration of her Escape. His Flight to the Arrest. Lord Lovat's Stratagem to make her his Wife frustrated. Arrested by the French King for TreachEnters into Holy Orders to effect his Release. Wogan's Account of his Romantic Adventures to carry the Proposal to her.. Account of the Family of Gordon. . Assumes the and claims the Estates.. Taken Prisoner at Preston. . His Title.. . Preston.. His Arrest after the Battle of Culloden. Court of the Pretender. His SenJoins the Insurgents. His Warrant issued for his atrocious Marriage with her Mother. Disagreement with her Husband. Returns to Scotland as the accredited Agent of the Stuarts. . His Committal to the Nithisdale's Ac- Lady . Tower. Arrested.77 ery.. EARL OF NITHISDALE. . His Arrest. . and Separation. His Birth and early Connections. . tence and Death. His Connection with the Insurgents. count of his Escape . EARL OF DERWENTWATER. Arrival Her Reception by the Chevalier. . Obtains undisputed Possession of his Joins the Insurgents after the Battle of Titles for his Reward. . Selected for the of the Pretender. Joins the Societyof Jesuits. Sets the Government at defiance.n CONTENTS. of the deceased Lord Lovat. Lord Kenmure's disinterested Conduct in espousing the Cause of the Stuarts. Howrelated to the Stuarts. Medal struck in at Bologna. Her Death . 54 JAMES RADCLIFFE. Returns to Scotland. Escapes in Female Disguise. 69 SIMON LORD LOVAT. Viscount Kenmure. His Trial and Execution 91 . . and confined in a Convent at Innspruck. and Execution . WILLIAM GORDON. . fifth Year. VISCOUNT KENMURE. . . . Daughter institutes legal Proceedings against her Relative.

. . . Hopes and Expectations Joins the Expedition under of the Jacobites from his Character. Birth and youthful History of the Prince. . . John Cope into the Highlands. CHAPTER IV. Arrival of the young Prince in Scotland. . . Charles visits the Palace of Scoon Difficulties . Its Influence upon him. . . Site chosen for "Raising the StandThe Pretender's Behaviour to his Prisoners ard. WILLIAM MURRAY. Holds his Court at Bprrodaile. . . Serves under Noailles at Dettingen. Vll PAGE THE DUKE or ORMOND THE EARL OF MAR . . . . The Pretender's March for the Lowlands.115 . . . His ingratiating Manners. . ESQ. March of Sir of his Situation. 98 . Their Effects on the Scottish Chiefs. ment and the Rebels. . . . . CHAPTER I. 93 94 . . . Dispersion of the French Fleet. Interview between the Prince and Cameron of Lochiel . . His Interview with Macdonald of Boisdale. . . Character of his Troops. . CHAPTER Skirmishes between Captain Scott's DetachSurrender of the King's Troops. 96 . . His Letter to his Father on the x . LORD NAIRN . . . . ." 129 III. . . . . GEORGE KEITH. Assembly of Chieftains on board the Doutelle. . 96 ROBERT DALZIEL. . . . . The Pretender's Reception. . Lochiel's Treatment of Captain Scott. . Duncan Cameron. . .CONTENTS. . 101 eve of his Departure for Scotland . . Landing of the Prince. CHAPTER II. . . . . EARL OF WINTOTJN . . and Disappointment of the Prince's Hopes. . EARL MARISCHAL . . LORD WIDDRINGTON . Arrival at Perth. . . 97 PEINCE CHAELES EDWAED. . . Anecdotes of his Landing by Bishop Forbes. EARL OF CARNWATH GEORGE SETON. . . Marshal Saxe. . 95 WILLIAM WIDDRINGTON. 98 THOMAS EORSTER.

Lord George Murray gives a Check to the Duke of Cumberland's advanced Guard. . . Charles's Letter to the . Pusillanimous Conduct of the Clergy. . Charles's Desire to march into England counteracted by his Chiefs. Council. CHAPTER XI. . . The Duke of Cumberland's Army only Nine Miles distant 203 from the Rebels . Mrs SkyHis Arrival at Derby. Reasons of his Commanders for a Retreat towards the North. Marches to give Battle to for Battle Sir John Cope. Strength of his Army. sternation of the Authorities. Vlll TAGE CHAPTER V.. Their reluctant Consent to accompany him . ring presents her Purse to the Chevalier. . . Surrender of Carlisle to the Duke of Cumberland. . Relative Strength of the opposing Annies. The Pretender's March into England. The Duke succeeded in the Command by Lieutenant-general Hawley his Character.CONTENTS. Order of Battle.. CHAPTER VI. Courageous Conduct of Sergeant Dickson. March of the Pretender from Perth to Dumblane. . Gallant Charge of the Rebels. Gives a Ball at Holyrood. Heroic Conduct and Death of Colonel Gardiner. The Pretender's Retreat to Stirling. . . March continued. . . Con- Town . Balls. Arrival at Manchester. His Arrival at Glasgow . .166 CHAPTER VII.... 191 CHAPTER IX. Charles desirous of marching upon London. Conduct of Charles after the Battle 178 CHAPTER VIII. CHAPTER X. Preparations . 156 En- Arrival of thusiastic Behaviour of Mrs Murray of Broughton. Arrival in the neighbourhood of EdinCowardly Retreat of Colonel Gardiner's Troops. The Pre216 tender continues his Retreat. tender's Forces. Surprised by the Reappearance of the Pre231 Battle of Falkirk . . Proclamation of Charles inviting them to return to their Duties. Total Defeat of the English Forces at Preston Pans. . Occupation of Edinburgh by the Rebels. .. Arrival at Carlisle. George the Fourth and Mrs Pennycuick. Charles in the Capital of his Ancestors. Their Conduct upon the receipt of it burgh. Daily Courts at Holyrood.. . His reluctant Consent. . Conduct of his Army on its Retreat.

.. .. His Extremities at Sea. Visited in his Retreat by Clanranald . Commences his March for . . . taking leave of his Followers. . Barbarities of the Duke of Cumberland's Soldiers 261 PEINCE CHAELES EDWAED. disguise to the Isle of Skye CHAPTER III. Critical Situation of the Fugitives in . 277 .CONTENTS. Arrival of Charles in the Mackinnons' His narrow country.303 CHAPTER IV. Proceeds to Borrodaile. Charles's Embarkation. Various Expedients for keeping up the Prince's Disguise. Incidents showing the Attachment of the Scottish Ladies to the Cause of the Chevalier.. AFTER THE BATTLE OP CULLODEN. . . Charles proceeds to the Isle of Skye.. Charles removes to the Island of South Uist. CHAPTER lish Battle of Culloden. Night March. His Retreat through valier. His various narrow Escapes while resident there. Total Defeat of the Pretender's Troops. XHL Charles's Determination to attack the EngArmy. Retaliates by attacking Lord Loudon at Inverness Chivalrous Adventure of Lord G. Accepts the Plan for his Escape in proffered Services of Flora Macdonald. . . ... . CHAPTER I. They reach the Isle of Skye. Macdonald Arrest of Kingsburgh (Macdonald) for harbouring Charles proceeds to Raasay.... Writes from Glenbiasdale. Precautions to prevent the Escape of the CheReward for his Apprehension. CHAPTER XII.. 318 . Charles continues bis Retreat northward. the Residence of Angus Macdonald . . . CHAPTER II. His consideration for those accompanying him. Scotland as a Fugitive. Culloden . the Prince. Parts with Flora .. . Entertained by Mr and Mrs Macdonald.. . 290 an open Boat. His Displeasure at Lord George Arrival at Culloden Moor. . Escape. . . Murray. Murray for ordering a Retreat Disposition of the contending Armies in Sight of each other. Malcolm Macleod. Duke of Cumberland resumes the Command of the Army of the North. His Flight. His Arrival at Stirling. IX . Charles's Escape from Lord Loudon's Snare to take his Person. Lands and takes Shelter in a " Grass-keeper's Hut " in Benbecula.246 .. .

. Escape . Charles joined by the Fugitives Macdonald of Lochgarry and Cameron of Clunes.377 .. Bequeaths the Crown Jewels to the . . . Takes up his Residence at Liege as Baron de Montgomerie. Secreted in the Wood of Auchnacarry. it.. His Conduct at the breaking out of the French Revolution. Death of the Old Pretender. Charles and his Party pass between the Watch-fires of their Enemies.. .357 LOUISA COUNTESS OP ALBANY.. for The Prince takes up his Abode at Florence abandoning as Count d'Albany.. Takes up her Residence with the Cardinal York. Meeting between Charles and Lochiel. Charles's Reception by Angus Macdonald. His Villa plundered by the French Troops. Her Death Manners and Disposition. George the Third's Kindness to the Cardinal. His Refusal. Transported to Avignon. . and Arrest. the Age of Twenty-three..." Saving of his Person. Incident that forwards Charles's . Wraxalf s . His fails Marriage . . . Her Unkind Behaviour of her Husband towards her.. Visits London in 1750. Correspondence between the English Minister and the Cardinal. Prince of Wales . CARDINAL YORK.. HENRY . ..... Supposed to have been an Eye-witness at the Coronation of George III. 372 Character of her. . Escapes to a Nunnery. Termination of his Wanderings. . STUART.. . Relationship of the Countess to the English Nobility. . Prince Charles in obtaining a Recognition of his Claims by France and Another Invasion of England contemplated. His Habits at this Period of Life.. Loss of the Prince's Purse the " The Seven Men of Glenmoriston. . Embarks on board L'Heureux for Arrival and Reception by the King and Queen.. Their Hospitality to the Prince. Joined by Macdonald of Glenaladale by Cameron of Glenpean. France. .330 CHAPTER VI. . Receives the Cardinal's Hat at Gray's early Character of him. His Character and Death.341 CHAPTER VII..X CONTENTS PA OF. . . . .. Reasons Spain. AMeri's Sonnet to her. Ordered to quit Paris... .. Halt at Corriscorridale. ... where he is set at Liberty. CHAPTER V. . Abjures the Catholic Religion and becomes a Protestant ..

. . . Reduced to the greatest Distress. Her Marriage. . Taken His Trial. 385 Sentence. . .. His Conduct at the Battles of Preston. . Bishop Forbes's Account of her Captivity.CONTENTS. His Death . Entertained by Lady Primrose on her Release. . . . . . EARL OP CROMARTIE. . Her Family emigrate to America. XI ARTHUR ELPHINSTONE. LORD GEORGE MURRAY. . where they afterwards join the Loyalists. GEORGE MACKENZIE. . . WILLIAM BOYD. . His Execution . EAKL OF KILMARNOCK. Attachment to the Stuarts. 421 . Her Parentage. Doctor Johnson's Account of his Entertainment by her. His Execution 399 mily. . Escapes to the Continent. His Address to the Lords on behalf of his Family. His Motives for joining the Pretender. Lady Cromartie puts a Petition into the King's Hands. " " Carried on board the Furnace Sloop-of-war. . Falkirk. . 417 . vice after the Insurrection of 1715. His Arrest and Committal to the Tower. In Arms against the Government in 1715. Joins the Pretender soon after his Landing.. Her Death . . LORD BALMERINO. Joins the Pretender in 1745. as His Fortitude and Cheerfulness after the described by Walpole. . . Attachment of Lord Kilmarnock's Family to the House of Brunswick. The Trial-scene. and are consequently obliged to return to Skye. His Death . . His Character as a Military Officer. Remission of part of his Sentence. . Enters the French Serflis early Joins the Pretender in 1745. . Taken Prisoner before the Battle of Culloden. . . Arrested on her return to herMother's House. Relieved by the Government. . Correspondence of the FaPrisoner at Culloden. and Culloden. Trial. Tracked by Captain Ferguson after parting from thePrince. .. FLORA MACDONALD.

MARQUIS OF TULLIBARDINE . . PRINCE JAMES FREDERICK EDWARD STUART (called the CHEVALIER DE ST GEORGE). . . 433 DONALD CAMERON (LOCHIEL) . . ib. . . . . . . . . . . . . 432 . . and THE PRINCESS LOUISA. . . . 93 . . . . DR ARCHIBALD CAMERON . . 448 LIST OF PLATES. frontispiece . . . . 101 . . SECOND DUKE OF ORMOND PRINCE CHARLES EDWARD STUART FLORA MACDONALD . . . . . CARDINAL YORK . CHARLES RADCLIFFE . 435 . . . . . . 439 CONCLUSION OF THE REBELLION IN 1745-6 . . . . PRINCE JAMES FREDERICK EDWARD STUART JAMES BUTLER. . . . HENRY STUART. . . JOHN MURRAY OF BROUGHTON . . . . . . . . . . . . 40?) (aetat . . Xli PACK DUKE OF PERTH . ib. 437 . . . 434 . .CONTENTS. in her youth . 39 . . . . 296 . . 377 . . . . . . ORIGINAL CORRESPONDENCE RELATIVE TO THE SUPPRESSION OF THE REBELLION . ( ALEXANDER LORD FORBES OF PITSLIGO . . . . . . .

PRETENDERS AND THEIR ADHERENTS. Mary of Modena. as a peculiar boon from Heaven. which. had excited a formidable spirit of opposition on the part of the English nation indeed. as they followed and encouraged them in their triumphant passage to the Tower. situation of the King and Queen. At such a crisis. therefore. in the midst of those oppressive and unconstitutional acts. the only son of James the Second by his second wife. Injustice of depriving the Prince of Birth of the Prince. Already the arbitrary conduct of the misguided monarch. the revival of the ecclesiastical commission. only a few months afterwards. 1688. in proportion as it was hailed by James. Arguments for and against his being a surreptitious Offspring. and by the Roman Catholic portion of his subjects. Distressing the French Court. moreover. their rejoicings might almost be heard to intermingle with the revilings heaped by the excited populace against the Court. the suspension of the penal statutes against the Roman Catholics. was born at St James's Palace on the 10th of June. at the time when the Jesuits and courtiers who surrounded the throne were celebrating the birth of the infant Prince. lost him the sovereignty of three kingdoms. the attempt on Magdalen College. and the arrest of the seven bishops. CHAPTER I. How viewed by the two opposite Parties. excited the terror and suspicion of the majority of the English nation: it took place. JAMES FREDERICK EDWARD STUART. JAMES FBEDEBICK EDWABD STUAET. his natural Rights. The event. when the country was in a general state of ferment from the domineering spirit of aggres: B . and with the prayers and benedictions which they offered up for the seven bishops. Conduct of Commencement of the Revolution.

15th. at any other period of our history. other. 2 [l688. would have been treated with the contempt it deserved.THE PRETENDERS AND THEIR ADHERENTS. we can scarcely wonder. From the time when the young Queen had been first declared to be pregnant. Two Toms and In Council a Xat sat. that every expedient should have been adopted by the enemies of James to heap odium on his name. by the devoted resolution on the part of the rest of the nation to sacrifice their lives and fortunes in defence of their civil and religious liberties. Durham. and who were consequently selected for the task. in order to transmit his dominions and his bigotry to a Roman Catholic heir. but which. was the fact. Thomas White. that the form of thanksgiving was drawn not by the of Canterbury. In the morning I went to St James's church this is the thanksgiving-day appointed for the Queen's being with child. five months before the Queen's delivery. To rig out a thanksgiving. sion displayed by the Roman Catholics on the one hand. &c. As early as the month of January. and. in the existing state of extraordinary excitement. This ballad. help us Neither was the disbelief in the Queen's pregnancy con. 1 ! : Among other circumstances which gave rise to some disagreeable comat the period. we find Lord Clarendon inserting the following curious passage in his Diary:" Jan. which appears to have been highly popular at the period. That 's neither dead nor living. however we may regret the fact. a report had been sedulously spread by the enemies of the Court. but by three up. there were not above two or three in the church who brought the It is strange to see how the form of prayer with them. who were in favour at Court. had determined to impose a surreptitious offspring on his Protestant subjects. or that party zeal should have invented on the even the most improbable falsehoods for the purpose of injuring his cause. proper person. Bishop of ' ment . the Archbishop bishops. Bishop of Rochester . Queen's being with child is everywhere ridiculed. Bishop of Peterborough and Nathaniel Crew. . affords additional proof how early suspicions were entertained as to the Queen's being really with child. Among these unworthy expedients was one which. These persons were Thomas Spratt. as if scarce " anybody believed it to be true good God. that the King. And made a prayer For a thing in the air. was swallowed with greedy delight.

the news was told with as much confidence before the delivery as after it. it could not have been otherwise managed. sung by two Gentlemen at the Maypole. after she had played at cards at Whitehall till eleven o'clock at night and the next morning. as if it were a secret committed to some people who could not keep it. iii. in the Strand. that the method in which this matter was conducted from first to last was very unaccountable. Song." says Bishop Kennett. or Whitehall.] 3 Men of the first rank fined to the vulgar and misinformed. * B2 . was carried in a chair to St James's. for port of a supposititious birth. her Majesty had this week given orders for the fitting up of an apartment for that purpose in St James's House. It was born over night. and even the two great historians of the period. of having imposed a surIt was alleged. had been in such a wretched state of health. or affected to believe. If an imposture had been intended. Which made the Queen make so much haste from Whitehall.JAMES FREDERICK EDWARD STUART. : . and sent many repeated commands that it must be finished by Saturday night. among other specious arguments " The Queen. unequivocally give utterance to their suspicions on the subject." 2 . 512. 1 in supBishop Burnet. This bantling was heard at St James's to squall. was to be the place where the Queen designed to lie in. between the hours of nine and ten. that her death had been constantly anticipated she had buried all her children shortly after they had been born. p. But on the sudden. " What truth soever there may be in these reports. and brought forth the next day. Bishop Kennett's Complete History. people were not a little surprised to hear that she was brought to bed of a Prince nay." The following may be briefly mentioned as the principal arguments adduced at the period in support of the accusation brought against the royal family. 1 As I went by St James's I heard a bird sing. . on Saturday. That the Queen had for certain a boy for the King But one of the soldiers did laugh and did say. " It had been for some months uncertain. Accordingly. . Hampton Court. and her affairs were managed with a mysterious secrecy. "whether Windsor. the Bishops of Peterborough and Salisbury. vol. to which none had access but a few Papists. also. reptitious Prince of Wales on the nation. 1688. this is certain. June 9." And the Bishop afterwards adds. her Majesty. and intelligence either believed. that an imposture was contemplated . observes six or seven years.

forty -two persons of rank. on the eve of her delivery. previous to her delivery. nor any of the Protestant ladies of her Court. were in attendance at the birth that. was equally mysthat the event took place on a terious and unaccountable Sunday. that the pan contained a new-born child. . the cause of the ill-fated Stuarts. continued to obtain credence for more than half a century a story which first entailed on the son and grandeon of James the Second the famous and invidious title of "Pretenders. nor the Dutch ambassador (the latter the representative of the Princess of Orange. . during divine service. . during the labour. the Princess of Denmark. that in consequence of his early irregularities." and which. It is sufficient to observe. . : . . which immediately afterwards was presented to the bystanders as the offspring of the Queen. [l688. and the room heated by the crowd of persons who were present. the Queen permitted neither the Princess of Denmark. to satisfy themselves of her pregnancy that. that at the time of the Queen's delivery there were present in the royal apartment. had the effect of undermining. the nearest Protestant heir to the throne). that an apartment had been purposely selected for the Queen's accommodation. . and from other private reasons. in which there was a door near the head of the bed which opened on a back staircase that though the weather was hot. besides the nurses and medical attendants. the curtains of the bed were drawn more closely than was usual on such occasions and lastly. . in order to account for the manner in which the child was imposed on those who were in attendance at the birth. however improbable and even ridiculous it may appear to the sober judgment of a succeeding generation. In regard to the arguments which have been brought forward to refute this remarkable fiction. a warmingpan had been introduced into the bed. there can be no necessity to dwell on them at length. ing-pan story. when most of the Protestant that neither the Archladies of the Court were at chapel bishop of Canterbury. the King had become incapable of having that the Queen was not only in a very delicate children state of health. Such were the principal features of the celebrated "warm. and finally.4 THE PKETEls'DEBS AND THEIE ADHEKENTS. it was insisted. but had been more than six years without that her sudden removal from Whitehall bearing a child to St James's." which. in a word. far more than any other circumstance whatever.

and twenty ladies." and is stated to be published "By his Majesty's Special Command. at any time hereafter." : . 2 Notwithstanding the gloomy aspect of affairs. In the Observator. was the legitimate offspring of King James. to represent him as an impostor . and the Secretary of State). For we must expect. and that it had all the signs of having been just born. concerning the Birth of the Prince of Wales. Fortunately on that occasion the infant proved to be a female. you have now taken off the mask in confessing the daughter. is sufficiently decisive. indeed. No. when the Queen. then Duchess of York. 5 consisting of eighteen members of the Privy Council. though of a nature too delicate to be recapitulated. by your instruments and intelligences. and other male persons who were present (and among these were the Lord Chancellor. and the ge. and may still be seen among the The evidence of the ladies. is the following curious passage pleased God to give his Royal Highness the blessing of a son. you take so much pains else. supposing him to have been previously acquainted with the features and person of ever for a moment questioned that he his misguided father. the solemn depositions of these persons. They were printed"in the shape of a small pamphlet. 1 So anxious was James to clear away the doubts which hung over the birth of his heir. "If it had printed August 23rd. entitled. archives of the Council Office. to hammer it into the people's heads that the Duchess of York was not with child ? And so. were witnesses of the birth of the Prince of Wales. 1688. with all their indelicate details. be trumpt up again upon the like occasion. the Lord Privy Seal. was declared to be pregnant." 4 It is a remarkable fact. The officers of state. as far as circumstances would allow. or doubtless some improbable fiction would have been invented similar to that which obtained credit in 1688. 'liat the same fiam shall.1688.] JAMES FEEDEEICK EDWAED STUAET. that he condescended to order the publication of the several declarations made before the Council. the same rumours were pro- pagated as on the present occasion. moreover. 1 who were of course permitted a nearer approach to the royal bed. as never to be effaced or forgotten. on Monday the 22nd of October. deposed. in case of a son. I would have the impression of this cheat sink so far into the heads and hearts of all honest men.James. whereas. No individual. 1682. which I have now before me. By the desire of . Depositions made in Council. the Lord Chamberlain. that as early as 1682. that they had seen the royal infant immediately after the Queen's delivery that they perceived it to be a Prince. who was introduced in after years to the exiled representative of the Stuarts. were taken down on oath before the Privy Council. that an imposture was intended to be obtruded on the nation. you were prepared to make a Perkin of him. 194. including the Queen Dowager. the Lord President of the Council. twentyfour of whom were Protestants. as it proved a To what end did daughter. all of whom. four other noblemen.

at which time the news was brought him by the latter. neral suspicion which prevailed that the King's bigotry had induced him to impose a spurious offspring on his people. and among these came. . told me that. thrust aside from the prospect of succession. by the Queen's bedside he distributed magnificent presents among his ministers and gave large sums of money to different charities. 'and.6 THE PRETENDEBS AXD THEIR ADHERENTS. and. and in bed yet she sent . I found so general a joy in all people there. at coming from Council to go to mass. rol. but were elated at seeing the Princess Mary. and. ii. my master. with a satisfaction in his face not to be expressed. about six o' the clock. The King knighted the royal accoucheur. that Barillon writes 't is a strong and healthful child. no man had a greater joy than he for the news of a Prince being born. On the 16th of June. courier which came to the Cardinal Nuncio brought me the happy news of the birth of a Prince for which greatest of I immediately therefore went blessings Heaven be praised to Versailles. p. who not only trusted to see the throne of Great Britain transmitted to a Roman Catholic Prince. a quarter of a century before. 1 The tidings of the birth of a Prince of Wales was naturally received with unequivocal satisfaction by the French Court. . 'I am the more pleased. called me to him. where M. Sir Bevil Skelton. With his usual imprudence. . with Monsieur de Croissy. Madame la Dauphine is indisposed. the Prince of Orange. James had obtained the consent of the Pope to become one of the sponsors of the child. 5.' says he. ! . the derland. who were at his waking. the celebrated Count de Grammont. The customary congratulations were received from foreign powers. His most Christian Majesty. de Barrillon's courier had brought the news at twelve the night before. had carried off la lelle Hamilton from the gay Court of Charles the Second. with her. 1 Ellis's Correspondence. next to the King. writes from Paris to the Earl of Sun" On Thursday morning. the Court thought proper to celebrate the birth and baptism of the young Prince with the usual splendour and rejoicings. from the Court of France. who. Sir William Waldegrave. who despatched ambassadors on the occasion. Envoy Extraordinary at the Court of France. their arch-enemy. told me they never saw any man so joyful. as I never yet saw upon any occasion.' And the Dukes de laTVemouille and Rochefoucault. [l688. the ceremony of baptism being performed according to the rites of the Romish Church.

than she threw herself at the King's feet. the especial favourite of Louis the Fourteenth. 1688. which prevents the inconveniences that commonly attend the breeding of teeth. who acquainted him that every preparation had been made for her James instantly rose from bed. .JAMES FBEDEBICK EDWARD STUABT. implored him to allow her to remain with him. and reMajesty's flight. order threescore fusees to be fired. Fortune for once favoured the unhappy monarch." The birth of an heir to his throne was not destined to be long a subject of congratulation to the unfortunate James. to provide every requisite for insuring the object they had in view. with good success. The same has been used to these three young ! Princes. as well as his two nurses. i. pp. for joy. But James turned a deaf ear to her entreaties. to give me something to send to the Queen. in a passion of grief. that had been appointed to convey to France the gay and gallant Count de Lauzun. who. guaranteed. to be hung about the Prince's neck. vol. without betraying his intentions to the Queen. though she saw no man. Madame la Mar6chale intends. entering enthusiastically into his views. and. who no sooner was made to understand the part which she was so unexpectedly called upon to take. of his own accord told me.] 7 for me. Accordingly. harassed and distressed. that he would that night. the Prince's governess. 263 and 264. and expressed great joy. and share his dangers or his flight. There happened to be lying off Gravesend a yacht. yet she could not forbear rejoicing with me upon account of the great news. determined the King to secure. the landing of the Prince of Orange. the escape of the Queen and her young offspring to a foreign and more hospitable shore. and almost coldly gave directions that the Marchioness of Powis. and said. paired to the apartment of the Queen. should be instantly 1 Macpherson's Original Papers. in October next. Six months had not elapsed from the period of the Queen' s delivery. whilst I was talking to Madame la Marechale de la Motte. The King. within a short time. And the little Duke of Burgundy. then retired to bed. but had slept only a short time when he was awakened by the Count de Lauzun and Monsieur de St Victor. by any means that might offer themselves. and the near approach of the invading army to the metropolis. when the increasing disaffection among his subjects. the King sent a messenger for ! auzun.

raised the greater compassion in her breast. [l688. at this particular mooccasioned by the wonderful reverse which had taken place in his fortunes. amidst the glimmerings of which she in vain explored the palace in which her husband was left. unconscious of the miseries which attend upon royalty. and. with a wife and child whom he so tenderly were such as were little to be envied. where a hired coach had been the arrival of which had by some appointed to meet her. even for the month of December the night was extremely dark there was a high and piercing wind the rain fell incessantly. he preserved his usual coldness of manner till the moment when the infant was brought into the room. . the Queen of Great Britain crossed the Thames in an open boat to Lambeth. vol. sometimes to the innumerable lights of the city. perhaps for the last time. she took shelter under the walls of an old church at Lambeth turning her eyes. with a tremulous voice." Macphcrson's Orig. and the prospect of parting. affectionately embracing his child. His sensations. 238. and that by to-morrow by noon they will be out of the reach : my enemies. bearing her infant son in her arms. 1 On the day of the Queen's flight (the 10th of December). and fche river which she had to cross was unusually swollen. and accompanied by her trembling attendants. I would no longer defer securing the Queen and my son." says Dalrymple. p. * Dalrymple's Memoirs of Great Britain and Ireland.8 THE PKETEXDEBS AND THEIB. to watch carefully over his invaluable charge. 1 It would be difficult to imagine a position more distressing than that in which the young and beautiful Queen found herself suddenly placed in this extraordinary crisis. Nevertheless. ment. 297." 2 awakened. On such a night. I am at ease now I have sent them away. the King " writes to the Earl of Dartmouth Things having so very bad an aspect. she stole in a close disguise down the privy stairs at Whitehall to the water's edge. of . vol. which I hope J have done . During the time. perhaps. The weather. ADIIEKENTS. dreading every moment lest a cry from her beloved charge should attract the attention of the guards. i. streaming with tears. loved. At three o'clock on a December morning. ! . too. " that she was kept waiting. . and started at every sound she heard from thence. upon that and account. when his feelings suddenly got the mastership of him. he enjoined the Count de Lauzun. p. was peculiarly inclement. i. and who. sometimes on the Prince. but " accident been delayed. Papers.

situation. who happened to come out of a neighbouring inn with a light. in deposing the guilty father. by the violation of those fundamental laws which he had sworn to uphold. gave considerable cause of alarm. there are few who will be inclined to call in question." says falling into the hands of her enemies. The precaution.] JAMES FEEDEBICK EDWAIID 9 STTTAET." Prom Lambeth the Queen journeyed by land to Grravesend. But. and so the matter ended. allowed to remain unmolested in her cabin. so that they both fell into the mire. happy diversion. That the unhappy King. we cannot but be struck by the injustice of that act of arbitrary power on the part of the legislature. and by his endeavours to subvert the constitution of the country. they both apologized. had been taken of securing the services of three Irish officers. Within a few weeks from this period occurred those memorable events in England which terminated in the expulsion of James the Second. when Biva. arrived safely at Calais. when the curiosity of a man. for a coach that was being got ready. was waiting in the rain. and in his infant son being thrust aside from the succession. however. . in the event of their The Queen. where. . under the church wall. had deservedly forfeited the power which he had so grossly abused. ready to perform any desperate action. was interference being required. one of her attendants. who remained near the captain during the voyage. . He was making towards the spot where she was standing. which at the same time took upon itself to punish the innocent son an act which. which followed the suppression of the insurrections of 1715 and 1745. proscriptions. and. suddenly rushed forward and It was a jostled him. "While the unfortunate Queen remained in this distressing an incident occurred which very nearly led to her " The Queen. in the character of an Italian lady returning to her own country. from whence she was conducted to St Germain's with all the honours befitting her rank. continued to embarrass and distract the three kingdoms which poured forth the blood which flowed in Ireland during the following year and from which resulted those massacres. it seems. as the stranger believing it to be the result of accident.1689. and executions. for more than sixty years. " Father Orleans. she embarked with her infant charge on board the yacht which was waiting for her. . after an expeditious voyage.

guided parent. and their customs. and deprived of his splendid birthright. [lC89. The result was. indeed. that they began to reflect on the misfortunes which had been inflicted upon them by the over-zeal of their predecessors. the old story of the Prince's supposititious birth was confidently insisted upon. that a mere party lie had. that had he been educated under the eye of a careful regency. a far greater effect in changing an ancient dynasty than even the errors and the bigotry of the deposed monarch. and advocated only by the few. It may be argued. had been lost in the exultation of the moment and while the nation hastened to worship the rising sun. In order to give a colouring of justice to the proceedings of the legislature. and perhaps to advance the views of the Prince of Orange to the throne. it was natural that the claims of an exiled and powerless infant should be completely forgotten by the majority. that had an least German . or the advance of the Stadtholder at the head of his victorious troops. as yet his infantine mind could have received no dangerous impressions from the precepts or example of his mistheir language . What offence. The Eevolution of 1688 should have stood on higher grounds. It was not till the English people found themselves encumbered by a race of foreign sovereigns. had the young Prince been guilty of. he would at have proved as respectable a sovereign as either of the Electors who subsequently filled his place. ignorant alike of . All sense of justice. however. it was not till they discovered themselves to be perpetually involved in continental wars on account of a petty German electorate. there can be little doubt. indeed. and certainly with sufficient reason.10 THE PRETENDERS AND THEIR ADHERENTS. that he should have been deprived in so summary a manner of his legitimate rights or what policy was there in transferring the succession to his sisters. in whose veins the blood of the ill-fated Stuarts ran as plentifully as in his own? Exiled from his country. Amiable and tractable. and on the injustice of making the child responsible for the misconduct of the father. in the end. even before he was acquainted with the meaning of the term. and to follow the Prince of Orange in his triumphant progress to the palace of the Stuarts. nor till the horrors of repeated civil insurrections discovered to them the inconvenience of a disputed succession. as he afterwards proved.

As soon as he came to the bedside. offer 1 . 2 James. i. See the man who lost three kingdoms for an old " mass !' Dr King's Anecdotes of his own Time. Papers. turned a deaf ear to the unpalatable proposition. at least. "The King's intemperate zeal was ridiculed even by the Court of Rome. pp. 11 been made to the deposed monarch of educating his son in England. with a sort of contentedness in his look. speaking with a force and vehemence that better suited with his zeal . the dying monarch. all claim to the throne. It is remarkable. upon his first appearance at Ver1 sav to the person after his abdication. 127. He continued to reside with his parents at St Germain's. that William the Third should apparently have been the first to feel alarm at the dangerous precedent which had been created in his favour. into the most violent expressions of grief. the proposition ought unquestionably to have been made or. Macpherson's Orig. the same bigotry (which. Dalrymple's Memoirs. as might have been anticipated. iii. 553. note. however. after the death of his Queen. the bed all covered with blood. till the death of his father on the 16th of September. as well as all about him. who was thus certain to be impregnated with the most pernicious doctrines.] JAMES FREDERICK EDWARD STUART. in the words of " to lose a dignitary of his own Church. William actually took upon himself the responsibility of signifying his assent to the exiled Court at St Germain's. 87. in his last moments. who . his son. " sent for the Prince. had caused him three kingdoms for an old mass" ) would equally have induced him to surrender. and to anticipate those convulsions and disasters which subsequently resulted from the succession becoming a disputed one. he would give his personal consent to his succeeding him on the throne. Nevertheless. 1701. stretched forth his arms to embrace him and then. p. burst out. 552. he had heard Cardinal ' stood next to him. if.1701. seeing the King with a pale and dying countenance. It is a fact. sailles. of which our ancestors appear to have been ignorant. the King. According to the Stuart Papers. that if the young Prince were sent to England to be educated in the Protestant faith. that. some precautions might have been taken for preventing the removal to a foreign land of the heir to the throne. indeed. And how must he have heen mortified. 1 See King James's Memoirs of Himself. at his first entrance. p. no particulars of any interest have been handed down to us. Of the early history of the young Prince. vol. on the part of his heir. at which period he had attained to his thirteenth year. who. vol.

said. while his servants were performing religious services on their knees around him. He did his utmost. who was now unable to articulate. Louis. his son was proclaimed King of Great Britain. James. the pomp of pursuivants and heralds. 27th of September. Charles Lyttelton writes to his father. and the little Princess was brought to his bedside. conjured him to adhere firmly to the Catholic faith. and be faithful in the service of God to be obedient and respectful to the Queen. when an affecting interview took place between the two sovereigns. with the abundance of her innocent tears. 'Do not take away my son till I have given him my blessing. . was admitted to the presence of the dying monarch. than the weak condition he was in. was in. while she. When the French King approached the bed. the French King. by the title of James the Third. he had done. : King being troubled at. the best of mothers and to be ever grateful to the King of France. and having given him his solemn promise to protect. was lying on his back. 1701. however. James. pressed his hand tenderly. the Prince returned to his apartment. Sir Charles Lyttelton 1 " : Paris. to whom he had so many obligations. the Pope. is said to have been deeply touched by so affecting a sight of humbled greatness. apprehending that the concern and fervour with which he spoke might do him prejudice. who treated him with the same cere- . and hereafter acknowledge his As he heir. let what might be the consequence of it. Those who were present. on his part. In due time.THE PEETENDEES AND TIIEIE ADHEEEXTS. as soon as James was known to be no more. and dropped over it a tear or two of grateful affection. to whom he gave orders to proclaim the young Prince immediately after his father should have expired. and even to have burst into tears. with his eyes shut. amidst the nourish of trumpets. to whom he spoke to the same effect." Shortly afterwards. The next day the young King went to Versailles to return me King of France's visit. Louis the Fourteenth. her father. showed how sensibly she was touched with the languishing condition the King. desired the Prince might withdraw which . to cheer and console the dying Prince. passed to his coach. When Louis entered the apartment. he called for the officer of the guard. 12 [l701. who was engaged in inward prayer. and the Duke of Savoy. and all the ceremonies usual on such occasions. at least which when the ' . the 1 his rights King of were also acknowledged by Spain. Accordingly. he retired weeping from the melancholy scene.

century an asylum to the Chevalier's great-grcat-grandmother. Death of the Queen. 1 had afforded and a half the Chateau of St. Death of James AFTER the death of his father. Projected rising of the Pretender's Friends.] JAilES FREDERICK EDWARD STUAKT. the young Prince (or. and surrounded himself with the usual but hollow pageantry of a He is described. we have a right to presume that he would have figured in as respectable a light. Failure of the Expedition." vol. as the maBut. we must certainly pronounce him to have been disqualified to struggle successfully for the recovery of a crown. previous to her marriage to Francis the Second of France. With these qualities. tural abilities could scarcely be said to have kept pace with and moreover. Letters. The Chevalier's Letter to his Sister. Unpopularity of the Hanoverians. as tall in stature of court. Hopes of the Pretender from the Accession of Queen Anne. but with a great deal as considering he is very young. The room in the Chateau in which James the Second died is still of France always gave A shown. his najority of his predecessors. They have Ellis's Orig. respect that he was used to treat his father. CHAPTEE 13 II. he took him in his arms. p. and of a kind. II.1701. . where he assumed the empty title of King. for his Restoration. conducted his education. Germain before. Project of Louis XIV. as he styled. and the bigotry which had was henceforward commonly . When the visit was ended. iv. given him the same guards that the late King had. tractable. 2nd series. or to act with any great credit the difficult part which he was called upon to play. on the other hand. at this period. and accession of George I. When he met him a-top of the stairs. when we take his exterior accomplishments into consideration the unfortunate precepts which had been instilled into him by his father. him . and William III. and have proved as popular a monarch. 219. the King of France conducted him back to the top of the stairs. : the right hand. a handsome and even noble expression of countenance courteous in his manners. education been different from what they were. the Chevalier de St George) fixed his court in the ancient Chateau of St G-er1 main-en-laye. and embraced him with as much kindness and tenderness as if he had been his own son. and amiable had his fortunes and his disposition. . He conducted him the King into a room where there were two arm-chairs for the two Kings mony and more tenderness. the unfortunate Mary Queen of Scots.

The project was the less displeasing to him. to alter the succession in favour of her brother. and the means which they possessed of successfully resisting the arms of Queen Anne. after the death of James the Second. and to which William gave the royal assent only a few hours before he breathed his last. Louis the Fourteenth at length yielded to the earnest solicitations of the exiled court. 1702. which formally abjured and denounced the Chevalier de St George. from feelings of natural affection. and the crown entailed on the Protestant heirs of Sophia. This act was followed. But whatever may have been the intentions of that Princess at the close of her life. and grand-daughter of James the First. only six months after the death of King James. William the Third. If these important events had the effect of damping for a time the sanguine hopes of the Stuarts. who (as in all human probability she would die without issue) it was confidently hoped would be induced. with instructions to ascertain the disposition of the people of that country towards the Chevab'er. by the provisions of which the male line of the Stuarts were excluded from the succession. Four years had already elapsed since the hopes of the Jacobites had been raised by the accession of Queen Anne. an Accordingly. those hopes were shortly afterwards revived by the accession of the Chevalier's Queen Anne. As many as half-sister. On the 8th of March. it is certain that. she gave not the slightest hope of being prevailed upon to take such a step. In the course of the year which had preceded these events. and as their accomplishment still appeared to be as far off as ever. in the early period of her reign. in 1706. inasmuch as by sending an armament to England he would compel Queen Anne to withdraw some of her troops from the Netherlands in order to defend her own shores. and would thus arrest the victorious progress of the Duke of Marlborough's arms in the Low Countries. died his son-in-law and oppressor. ELectress Dowager of Hanover. Lieutenant-Colonel Hooke Englishman of good family. the English Legislature had passed the celebrated Act of Settlement. [l7C2.14 THE PRETENDERS AND THEIR ADHERENTS. who had been a faithful follower of James the Second in exile was despatched by the French King with proper credentials to Scotland. and entered into a serious project for restoring the Stuarts by force of arms. . daughter of the Queen of Bohemia. by another.

and to whom there attached neither that charm nor veneration which antiquity alone can impress. in order to make room for a foreign intruder. Admiral Russell. imagining that their services had been ill-requited. Among a people so essentially aristocratic in their prejudices and feelings as the English. had continued true to their principles through every change. who. Among these discontented individuals were many of the leading statesmen of the day and when we find such men as the Dukes of Shrewsbury and Marlborough. as to sweep away entirely the legitimate line. Neither was it alone from these and similar well-wishers that the exiled Prince looked for that aid and succour by means of which he hoped to regain possession of the throne of his ancestors. there could not fail to be many who took a deep and chivalrous interest in the misfortunes of an ancient dynasty. were the frequent. and who were now about to be put aside for a race of German sovereigns. at this period.] JAMES FEEDEEICK EDWAED STTJAET. . if not the general opinions of the landed gentry and of the High Church party in England and to these we must add the powerful body of the Roman Catholics. Lord Danby. as well as the the remains of the old Cavaliers. . and with them had departed much of that bitter and indignant feeling which he had justly provoked by his bigotry and his errors. .1706. were yet averse to permit so extraordinary an innovation on the constitution of the country. Such. had secretly tendered their services and allegiance to the Court of St Germain's. and looking forward to a counter-revolution as the means of personal aggrandisement. . . who original Jacobites. though they had concurred in the act which had deposed King James. 15 eighteen years had passed away since the expulsion of James. can we wonder that the Chevalier and his friends should have been tolerably confident of triumph and success ? Such were the pleasing prospects on which the Jacobites rested their hopes of success in England while in Scotland . whose names were unassociated with their annals. There were also many persons of high rank and influence. holding a treasonable correspondence with the exiled Court. Many there were who forgot the misconduct of James the Second in their compassion for his unoffending son many who conscientiously believed that the Church was in danger under a Whig rule and many who. and the Lord Treasurer Godolphin. who for so many centuries had given sovereigns either to England or Scotland.

l 1 Lockhart Papers. You would ne'er be a Thistle again. the great majority of the chieftains were quite as eager to throw away the scabbard in the cause of the Stuarts. that all distinctions of religion and party were laid aside. i. It was in a field. And I do suppose.THE PRETETTDEBS 1C ATfD THEIR ADHERENTS. In the Highlands. and forgiving the Chevalier even the crime of being a Papist. 2 The abhorrence of the Scotch people to the Act of Union is displayed many of the Jacobite songs. which were enthusiastically sung at the The following has considerable merit period. Jacobbut the Union can never be good. God. 2. So obnoxious." ! . I '11 with you be plain And if you would be but united with me. children. the rose chanced to say. p." . " Friend Thistle. and his birthday celebrated with the same rejoicings as 2 if he had been the reigning monarch. rose and a thistle did grow. in : 1. him. You would ne'er be a Thistle again. as they had formerly been in the days of Montrose or Dundee while in the Lowlands. I 'd wish to turn Thistle again. [l?06 the reviving attachment of the people to the representative of their ancient kings had taken a far wider and a deeper root." says the Eose. and so dishonourable to them as a nation. falsely suppose . that various did yield. but even the morose and bigoted Cameronians forgot the persecution to which they had been subjected under the rule of the Stuarts. "you fear?. ye flowers of the plain You would take so much pleasure in beauty's vast treasure. It was in And A In a sunshiny day. though I were a Eose. " Says the Thistle. expressed their " readiness to receive him back as their King. flowers did with elegy flow ." " my friend. and not only the Presbyterians." itism was openly professed in the principal towns of Scotland. may may At this period. when trees composed rhymes. My spears shield mortals from Whilst thou dost unguarded remain . 224." they " convert or have Protestant he said. old times. . was this celebrated measure to the Scottish people so detrimental was it considered to their interests. Bear witness. the disgust felt by the recent passing of the Act of Union had led to the secession of thousands from their allegiance to the Government. indeed. vol.

the French squadron at length put to sea. herself she anoints. under the command of the Comte de Forbin. the hilt of which was studded with diamonds at the same time making use of the same words which he had addressed to the Che" valier's father previous to the battle of La Hogue. After repeated delays in quitting Dunkirk. Nor dare I presume to complain Then remember that I do ruefully cry. it was determined that the Chevalier de St George. should proceed in person to his ancient kingdom. early in 1707. Louis presented him with a sword. ! face again. while helpless she Nor longer could sorrow refrain. is well known. a squadron was assembled ai Dunkirk. now in his twentieth year. was such as to induce the French King to lend his powerful aid to carry the threatened invasion into effect. commanded by the Comte de Grassd. The terror and pride of the plain. were I a Thistle again ! 4. 1707. Supported by these auxiliary troops." The result of the expedition. I flourished there. afterwards better known by the title of Mardchal de Matignon. with splendid liveries for his servants. and all the glittering appurtenances of a court.JAMES FREDERICK EDWARD 1707-] STTTABT. it may be readily conceived that the report made by Colonel Hooke. of the number and zeal of the Chevalier's friends in Scotland. Admired hy each nymph and each swain . with rich clothes for his life-guards. And free as the air. He was furnished by the French King with magnificent services of gold and silver. were . But one cold stormy day. with many Ohon lay. Adieu the best wish I can make you is. on board of which were embarked between five and six thousand men. . preferring the Rose To all the gay flowers of the plain. The Thistle at length. Accordingly. that I may never see your . But now I 'm the mock of Flora's fair flock. And now are united the twain. which sailed in the month of March. At parting. She fetch'd a deep groan. on his return to France. Throws off all her points. ! " Oh. and having proceeded several miles up the Frith of Forth. 17 3. " For then I did stand on yon heath-cover'd land. were I a Thistle again!" Under these circumstances.

and the consequent disappointment of his fondest hopes. and gave orders for his ships to make the best of their way to Dunkirk. and blowing directly in their teeth. he declared the project to be an impossible one. gave notice that the English fleet. in an open country. he bore away with all the sail his ships could carry. This second request De Forbin seemed at first inclined to comply with but the winds shortly afterwards veering round. I am directed to take the same precautions for the safety of your august person. taking advantage of a land breeze.THE PEETEXDEES AND THEIB ADHEEENTS. being boarded and taken. . as for his Majesty's own. the Earl of Fife) would afford him. Accordingly. it was no sooner intimated to him by De Forbin that the fleet had received orders to put to sea." he said. when the sound of cannon. " the Salisbury. To this proposal De Forbin could by no means be induced to listen. than he resolutely demanded that he might be put with his attendants on board a smaller vessel expressing his determination to land on the coast of Fifeshire. and was soon out of reach of the English fleet one of his ships only. The failure of the expedition. where a few hours might put you in the hands of your enemies. followed in close chase by the English Admiral." a slow-sailing vessel. the Chevalier missed a more . . Night shortly afterwards set in. in the direction of the mouth of the Frith. and that he might be landed at Inverness. Sir George Byng. " Sir. were advancing to attack them. engaged in making the signals which had been agreed upon to acquaint their friends of their approach. the Comte de Forbin had no choice but to relinquish the enterprise and to put to sea. As the French squadron was far inferior to that of the English. You are at present in safety. where the ancient castle of Weinyss (belonging to a devoted partisan of his family. which had followed them from Dunkirk. when De Forbin altered his course. seem to have been deeply felt by the young Chevalier. " by the orders of my royal master. and am answerable for your safety with my head. Unwilling to return to France without having struck a single blow. . This must be my chief care. 18 [l7C7. and I will never consent to your being exposed in a ruinous chateau. I am intrusted with your person. By these untoward means. he said. a place of refuge and the means of assembling his devoted adherents." The Chevalier then expressed a wish that the squadron might proceed northward.

Throughout the kingdom. as well as its stores. The latter We . o 2 . it may be mentioned that such was the demand made on the Bank of England. the household troops of the King of France. when. were circumstances greatly in favour of the success of his enterprise. it was one of the bitterest moments in the life of that ambitious and once all-powerful monarch. the nation in general believed that they were on the eve of a second and perhaps a bloody revolution and. and the disaffection caused by the Union in Scotland. the war in Flanders had drained the country of troops. and in the last onset was wounded by a sword in the arm. ammunition.1709. the young Chevalier joined the French forces in Flanders. have already seen that the reaction which had taken place in England in favour of the exiled family. 19 favourable opportunity of regaining the tlirone of his ancestors than was ever likely to occur again. In England there were not above 3000 men under arms. he found himself compelled to intimate to the Chevalier that he could no longer afford him an asylum in his dominions. . in consequence of the repeated defeats which his armies had experienced in the Low Countries. and the public money which was kept there for the purposes of the Government. must have surrendered at the first summons. Louis the Fourteenth had conscientiously adhered to the promise he had made to King James on his death-bed. among other evidences of the panic which prevailed at the time. Disappointed in his hopes of being permitted to draw his maiden sword in defence of his rights. agreeably with the conditions which had been forced upon him by the treaty of Utrecht. unless he had received promises of support from individuals of the first rank and influence . Moreover. have ventured on a landing. in its present undefended state. .] JAMES FREDERICK EDWARD STUART. Hitherto. and in Scotland scarcely more than 2000 while the castle of Edinburgh. where he subsequently served with credit at the battles of Oudenarde and MalplaOn the latter occasion he charged twelve times with quet. he found himself no longer in a condition to assist the son of his old friend. of affording protection to his orphan son but the time had now arrived when. Doubtless. a consternation prevailed which would scarcely be It was imagined that the Chevalier would never credited. and artillery. that it was only by the most extraordinary efforts that the public credit was maintained. but particularly in London.

. yet I am most desirous rather to owe to you than to any living the recovery of it. my own just right. it was confidently believed that she had been overtaken by feelings of remorse for her filial disobedience and. country recommend it to you. to it the promises you made to the King. ii. of his sister's favourable intentions towards him. honour. It is for you that a work so just and The voice of God and nature calls you glorious is reserved. in which he implores her to bear in mind the ties of blood which united them. . Deprived of all present prospect of regaining the throne of his forefathers by force of arms. p. it was thought that she would gladly seize any safe opportunity of making amends to the son for the wrongs which their father had experienced at her hands. Orig. may be assured. . Madam. and to do all that is posAnd you sible for me to come to a perfect union with you. Papers. and the duty I owe to God and my country. and " The nato assist him to the succession after her death. more easy. we find the Chevalier addressing to her an af1 fecting and admirably written letter. " I and that bear you. apparently. which the King. . . and fixed his quarters for a time in the dominions of the Duke of Lorraine. " was a better." vol. the Chevalier determined to make a last appeal to the better feelings of his half-sister. Sick in mind and body. which you know is unalterably settled by the most fundamental laws of the land. Satisfied. our father. enjoin it the preservation of our family the preventing of unnatural wars require it and the public good and welfare of our but with . the last male descendant of her ancient line.THE PRETENDERS 20 AIS'D THEIR ADHERENTS. are the true motives that persuade me to write to you. our father. commiserating the condition of the Chevalier de St George. to rescue it from present and 1 "The Pretender. and safety." he writes. [l713. the consideration of our mutual interest. my life. which tural affection." says Macpherson. had for you. Queen Anne. that though I can never abandon. harassed by the constant dissensions which divided her ministers and personal friends. 225. till his last breath. in addition to the dislike which she was known to have conceived for the Electoral family. accordingly broke up his court at St Germain's. the unhappy Queen had seen the grave close over the remains of her numerous progeny and. and perhaps more elegant writer than any one of his servants.

Papers. they soon discovered 1 2 Macpherson's Orig. involve the nation in blood and confusion till the succession be again I am satisfied. 2 If such. Madam. to the latest posterity. as related in Birch's Papers. that they had only to give him a guard. that if you settled in the right line. to the Duke of Hanover. such were the prudent and skilful precautions of the Duke of Shrewsbury and the friends of the Hanoverian succession. pp. manner as if it had descended to him by hereditary right. 21 future evils which must. Houses of Nassau and Hanover. that on the death of the Queen. and gave it as his solemn advice and opinion. slave the nation. " Never. the author has elsewhere detailed at some length. Bishop Atterbury was the only individual of exalted station who had the boldness to advocate his cause. " was a better cause lost for want of spirit. vol. by the general naturalization. and to propose a rising in his favour. pp. 274. who will leave the Governwill . . . George the First succeeded to the throne in the same quiet and undisputed . or be fond of. Among others whom he urged to take this dangerous step. 223. ment to foreigners of another language. Simon Lord Harcourt. and en. ii. be guided by your own inclinations. the last male of our name. of another interest and who. however. 270 276. Of the numerous persons including men of the highest rank and authority who had been previously engaged in intrigues in favour of the Chevalier." Although the tacit approbation shown by the people of England to the accession of George the First had greatly damped the hopes of the Jacobites. you will readily comply with so just and fair a proposal as to prefer your own brother. the remotest relation we have whose friendship you have no reason to rely on. and he would put on his lawn sleeves and head the procession.] STTJABT.JAMES FBEDEBICK EDWABD 1714. that the Chevalier should be immediately proclaimed as King James the Third." ' The reasons which induce a cretly disposed to belief that the Queen was senominate the Chevalier as her successor." he afterwards exclaimed to a friend. were her intentions. may bring over crowds of his countrymen to supply the defect of his right. Atterbury paid him a visit shortly after the Queen's death. Atterbury further added. According to the statement of the Chancellor himself. was the Lord Chancellor. her unlocked for and almost sudden demise prevented her carrying them into execution and moreover.

the mob spoke " openly and contemptuously of the King as the gentleman who keeps the two Turks . the populace violently assaulted the Rev. . named Mahomet and Mustapha. and exertion in tlie increasing unpopularity of the new King and his ministerial advisers.22 THE PBETE>*DERS THEIE ADHERENTS. A?*D [l714. in " Geordic "WTielp's Testament. or my draught would fail. I copy. Joseph Acres for preaching a sermon in favour of the House of Hanover. In several of the largest towns of England. then Electoral George It is to one of them that Pope Prince." 2 and very nearly murdered the ! 1 One Bournois. was afterwards whipped through the City with such severity. breaking the windows of those who refused to illuminate. which continued daily to gain strength throughout the kingdom. the mob paraded the streets. alludes in his "Essay on Women:" " From or peer To draw Alas ! From the bishop. in the midst of shouts of High Church and the Duke of Ormond for ever I" 1 In Whitechapel church. honest Mahomet or plain Parson Hale. a schoolmaster." a Jacobite lampoon of the period They : Wi' my twa Turks I winna sindcr. was serving in the Imperial army. the virulent animosity with which they persecuted the ministers of the late Queen." are also referred to. and burning William the Third in effigy at Smith" field. who was committed to Newgate for shouting through the streets that King George had no right to the throne. had gradually fomented a spirit of discontent and disaffection. while on fresh incentives to intrigue the anniversary of the Chevalier's birth. no easy thing loves his God or king 'tis man who . and the revival of the cry that the Church was in danger under their rule. the popular cries were "Down with the Roundheads!" "No Hanover!" "No foreign Government " At an election at Leicester. a dislike which was greatly increased by the undue and extraordinary favours shown them by the King. For that wad my last turney hinder . who had heen taken prisoners at the time when the First. though with little honour. 1 These were two Turks. The dislike with which the Whigs were regarded at this pei'iod by the landed gentry and by the High Church party. that he died a few days afterwards in the greatest torture. and in England the alarming riots which were constantly taking place showed how disgusted the people were with their new rulers. In London. those who celebrated the King's birthday were insulted by the populace. Already Scotland was ripe for revolt.

though it be late Where Oliver and Willie Buck Sit o'er the lugs in smeeky muck . houses of the "Whigs were pillaged. They '11 e'en be blythe when Geordie 's On there. . and other places in Staffordshire. Neither was it in the general disaffection alone. and Shropshire. whom they both hated and despised. For baitb can speer the nearest gate. uniting with the towns-people. that the Chevalier rested Lis hopes of succeeding in the new attempt which he was determined to make for the recovery of the throne. which prevailed at the period. . In Lancashire it was found necessary to raise the militia while at New. the mob all the time shouting. had begun earnestly to wish for a revolution. Leeds. Marlborough. a Presbyterian meetinghouse was pulled down. the mob triumphed for two whole Third. . and the white rose worn on the Chevalier's birthday. the . as appears by a letter from Count Broglio to the King of France. the gownsmen. and beins sae bare. Dudley. At PhilipsNorton. windows were broken. Birmingham. days. Wi' hips sae het. and responded heartily to the overtures which were made to them by the Jacobites. Wolverhampton. At Oxford. "No Hanover !"" No Eoundheads !" " No Constitutionists !" The sprig of oak was again publicly displayed on the 29th of May. and his health publicly drunk as King James the At Manchester. and in the patronage of the Crown. Warwickshire.1714. And lead me in. 23 High Sheriff for refusing to return the Jacobite candidate. oppressed by the Whigs.] JAMES FREDERICK EDWARD STUART. destroying a Presbyterian meeting-house. perpetrated the most daring acts of violence and outrage. the populace. Stourbridge. made a furious attack on a party of noblemen and gentlemen who were met to celebrate the King's birthday for a time the town was in their hands. The Tories. and a bonfire made of the pulpit and pews. and deprived of all prospect of obtaining any share in the administration. and pulling down several houses belonging to the Whigs. the accession of the King to the throne of England. obtained considerable influence over their royal master. castle -under -Line. encouraged by many of the magistrates and country gentlemen attached to the cause of the Stuarts. the Chevalier's birthday was ushered in with ringing of bells. and other places. Warrington. the two Turks received the appointments of Pages of the Back Stairs and.

Colouring their statements according to their own eager feelings and sanguine hopes. they said. Accordingly." to use his own words. who secretly supplied him with money. and an ambitious desire to give a sovereign to England. at the very crisis when his aid and countenance were most required by the . . if once damped. by the contemptuous reception of his offers of allegiance by new monarch. might have induced Louis the Fourteenth to extend still more valuable assistance to the son of his old friend. it was evident to more dispassionate observers. however. and certainly the most popular nobleman in England. and entered the service of the Chevalier. his presence alone lution. might never be rekindled they assured him that defeat was impossible they insisted that the Tories would join him on his first landing." had flown to Commercy and accepted the Seals under the Chevalier while the Duke of Ormond. moreover. [l715. and. unless they received powerful assistance from France. and that . to say the least. that unless the rising in England and Scotland were simultaneous. earnest entreaties and arguments were used by the friends of the Chevalier in Great Britain to induce him to place himself at their head. The impolitic severity of the Whigs had driven to despair and desperation more than one of the most influential and The Earl of Mar. It is possible that a willingness to fulfil the promise which he had made to King James in his last moments. was wanting to insure a successful revo- Nevertheless. and with little expectation of having a fair trial. disgusted gifted noblemen in the realm. The flame of enthusiasm. success was. hurried indignantly to Scotland to use his powerful influence to incite his countrymen to revolt Bolingbroke the gifted and brilliant Bolingbroke "with the smart of a bill of attainder. they implored him not to lose a moment in coming the . and even paid the expenses of .24 THE PEETEKDEES AND THEIE ADHEBENTS.fitting out the vessel which was to transport the Chevalier to the shores of Britain. . one of the most powerful. promising as was the aspect of the Chevaaffairs at this juncture. which. had also withdrawn himself from the kingdom. very far from being reduced to a certainty. In addition to these inducements to make a fresh effort to regain the Crown. over. Unfortunately. "tingling in every vein. impeached of high treason. the Chevalier again applied himself to the French lier's King. had been raised in his favour.

hopes sunk as he l declined." My Although Lord Bolingbroke's famous letter to Sir "William "Wyndham was written after his quarrel with the Chevalier. The ministers. no subordination. "had lived six months longer. yet the account which he gives in that letter of the state of the Prince's affairs. Persons concerned in the management of these affairs upon former occasions have assured me this is always the case it might be so in some degree. as well as for the sake of the public. must always be regarded " as a valuable and interesting one. this business. " the King was already gone to Marly. who saw so great an event as his death to be probably at hand. and in conjunction with the Duke of Ormond soon afterwards languished with the King. and when his feelings towards his old master had become those of bitterness and indignation. would not for their own sakes. The Jacobites had wrought one another up . to my apprehension. a new face of government. and died when he expired.JAMES FBEDEEICK EDWABD STUAET. All I had to negotiate by myself first. principal dependence was upon his personal he was not character. This was the only point Chevalier. the least reasonable appearance even of possibility all that preceded was wild and uncertain all that followed was mad and : . that haughty his last. no concert. * * * * I found a multitude of people at work. . but did not very well know for which. He was the best friend the Chevalier had and when I engaged in . and every one doing what seemed good in his own eyes." he says. and a new system of affairs.1 25 and magnificent monarch breathed "If the late King. an uncertain regency. I verily believe there had been war again between England and France. The very first conversation I had with the Chevalier. venture to engage far in any new measures." writes Lord Bolingbroke. no order. a certain minority. He talked to me like a man who expected every moment to set out for England or Scotland. perhaps confusion at best. and of the persons who formed his court. 1 Letter to Sir William "Wyndham. "answered in no degree my expectations. this failed me in a great degree my in a condition to exert the same vigour as formerly. of time when these affairs had. where the indisposition which he had begun to feel at Versailles increased upon him." " When I arrived at Paris. 1715. desperate." adds Bolingbroke. but I believe never so much as now.

they had sounded the alarm in their ears that. and had consequently been rethat. [1715. Care and hope sat on every busy Irish face. little court. and of being supported by French armies and foreign gold. composed. brother of the Due de Bouillon. it was unlikely that the latter would take so hazardous a step. served to confirm them in these sanguine expectations and there was hardly one amongst them who would lose the air of contributing by his intrigues to the restoration. whereas only a short time since England had no fleet at sea. it was insisted that the favourable moment for action had been allowed to slip by that. and those of their friends. had letters to show and those who had not. . as to the practicability of bringing about a revolution by their own energies and resources. whom you must have seen in England. kept her corner in it and Olive Trant was the 2 great wheel of our machine. . but that now she was and lastly. which he took for granted would be brought about without him in a very few weeks. every drunken riot which happened.2G THE PBETE^DEBS AND THEIE ADHEEEITTS. generally speaking. By those who took a gloomier view of the aspect of the Chevalier's affairs. Fanny Oglethorpe. prising their enemies. it was prepared and defended on all points urged that Scotland could effect nothing. they had their secrets to whisper. l . by the indiscretion of some of their own friends. their plans and intentions had been whispered about at half the tea-tables . of men She afterwards married a . Paris." in their Disappointed hopes of being carried in triumph to the shores of England by a French fleet. which was the true policy. unless the English Tories and Jacobites rose at the same moment and that. the only question which was now discussed in the court of the Chevalier was. and only eight thousand troops in the whole island. there were others which were far more likely to have their influence at his and coffee-houses in . to look upon the success of the present designs as infallible: every meeting-house which the populace demolished. . * Letter to Sir William Wyndham. without foreign succours. as Mistress of the Regent Duke of Orleans. i it was. instead of surported to the English Government. Those who could write and read. But if such were the arguments adduced by the few sensible men among the Chevalier's advisers. arrived to this pitch of erudition. .

Arrests of Battle of Sheriffmuir. the tidings suddenly reached them that the irrevocable step had already been taken. lastly. who. were biassed far more by their own ardent wishes than by conviction. Mar had flown in disguise to the Highlands. in which case they unequivocally promised to place the crown on his head. " attended at the head of their vassals. Defeat and Surrender of his Army at Preston. they laid the greatest stress on the constant advices received from their friends at home. Inactivity of the Earl of Mar. believing that his enemies were resolved on his ruin. circuit ot text A . Repulsed in the overtures of service and allegiance which he had made to George the First. and that the Earl of Mar was actually in arms in the Highlands at the head of the Jacobite clans. whom a distance from the scene of action rendered but incompetent judges and who." says Sir "Walter Braemar. that so favourable a conjuncture would probably never occur again that the Chevalier's honour and his interests equally called upon him to make the attempt that his gallant partisans in Great Britain had already proceeded too far to retreat with safety and. persisted in urging the Chevalier to take his immediate departure for England. Arrival of the Chevalier from France. his Adherents in England.1715. all. in Aberdeenshire. where. when they promised themselves success. His Journey to Scoon. . Publicly proclaimed King in Scotland.] JAMES FEEDEKICK EDWAKD STUAHT. The Earl of Mar and other Nobles swear Fealty to James the Third. even LowScott. . WHILE the Chevalier and his council were still engaged deliberating on the important question of peace and war. on the prein of a grand hunting-party. he invited the principal Jacobite noblemen in Scotland to meet him at his castle of " The lords. and thirsting for revenge. . By these persons it was argued. and the sport was carried on upon a scale of rude magnificence. 27 of confined understandings. land guests. . CHAPTER III. seemingly becoming more confident and energetic as their affairs wore a darker aspect. Retreat of the Chevalier's Forces. attired in the Highland garb. wearied with poverty and exile.

of Braemar is celebrated in one of the most spirited of the Jacobite songs of the period 5 2 The hunting-match : The auld The auld Stuarts back again. among the chiefs of clans. they are driven down a defile. Ogilvy. [l715. namely. Kingston. Upon a signal given. Animated by an eloquent and elaborate speech addressed to them by the Earl of Mar. Southesk. and Stormount the Lords Eollo. and Campbell of Glendarule. Errol. Seaforth. 1 assembling and arming their vassals. Carnwath. . Duffus. were the Marquis of Huntly. Kilmarnock sowen suds ? their hides. and Linlithgow the Viscounts of Kilsythe. a' '11 wauk fuels. where the principal hunters lie in wait for them. eldest son of the Duke of Atholl the Earls of Nithsdale. vices required by the law: attendance on the superior at that is. and s\vore to be faithful to each other. and fyle their We And bring the Stuarts back again. 32.. the powerful Glengarry. eldest son of the Duke of Gordon the Marquis of Tullibardine. . the hunters who compose the tinchel begin to move inwards. Wha And cares for a' their creeshy duds. joining his banner in war or icatching and warding. At the conclusion of their sport. Strathallan. . Stuarts back again. Let howlet Whigs do what they can. Being in this manner concentrated and crowded together. Drummond.garrihis castle in times of danger. which are inhabited by the red-deer. closing the circle and driving the terrified deer before them. and Nairne and. the attendance of vassals on these occasions was Indeed. p. they dispersed to their several estates for the purpose of . Traquair. they all took the oath of allegiance to James the Third. iii. . hunting being as regularly required as at hosting. The auld Stuarts back again. muir. who cannot elude the surrounding sportsmen. As it required many men to form the tinchel. it was one of the feudal serstrictly insisted upon. Ken. with whatever else the forest contains of wild animals. vol. and show their dexterity by marking out and shooting those bucks which are in season. . Marischal. many miles was formed around the wild desolate forests and wildernesses. and is called the tinchel. the noblemen and chieftains who swore fealty at Among Braemar to the exiled heir of the Stuarts." ' soning. Tales of a Grandfather.28 THE PRETENDERS AND THEIR ADHERENTS.

"For our Lives and The standard had scarcely been erected. and the Chevalier was solemnly proclaimed. Were ye wi' me to chase the rae. wi' the rest. when Liberties. Out-oure the hills and far away. which was said to have been worked by the Countess of Mar. 1 There And 's ! Ayr and Irvine. barked. Afore the bagpipe and the drum. was of blue silk having on one side the arms of Scotland wrought in gold. And a' that look and think it lang For auld Stuarts back again. Willie ? ! . the cronies a' Lord sic i' the west. So fierce the wind did blaw. as King of England. For our wronged King and oppressed Country. Willie. We '11 either gar them a' sing dumb.JAMES FREDERICK EDWARD STUART." " of which were the words. and Ireland. Or "auld Stuarts back again. the standard was performed by the Earl of Mar. Scotland. Nemo me impune It had also two pendants of white ribbon. To bring the Stuarts back again. And saw Then what are a' their westland crews gar the tailors back again Can they forestand the tartan trews." the ornamental ball at the top of it fell off. with the ancient motto. And auld Stuarts back again ? We 1 '11 : But when our standard was set up. The standard." and on the other. in the midst of the assembled clans. who considered it as foreboding misfortune to the cause in which thev had em. they up their crack again But wad they come. an incident which is said to have depressed for the moment the spirits of the superstitious Highlanders. scawed and scabbit How nest. on one lacessit. and on the 6th of September the noblemen and chiefs of clans again assembled with their reThe same day the ceremony of raising tainers at Aboyne. 1716.] 29 The celebrated "hunting-match of Braemar" took place about the 26th of August. and on the other side the " Scottish thistle. the lords were there that day. A' ye that ken the right frae wrang." '11 set Give ear unto my loyal sang. The golden knop down from the top Unto the ground did fa'. or dare they come.

had it succeeded.sighted Sandy said. character of the present work. he allowed the crisis for action to slip by him. To enter into the various details of the insurrection of 1715. at Dunkeld. Willie. The flame of rebellion flew from fastness to fastness . and instead of sweeping down on the Duke of Argyll and the royal forces. though he had displayed extraordinary spirit and address in raising the Highland Clans. would be foreign to the It is sufficient to observe. Fy. and. AYillie Up and sell your sour milk. Willie While pipers play'd frae right to left. further than as they throw light on the fortunes and personal history of the Chevalier. and giving time for dissensions and jealousies to take root among their chieftains. And dance. . concerted plan for seizing Edinburgh Castle which. by the Earl of Panmuir bardine at Castle Gordon. was entirely deficient in military experience. Willie. . We '11 do nae gude at a'. by the Marquis of Tidliat Brechin. was possessed of few of the qualities required to conduct an enterprise of so hazardous and peculiar a nature. the white cockade was adopted by clan after clan and within an incredibly short space of time. that an enterprise so spiritedly commenced was allowed to languish in consequence of the inefficiency of those who At the very outset of the insurrection. . ! Jacobite Sony. . and ding them a'. and driving them headlong over the Tweed. furich Whigs awa. Damping the spirit of the impetuous Highlanders by his ill-judged delays. the Chevalier was solemnly proclaimed at many of the principal at Aberdeen.30 THE PBETENDEBS AKD THEIB ADHEBENTS. [l715. by the Laird of Borlum. Lord Mar found himself at the head of an army of nearly ten thousand men. . moreover. indeed. would probably have given to the insurgents the failed in conat least temporary mastership of Scotland sequence of the reckless imprudence of those selected to carry it into execution. by the Earl Marischal towns in Scotland at Inverness. better known as Brigadier Mac Intosh . a welldirected it. "Within a few days after the raising of the standard. . by the Earl of Southesk and at Dundee. . Willie. by Graham of Duntroon. he allowed the . The Earl of Mar. Up and waur them a'. by the Marquis of Huntly at Montrose. . Then second. Up and waur them a".

And as little chase was at a'. 31 Duke time to be joined by repeated reinforcements. and arresting the progress of the insurgents into the Lowlands. Montrose gained eight victories and overran Scotland with fewer numbers of Highlanders. marched as far as Derby. With " far less force. man . That at Sheriffmuir A hattle there was. Some say that nane wan at a'. As ne'er in that place was. and with almost half the troops assembled at Perth. in which both generals claimed the victory: as Mar. The Highlanders. . man. Dundee gained the battle of Killiecrankie . by one of those misfortunes which troops. But ae thing I 'm sure. which I saw. And they ran and we ran. waiting for an event which was never destined to occur. They did not make use o" a paw. on the contrary. and to deposit with them any booty of which they might have There 's some say that we wan. man. indeed. . as was their invariable custom after an engagement. So there such a race was. The result. that 1 greater reason to boast of success. retired in great numbers to visit their friends. Some say that they wan. while Argyll. more than two months Mar marched his impatient army from Perth. And we ran. in 1745. and they ran. thus securing the passage of the Forth.JAMES FEEDEEICK EDWAED 1715. Charles Edward.] STTJABT. however." says Sir Walter Scott. " the general rising of the Jacobite party in England. retired from the neighbourhood of the scene of action. of the battle was in every respect unfavourable to the insurgents. and they ran awa. dogged the House of Stuart since the days of Robert the Second. Three days afterwards was fought the celebrated battle of Sheriffmuir or Dumblaine." was not till the 10th of November. man And we ran. the latter had certainly the It after the raising of the standard. he himself remained for weeks inactive at Perth. . Without touk o' drum. means. retained his position. they wanted a man of military talent just at the time when they possessed an unusual quantity of military . and gained two victories over regular But in 1715. man Frae ither they ran. than Mar had at his disposal. In the mean time.

The titular Duke of Powis was sent to the Tower Lords Lansdown and Dupplin were taken into custody a warrant was issued for apprehending the Earl of Jersey Lieutenant-Colonel Paul. and. and Mr Curwen of Workington. A . which on the morning of the battle had numbered ten thousand men. the Government was so fortunate as to dis. the Habeas Corpus Act was suspended by the Parliament liberal supplies were voted for the service of the Crown six thousand auxiliary troops were sent for from Holland. Sir John Packington. anticipating the designs of the English Jacobites. Mr Howard. and a reward of 100. the Chevalier's affairs in England wore even a worse aspect than in Scotland. . ADHEBEKTS. . . warrants were issued for seizing the persons of Sir William "Wyndham. were arrested and confined in Carlisle Castle.000 was offered for seizing the Chevalier. despairing of a rising among the English Jacobites. For Mar to have attempted to force a passage into the Lowlands at the head of five thousand men. was sent to London in custody of a messenger.32 THE PEETEXDEBS AND THEIB. where he continued to pursue the same inactive policy which had already proved so fatal to the interests of his master. and disheartened by the dilatory conduct and evident incompetence of the Earl of Mar. In the mean time. Thus the insurgent army. possessed themselves while more than one of the chieftains. In Cornwall. was reduced the following day to less than half that number. about the same time. a measure which he had found himself unable to accomplish with an army double in number. would have amounted to little less than an act of madness. . took their departure with their numerous retainers. the most influential Jacobite in the county. which was then the hot-bed of Jacobitism and. In addition to these precautions. on the pretext of being summoned to the protection of their own country. of Corby. an officer of the Guards. adopted prompt measures for frustrating them. and other members of Parliament. He withdrew accordingly to his old quarters at Perth. either dead or alive. was imprisoned in the Gatehouse for enlisting men for the service of the Chevalier. The Government. large body of troops was sent to overawe the University of Oxford. including Lords Huntly and Seaforth. with the consent of the Lower House. . Sir Richard Vyvian. . two of the most powerful partisans of the Stuarts. and in the North of England.

and who were now advancing southward in order to unite their forces (amounting to about two hundred horsemen) with those of Mr Forster and Lord Derwentwater. where he confidently expected to find the landed gentry and their tenants in arms to support him. On his landing. "a handful of Northumberland fox-hunters. and Viscount Kenmure. however. and the remainder were dispersed consequently he had no choice but to abandon the enterprise. At the outset of the insurrection. and now formed a junction with the English Jacobites at the head of fourteen hundred Highlanders. a safe retreat to France. the Duke of Ormond. After a lengthened discussion among the leaders of the party. if possible. the member for Northumberland. Thus reinforced. he had the misfortune to find that he had been betrayed by his own agent. where they were met by the Earls of Carnwarth. proclaimed the Chevalier . by which means they hoped to unite themselves with the powerful body of Jacob- . it was at length decided that they should push forward into England by the western border. and by other gentlemen near the borders. and to effect. "as they are styled by Sir Walter Scott and having been joined by Lord Widdrington.1 33 cover a plan which had been concerted for surprising the city of Bristol the arms and artillery of the conspirators of which they had formed a depot at Bath were seized by the officers of the Crown. and Nithsdale. "Wintoun. : . had taken the field with a body of only sixty horse. who had recently proclaimed the Chevalier at Moffat. with about forty officers and men. It was only in the North of England that the English Jacobites presented in any degree a formidable appearance. many of his friends. and Alnwick. the G-overnment had been no less successful in defeating the plans of the Jacobites. he found. In the "West of England. had been arrested. Maclean not a single individual came to welcome him. 1715. where they awaited the arrival of Brigadier Mac Intosh. Proscribed by the Government. Morpeth. the insurgents withdrew to Kelso. From hence they at Warkworth.JAMES FREDERICK EDWARD STUART. and all the principal persons supposed to be engaged in the enterprise were taken into custody. proceeded northward to Rothbury. . had sailed from the coast of Normandy for Devonshire. the young Earl of Derwentwater and Mr Forster. This officer had recently performed a gallant and hazardous service in forcing his way across the Forth in the midst of the royal cruizers.

commanded by Colonel Stanhope. in the superstitious aversion entertained by the Highlanders to marching out of their own country: if they were to be made a sacrifice. The insurgents entered England on the 1st of November. tered Lancashire that he received any important additions to his ranks. In the mean time. and levied the public money. where they proclaimed the Chevalier with the usual ceremonies. though with great difficulty. however. At Lancaster he released several of the partisans of the Stuarts who were confined in the county gaol. [l716. returned to their friends in the Highlands. General Wills had collected the royal forces which were quartered at Manchester and Wigan. withdrew at his approach. who brought with them their servants and tenantry. and passed the night at the small town of Brampton. a large body of them were prevailed upon to advance while the remainder. The fate of this gallant but ill-fated body of men is well known. pushed forward through Appleby and Kendal to Kirby Lonsdale.3-i THE PRETENDERS AND THEIR ADHERENTS. they were determined that at least it should be on their own soil. they said. that they dispersed themselves in the utmost confusion at their approach. and amounting to ten or twelve thousand men were drawn out to arrest their further progress. But there existed an important obstacle to the adoption of this measure. Mr Forster. turning a deaf ear to . however. ites in England. which had been sent him by the Earl of Mar. The force under Mr Forster at this period consisted only of nine hundred Highlanders. and from thence advanced to Preston. in all which places he proclaimed the CheIt was not till he envalier. and advanced to Preston to give the insurgents battle. Here he was joined by several Roman Catholic gentlemen. For some reason. They advanced without interruption to Penrith. the entreaties of their general. accordingly. These peaceful men. and about six hundred Northumbrian and Dumfriesshire horsemen. where the posse comitatus of Cumberland headed by Lord Lonsdale and the Bishop of Carlisle. and another of militia. At length. had conceived such terrible notions of the character of the insurgents. to the number of twelve hundred men. where a regiment of dragoons. who it was confidently expected would rise in a body at the approach of their friends. which it is impossible to reconcile not only with mi- . Here also Mr Forster opened his commission as their general.

and executed as deserters and Lord Charles Murray was also sentenced to death for the same offence. and Nairn. The noblemen and principal leaders of the insurrection were sent prisoners to London. pinioned as malefactors. Major Nairn. and after having been led through the streets. obtained surgents proved but of little service to them. : . The Highlanders. indeed. . Captain Lockhart. and surrendered themselves at discretion. made his appearance with a reinforcement of three regiments of dragoons immediately the town was invested on all sides and it became evident to the besieged. the Bibble. Captain Shaffco. and night shortly afterwards setting in. the whole of the insurgent force laid down their arms. who had followed them by forced marches from the south of Scotland. Among the persons of note who fell into the hands of the Government. The after having suffered considerby the in- slight success. Kenmure. were Lords Derwentwater. accordingly. however.1715. him. The common men were imprisoned chiefly in the gaols of Liverpool or Manchester. It was in this gloomy crisis of his affairs. besides several members of the first families in the north of England. that further opposition was out of the question. and Ensign Erskine were tried by court-martial. that the surrender at Preston took place on the same day on which was fought the doubtful . were committed either to the Tower or to Newgate. Nithsdale. the royalists were compelled to withdraw. battle of Sheriffmuir. Carnwath. expressed their determination to sally out sword in hand. contented himself with causing barricades to be formed in the principal streets. by which road alone the enemy could have reached. The attack is described as a highly spirited one: but they were received with at least equal gallantry. able loss. Expressing much astonishment at findingthe litary experience bridge of the Eibble undefended. 35 but with common sense. Eorster had negthe bridge over lected to defend a most important post. and drawing his men into the centre of the town. in consequence of the surrender at Preston.Wintoun. Early the following morning General Carpenter. It is remarkable. and cut their way through the King's troops: but with some difficulty they were prevailed upon to listen to the arguments of their leaders and.] JAMES FREDEEICK EDWABD STTTAET. General "Wills pushed forward. and attacked the insurgents at two diiferent points of their temporary defences.Widdrington. but reprieved. D 2 when there .

he landed at Peterhead on the 22nd of December. subsequently proceeded to name a privy council. in which he appointed a day of general thanksgiving for his safe arrival commanded prayers to be offered up for him in the several churches called upon all loyal men to join his standard and named the 23rd of the following month for performing the ceremony of his coronation. . . After a voyage of seven days. to pay their respects to him at Petteresso. and a train of about thirty gentlemen. . Among others. and citizens of that ancient burgh. proceeded to Petteresso. and on entering the apartment they kissed his hand. town council. passing through Aberdeen. 1715. scarcely remained the faintest hope of another rising in England. where he embarked on board a small privateer. the principal seat of that nobleman. and having lurked for several days in the dress of a mariner along the coast of Brit- made good his way to Dunkirk. [l715. The Chevalier passed the first night at Peterhead. attended by the Marquis of Tynemouth. however. advice he issued six proclamations. ostensibly laden with brandy. . and paid him The Chevalier the homage usually awarded to royalty. he advanced Lord Mar to a dukedom. and when Mar was remaining inactive at Perth. in the name of King James the Eighth of Scotland and Third of England. hastened with the Earl Marischal. He assumed to himself all the authority and attributes of a sovereign prince. In the mean time. to observe. Having made several vain attempts to obtain a passage from St Malo. son of the Duke of Berwick.36 THE PRETENDERS AND THEIR ADHERENTS. over- awed by the superior army of Argyll. by whose tany. The next day he came to Newburgh. in the ancient kingdom of his forefathers. having received intimation of the Chevalier's arrival. he at length . Lieutenant Cameron. Lord Mar. that the last of the Stuarts landed. It is necessary. and four other persons the whole party being disguised as naval officers. and knighted Bannerman. James was in his bedchamber at the moment of their arrival but he immediately dressed himself. the Provost of Aberdeen. . a proscribed adventurer. The episcopal clergy of Aberdeen presented him with an address ^ and shortly afterwards he received another address from the magistrates. . knighthood. a seat of the Earl Marischal and on the following one. but well armed and manned. conferring titles of nobility. that the magistrates and council were of the appointment of the Earl of Mar. and ecclesiastical honours.

and despatches all his business himself with the greatest exactness." self seem to have been very different from those of elation. his words are evidently " dictated rather by despondency than by hope. from that moment he seems to have relinquished the idea that his career would be one of triumph. for a time." he added. He has a very good presence. where he passed the 2 and on the following morning made a kind of regal night . when he learned from the lips of that nobleman. the Chevalier was detained at Fetteresso till the 2nd of On January. . The had the effect. when he advanced to Glammis. it is impossible to express the joy and vigour of our men. " of his landing. . however. and to do him nothing but justice. to suffer the extent of the threats which my enemies throw out against me. tle : On the 5th of January. setting aside his being a prince." hy a Rebel. I never saw anybody write so finely. London. and either disperse his forces or content himself with carrying on a fruitless and desultory warfare in the Highlands. is really the finest gentlemen I ever knew. yet in the first speech which he addressed to his council.] 37 .JAMES FEEDEEICK EDWAED STUAET. and not be mouldering arrival of the Chevalier in Scotland into nothing. and resembles Charles the Second a great deal. or his recompense a crown. we find Lord Mar writing from Glammis Cas"The King. He had come among them. with the Earl of Mar." he said. " merely that those who were away l backward in discharging their own duty might find no pre" text for their conduct in his own absence. from my cradle. of raising the hopes and rekindling the enthusiasm of " At the first news his zealous but unreflecting partisans. ." For myself. "True Account 1 of the Proceedings at Perth. without any compliment to him. His presence. where he remained till the 4th. 1716. " it is no new thing for me to be unfortunate since my whole life. is not the best of him he has fine parts. that at the advance of the Duke of Argyll he must abandon Perth. 1716." In consequence of a severe attack of the ague. has been a constant series of misfortune and I am prepared." says one of his followers. if it so pleases Grod. He is affable to a great degree. Though he endeavoured to assume a confident air in his intercourse with others. Now we hoped the day was come when we should live more like soldiers. and should be led on to face our enemies. with. attending the idle determination of a disBut the feelings of the Chevalier himconcerted council. that day he proceeded to Brechin. From the moment of his first interview or even of hope.

At the request of those about him. from which this extract is taken. their misfortunes. during which time the populace thronged round him. with the pageant of a review would have had the disheartening effect of exposing the extreme weakness of the insurgent army. He expressed himself much pleased at their romantic costume and gallant appearance. or their joys. but when privately informed of the scantiness of their numbers. On the 8th. and circulated over Scotland." The letter. the Gth. and kissed his hand. This night he passed at the neighbouring residence of Stuart of Garntully. . out losing the majesty he ought to have. which were drawn out for the purpose. " expressed his strong curiosity to see those little kings with their armies. [l716. the world. were his subjects worthy of him.the apartments of that ancient palace. he dined at Castle Lion. The next day. he is every way fitted to make us a happy people. and the scene of their triumphs. he remained about an hour in the marketplace. and which for centuries had been the residence of his forefathers. with a view of giving the people a favourable impression of the Chevalier. a seat of the Earl of Strathmore and at night took up his quarters at Sir David Threipland's. and has the sweetest temper in In a word". attended by a retinue of three hundred mounted gentlemen the Earl of Mar riding on his right hand. and concern. he was unable to conceal his disappointment entry into . and his feelings may be more readily imagined than described. To have indulged him. when he was conducted through . which was associated with so many of the most interesting events in the annals of his native country. was printed by order of Lord Mar. and the Earl Marischal on his left." as he styled the Highland chieftains and their mountain followers. Dundee.38 THE PRETENDERS AND THEIR ADHERENTS. however. the Chevalier arrived at Scoon. The next He had previously day he made his public entry into Perth. and consequently he was obliged to content himself with inspecting a few of the troops quartered in the town.

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drank to each other. was far from imbibing the enthusiasm of his Highland followers. nor overmuch to the purpose but his words were few. . and has something of a vivacity in his eye that perhaps would have been more visible if he had not been under dejected circumstances which. Dismissal of Lord Bolingbroke.] CHAPTER 39 IV. His speech was grave. . Project of Alberoni for the Invasion of England." says one of his followers. and congratulated themselves that the long-wished-for day had at length arrived while the men called upon the pipers of their clans to strike up the inspiriting tunes to which they were accustomed to march to battle. and Flight to the Continent. The Chevalier. though certainly not deficient in personal courage. while. in the breasts of any other men less loyal and less devoted. and 'lisplayed by their words and actions how ardently they longed to be led against the foe. 1716. His person. . and Funeral Obsequies. His Arrival in France. . THE Chevalier remained at Scoon till the 28th of January. seeming to incline to be lean rather than to fill as he grows in years. His countenance was pale. and not very clearly expressing his thoughts. however. His Character towards the Close of Life. thought far Their desire to be led to battle seems to have increased with the fearfulness of the odds which were against them the chiefs are said to have embraced. His Death. for his Restoration. when the unwelcome news reached the insurgent camp that the Duke of Argyll was on full march to give them battle. His Retreat to Montrose. For Mar to have awaited the approach of his formidable adversary. Dejection of the Chevalier. with the small and undisciplined force under his command. His Marriage with the Princess Sobieski. yet he seems to be sanguine in his constitution. Its Failure. were sufficient to alter the complexion even of his soul as well as his body. and hia differently. " was tall and thin. The gallant Highlanders. and Proceeds to Rome.JAMES FREDERICK EDWARD STUART. Advance of the Duke of Argyll. . the impression left by his habits and personal demeanour must inevitably have damped the ardour " felt for his cause. it must be acknowledged. Project of Charles XII. would very nearly have amounted to an act of madness. His Visit to Madrid.

. presented many and more favourable opportunities for dispersion and escape. He cared not to come abroad amongst us soldiers. he is said to have shed tears : We . defiled along the Carse of Gowrie to Dundee. estly entreated . we had done other things than we have now. in the event of the worst happening. . He never appeared with cheerfulness and vigour to animate us. His countenance looked extremely heavy. that when we saw the man whom they called our King. that it was in " True Account of the 1 Proceedings at Perth. on the 29th of January and on the following day. a measure which gave them the option either of protracting the war. observing that. Charles the First. the Highlanders. we found ourselves not at all animated by his presence. in his narrative." by a Rebel. Some said. 40 [l716. ' . instead of bringing him a crown. the circumstances he found us in dejected him I am sure the figure he made dejected us and had he sent us but 5000 men of good troops. Lord Mar assures us. we know not here was no room for such things. it was at length determined to retreat to the Highlands. their march to Montrose. behaviour and temper seemed always composed. On his arrival at this sea-port town. and indignant. Neither can I say I ever saw him smile. sullen. At first he indignantly refused to listen to the proposition and when at length he gave a reluctant consent. the Chevalier was earnby his secret advisers to seize the opportunity of there being a French vessel in the harbour." When the news of the Duke of Argyll's approach was first communicated to the Chevalier. or to see us handle our arms or do our exercise." After a protracted and angry debate among the leaders of the insurgent army. and never himself come amongst us. we were tenfold more so in him. This resolution was taken in council. It was no time for mirth. and to seek safety in flight. Our men began to despise him some asked if he could speak. they had led him to his grave. is not the way to conquer kingdoms. and crossing over the frozen waters of the Tay. saw nothing in him that looked like spirit. Weeping. . took a melancholy leave of their friends in Perth. and if he was disappointed in us.THE PRETEXDEKS AXD THEIE ADHEBEXTS. dejected. I must not conceal." he said. What he was in his diversions. significantly. the anniversary of the execution of the Chevalier's grandfather. When this incident was afterwards related " " to Prince Eugene. or. and from thence continued .

His companions. See Chambers' s " History of the Rebellions in Scotland. who was to accompany him in his flight. attended only by one servant. every arrangement having been made for his on the 4th of February the clans received orders to march at eight o'clock the same night for Aberdeen the sentries were placed as usual before the door of the Chevalier's lodgings and. The whole party having been safely embarked. took a by-path to the water's edge. slipped out of and having first called at the apartments of his lodgings Lord Mar. were the Earl of Melford. terminated the insurrection of 1715. It was an amiable trait in his character. in order to avoid the English and after coasting cruizers.General Bulkley." p. which the necessities of war had com1 He also pelled him to set fire to on the retreat from Perth. between Dunkirk and flight. and thirteen other persons of distinction. besides Lord Mar. in consequence of the eagerness of their . his baggage was actually sent forward with the main body of the army. Calais. Lord Drummond. hut it has recently . Lieutenant. historians. under the Viscount Dundee and the Earl of Mar. in which he enclosed the remnant of the money which he had brought from France. .JAMES FEEDEBICK EDWARD STUART. left behind him a commission. by the publication of the Chevalier's interesting letter to the Duke of Argyll. . desiring that it might be distributed among the poor inhabitants of some villages. Accordingly. in order still further to lull suspicion.Chief of the insurgent army. after a voyage of five days. adversaries to seize his person. most of whom belonged to the Chevalier's household. arrived. at Gravelines. But before the hour arrived which had been named for the march. . that the only chance for his followers was to retreat among the mounand that his remaining among them served only to intains crease their danger. they stretched over to Norway along the shores of Germany and Holland. appointing General Gordon Commander-in. 312. where a boat waited to carry him on board the small vessel which had been prepared for his reception. as an earnest of his intention to accompany it. 1716.] 41 consequence of its being clearly explained to him. With the flight of the Chevalier de St George. . with full powers 1 The truth of this fact has usually heen called in question by the Whig been substantiated beyond a doubt. the Chevalier. that his last act before his embarkation was to address a letter to the Duke of Argyll.

Advancing up Strathspey and Strathdon. it is admitted by all England. and afterwards to France. in which the latter intimated to his devoted followers. either by keeping in a body or separating. the Duke of Berwick. " One must " have lost one's reason. that "the disappointments he had met with. reditary glen. and disapprobation of. exclaiming that they had been deserted and betrayed. and were now left without either king or general the clans broke up into different bodies. and encouraged them to expect to hear " further from him in a very short time. Almost his first impulse was to commit one of those unaccountable acts of imprudence which we must attribute either to some peculiar disorganization of the mental faculties. Here General Gordon produced a letter from the Chevalier. for. at St Germain's. the measure. it is scarcely necessary to observe. while the majority of the Lowland gentlemen. and crossing the county of Murray. On this officer devolved the painful task of conducting the gal- now disheartened Highlanders to Aberdeen. has left on record his astonishment at." they dispersed themselves in the wild districts of Badenoch and Lochaber . only Englishman he had. able to manage his affairs whatever may be said by some persons of more passion than judgment. the Chevalier repaired to his mother.THE PRETENDERS AND THEIE ADHERENTS. had obliged him to leave their country that he thanked them for their services. making a sally from the hills. and consult their own security. and marched to the mountains. and desired them to advise with General Gordon. or to the fatality which hung over his unfortunate race. . The fate of such of the insurgents as fell into the hands of the Government we shall elsewhere have occasion to record." says Sir Walter Scott. 42 to [1716. A . reached Burg and other sea-port villages. make the best terms he could with the Government. Many of the insurgents threw down their arms in despair. if one did not see the enormous blunder made by King James in dismissing the . each to his own helant but . " attended these communications. This remark." general burst of grief and indignation. that even his partisan and halfbrother." says the Duke. from whence they obtained passages in open boats to the Orkneys. refers to the sudden dismissal of Lord Bolingbroke from his counsels a step so impolitic and so uncalled for. Mary of Modena. Immediately on his landing in France. where they dispersed. that there have been . especially from abroad.

the general truthfulness of which there is no reason to question. but was always put off by the Court of France and though he saw through their pretexts and complained of them.] 43 few greater ministers than Bolingbroke. and indeed of caricature. . the French Government wished him to repair to his old asylum with the Duke of Lorraine before he had time to refuse it. . On Thursday . I found him in no disposition to make such haste. The kingly. His trunks were packed. pleasing himself with the air of mystery and business. the Duke of Ormond brought me a scrap of paper in the Chevalier's handwriting. At our interview. to make me believe it was written on the road. he affected much cordiality towards me and an Italian never embraced the man he was going to stab with a greater show of affection and confidence. I was in part a " how Bolingbroke acted for King witness. he went to the little house in the Bois de Boulogne. This was refused and the Chevalier at length declared that he would instantly set out for Lorraine. for he had a mind to stay in the neighbourhood of Paris. "was not above six weeks in his expedition. . his chaise was ordered to be ready at five that afternoon. and notwithstanding the soreness which that extraordinary man must necessarily have felt at being so cavalierly dismissed from a court which he affected to despise has nevertheless left us an account of his removal from the Chevalier's counsels. heroic style of the paper was. and dated on the Tuesday. accompanied by an order to deliver up all the papers in my office to Ormond. "The Chevalier." Bolingbroke himself notwithstanding there is always a touch of sarcasm.JAMES FREDERICK EDWARD STFART. ." adds the Duke. Instead of taking post for Lorraine. that he had no further occasion for my services. following." says Bolingbroke. his James whilst he managed affairs. and sent back to his Grace. 1716. and I sent word to Paris that he was gone. yet there was no other power to which he could apply. and I owe him the justice to say. that he left nothing undone of what he could do he moved heaven and earth to obtain supplies. where his female ministers resided and there he continued lurking for several days. and wished to have a private meeting with the Regent. On his return to St Germain's. But nothing was meant by this but to get him out of France immediately. . whilst the only real business which he should have had at that time lay neglected. in any picture which he draws of the affairs of the Chevalier.

within twelve months after his expulsion from the cabinet of George the been attributed to various causes. Bolingbroke has accused the Chevalier of having blabbed his state secrets among the fair and frail " coterie in the little house" in the Bois de Boulogne. and the seals are given to Mar and they use poor Harry most unmercifully. without some good and substantial reason. On the 2nd of March. told Lord Stair all their designs. as they now say. the English Ambassador at Paris. For presuming such to have been the fact. would never have consented to deprive himself of the services of that gifted and extraordinary man. singularly enough. . He had a mistress here at Paris. notwithstanding his hereditary blindness and obstinacy. in the society of the witty and the gay. who .THE PRETENDERS AND THEIR ADHERENTS. has is is reason. at such Kings and Queens. clearly discovered has all along betrayed them and so poor Harry is turned out from being Secretary of State. to presume that the Chevalier might have turned the tables on Bolingbroke and. which might have been contained in a moderate -sized letter-case. however. and neglected buying and sending the powder and the arms. 44 all [l716. : they have. I would not . . I believe all poor Harry s fault was. Certainly. and was had out of England for that purpose. on which there no necessity to dwell at length. that Bolingbroke owed his removal from the service of the Chevalier. he writes to the elder Horace "Walpole " The true Jacobite project has been at last discovered." The dismissal of Bolingbroke from the counsels of the Chevalier. we have at all events the authority of the Earl of Stair. that he could not play his part with a grave enough face . 1 . the Chevalier. and never went near the Queen and. and call him knave and traitor. 1716. and got drunk now and then. and he spent the money upon his mistress that he should have bought powder with. whose sound sense and intimate knowledge of what was passing around him renders him no indifferent authority on such an occasion. There First. which occurred. he could not help laughing. that it was to the same incautiousness of speech on the part of that minister (originating in an innate perception of the ridiculous which prompted him. to draw ludicrous contrasts between his once splendid fortunes and his present humble pretensions and those of his ruined master). and they imagined nobody would tell it but Bolingbroke. in one word. in fact. now and then. and God knows what.

JAMES FBEDEEICE: EDWARD STUABT. since his return from his l Highland expedition. from whence. a treaty was concluded for his marriage with the Princess Clementina Maria. . Easy. and that the westerly winds and Bolingbroke's treason have defeated the finest project that ever was laid. after a brief residence. Coxe's "Walpole. By the true friends and well-wishers of the unfortunate Prince. After much persuasion. and the alarm of all who were the well-wishers of his race. the habits of the Chevalier is doubtless in a great degree to be attributed to the peculiar circumstances of his life. Uniting much of the licentiousness of his uncle. Allowing himself to be enslaved by his mistresses. with the bigotry of his unfortunate father. ii. and in the adventitious excitement afforded by the grape. he proceeded to Borne. that one so constituted both by nature and circumstances should have been too frequently tempted to smother reflection in the enticements of meretricious beauty. vol. daughter of Prince James Sobieski. indolent.] 45 have you laugh. Mr Walpole. King of Poland. while he ingrafted on his licentiousness that rigid and scrupulous adherence to religious forms and ceremonies. and to the repeated disappointments to which he had been exposed." After lingering for a short time in the neighbourhood of the Erench capital. whom he admitted to a knowledge of his most secret affairs. and good-natured. he surrendered himself up to the allurements of female beauty like the one. where he was received with the greatest kindness and consideration by the Pope. the Chevalier reluctantly withdrew to Avignon. however deeply we may lament the fact. had unquestionably changed for the worse. nor can we much wonder. they begin now to apprehend that their King is unlucky. his habits. which was the This unfortunate revolution in characteristic of the other. he was induced to listen to their entreaties. it was confidently hoped that. while his general conduct was such as to excite the deep concern of his personal followers. Charles the Second. 1 "Walpole Papers. for all this is very serious. to whom he was married at Avignon by proxy on the 28th of May. in 1718. he might be weaned from his present baneful habits and unworthy connections. p. 1719 the Chevalier being at this time absent on a visit to . he allowed himself to be readily led astray by the friend or mistress of the moment . For the rest. by a marriage Avith a young and amiable Princess. 1718. eldest son of John. 307. and accordingly.

" says Sir Walter Scott. Cardinal Alberoni. promised his warmest It was intended that a descent of ten thousand Swedish troops should have been effected in Scotland. with courage as romantic as his own. [1718. in . to which no less celebrated a monarch than Peter the Great of Kussia is said to have been ready to lend his aid. that notwithstanding her youth and personal beauty. the personal history of the Chevalier. " His fall was destined to a barren strand. and the Princess retired to a convent with the same cheerfulness with which she had originally consented to become the bride of the man who was so unworthy of her. or adorn a tale. To point a moral. The story of this young and interesting Princess will form the subject of a subsequent memoir. and Henry. the hopes which his friends had entertained that marriage would create a favourable reformation were destined to be signally The young Princess soon became disgusted disappointed. Two years after the suppression of the insurrection. Edward.46 THE PRETENDERS AND THEIR ADHERENTS. From the period of the failure of his Highland expedition in 1715. with his renewed licentiousness and repeated infidelities and after having borne him two sons. a separation took place between them. support. and her many amiable qualities. as far as regards his prospects of obtaining possession of the throne of his ancestors." But in the midst of these high hopes. Charles the Twelfth of Sweden inflamed with a deep feeling of revenge and indignation against G-eorge the First for having possessed himself of the Duchies of Bremen and Verden entered heartily into a project for restoring the House of Stuart to the throne of Great Britain." A Charles fell . before the frontier fortress of Frederickshall. Madrid. petty fortress and an unknown hand He left a name at which the world grew pale. death cut short the projects both of the Chevalier and of the iron king. " It might be amusing. It is sufficient at present to observe. "to consider the probable consequences which might have arisen from the iron-headed Swede placing himself at the head of an army of Highland enthusiasts. afterwards Cardinal York. of which Charles himself was to have taken the command. is merely a tale of baffled hopes and continued disappointments. the celebrated Charles . and to which the Spanish Minister.

The Chevalier. he landed at Eosas in the month of March. the Spanish government had prepared an armament at Cadiz. and most of the gallant gentlemen who had remained exiles since the insurrection of 1715 took part in the enterprise. between five and six thousand soldiers. mortalized the romantic story of the Stuarts. . were subsequently arrested at Voghera. 1718. The Spanish court received him with all the honours and rejoicings which are usually paid to a sovereign prince. exchanged dresses with his courier. as he had anticipated. In the mean time. however. they sang. on board of which were embarked : . that it was only by a well-laid stratagem that the Chevalier was enabled to put his purpose into execution. The Highland chieftains were panting to embrace their brethren in Jacobitism and arms old hopes and old feelings were revived with tenfold ardour. . and among other beautiful strains which have im. taking with him as his companions the Earls of Mar and Perth. and so powerful was the English fleet in the Mediterranean. who. after touching at Cagliari. he invited the Chevalier to legitimate rights. 1719. that the Chevalier was thus deprived of the assistance of the northern powers of Europe. and contrived to embark at the insignificant port of Nethano from whence. the fine and inspiriting ballad . and George the First was again left in the quiet possession of the throne of the Stuarts.JAMES TBEDEEICK EDWAED STUART. Madrid. and arms sufficient for The Duke of Ormond was named thirty thousand more. consisting of five men-of-war and about twenty transports. on the supposition that he was still amongst them.] 47 1718. At a convenient opportunity. the ambitious and all-powerful Alberoni still entertained the project of restoring the House of Stuart to their ancient and Accordingly. He was acknowledged King of Great Britain he was appointed a residence in the palace of Buen Eetiro his public entry into the Spanish capital was conducted with all due magnificence and he received visits of state as a crowned head from Philip the Fifth and his Queen. but so vigilant were the agents of George the First. however. as if they hailed it as a prophecy. he separated himself from his companions. and his customary suite. Aware that his every step was watched.General of the expedition. Notwithstanding. in the mean time. Captain. he pretended to set out to the northward.

's grey 1 . and she My bonny moor-hen. Passing over from Lewis to Kintail. but . and the Earl of Seaforth. reached the appointed rendezvous in the Island of Lewis. some folk will ken Joy be wi' thee. come hither away. some arms. the majority of the armament which had been sent to destroy a powerful monarchy were compelled to return to their native ports. the Mackenzies but a resolution had been universally taken not to move in Scotland . To break the wing of my bonny moor-hen. or when ye gang ben. and hither to me For Ronald and Donald are out on the fen. including the Spanish auxiliaries. : ! My bonny moor-hen has feathers anew.' In the Spanish expedition of 1718. which lasted forty -eight hours. 1 These colours evidently allude to those in the tartan in the royal clan The blue was the party colour of the Whigs. . And it will be summer or she come again But when she comes back again. and money. Only two frigates. . England was fairly engaged and accordingly. which had been composed when the Chevalier was compelled to turn his back on his gallant followers in 1715. the force under Lord Seaforth never on any occasion amounted to more than two thousand men. the same fate which had attended so many previous enterprises on their behalf impended over the unfortunate House of Stuart. The result of the exLord Seaforth raised a pedition may be briefly related. my bonny moor-hen. She She 's a' fine colours. Ay My bonny moor-hen 's gane over the main. unrigged and unmasted. strengthtill . Off Finisterre the Spanish fleet encountered a terrific tempest. few hundred of his own clan. and she 's white. my bonny moor-hen Tip in the grey . the Earl Marischal. having on board the Marquis of Tullibardine. of Stuart. and she 's green.THE PEETENDEBS AND THEIB ADHEBENTS. with three hundred men. ammunition. none o' them blue 's red. Come up by Glenduich. . and doun in the glen When ye gang butt the house. . . 48 [l718. " My bonny moor-hen. Lord Seaforth assembled his forces in that district but before he could muster any formidable reinforcement. drink a health to my bonny moor-hen. General Wightman marched against him with a body of regular troops from Inverness. and. The elements proved too mighty even for the genius of Alberoni. hill. and doun by Glendee And round by Kinclaven.

who had been badly wounded at Glenshiel. appeared their Spanish pride would not allow them to complain. in the found valley place. obtained by the insurgents was so trifling. near the great of Glenshiel. they met with the greatest kindness. . 23. before morning. to show his miseries and to boast his pretensions. Avoiding an encounter with their assailants on the open ground. wMrch has been dignified with the name of the The next day. they continued to fire on them from the rocks till night set in. killed. and supplying them with money. they them masters of the pass of Strachells. contrived to effect their escape to the Western Isles. Notwithstanding the failure of so many enterprises in his behalf. increased as he advanced in life and it was not till many years had elapsed (not. : 1 Lockhart Papers. as regards the number of in which vicinity. when they embarked in disguise for the coast of Spain. Such was the result of the mountain skirmish. Spaniards surrendered themselves at discretion. at least. The great straits of the " we are even in their looks. the three hundred battle of Glenshiel. indeed. happened to have a quarrel. An indecisive and desultory action took as far. however. the Jacobites vying with each other in showing civility to the officers. though officers. where they remained concealed till the ardour of pursuit had slackened. as well as the Earl of Seaforth. and were " carried prisoners to Edinburgh.1718. The success." But repeated disappointment will chill even the most sanguine hopes his natural indolence.] JAMES FREDEEICK EDWABD 49 STTJABT. ii. and the advantage to be obtained by their continuing in arms appeared to be so extremely problematical. however. moreover. killed and wounded the insurgents had unquestionably the advantage. Bosses. it was decided that they should disperse and return to their severaL homes. ened by the Monroes." says Sir Walter " Great Britain Scott. vol. and other loyal clans On approaching the insurgent force. thither came the unfortunate heir of the House of Stiiart. while the government troops had twenty and one hundred and twenty wounded. that. p. when it was found that they had lost only one man. "With whatever court. The Marquis of Tullibardine and the Earl Marischal." 1 At Edinburgh. the Chevalier and his partisans continued for a considerable period to entertain the most visionary schemes for " his restoration. ." told.

my all the crowns in the world. again revived the fondest hopes of the Jacobites). consisting of Lord Dunbar. and other places but more particularly. at the Corso. observes: "The Chevalier de St George is tall." The reply of James was an aifecting one " not lose dear for I would careful. vol." The Chevalier took no part in the expedition of 1745. whom you desire an account of. l : meagre. and two or three of the Preston lords. the adventurous character. the high spirit. particularly when he laughs or prays the first he does not do often. you for boy. of a most unpromising countenance. 1740. a good deal resembling King James the Second. the poet. extremely night long. with the exception of furnishing a large sum of money which he had saved from his private fortune. he seems to have shared but in a slight degree the sanguine expectations of those who surrounded him. The Pretender. describing him in 1752. he is a thin. very glad to make their peace at home. Charles Edward. about him. who has the more spirit of the two and both danced incessantly all For him." said the young Chevalier to his father. dated the 16th of Jxily. 90. and gallant bearing of his eldest son. and has extremely the air and look of an idiot. ii. " Be your feet. fine boys. enthusiasm and pp." he writes. 89. especially the younger. They are good. dis- . Horace "Walpole. who would be till ' . ill-made man. in a letter from Florence. By the aid of God. at a great ball given by Count Patrizzii to the Prince and Princess Craon. the latter He lives privately enough with his little court continually. at which he and his two sons were present. Gray. tall and awkward. . and melancholy in his aspect 1 "Works. . has left us a brief but interesting account of " the Chevalier and his sons.THE PRETENDERS AND THEIR ADHERENTS. Accustomed to a series of disappointments from his youth. and that for a whole night." During the last years of his life." he said. and to have taken a far deeper interest in the personal safety of his son than in the result " of the enterprise. the Chevalier resided almost entirely at Rome. that the Chevalier could once more be induced to take an interest in any project that might be proposed to him for his restoration. 50 [l752. who manages everything. . on the eve of his departure for Scot" I trust I shall soon be able to lay three crowns at land. I have had frequent opportunities of seeing at church.

had united all its policy. divested of reflection. the titular Countess of Inverness. ." adds "Walpole. which He seems the phantom rather creates pity than respect. to zeal for Popery." The last notice which we have of the Chevalier of any interest is from the pen of Keysler. of Charles the First. " The " made by the Pretender is in every way figure. to whom the Chevalier had entirely able. which good-nature. but he had saved a large sum of money. besides a series of establish himself at Rome. agree. Without the particular features of any Stuart. Roman Catholic it is hy no means necessary to be very but it was his illreligious. E 2 .] JAMES FREDERICK EDWARD STUART. conjures up. that originally She who. his wife. seen his own little Court and his parental affections torn to pieces and tortured by the seeds of faction. At Borne. Besides the loss of a crown to which he thought he had a just title. in the latter part of his life. resigned himself. besides that mortifying rotation of friends. which was squandered on the unfortunate attempt in Scotland. the famous Bolingbroke who insinuated into their counsels a project for the Chevalier's resigning his pretensions to his eldest son. they have little esteem for him treatment of the Princess Sobieski. disgusted the Papal Court. 51 appointment have stamped a solemnity on his person. and some irregular donations from other courts yet his payments were not only most exact. was obliged to The Pretender retired to Bologna. The Pope has issued an order that . sown by that masterhand of sedition. the great regularity of his finances and the economy of his exchequer. was fervently supported by that and enterprising. mean and unbecoming. without the demerits. Court." he says.1756. but sacrifice his favourites before he could re- The most apparent merit of the Chevalier's Court is. who was lively. which presents but a melancholy picture of him in his latter days. : disappointments from his birth. to which his situation has constantly exposed him. His income before the Rebellion was 25. when she could no longer endure the mortifications that were offered to her by Hay and his wife. when we think of the misfortunes. the Chevalier has the strong lines and fatality of air peculiar " where to be a good to them all. in 1756. insinuating. as more likely to conciliate the affections of the English to his family.000 a-year. he has. arising chiefly from pensions from the Pope and from Spain from contributions from England.

in England. his infirmities confined him altogether to his bed-chamber. and the licentiousness of his amours. it is far from enabling him to keep up the state of a sovereign He is very fond of seeing his image struck on meprince. during the all Ins . indeed. he having represented it as too small for him. He generally appears abroad with three coaches. five last years of his life. or crowns. the Chevalier de St G-eorge lived in great retirement. His pusillanimity. and did not take place but a new wing was built to the Pretender's old mansion. so that the Pretender's friends might have visited him with more secrecy. and he himself be absent without its being known in Eome. . S. dals and if kingdoms were to be obtained by tears. that his existence should have been extended over the reigns of six sovereigns. who successively filled the throne of Great Britain. on the part of England. and in a private place. narrowly watches him and his adherents. by Mr. A . and has a large garden with a passage to the city walls. for they term him The local or here while the real . At his coming into an assembly. who affects to be an antiquary." "King King." that is. to save the Ministry. five of whom he had been taught to regard as the usurpers of his rights. in the seventy -ninth year of his age. which he shed plentifully at the miscarriage of his attempts in Scotland. He lately assumed some authority at the opera by calling Encore I when a song that pleased him was performed but it was not till after a long pause that his order was obeyed. no English Protestant ries up. Pretender's charges. This change was objected to. He has an annual income of 12. His death took place at Home. and. and though he may receive as much more from his adherents in England. and his household consists of about forty persons. . ' ' . [l766. and even the Boman Catholics pay him the compliment in a very superficial manner.52 TIIE PEETENDEBS AND THEIE ADHEEENTS. from the Pope. He never before affected the least power. being retained for that purpose by the British few years since.. S. Mr. 1766. on the 12th of January. have lessened him in everybody's esteem. he would have found the medallists work enough. Cardinal Alberoni.000 scudi. It is remarkable." For several years before his death.. subjects should style him King of England but the " Italians make a jest of this. This house lies in the suburbs." possessor is styled " The King there. proposed that the palace Alia Laughara should be assigned for his residence.

the globe. on the top of which were the figures of four angels holding a crown and sceptre. when it was removed to. with stripes of gold lace. JACOBTTS. Above him was a throne suspended from the ceiling.] JAMES FREDERICK EDWAED STUAET. and the sceptre in his hand. ANNO MDCCLXVI." with a number of medallions representing the several orders of chivalry in Great Britain. attended by the members of the Pope's household. . dressed in royal robes. was carried to the Church of the Apostles. . and interred with similar solemnity and magnificence in. and the three crowns of England. and Ireland to which were added the royal insignia. the sceptre. and at each corner the figure of Death looking down. the drapery of which consisted of purple silk.. his body regal honours. the great church of St Peter's. and twenty Cardinals supported the pall. The body remained in this state for three days. Scotland. Cardinal Alberoni officiated in his pontificalia at the requiem. the body was placed on a magnificent bed of state. religious as well as secular. " inscription. with the crown of England upon his head. the purple robe lined with ermine. and upon his breast the arms of Great The procession was Britain. wrought in jewels and gold. the velvet tunic ornamented with gold. the crown. in Eome a thousand wax-tapers were borne by as many attendants. and the crosses of St George and St Andrew. 53 The funeral obsequies of the Chevalier were performed with After lying in state for five days. MAGN^J BRITANNIA REX. as well as by the members of almost every order and fraternity. . besides wax-tapers held by skeletons.1766. Over the bed was the . On reaching the church. which was sung by the choir from the Apostolic palace while the church was illuminated by a number of chandeliers.

who was a chief manager in that whole affair. It was not long after his return from his futile expedition to Scotland in 1715. and consequently. there seems at first to have been but little of romance in the overtures which he was induced to make for the hand of this young and interesting Princess. Selected for the Wife of the Birth and early Character of the Princess. Keysler's Character of her in her Fifty-fifth Year. Proposal to her. she was only in her seventeenth She was beautiful in her person and by nature was year. and high-spirited. 1702.54. anxious to wean him from that pernicious career of libertinism in which he had latterly . when. CLEMENTINA. and Separation. Stratagem for her Release. was born on the 17th of July. " when a child. Wogan's Account of his Romantic Adventures to carry the Arrested." says "VVogan. have early conceived a deep interest in the story of the illfated Stuarts. amiable. Her Reception by the Chevalier. " The young Princess. still continued to call her so. it was probably to this circumstance that we are to trace her evident predisposition to become the bride of the last heir of that unfortunate house. Escape. who performed so valuable a service to Europe by defeating the Turks before the walls of Vienna. seeing her extremely delighted with the title. Her Death. 1 . as it was particularly set down by Mr Charles Wogim (formerly one of the Preston prisoners). and grand-daughter to King John Sobieski. that his friends. and. Disagreement with her Husband. THE PRINCESS CLEMENTINA MARIA SOBIESKI. as pity is said to be akin to love. affected to be called by her play -fellows Queen of England and the ladies of the Court. in 1718. enterprising. daughter of Prince James Sobiesld of Poland. Pretender. who conducted the secret treaty for her marriage." London. Arrival at Bologna. Medal struck in Commemoration of her Escape. l " Narrative of the Seizure." On the part of James. and Marriage of the Princess Clementina Sobieski. and confined in a Convent at Innspruck. With the romance which was natural to her years and her sex. she seems to . the Chevalier de St George became a suitor for her hand. 1722.

as beautiful in her person." he said. the Chevalier. among other less eligible tering the married state alliances." but I imagirrary The Princess. was selected to conduct . dazzled with the prospect of their daughter ultimately ascending the throne of Great Britain. At this period. and consequently they exercised their utmost influence and unceasing vigilance in preventing the accomplishment of an object which. who had fought at Preston. you have enjoyed only an am now come to offer you a real one. named to him the Princess Clementina of Poland Her fortune was accounted to be one of the largest in Europe. Under these circumstances. entered enthusiastically into the project. male hereditary line of the Stuarts should become instinct in the person of the Chevalier. and became a valued correspondent of Swift.] 55 indulged. the Chevalier and his friends were compelled to have and recourse to secret manosuvres to effect their object eventually Charles "Wogaii. the Jacobites had so warmly at heart. an Irish gentleman of tact and ability. from yielding at first a cold consent to the solicitations of his friends. 1718. In order to avoid suspicion. he adopted a circuitous route. where the Princess was then residing with her father. and as she was represented to him in glowing colours. and amiable in her disposition. all the fellowsL " title. "Wogan has himself left us an interesting account of his romantic adventure. young and romantic.PBINCESS CLEMENTINA MARIA SOBIESKI. from whence he contrived to effect his escape. while her parents. on the other hand. there was no spot in Europe where the Jacobites were likely to carry on their intrigues. 1 "Wogan was taken prisoner at Preston and committed to Newgate. . Accordingly. 1 the delicate mission. He subsequently entered the service of the King of Spain. To the Princess herself Wogan first communicated the delicate secret with which he was intrusted. paying leisurely visits at the small German courts which he passed by in his way to Silesia. . readily gave their consent to a union which was so consonant with their ambitious views. prevailed upon him to reflect on the advantages which would accrue to his health and his cause from his enand. seems at length to have been impressed with an ardent desire to obtain her hand. that the English Government did not employ their agents and their It was their great object that the gold to counteract them. Alluding to her early and romantic fancy of being styled Queen of England by her young play" Hitherto.

. was prevailed iipon to become the companion of The whole the young Princess during the long and difficult journey which was awaiting her Major Misset and his wife were to personate the supposed Count and Countess Cernes "Wogan was to pass for the brother of the Count. " of John Sobieski. Satisfied that no efforts or remonstrances on his own part could obtain the liberation of the Princess. in consequence of the support which their fleet afforded him in advancing his pretensions to Sicily." says Lord Mahon. . and with little difficulty contrived to enlist in his service a brother Irishman. " The memory. and confined in a convent in that town. in the first instance. as the Princess and her mother were passing through Innspruck. though far advanced in pregnancy. On the night appointed for the execution of the project. Wogan. preliminaries having been settled. whom he represented to be on their return to Loretto from the Low Countries. who belonged to a regiment quartered in the neighbourhood. however. [l?19. they were suddenly arrested." The Chevalier was at Bologna when he heard the news of the arrest of his intended bride.56 THE PRETENDERS AND THEIR ADHERENTS. one Major Misset. to keep on good terms with the English nation. He then returned to Innspruck under a false name. plot was ably planned and successfully executed. and the Princess Clementina for his sister. obtained a passport from the Austrian ambassador. in the Tyrol. Unfortunately. it was decided that the Princess should be conducted at once to her future husband at Bologna. As it was of the first importance to the Emperor. the heroic deliverer of Vienna. . and of a timid disposition. the Princess and her attendants were so long in making the necessary preparations for the journey and subsequent nuptials. and that every possible precaution should be taken to insure secrecy. at this period. of procuring the release of the Princess by stratagem. Mrs Misset. he readily listened to a proposal made to him by Wogan. relays of six horses each were stationed in readiness at the four first stages from Innspruck. and speedily came to the knowledge of the English minister at Vienna. in order to deceive the vigilance of the agents of the English Government. accordingly. might have claimed more gratitude from the son of the Prince whom he had saved. he readily listened to the representations and remonstrances which were made to him . that the project was allowed to transpire. in the name of Count Cernes and family.

At length. Thus.] PEINCESS CLEMENTINA MAEIA SOBIESKI. and. was rendered sufficiently miserable by a violent storm of snow and hail. gentleman-iisher to the Princess Sobieski. 57 which was of primary importance. not unaccompanied with danger. fright. accordingly. on some pretext obtained the permission of the porter of the convent to bring a female within its walls. with none of whom. had she ever had the The story of her long and arduous slightest acquaintance. The marriage. and to conduct her out at and lastly. under cover of night. from whence. on a secret expelogna. journey from Innspruck to Bologna is dwelt upon at some length in the scarce tracts of the period. As soon as the project was ripe for execution. a mere dry detail of fatigue. at BoJames was at this period absent. It presents. who appears to have embarked in the intrigue with all those feelings of joyful excitement so natural to her age. but was completed with all due so- . On the appointed night. whatever hour he pleased. the fugitives had the satisfaction of finding themselves safe in the Venetian territories. was led by Chateaudeau to the gate of the convent. that his charge was at hand. the young and delicate Princess resigned herself into the hands of strangers. the means which were proposed for procuring her freedom were fully explained to the young Princess. which. there was no reason to apprehend that the latter would be questioned in her egress from the cloister. she disguised herself in the hood and cloak of the young female who was to play her part. however. with the exception of Wogan. they arrived on the 2nd of May. if it served to secure her safe retreat. after a further journey of great fatigue. and with Chateaudeau for her escort. was performed by proxy in his absence. and with the prospect of being pursued and overtaken constantly present to their imaginations. which the Princess appears to have borne with a patience and courage beyond her years. after shedding some natural tears. on a cold and dark night.1719. a smart and intelligent girl it was proposed that the Princess should exchange clothes. where he took leave of her with a voice sufficiently sonorous to apprize "Wogan. who was lurking in the neighbourhood. 1719. dition to Madrid. and privation. and. With this female who was a servant of Mrs Misset. She then took an affectionate leave of her mother. one Chateaudeau. after having been exposed to wretched weather and worse roads.

He soon. speed. by accusing her of attempting to establish an undue influence over his counsels. re." the first and beneath. In commemoration of the escape of his bride. on one side. and was obliged to retire. lemnity immediately on his return. ' 1 Lockhart Papers. mistress. and the Chevalier retorted. on which. that she could not bear it. During stage of their union.. treated the Queen so insolently. drawn by horses at full " " Fortunam. a . and mutual disagreements and recriminations were the natural consequence the Princess complained of her husband's infidelity. Failing in this object. France." Enterprising and fond of power. p. as combining the loveliness of seventeen with the sound sense and discrimination of thirty. Clementina. ii. however. Deceptis custodibus. lapsed into his old habits. by which means she trusted to succeed to that influence over his thoughts and actions which was at present exercised by her dreaded and detested rivals. with the words. it appears. the Chevalier seems to have been charmed with the personal beauty and good sense of his young wife and among other proofs of the admiration with which he regarded her. and creating dissensions in his " The account was generally credomestic establishment. camamque sequor . was the portrait of the Princess. she had the mortification of finding herself. and Ireland and on the other. on her first arrival at Bologna. . . that it was only after much persuasion that she was prevented from joining him at Madrid. with the "inscription. vol. the Queen. jealous of an amour 'twixt the King and Lady Inverness who. 1719. and latterly a mere cypher in the small Court of which her high spirit." says Lockhart of Carnwath. he speaks of her. " that the Queen was dited. 220. [1719. instead of realizing those dreams of happiness and power which she had pictured to herself in her own country. . an object of dislike and suspicion to a circle of intriguing courtiers. Lord and Lady Inverness. and many agreeable qualities certainly entitled her to be the. Queen of Great Britain. with her husband (who was the King's favourite and premier minister). her insinuating manners.58 THE PRETENDEBS A>T D THEIR ADHERENTS. sought to establish a party for herself in the little Court of her husband. the Chevalier caused a medal to be struck. female figure in a triumphal car. So eager is said to have been the young Princess to behold her future husband. in a letter to General Dillon at Paris.

that I had rather suffer death than live in the King's palace with persons that have no religion. than to offer the least thing which may prejudice either the person or affairs of the King. This at length determined me to retire into a convent. vol. James resisted every effort which was made " I shall alfor effecting a reconciliation with his Princess. for. only to do you a pleasure. and to oblige the King but it all has been to no purpose. as 2 long as I live. p. and returned you an answer. abode in a convent. honour. reduced me to such an extremity. a Lockhart Papers. ought to have the same charity for me. 265. a sincere and respectful affection. He is very sensible that they weie strong and pressing reasons that determined me to take so strong a resolution. purchase even my restoration at the price of being her slave. not content with having been the authors of so fatal a separation between the King and me. notwithstanding my unhappy situation. I desire you to make my compliments to the Bishop of Ambrun." my gether. that as I take him to be my friend. for six years toby the most mortifying indignities and affronts that can be imagined. To her sister she writes immediately " Mr Hay and his lady are the cause that I am afterwards. For some time. and to tell him from me. and he has been a witness of the retired life I always led and you. retired into a convent.] 59 In consequence of the misery which was thus entailed upcn about the end of the year 1725. 1725.PKINCESS CLEMENTINA MAEIA SOBTESKI. instead of making them my friends. Their unworthy treatment of me has. and who. nor conscience. in short. after having been fretted. The remon1 Lord LnTsrness. the Princess. I doubt not but he will do me justice on this occasion. . ii. are continually teasing him every day to part with his best friends and his most faithful subjects. he would probably have displayed but little concern at their separation. there to spend the rest of my days in lamenting 1 . whenever ready forgive she will live with me as a wife ought to do yet I would not . he "be to the writes. I assure you that I should rather choose to be silent under censure. misfortunes. withdrew herself from her husband's roof. and I am in such a cruel situation. my dear sister. and took up her temporary her. But whatever happens. . and for whom I shall retain. I received your letter in their behalf." Queen. all the civilities I have shown them have only served to render them the more insolent." Under ordinary circumstances. for whom I always had. Avays.

. who threatened him with the discontinuance of the pension which he enjoyed from the Papal See. who foresaw the prejudicial consequences which must accrue to his cause by the publication of his domestic differences. account of the ceremony of her interment. Folio. was published at Rome the year following her death. Britan. 60 [l765. which he received from his friends in Great Britain. Franc. She allows her servants no gold or silver lace on their liveries this proceeds from what is called her piety but it is partly owing to her ill-health. the efforts of the Pope. et Hibern. with a memoir of her life it. this once fascinating. Disappointed in her reasonable expectations of enjoying domestic happiness. Keysler observes of her when she was in " The Princess is too pale and thin to be her fifty-fifth year her handsome frequent misfortunes have brought thought her very low. entitled. varied only by a devout practice of the forms and ceremonies of the Romish Church.. 1 spirited : . Pont. in the sixty-fourth year of her age. and to the bitterest feelings of jealousy and disappointment. and lastly. and high- woman resigned herself to a life of seclusion." 1 prefixed to . Magn. beautiful. inconstancy. so that she seldom stirs abroad. unless to visit a convent." The death of the Princess Clementina took place on the 18th of January. and with some difficulty a cold and formal reconciliation was effected between the Princess and himself. Max. had at length the effect of inducing him to listen to reason. jussu dementis XII. 1765. and partly to the jealousy. "Parentalia Mariae Clementina. From in the this period there is little of importance or interest zeal for Popery of the unfortunate Clementina. : An . and a constant prey to ill-health. A life seems to have been the only quality which she shared in common with her husband. however. Eegin. strances.THE PRETENDERS AND THEIR ADHERENTS. and other ill qualities of her husband.

Certainly." Smollett also has awarded a passing encomium to the memory of Lord Derwentwater. 1705. Lord Derwentwater was only in his twenty-fifth year. was born on the 28th of June. Francis the second Earl. hospitable. " Lord Derwentwater." says his associate. Robert Patten. the Rev. loved for his amiable qualities. His Arrest. which deserves " to be his epitaph. hospitality was princely. His fate was a misfortune to many who had no kindness for the cause in which he died." he says " his fate brave. The husband of a fair bride. He was very charitable to the poor. in April. and . How Joins the related to the Stuarts. Question as to his Place of Burial determined. and was a great misfortune others.61 JAMES RADCLIFFE. individuals who have made greater sacrifices to their prin- and but few who have been more beloved in their more lamented in their death. . in the page of modern history. we shall find but few . Insurgents. lifetime. : . generous. courted by his equals. open. when he embarked in the insurrection of 1715. "was formed by nature to be universally beloved for his benevolence was so unbounded. Trial. 1691. His Sentence and Death. who deserved a better fate than to fall by the hands of the common executioner. He was an amiable youth. and idolized by the there were few of the unfortunate partisans of the poor Stuarts who were greater sufferers by their allegiance to that ill-fated House than the young Earl of Derwentwater. resided among them. Ilis Birth and early Connections. spent his estate His continually did them kindnesses. or . and humane drew tears from the spectators. that he seemed only to live for ciples . whether known to him or not. THIS amiable and unfortunate young nobleman. and respected for his high sense of honour exercising with grace and hospitality the powerful influence which his family possessed in the North of England. and whether Papists or Protestants. and Defence. and succeeded At the his father. and the father of a young family be- period . EARL OF DERWENTWATER. and none in that country came up to it. He among his own people.

horses. or perhaps too wary. which had been named as the place of rendezvous for those who had embarked their fortunes in the cause of the Stuarts. The unfortunate lord was consequently first cousin to the Chevalier. it is now impossible to ascertain. which he lived he gave bread to multitudes he employed on his estate the poor. The motives which induced him to join the fatal enterprise seem to have been those of generous impulse rather than of premeditation. Lord Derwentwater had the twofold inducement of being a Eoman Catholic. at the head of whom he marched to Greenrig." The amount of LordDerwentwater'sofFence. which in my situation I could not have wanted had I been privy to any formed design as my offence was sudden. with the nature of the charges which had been brought against him but the functionary was either too ignorant of the facts of the case. and the orphan rejoiced in his bounty. the . information. . had determined on taking up arms in behalf of the Chevalier.THE PBETESDEBS AND THEIB ADHEEENTS. when he proceeded to arm and mount his own tenantry.andthegrounds . on the eve of the insurrection. by Mary Davis." In embarking in the insurrection of 1715. being the natural daughter of Charles the Second. he says. when called up for judgment. 62 to the country in of people whom [l71o. to give him the required . "I beg leave to observe. On quitting the presence of the magistrate. and insisted on being made acquainted his danger. one of the most charming actresses and beautiful women of her day. In his speech before the House of Lords. the first step taken by Lord Derwentwater was certainly not that of a man who had nothing to fear from the hands of his enemies or of the law. and a messenger was sent down to Durham to seize his person. He immediately concealed himself in a cottage occupied by one of his tenants. the late countess. the Secretary of State signed a warrant for his arrest. On being apprised of Lord Derwentwater immediately repaired to the nearest magistrate. Mary Tudor. . the member for Northumberland. and other necessaries. It is perhaps remarkable that little more than a month . It is only certain that. widow. where he continued till he had obtained satisfactory information that Forster. on which the government were led to entertain suspicions of his loyalty. and of being closely connected by blood with the Stuarts his mother. arms. so my submission was early. that I was wholly unprovided with men.

he joined the insurgent force at Greenrig on the 13th of November. from the day on which the popular and at the head of a gifted Derwentwater first appeared in arms gallant band. are his their several answers. they were brought from the Tower to the bar of the Court in Westminster Hall. they severally dwelt on their own rashness and inconsiderateness in committing the offence for which they were doomed to suffer at the same time. that the edge instead of the back of the axe was turned towards them. and completes the misfortunes of my wife and innocent children. and amidst a scene almost unexampled for grandeur and affecting solemnity. he was formally impeached of high treason. 1716. and Lords AViddrington. the Earls of Nithisdale and Carnwath. by the Commons of Great Britain. Having been previously submitted to a brief examination before the Privy Council on the 10th of January. he fell into the hands of the Government at the memorable surrender of the Jacobite forces at Preston. noblemen who were companions in adversity." said Lord Derwentwater. Accordingly. declaring that if the royal clemency should be graciously extended to them.1716. comprising a campaign in Scotland. severally pleaded guilty to the articles of their impeachment. as well as to the unfortunate . Kenmure. which they insisted had been promised them when they surrendered at Preston finally they invoked the intercession of the assembled Houses of Lords and Commons. were again brought to the bar in Westminster Hall to receive sentence the only alteration in the ceremony being the slight but significant one. On the 9th of February. their gratitude to his Majesty would be unceasing. with his ill-fated friends. and that they would continue his most dutiful and devoted subjects to the end of their lives. invoking his Majesty's pardon and mercy. On the 6th of October.] EAKL OF DERWENTAVATEB. G3 should have elapsed. . " which at once deprives me of my life and estate. and that on Avhich he found himself a proscribed criminal within the walls of a prison. and Nairn. of nine days was allowed to him. Lord Derwentwater. and was brought with the usual An interval formalities to the bar of the House of Lords. and another in England. . and on the 9th of December. he found himself a prisoner in the Tower. . . " The terrors of your Lordships' just sentence. When asked by the Lord High Steward if they had anything to advance why judgment should not be pronounced upon them. to put in on the 19th of the month.

into the King's bed-chamber. to be at the King's disposal. that I am scarce able to allege what extenuate my offence. upon my mind. [l716. as well as by the Duchesses of Cleveland and Bolton. " noguilt. my lords. that you. James Earl of Derwentwater. thing remains but that I pronounce upon you (and sorry am I that it falls to my lot to do it) that terrible sentence. the same that is usually given against the meanest offender in like circumstances. answered at some length the arguments which they had advanced in extenuation of their " And now. friends of the convicted . Tour heads must be severed from your bodies. William Earl of Mthisdale. by the Dukes of Richmond and St Albans." The Lord Steward. not till you be dead for' you must be cut down alive. return to the prison of the Tower from which you came thence you must be drawn to the place of execution when there you must be hanged by the neck. that guilt was rashly incurred. Robert Earl of Carnwath. A few days after the condemnation of her husband. to persons of your quality but the law. through the clemency of the Crown.64 THE PEETENDEES AXD THEIB ADHERENTS." Frequent and powerful intercession was made by the noblemen to obtain their pardon. and the terrible contemplation of his violent and bloody death put into practice every expedient which could be devised by an agonised and devoted wife to save the life of her ill-fated lord." he solemnly concluded. and several other ladies of high rank. which is. in the reply which he made to the speeches of the insurgent lords. William Viscount Kenmure. William Lord Nairn. where she passionately but vainly prayed for mercy for her unfortunate husband. . my lords. excited a general commiseration on her behalf. And Grod Almighty be merciful so heavy may . I have confessed myself guilty but. "William Lord "Widdrington. . and every one of you. . accompanied by her sister. in this case being blind to all distinctions of persons. then your bowels taken out and burned before your faces. and the romantic peculiarity of her misfortunes. if anything can do it. to your souls. The most ignominious and painful part of it is usually remitted. without any premeditation. The young Countess of Derwentwater a prey to the deepest affliction. . and distracted by the idea of their speedy separation. requires I should pronounce the sentence adjudged by this court. and your bodies divided into four quarters. Her youth. she was introduced.

Lord Derwentwater the young. 1716. 1716. the genersuffered on the 24th of February. . the hospitable. and the safety of his people. morialist. in order that the latter might receive the necessary directions for his interment. of Charles the Second. In spite of the violent opposition of Lord Townshend. he would do what he thought most consistent with the dignity of his crown. praying that his Majesty would reprieve such of the condemned lords as might appear to him deserving of clemency. that though he had been induced to become an agent on the occasion. accompanied by the weeping ladies of the other condemned lords. ous. To this petition the King replied. it was agreed.EABL OF DERWENTWATER. but in the House of Lords. orders were issued in Council for the reprieve of Lords "Widdrington. to a certain degree. On the day following that on which the address for clemency was presented by the House of Lords. and implored the intercession of the House while at the same time formal petitions were laid before both . and all other occasions. observed on presenting it. and humane On the afternoon which preceded the day of his execution. Among other orders which he gave on the mournful occasion. Houses of Parliament. commiseration for the distressed prevailed over the stern dictates of policy. and Nairn and at the same time warrants were signed for the immediate execution of the Earls of Derwentwater and Nithisdale.] 65 She subsequently repaired to the lobby of the House of Lords. 1 The Duke of Eichmond was the son. he sent for one Boome. and Lord Kenmure. however. an undertaker. that an address should be carried to the throne. who had consented to deliver his petition for mercy to the House of Lords. the Duke of Richmond. that " On this. The Commons refused to listen to their suit. Carnwath. and the Earl of Derwentwater the grandson. it is said that he desired an inscription to be engraved on his ." The address. had. Even his near re1 lative. the desired effect for three of the condemned lords were reprieved till the 7th of March. on the 22nd of February. . who insisted that the petitions ought not to be read. with a view to their subsequent pardon but unfortunately it was not thought expedient to include Lord Derwentwater among the number. he should feel it his duty to declare himself opposed to a compliance with the prayer of the me.

read aloud to the multitude a paper which he had drawn up. he was led through an avenue of soldiers to the scaffold. which was erected directly opposite. by saying. and expressed his deep concern at having pleaded guilty at his trial. In this document he eulogized the Chevalier de St George. amined the block." and stretching out his arms. After decapitation. Lord Derwentwater was brought in a coach from the Tower to the Transport Office on Tower Hill. with the permission of the Sheriff. is stated to have refused to obey an order which would have : compromised his own loyalty. would always be exposed to distractions and disturbances. This being done. he desired the executioner to chip it off with his axe. and having given the appointed his Ahout ten . o'clock on the morning of his execution. and was entirely covered with black. and a copy of it to a friend. coffin-plate. that the sign which he should give him to do his office would be by repeating three times the words. After passing about a quarter of an hour in prayer. The country. he repeated a short prayer. the executioner kneeling by him. After remaining there for a short time. however. having first of all lain down and fitted his neck to the block.GG T1IE PBETE>'DEES AND THEIB ADHEKENTS. Then. He told the latter. '"'Lord Jesus. whereby he had admitted the authority by which he was sentenced. he should have felt himself bound in honour to live in peaceful obedience to the reigning monarch. He concluded. and for whom he died a willing sacrifice. he delivered the paper to the He then closely exSheriff. till they should have restored King James the Third. As he ascended the fatal steps. whom alone he acknowledged as his lawful sovereign. intimating that he had died in the cause of his lawful and legitimate sovereign the undertaker. receive my soul. he took off his coat and waistcoat.. he was observed to turn pale. however. that had his life been spared. but his voice remained firm. lest it might hurt his neck. he advanced to the rails of the scaffold. [l716. and. and he preserved his natural and easy composure. and accordingly Lord Dewentwater gave no further directions in regard to his interment. and finding on it a rough place. he said. He then once more fitted his head to the block. telling the executioner that he would find something in the pockets which would reward him for his trouble. and asking his forgiveness. Having finished reading. his hody was carried hack in a cloth hy own domestics to the Tower.

By his wife. 1716. easily recognised by the suture round the neck. The most extraordinary part remains. and continue among the few forfeitures which have not been restored by the House of Hanover to the descendants of the " rebel lords. and from their union descended the late and last Earl of Newburgh. who died in 1814. seems to be now proved beyond a doubt. Lord Derwentwater was the father of two sons. thus avoiding the city of Durham. George!" One of the servants of the unfortunate nobleman covered up his head in a clean handkerchief. . his brother. daughter of Sir John Webb. " " little porch. the executioner performed his office at a single blow. conveyed it to Lord Derwentwater lived and died a Eoman the Tower." writes Mr Surtees of Mainsforth.] 67 signal. Countess of Newburgh in her own right. The mournful . In 180 the coffin which contained the Earl's remains was. before the farm-house of Whitesmocks. He married Charlotte Maria.EAEL OF DEEWENTWATEE. The fact. procession is said to have moved only by night. The magnificent estates of the Eadcliffes in Northumberland and Cumberland were settled upon Greenwich Hospital. Bart. Mary. who married Robert James. and from whom the present Lord Petre is lineally descended. and of one daughter. and immediately holding up the head to the spectators ex" Behold the head of a traitor G od save King claimed. who died young. they were privately removed by his friends and rei'nterred in the family vault of his ancestors at Dilston Hall. is still pointed out as the exact spot where the Earl's corpse rested. by the appearance A . ! having wrapped up the body in a black cloth." A question has often been raised as to the burial-place of the unfortunate Earl of Derwentwater. who subsequently suffered for his share in the insurrection of 1745. from curiosity or accident. . agreeably with a wish expressed by him in his last moments. however. At the death of Lord Derwentwater. in the first instance. broken open and the body. while the rest. in the North of England. eighth Lord Petre. assumed the forfeited title. 72 . resting during the day in chapels dedicated to the exercise of the Eoman Catholic religion. Catholic. Charles Radcliffe. Mary. in the Church of St Giles's in the Fields from whence. where the funeral services of that Church were daily performed over the body. that his remains were interred..

Forster ever true bell now bids 's nearly o'er me . Farewell to pleasant Dilston Hall. which are among the most plaintive and touching of the Jacobite melodies. No more No more I wish I cease. my My trouble It is . Which gars my heart to greet. my lady dear. Which gars my heart to greet. 1 Hogg's Jacobite Relics. Second Series. or their The aurora agents. This warning face. fare thee well. LORD DERWENTWATER'S GOOD NIGHT. which appeared remarkably bright on the night of the unfortunate Earl's execution. Since fate has put us down Some honest hearts may then lament . ! . 68 [l716. lorealis. is still known in the north by the name of Lord Derwentwater' s lights^ The fate of the young and unfortunate Earl of Derwentwater gave birth to the following verses. at early dawn. Then fare thee well. Farewell to pleasant Dilston Hall. George CollingShall be laid low like mine. In my father's grave to lie Then chant my solemn requiem In Hexham's holy towers And let six maids of fair Tynedale Scatter my grave with flowers. and sold for half-a-crown a-piece. brave Wither- And The Yon sun their lives in fear. Albeit that here in my London town fate to die . Dear Shaftesbury and Errington. ordered the vault to be closed again. Our King has lost his Radcliffe's fallen line. wood. . hear. My heart has held so My tenants now must I And last adieu. 270. p. ill For . . crown. Oh. . of youth. carry me to Northumberland. Farewell each friendly well-known dear leave their had been asleep in time I mounted along the hanks of rove in autumn grey I '11 Tyne ington. If thou and I have lost our lives. The teeth were all perfect. and by the regularity 'of the features. . last that rises from the sea Shall rise on me no more. farewell. That smiles upon thy knee. thou counsel!' dst me I never more may see the babe Farewell. And Receive my bed. thee.THE PRETENDERS AND THEIB ADHERENTS. . Or hold '11 fare thee well. 111. till the trustees. lands. was discovered in a state of complete preservation. my bonny grey steed That carried me aye so free . and several of them were drawn by a blacksmith. My father's ancient seat A stranger now must call thee his. A My father's ancient seat stranger now must call thee his. The lav'rocks wake the day.

1716. and on the 9th of February was again conducted to Westminster Hall to receive judgment. he would remain the faithful and devoted servant of his Majesty during the rest of his days. WILLIAM. and then without premeditation. to actreason. His Committal to the Tower. and accompanied only by four of his servants. 10th of January. a daughter of the Marquis of Powys was made in all quarters to save the life of Lord Nithisdale. if possible. Every effort. that he had been privy to no previous plot or design to restore the Stuarts. was one of the last individuals either of influence or high rank who joined the standard of the Chevalier de St George in 1715. Lady Nithisdale. he insisted that he had never been a systematic plotter against his Majesty's person or government. Escapes in Female Disguise. that on his surrendering himself at Preston. and having been sent a prisoner On the to London was forthwith committed to the Tower. proving fruitless. he was impeached by the Commons of Great Britain. and he concluded by saying. he had been led to believe that his life would be spared . Further. EARL OF NITHISDALE. complish by stratagem the escape of her unfortunate lord. he insisted. at the hazard of her own life. and the warrant for his execution having been actually signed. He fell into the hands of the Government at the surrender of the insurgent force at Preston. Great but unavailing intercession originating principally in the affectionate and unwearying devotion of his young Countess. When asked by the Lord High Steward why sentence of death should not be passed upon him. Lady Nithisdale's Account of his Escape. that if the royal clemency were extended towards him. fifth Earl of Nithisdale. and on the 23rd he was brought from the Tower to Westminster Hall to undergo his trial for high He pleaded guilty of the offence with which he was charged. however. His Connection with the Insurgents.69 WILLIAM MAXWELL. determined. . that he was one of the last who joined the insurgent standard.

But. the King's hand. with the assistance of his devoted wife. 70 [l716. since you desire me to give you a circumstantial account of it. and told him in French. can. . as I did not know his Majesty personally. has herself left us an account of the particulars of her husband's flight. notwithstanding all the precautions he had taken to avoid it. The warrant for his execution was signed on the 22nd of February. indeed. Lord Nithisdale. as is well known. hoping that it would at least be serviceable to me. and as there were three windows in it. I might have mistaken some other person for him. So the first day I heard that the King was to go to the drawing-room. In the interim. She stayed by me. and told me when he was coming. as if I had been in mourning. can scarcely be read without exciting deep interest. I caught hold of the skirt of his coat. that I was the unfortunate Countess of Nithisdale. that I have almost forgotten it but. I threw myself at his feet. . I will endeavour to recall it to my memory. and as affording a beautiful illustration of female heroism. and be as exact in the narration as I possibly " My lord's . I was. in a letter to her sister. I desired him to have it drawn up and I undertook to make it come to My . for unaffected simplicity of style. Lady Nithisdale. perceiving that he wanted to go off without receiving my petition. escape is now such an old story. and sent for Mrs Morgan (the same who accompanied me to the Tower). for graphic description. " lord was very anxious that a petition might be presented. that he . and. because. I had also another lady with me and we three remained in a room between the King's apartments and the drawing-room so that he was obliged to go through it. to escape from the Tower in female disguise. convinced that it would answer no purpose but as I wished to please my lord. that he might not pretend to be ignorant of my person. . is deserving of being bound in the same volume with Lady Fanshawe's exquisite personal memoirs.THE PRETENDERS AND THEIR ADHERENTS. in my own mind. that I might have time enough to meet him before he could pass. contrived. we sat in the middle one. I dressed myself in black. "DEAR SISTEB. which. and the terrible sentence was ordered to be carried into effect on the 24th. in the following narrative. Lady Traquair.

and alleged for excuse. 1716. in company of most of the ladies of quality who were then in town. all behaved to me with great civility. we were allowed for the last week to see and take our leave of him. I often contrived to see my lord. I at length succeeded by the help of Almighty God. but had the utmost difficulty to prevail upon him to make use of them. disappointed the day before the petition was to be presented. till the day upon which the prisoners were condemned after that.] 71 might stop and hear me. by bribing the guards. to secure its being done by one or the other. who had promised my lady Derwentwater to present it. The real reason of my refusal was. and the Duke but for fear he should still promised to present the petition fail. " Upon this I formed the resolution to attempt his escape. Majesty to pardon the prisoners. He endeavoured to escape out of my hands but I kept such strong hold. not to put it out of my power to However. it was incumbent on her to have it presented. We were. who. I would not submit to. fell down in the scuffle. I had prepared everything necessary to disguise my lord. while another wrested the coat out of my hands. though he desired me not . " On the 22nd of February. I strongly solicited to be permitted to see my lord. who attended his Majesty. . However. appointment. They his We . as she was the only English Countess concerned. but particularly my to speak to Lord Pembroke. In order to concert measures. which fell on a Thursday. for the Duke of St Albans. I then went. which I had endeavoured to thrust into his pocket. however. had but one day left before the execution. accomplish my design. I engaged the Duke of Montrose. that he dragged me upon my knees from the middle of the room to the very door of the drawing-room. The petition. to entreat the lords to intercede with . to solicit the interest of the lords as they were going to the House. which they refused to grant* me unThis less I would remain confined with him in the Tower. that my health would not permit me to undergo the confinement. However. took me round the waist. our the House of Lords the petition was to be presented to purport of which was. At last one of the blue-ribands. when it came to the point failed in his word.EAEL OT NITHISDALE. "By the help of Evans. and I almost fainted away through grief and dis. but opened my intentions to nobody but to my dear Evans.

him. . and hastened to the . then usually known by the name of Hilton. I told her that I had everything in readiness. . in fact. for the petition had passed the House in their favour. This salvo quite blasted all my hopes for I was assured it aimed at the exclusion of those who should refuse to subscribe to the petition. fears. Accordingly 1 immediately left the House of Lords. " The next morning I could not go to the Tower. that the House would only intercede for those of the prisoners who should approve themselves worthy of their intercession.72 THE PBETENDEBS AND THEIE ADHERENTS. The subject of the debate was whether the King had the power to pardon those who had been condemned by Parliament and it was chiefly owing to Lord Pembroke's speech that it passed in the affirmative. I thought I could draw some advantage in favour of my design. which was a thing I knew my lord would never submit to nor. I sent for Mrs Mills. could I wish to preserve his life on such terms. . . when all was ready. I then gave them some money to drink to the lords and his Majesty. Tower. but not for all of them indiscriminately. as there was no prospect of his being pardoned and this was the last night before the execution. . but. in the evening. . I immediately communicated my resolution to her. that my lord might pass for her. with whom I lodged. and that giving them something would gain their good humour and services for the next day. affecting an air of joy and satisfaction. which I look upon as a very singular happiness. as we had no time to lose. which was the eve of the execution. and that I trusted she would not refuse to accompany me. I told the guards I passed by. having so many things in my hands to put in readiness. and acquainted her with my design of attempting my lord's escape. that I came to bring joyful all I desired them to lay aside their tidings to the prisoners. one of the lords stood up and said. However. to whose acquaintance my dear Evans had introduced me. where. if I were too liberal on the occasion. though it was but trilling for I thought that. " As the motion had passed generally. At the same time I sent for a Mrs Morgan. She was of a very tall and slender make so I begged her to put under her own riding-hood one that I had prepared for Mrs Mills. I pressed her to come immediately. yet promised to employ his interest in our behalf. [l716. they might suspect my designs.

I am undone. but nearly of the same size as my lord. Their surprise and astonishment. the first I introduced was Mrs Morgan for I was only allowed to take in one at a time. I said. and my lord's were dark and very thick however. last farewell to a friend. with all the concern imaginable. I begged her to send me in my maid to dress me that I was afraid of being too late to present my last petition that night. I never ceased talking. when she left her own behind her. when I first opened my design to them. I had prepared some paint of the colour of hers. as they were persuaded. without ever thinkso she . who had the precaution to hold her handkerchief to her face.] 73 was to lend hers to my lord. All this provision I had before left in the Tower. When \re were in the coach. that they might have no leisure to reflect. go in all haste and send me my waitingmaid she certainly cannot reflect how late it is she forgets that I am to present a petition to-night and if I let slip this opportunity. I then took her by the hand. The poor guards. that the prisoners would obtain their pardon. 1716. he might be taken for her. which he had not time to shave. in coming out. from what I had told them the day before.EAEL OF NITHISDALE. . and his cheeks with rouge. if she did not come immediately. . had made them consent. . for to-morrow will be too late. and went partly down-stairs to meet Mrs Mills. ing of the consequences. . indeed. Her eyebrows were rather inclined to be sandy. in which there were " several people. When Mrs Morgan had taken off what she had brought for my purpose. and put on that which I had brought for her. and led her out of my lord's chamber and in passing through the next room. that. " On our arrival at the Tower. . that my lord might go out in the same manner. to disguise his hair as hers and I painted his face with white. She brought in the clothes that were to serve Mrs Mills. . as was very natural for a woman to do when she was going to bid her I had. dear Mrs Catherine. Mrs Mills was then with child so that she was not only of the same height. My : . desired her to do it. I conducted her back to the staircase and in going. let me go quietly with my company. I despatched her safe. whom my slight liberality the day before had endeared me to. . I made Mrs Mills take off her own hood. . to hide his long beard. on the eve of his execution. and were not so strictly on the watch as they usually had been and the more.

and having found a place of security. ." Every one in the room. I went out leading him by the hand. " In the mean while.THE PBETENDEES AND THEIE ADIIEEEXTS. when he saw us. as she came in. as I had pretended to have sent the . with the greatest presence of mind. When I had almost finished dressing my lord in all my petticoats. and finished dressing him. that his astonishment. without telling him anything. When she had conducted him and left him with them. quickly. in case we succeeded. and if ever you made despatch in your life. till . I returned back to my lord. we should have been undone. a"nd I went down-stairs with him. He looked upon the affair as so very improbable to succeed. They went home together. without which. who by this time had recovered himself from his astonishment. and so secured him. I perceived it was growing dark. as much as possible for I shall be on thorns she comes. threw him into such consternation. lest he should mistrust them. that my lord might better pass for the lady who came in crying and afflicted and the more so because he had the same dress which she wore. As soon as he had cleared the door. bewailing bitterly the negligence of Evans. and was afraid that the light of the candles might betray us so I resolved to set off. to it. that he was almost out of himself which Evans perceiving. and bring her with you. do it at present I am almost distracted with this disappointment. My : . into whose hands I confided him. "When I had seen her out. I had before engaged Mr Mills to be in readiness before the Tower to conduct him to some place of safety. excepting one. . dear Mrs Betty. who had ruined me by her delay. who were chiefly the guard's wives and daughters. and he held his handkerchief to his eyes. I spoke to him in the most afflicted and piteous tone of voice. she returned to find Mr Mills. for the love of God. could. they conducted him Hasten her . I had taken care that Mrs Mills did not go out crying." The guards opened the doors. " You know my lodgings. seemed to compassionate me exceedingly and the sentinel officiously opened the door. run Then said I. conducted my lord to some of her own friends on whom she could rely. 74 [l716. . I made him walk before me. still conjuring him to make all possible despatch. for fear the sentinel should take notice of his walk but I still continued to press him to make all the despatch he possibly At the bottom of the stairs I met my dear Evans.

before I shut the door.EAEL OF NITHISDALE. and answered my own questions in my lord's voice as nearly as I could I walked up and down as if we were conversing imitate it. that I saw no other remedy than to go in person that if the Tower were still open when I finished my business. that it was 1 best thing that a man in his situation could have done. and stood half in it. till I thought they had enough time to clear themI then thought proper to make off selves of the guards. for it could not have been done without some confederacy. young lady on . that I might be sure of its being well shut. tbat when informed of Nithisdale's escape. to how the news of my lord's escape was received. He instantly despatched two persons to the Tower. When I was in the room. and said he was betrayed. I pulled through the string of the latch. had " see failed. so that it could only be opened on the inside. who had always been so punctual in the smallest trifles. I then went downstairs and called a coach. I said to the servant as I passed by. this important occasion. . as there were several on the stand I drove home to rny lodgings. When the news was brought to the King. . he remarked drily but good-naturedly. I opened the door. as he d'esired to finish some prayers first. in case my attempt : . 1 It bas been related of George the First. . I then shut it with some degree of force. I was obliged to return up-stairs and go back to my lord's room in the same feigned anxiety of being too late so that everybody seemed sincerely to sympathize with my distress. . to see that the other prisoners were well secured. that something more than usual must have happened to make Evans negligent on . 1716. that those in also. the outward chamber might hear what I said but held it so I bid my lord a formal close that they could not look in. Her Grace of Montrose said she would go to Court.] 75 a message. who was ignorant of the whole transaction. together. I talked to him as if he had been really present. he flew into an excess of passion. I would return that night but that he might be assured that I would be with him as early in the morning as I could gain admittance into the Tower and I flattered myself that I should bring favourable news. farewell for that night and added. that he need not carry in candles to his master till my lord sent for him. Then." Lord "the The genuineness. where poor Mrs Mackenzie had been waiting to carry the petition.

"When I left the Duchess. and Mrs Mills brought us some more in her pocket the next day. to his Excellency. and has at present a good place under our young master. that we might not be heard walking up and down. on which day the Ambassador's lord coach and six was to go down to meet his brother.76 THE PEETENDEBS AND THEIE ADHERENTS. I went to a house which Evans had found out for me. upon the bed. She got thither some few minutes after me. in consequence of precautions which he had taken some years before embarking in the Insurrection of 1715. We We We My Mitchell might have easily returned without being suspected of being concerned in my lord's escape. and where she promised to acquaint me where my lord was. directly opposite to the guard-house. to Dover. Mr . Being both of them Eoman Catholics. vol. and told me that when she had seen him secure. of the anecdote . The passage was so remarkably short. i. 1 Transactions of the Society of Scottish Antiquaries. She left us a bottle of wine and some bread. 1744. she went in search of Mr Mills. She had but one very small room up one threw ourselves pair of stairs. his estates were allowed to descend to his is rendered somewhat questionable by Lady Nithisdale's statement. however. that the wind could not have served better if his passengers had been flying for their lives. when Mrs Mills came and conducted my lord to the did not communicate the affair Venetian Ambassador's. 538. but one of his servants concealed him in his own room till Wednesday. they took up their abode in Eome. where she had found him and that he had removed my lord from the first place where she had desired him to wait. put on a livery and went down in the retinue. without the least suspicion. 523. where they continued to reside till the death of the Earl on the 20th of March. where Mr Mitchell (which was the name of the Ambassador's servant) hired a small vessel. that he had returned to her house. that the captain threw out a reflection. by this time. which he did. but fortunately. [l?44. to the house of a poor woman. but my lord seemed inclined to have him continue with him. little thinking it to be really the case. who. and immediately set sail for Calais. pp." 1 Shortly after his arrival in France. subsisted upon this provision from Thursday till Saturday night. had recovered himself from his astonishment. His family honours had been extinguished by his attainder. Lord Nithisdale was joined by his heroic wife. and a very small bed in it.

in 1749. It was finally determined by the House of Lords. and His daughter institutes claims the Estates. THIS extraordinary man. by Sybilla Macleod. He of the chief of that power- Inheriting from his forefathers an ardent attachment to the House of Stuart. John Lord Maxwell. . His early "Attachment to the House of Stuart. The late Lord Lovat had left an only daughter. we have his own statement that at the his early age of thirteen years he suffered imprisonment for exertions in their cause and three years afterwards we find him engaged in the insurrection fomented by General Buchan. dited Agent of the Stuarts. reserving his own life-rent. Lord Lovat's Stratagem to make legal Proceedings against her Relative. Not long afterwards. His Flight to the Court of the Pretender. Battle of Culloden.] 77 son. Lady Nithisdale survived her husband five years. 321. His Arrest after the the Joins Insurgents after the Battle of Preston. 28th of November. was the eldest son of Thomas Fraser of Beaufort. of the deceased Lord Lovat. His atrocious Marriage with her Mother. daughter was born in 1668. and mean cunning. 1723. dying also at Borne. that only his life-rent of his estate was forfeited. whose claims to the possessions and title of her father received the powerful support of her uncle. Enters into Holy Orders to effect his Release. p. Hugh Lord Lovat." Wood's Peerage. her his "Wife frustrated. the Marquis of " His lordship had disposed his estate to his son. ii. Sets the Government at defiance. 1712. treachery. on the death of his kinsman. Returns to Scotland as the accreArrested by the French King for Treachery. of whom he was the nearest male heir. Obtains undisputed Possession of his Titles for his Reward. 1 . Joins the Society of Returns to Scotland. Warrant issued for his Arrest. Lord Maxwell. ful clan. and joins the Adherents of the House of Jesuits.SIMON LORD LOVAT. Assumes the Title. and in 1692. vol. he obtained a commission in Lord Tullibardine's regiment. 1 SIMON LORD LOVAT. 1668-92. 21st of January. Hanover. with the object of restoring the exiled family. who crowned a youth of violence and dissipation with an old age of avarice. His Trial and Execution. assumed the title and claimed the estates of the deceased lord. Amelia.

and the negotiations were drawn so nearly to a close. 1 In the mean time. . though evidently of little value as a trustworthy narration. and. by means of her large jointure. in her own house and having. he should secure. is very different from that given by his contemporaries. The lawless Highlander. 43 63). with the aid of his influence and advice. nevertheless draws a most curious picture of the lawless state of the Highlands at that period. and being hurried to the foot of a gibbet. with a few of the most daring of his retainers. and technicalities of the law accorded but ill with the violent and headstrong character of the Highland chieftain. a legal interest in the estate. imagining that by a marriage with the Dowager Lady Lovat.78 T1IE PBETENDEBS AND THEIB ADHERENTS. naturally be expected from an ex-parte statement. sequel to this act of lawless brutality. he seized her. when they were suddenly seized upon by Lord Lovat at the head of a large body of his clan. determined on another atrocious and abominable act. he actually cut open her stays with his dirk. and places the headstrong character and violent passions of Lord Lovat. [l693. to renounce for ever their claims to the hand of the heiress of Lovat. that the marriage fit Lord Lovat has himself left us an account of these transactions. the young lady had the good fortune to effect her escape. Athol. Heedless of consequences. by which means he hoped to amalgamate her claims to the chiefThe young tainship and to the family estate with his own. in no less vivid a light than they are drawn by 1 as may his contemporaries. and accordingly. and forced her to bed. were compelled. however. by the fear of instant death. then the most powerful nobleman in Scotland. however. The delays. she entered into a legal contest with her young kinsman for the succession. and accordingly he resolved on obtaining a much speedier accomplishment of his purpose by a forcible union with his fair opponent. compelled a Eoman Catholic priest to read the marriage ceremony between them. it seems. . tore off her It may be mentioned. which. was on the eve of marriage with the son of Lord Saltoun. as drawn by himself. lady. The account in question will be found in the "Memoirs of the Life of Lord Lovat" (p. as a clothes. with the assistance of his followers. which. instead of her daughter. His proposed victim was a sister of the Marquis of Athol. They had nearly reached their destination. that the young bridegroom was actually on his way with his father to the country of the Frasers in order to complete the alliance. in the first instance.

For this daring act of outrage. repaired to the court of the exiled family at St Germain's. considerable sum of money. not only to visit Edinburgh. Nevertheless. as well as with the French monarch. in the fidelity of his Highland retainers. Lord Lovat was cited to appear on a certain day before the High Court of Justiciary in Edinburgh. however. where he ingratiated himself so much with the widow of James the Second. Letters of fire and sword were now issued against him and his clan. and a warrant was issued for his arrest. ful for him. while the bagpipes played in the next apartment to smother her screams. although his conviction for the violence to Lady Lovat still remained in force. however. Confiding. backed by a numerous body of the Marquis of Athol's powerful clan. Though still plotting against the Government of William the Third. he so far found means to justify himself as to obtain a pardon for his former acts of treason. Notwithstanding that this latter offence was punishable with death. he had the hardihood. his enemies proving too power- Lord Lovat was compelled to fly the kingdom. on his return from the Highlands. to whom he betrayed all the secrets of the exiled court. he actually obtained an interview with the Duke of Queensberry. He now .1704. At length. were marched into the Fraser territory. he had the audacity to return to his employers in France . that it was decided on sending him back to the Highlands as an accredited agent to induce the the French court supplying him with a chieftains to revolt.General. the royal commissioner and representative of Queen Anne in Scotland. Daring and dissimulation constituted the two principal ingredients in the character of his extraordinary man. as also on account of the intrigues in which he had long been engaged in the cause of the Stuarts. but in passing through London on his return to France. 79 was consummated in the presence of his retainers. Louis the Fourteenth. he determined on setting the Government at defiance.] SIMON LOED LOVAT. and also granting him a commission conferring on him the rank of Major. in his own resources. and several warm skirmishes took place between the opposing parties. For a time they were gallantly and successfully resisted by Lord Lovat and his adherents. and a large detachment of the King's forces. and in the peculiar means of defence presented by the wild and rugged district over which he ruled. to assist in defraying the expenses of the projected insurrection.

had never been obliterated from the restless mind of the desperate outlaw. this singular being actually enrolled himself among a society of Jesuits. Accordingly he immediately repaired to Scotland. than they withdrew themselves from the camp of the Earl of Mar. The hope. on the 4th of August. the heiress of Lovat. congenial to-his tastes." he took on this occasion was such as might have been anticipated from the consummate and unblushing profligacy which had hitherto distinguished every act of his life. This step he improved. where. who. of obtaining his pardon from the English Government. with the gotiations with the exiled court of St Germain's. had summoned the Frasers to arms. but for a time actually did duty as cure at St Omer. were devoted to the cause of the Stuarts. to the Castle of Angoul&me. but such was the implicit obedience which they considered due to the male representative of their ancient chieftains. He immediately enlisted himself beneath the standard of the House of Hanover.80 THE PRETENDERS AND THEIR ADHERENTS. as well as so much more the prospect of employment and adventure. says Sir Walter Scott. and of the Lovat estate. that Lord Lovat's commands were no sooner communicated to them. the ambition of securing to himself the chieftainship of the Fraser clan. 1701. acting as chief of his wife's clan. As the desertion of this . The Frasers. whom he had not only address enough to deceive by an assumption of superior holiness. he seems to have principally exercised his restless mind and crafty genius in hatching fresh treasons and At an early period of his neanticipating new adventures. he had declared himself a convert to the Eomish faith. while a prisoner in the Bastile. and had arrayed them in the ranks of the Chevalier de St George. view of ingratiating himself with Louis the Fourteenth and Mary of Modena. [l715. and subsequently to the Bastile. During the three years that Lord Lovat remained a prisoner of state. " his appearance was like one of those portentous sea-monThe part which sters whose gambols announce the storm. and having principally by this means obtained his release. The object of his early ambition or love. almost to a man. and returned to their own country. but his double treachery being unexpectedly discovered. however. by taking holy orders. and were revived in full force by the first tidings which he received of the Earl of Mar having raised his standard in 1715. the French King committed him. had united herself to Mackenzie of Fraserdale.

shortly afterwards. After his return from France in 1715. whose friendship it was supposed he calculated on securing when he contracted the marriage. besides being allowed to assume unquestioned the title of Lovat. and of the manner in which Lord Lovat exercised the patriarchal power which he inherited from his forefathers. stinted even in the common necessaries of wholesome food and decent raiment. It was entirely owing to the affectionate fearlessness of a female relative of Lady Lovat. He was rewarded for these services with the command of a Highland regiment. Sir "Walter Scott has drawn a curious picture of the mode of living at Castle Downie.] SIMON LORD LOVAT. it is said. till the breaking out of the insurrection of 1745. in 1717. however. by which. on payment of a certain sum of money. there can he no doubt that Lord Lovat performed a valuable service for the House of Hanover. a compromise took place between the opposing parties. a relation of the powerful family of Argyll. and in all the rights and immunities of chieftain of his clan. Prom this period. Some years. by whom he had two sons and two daughters and secondly to a lady of the name of Campbell. with a considerable sum of money. who by tact and stratagem obtained access to her privacy. Lord Lovat continued to reside principally among his own people in the Highlands. which he improved. and to establish himself peaceably in the 1 chieftainship of his clan. . . where she pined for a considerable time. he vented his resentment on his unfortunate wife by confining her in one of his turrets at Castle Downie. " His hospitality. the son of Mackenzie of Fraserdale commenced two different suits against him in the law-courts of Edinburgh for the recovery of the Lovat title and Eraser estates. to a daughter of the Laird of Grant. Lord Lovat was confirmed in the undisputed possession of the property. and survived him many years. and effected her emancipation. he was twice married first.1715 1745." says Sir Walter. Failing in this desired object. . after the affair of 1715. that her relations were made acquainted with the circumstances of her unhappy situation. and also. The former was decided in favour of Lord Lovat. She obtained a separation from her brutal lord. 81 powerful clan took place on the eve of the battle of Sheriffmuir. while in the latter case. by the measures which he adopted for preventing Inverness falling into the hands of the Jacobites.

or in the crooked policy of dissimulation and intrigue. and plotting heart and soul against the Government which had showered on him the many benefits which he so little deserved. They always broke prison. iii. but to the actual importance of his guests. Thus the claret did not pass below a particular mark on the table those who sat beneath that limit had some cheaper liquor. which was the same thing. not to the supposed equality. the jail of Inverness was never strong enough to detain them till punishment." l Enjoying the favour of the Government. that made amends for all. His character was rendered still more despicable by the life " Tales of a vol. and was determined to enforce it. Lovat had a Lowland estate. w find him a second time an apostate to his cause. where he fleeced his tenants without mercy. ." pp. . which had also its bounds of circulation. or. fuse in his complimentary expressions of praise and fondness. He was a master of the Highland character. His house was burnt. if he possessed a troublesome claim against him. much of whom he called his cousins. : ' Grandfather. 148. and having accomplished every legitimate object which he ought to have had in view. and was proall . instead of again embarking in the whirlpool of rebellion. and the clansmen at the extremity of the board were served with sinStill it was drunk at the table of their chief. for the sake of maintaining his Highland military retainers. . and knew how to avail himself of its peculiarities. . bis flocks driven and if the perpetrators of such outoff. for which Lord Lovat's victims suffered the punishment of transportation. 149. 82 " [l745. one would have thought that all the plagues of Egypt had been denounced against the obnoxious individual. his cattle houghed rages were secured. yet was regulated by means which savoured of a paltry economy. it might have been supposed that this extraordinary man so lately a proscribed and penniless adventurer would have sat down satisfied with his good fortune. With persons of low rank. and gle ale. less ceremony was used and it was not uncommon for witnesses to appear against them for some imaginary crime. He knew every one whom it was convenient for him to caress had been acquainted with his father remembered the feats of his ancestors. His table was tilled with Frasers. but took care that the fare with which they were regaled was adapted. On the contrary.THE PBETEXDEBS AND THEIE ADHEEENTS. was exuberant. If a man of substance oifended Lovat.

But where self-interest or aggrandisement were concerned. who. Lord Lovat was verging towards his eightieth There can be no doubt that his secret prepossessions year. and for which his forefathers had so often shed It was natural. he had been taught to believe that no sacrifice could be too great. having landed in the wild Hebrides with only seven followers. 83 of low and disgusting sensuality which he notoriously led. those very arms would have been turned against themselves. it was not in the nature of Lord Lovat to be in the slightest degree biassed either by the calls of duty or the impulse of romance. and gain credit from. His great object was to side with. were in favour of the cause of the Stuarts. At the time when Prince Charles landed in the Highlands of Scotland. and which presents a picture so degradingly profligate as almost to be unequalled in the annals of vice. but has the confidence to demand a supply of arms and accoutrements. I G 2 .] SIMON LORD LOVAT. and to express himself the devoted servant of both. and to send them forth against " the mad and unaccountable gentleman " who had dared to raise his standard and set the Government at defiance. at one and the same time. too. enabled to lay before the reader the following unpublished letter addressed by him to the Lord Advocate Craigie. chieftain. was now holding his gay court in the ancient palace of his forefathers. had made his way to the capital of Scotland. but it was the cause for which. who had himself been so distinguished in his youth for a love of daring and adventure. that the veteran their dearest blood. wavering between his hopes and fears. to correspond with the agents of Prince Charles and of the Government. should have sympathized with the fortunes of a young and gallant Prince.1745. in which he not only professes the warmest feelings of devotion towards the House of Hanover. and consequently. and collecting a devoted army in his triumphant progress. that had the English Government complied with his demand. It is scarcely necessary to remark. in regard to the vacillating am and ambiguous policy of Lord Lovat at this period. in his earliest childhood. for not only did he imagine himself to have been neglected by the reigning family. with which he promises to array his powerful clan. his duplicity led him. the victorious party. In addition to other curious evidence which has already appeai-ed in print.

have very pretty gentlemen of my family. that I have not twelve stand of arms in my country though. when I had the good fortune to serve the King in suppressing that great rebellion. yet I . Although I am infirm myself these three or four months past. Your lordship judges right. when you believe that no hardship or ill-usage that I meet with can alter or diminish my letter. who possess the centre of the Highlands of Scotland. that they have no arms to defend themselves. "MY "Beaufort. that you are so good as to men- he is very young. August 24th. and then your lordship shall see that I will exert myself for the King's service. zeal ment. Therefore. . Mr Thomas Craigie. " But my clan and I have been so neglected these many years past. " I received the honour of your most obliging and kind which I give your lordship a thousand thanks. 1745. that as you wish that I would do good service to the Government on this critical occasion. my lord. " I earnestly entreat that your lordship may consider seriously on this. for those madmen that are in arms with the Pretended Prince of Wales threaten every day to burn and destroy my country. we will certainly be undone. I could bring twelve hundred good men to the field for the King's service. " As to my son. for it will be an essential and singular loss to the Government. LOED LOTAT TO THE LOED ADTOCATE CEAIGIE. and the . you may order immediately a thousand stand of arms to be delivered to me and my clan at Inverness. I thank God. professor of Hebrew. and just done with his colleges at St Andrew's. if I had arms and other accoutrements for them. my good lord. nor no protection nor support from the Government. if my clan and kindred be destroyed. countries most proper by their situation to serve the King and Government. 84 [l745. if we do not rise in arms and join them so that my people cry out horridly.THE PBETENDEES AXD THEIE ADHEEENTS. that will lead my clan wherever I bid them for the King's service and if we do not get those arms immediately. LOED. who truly I think one of the tion. . I earnestly entreat. for and attachment for his Majesty's person and Governas ready this day (as far as I am able) to serve the King as I was in the year 1715. I am more than any one of my rank in the island of Britain. under the care of a relation of yours.

. the young Master of Lovat. steering a middle and dastardly course. He says that he is a very good scholar. which he will tell you when you see him. and drank success to the White Hose. place is the inlet from Moidart to Lochabar. the crafty old traitor forgot not for a moment the hazard which he ran by arraying his clan against the Government and. To the Lord President he writes on the 20th of October . At length the victory obtained by Charles at Preston decided the wavering mind of Lord Lovat indeed so overjoyed was he at receiving the unexpected tidings. while he himself remained quietly at home. or what they are doing. : . at the head of seven or eight hundred of his followers. and I think myself most happy that assures me that he never son has been under his tutory. " I humbly beg to have the honour to hear from your lordship in return to this and I am. but the Camerons and Mac Donalds. my He saw a youth that pleased him more than my eldest son. he sent forth his son. that. with all the esteem and " LOTAT. Monday last. But I have many a one of his family now fitter to command than he is at his tender age and I do assure your lordship that they will behave well if they are supported as they ought to be by the Government. and I hear of none that have joined them as yet. and they are in such a remote corner. and confusion to the White Horse and all its adherents. flung his hat on the " ground. he descended into his court-yard at Castle Downie." respect imaginable. who. and other . forgetting for a moment his usual consummate cunning.] and most 85 that ever I conversed complete gentlemen prettiest with in any country. . my dear lord. 1745. except those that are with them. inveighing to the Government against the disobedience of his son. " I hear that mad and unaccountable gentleman has set up This a standard at a place called Glenfinnan. &c. places abroad. and has the best genius for learning of any he has seen and it is by Mr Thomas Craigie's positive advice. had armed his clan against his express orders and to his infinite distress. accordingly." But with the return of his allegiance to the House of Stuarts. and I hope your lordship will procure that support for them. that nobody can know their number. . that I send my son immediately to Utrecht. to complete his education. he impudently affirms.SIMON LOED LOVAT.

who prefers his own extravagant fancies to the solid advice of an affectionate old father ? I have seen instances of this in my own time but I never heard till now that the foolishness of a son would take away the liberty and life of a father.86 THE PRETENDERS AND THEIE ADHERENTS. One of the first acts of the Duke of Cumberland after the action was to send a body of troops to Beaufort Castle. But I find the longer a man lives. but laid waste his lands. minded officer died in battle in the This amiable and highWar of Inde- American pendence. that he had at least secured to himself the safe possession of his life and his estates. Four years after the suppression of the insurrection. should the worst happen to his heir and his clan. that the young Master Lovat. the miserable old man is said to have witnessed the destruction of his property. the neighbouring seat of Lord Lovat. he received a full and free pardon. From the top of a neighbouring mountain. and saw it destroyed in his own time by the foolish actings of an un: Am natural son. and subsequently entered the British army. and well inclined to the rest of mankind. whose life and fortunes he so wantonly exposed to save his own. In consequence of the dilatory policy of Lord Lovat. all the cattle and provisions which they could find in the district. [1745 " I do solemnly declare to your lordship. more wonders and extraordinary things he sees. and the flames that ravaged the home of his forefathers. . that nothing ever vexed my soul so much as the resolution of my son to go and " join the Prince. of the fatal battle of Culloden decided his fate. for the use of the army. however. who not only pillaged and burned his castle. in his nineteenth year. am I the first man that has made a good estate." And again he writes on the 30th man the first that has had an undutiful son ? Or I. was induced to join the standard of the Chevalier. and carried off with them. the wily chieftain continued to flatter himself that his darling hopes were on the eve of accomplishment. the . The result. then a student in the University of St Andrew's. in which he attained a high rank. and. that was an honest man. It is well known. During the triumphant march of the insurgents to Derby. however. my lord. it was not till the Chevalier entered England that he was joined by the Erasers. that it was only in consequence of the threats and urgent entreaties of his unnatural father." Such is the language of Lord Lovat. when speaking of his gallant son.

that I am almost deaf with a pain in my ears. and his body is so large. . or rather a cage. . drawn by six horses. the soldiers constructed a kind of litter. and about sixty of his clan. which grew on a little island in the middle of a lake. 122.'s Mag. he exclaimed. ' we find him complaining of his increasing " I am much To Mr John Forbes he writes indisposed since I saw you at your own house many marks appear to show the tabernacle is failing the teeth are gone and now the cold has seized my head. p." Letters from Fort Augustus. when he was overtaken by a troop of the royal cavalry. 1746. He soon. while you will only get a number of drunken fellows. June 17. He can neither walk nor ride. he arrived at the Tower. 1 . in which they carried him to the head-quarters of the army at Fort Augustus 2 from whence he was sent by sea to London. however. ers M ! . vol. where he hoped to find a vessel to convey him to France. resembling a cage. brought in here He is 78 years of age. endeavoured to effect his escape to a sea-port town. 2 " Yesterday I had the pleasure of seeing that old rebel. I shall get the legions of saints to pray for me . and the inn-keep: " c and tapister lasses of Inverness.] Satisfied that if he should fall into the his life would be the next 87 hands of his enemies. for if I can but die with trumpet that call prepared a little of my old French belief. to be at the disposal of the government. 1748. as hardened as ever. with his two aids-de-camp. xvi. Lord Lovat. Gent. that I imagine the doors of the Tower must be altered to get him in. Lord Lovat. and was brought in here in a horse-litter. recovered his composure. accompanied sacrifice. The path which he chose was through one of the wildest districts of Invernesshire but he had proceeded no great distance. has a fine comely head to grace Temple Srisoners. As he drew near to the gloomy portal of that memorable fortand when his eye caught the scaffolds which were being ress. and on being " Were I not so old and brought into the Tower observed. for which you and I are hardly well but I have a sort of advantage of you . that holy man Culloden Papers.SIMON LOED LTAT. p. as he glanced on the long and mournful pre" such in a few days will be my unhappy fate. infirmities. These are so many sounds of 1 As early as the year 1731. As he was too old and unwieldy either to ride or walk. : . 325. in an open landau. you keep me here. me to another world. and Mr Bean. erected for the convenience of those who proposed to witness the approaching executions of Lords Balmerino and Kilmarhis self-possession for a moment deserted him. 1746. would find it difficult to Some infirm." parations. On the 15th of August. who discovered him wrapped in a blanket. sixty of his followers. and hid in the hollow of an old tree. one answering that they had kept much younger prisoners. by about . "Ah!" nock. ar.

On the first day. he was con. and accordingly. 1747." he said. The evidence against him. 1746. observing the celebrated Henry "Pelham at some distance. secretary to the young Chevalier. he young wife. was far too clear for either talent or artifice to set it aside. in Westminster Hall. not only with composure. and wish him joy of his To Lord Ilchester. 88 [1747. I did not think it possible to feel so little as I did at so melancholy a spectacle but tyranny and villany. and.THE PRETENDEB6 AND THEIE ADHEBENTS. him " take oif the grey head of a man of fourscore years old ? The same day we find him flying into a violent passion with one of his Highland retainers who had been brought as a witness against him and on another day. "but they were inexperienced. and have not broke so many gaols as I have. demned to death with the usual formalities. appeared as witnesses against him. Lord Lovat endeavoured to avail himself of those arts of dissimulation and low cunning for which he . " Farewell." everybody laugh even at the sentence. and making gueres." Lord Lovat was impeached by the House of Commons on the llth of December. when asked by the Lord High Steward if he had anything to say to Sir Everard " No. took off The foreigners were much struck. " he behaved ridiculously. wound up by buffoonery. he "beckoned him towards to make all this fuss to Is it worth while. " The two last days. we shall never all meet again in the same There is a story still prevalent in Scotland. his behaviour was marked by a strange mixture of courage." " Je meurs pour ma patrie. He listened to the solemn sentence. "True." all edge of concern. who sat near the bar. joking. my lords. and low humour. and an eloquent speech which he addressed to his peers. on being removed from the bar. that place." writes Horace Walpole to Sir Horace Mann. had been distinguished from his youth. and even some of his own domestics. who had just been examined. : . levity." he said. however. exclaimed. and was tried by his peers in Westminster Hall on the 8th of March. of Broughton. which lasted seven days. et ne m'en soucie observed." he replied. Falkener. notwithstanding his great age. " but that I am his humble servant. but with levity. During the trial. after his condemnation. A great number of letters were produced which had been addressed by him to the exiled court John Murray." when on his way to the Tower. an old woman thrust her head into the window of the coach . During his trial.

" " died. On mounting the fatal stage." The same night he is said to have ate a hearty supper. he partook of a small piece of bread and some wine on which occasion." nor was there ever a stronger example of the truth of the observation. " I begin to think you '11 be hung at last. this extraordinary man quitted the world with a dignity and composure which would have done credit to an ancient Roman there was nothing of bravado in his demeanour nothing oflevity or false taste in the unembarrassed cheerfulness with which he spoke of his approaching fate. Notwithstanding his many vices and the exceeding infamy of his character. that it is easier to die well than to live well. one of the warders ex" such a bad pressing his regret that the morrow should be with his "Bad!" Lord Lovat. he proceeded to the scaffold. having dressed himself with considerable care. and exclaimed.1747. buffoonery. his great age and infirmities requiring the aid of two warders to assist him in ascending the steps. or affectation." You d d old . he glanced round on the vast multitude which had collected to witness his execution. and the following morning. . and better in this way than by a lingering disease. extremely well. : . "for day lordship." is said to have been the reply. that the executioner will be sure to strike me on the shoulders. 89 " You d d old rascal. the remarkable steadiness with which he conveyed the latter to his mouth. is said to have attracted particular observation. attended by a Roman Catholic priest. " It would have been better. "God save us!" he said. timidity his behaviour was natural He : . and gazed on the frightful apparatus." In the case of Lord Lovat. with whom he conversed with his usual cheerfulness and ease." On being brought to the house on Tower Hill which had been prepared for his reception. for my neck is so short and bent." says Walpole. certainly " nothing in his life became him like the leaving it. "to have sentenced me to be hanged. with a sneer." On the night before his execution. which conveyed him. he sat down to breakfast with the lieutenant of the Tower and a few of his own friends.] SIMON LOED LOVAT." he said. Shortly afterwards." replied what ? do you think I am afraid of an axe ? It is a debt we must all pay. "why should there be such a bustle about taking off an old grey head from a man who cannot get up three steps without two assistants. without passion. "I begin to think I shall.

: ." he writes. after I am dead. 1747. " Dulce et decorum est propatrid The executioner severed his head from his body at mori. the beautiful line of Horace. and told him he should he very angry with him if he should hack or mangle his shoulders." On mounting the scaffold. 1 Letter to the Lord President. when I was in my happiest situation in the world. 't is not far from my burial-place and I shall the coronach have. No coronach was perin the seventy -ninth year of his age. 90 [l747. felt the edge of the axe. my nothing peaceable subject against the King or Government but if I am attacked by the King's guards. to whom he presented ten guineas." l His remains were interred. he quietly laid down his head on the block. and had never deviated from the paths of virtue. in the Tower." Smollett also observes. gave the sign for the executioner to strike repeating. in St Peter's Church. to the Lord President Forbes. and after slightly jesting with him on his occupation. Having spent some time at his devotions. . with so many others of the illustrious and headless dead. a in own and do live house. 1745. with his captain-general at their head. " Prom the last scene of his life. and after a very brief delay. of women the all grave ." a single blow. in and that was my country to convey my body to my my ambition. October 29.THE PRETENDEHS AND THEIE ADHERENTS. formed over the grave of the powerful chieftain. . he called for the executioner. I and if I will defend myself as long as I have breath in me am killed here. Lord Lovat "the last of the martyrs. what I always wished." as he was styled by his own party was executed on the 7th of April. one would have concluded that he had approved himself a patriot from his youth. and the manner of his funeral was far different from that which he sketched in a very eloquent passage in one of his letters to " " I am resolved. almost with his latest breath. and intrepid. .

Viscount Kenmure. success to Kenmure >os ^OT*} band. 1 Here 's . Lord Kenmure. amiable. They nv? that their faes shall ken. which he dispensed among his neighbours. VISCOUNT KEMURE. tuous. and surrounded by attached friends and relatives. and beloved for the charity and l . May Kenmure a rose in Kenmure's cap." . Willie. could have been influenced by no other motive than a strong and conscientious sense of duty. Willie. .. For Kenmure's lads are men.Lord Kenmure's Taken disinterested Conduct in espousing the Cause of the Stuarts. 's a rose in Kenmure's cap . true. WILLIAM GOBDON. Willie. For Kenmure's lads are men Their hearts and swords are mettle . Willie. There He '11 steep it red in ruddie heart's There 's blude.. Afore the battle drap. Viscount Kenmure. . Prisoner at Preston. And . Willie. . "Willie. His Trial and Execution. Kenmure 's on and awa' . 1*7-11 die wi' fame.. irv '11 live and -. See Sir Walter Scott's Preface to " Halidon Hill. was already advanced Virin life when he engaged in the insurrection of 1715. Here 's Kenmure's health in wine There ne'er was a coward of Ken. And Kenmure's lord 's the bravest lord That ever Galloway saw. enjoying an ample estate.. gave rise to one of the most spirited of the Jacobite songs hospitality : Kenmure's on and awa'. Nor yet o' Gordon's line. mure's blude. and descended from the celebrated Adam de Gordon who fell at Halidon Hill. Success to Kenmure's band.WILLIAM GORDON. s lads Kenmure's health in wine. in taking up arms in the cause of the Stuarts. . Account of the Family of Gordon. The circumstance of the gallant and unfortunate Kenmure joining the standard of the Chevalier. and resolute respected for his sound sense and religious principles. the representative of an ancient race.

that I may live to show myself the dutifullest of his subjects. gentlemen. Here 's him that 's far awa'. in which he . He made no speech on the occasion declaratory of his principles." said but little on the . in prayers. Lord Derwentwater having been resolute. His lady's cheek was red. attended by his son." he said. a few friends. and on being asked by the Lord High Steward why sentence of death should not be passed upon him. and resigned. but advancing to one side of it. Being asked if he had anything to say. Lord Kenmure mounted the fatal stage with great firmness. " of suffering so soon. My lords. but to no purpose. 1716. " I had so little thoughts. At his trial in "Westminster Hall. 1715. I humbly beg my noble peers and the honourable House of Commons to intercede with the King for mercy to me. And here 's the flower that I love hest. that I might have died with more decency for which I am very sorry. Willie. He suffered on the 24th of February. and fell into the hands of the Government at the surrender of the Jacobite forces at Preston. but he was heard to pray audibly for the Prince in whose cause he suffered. and two clergymen of the Church of England. Which smell' d o' deadlie feud.92 THE PEETENDEBS A>T D THEIR ADHERENTS. he had addressed a letter to a friend. "I am truly sensible of my crime. His lady's cheek was red "When she his steely jupes put on. and his body removed from the scaffold. and want words to express God knows I never had any personal prerepentance. he knelt down to was joined by several of the bystanders. make me the most unfortunate of my . [l715. he pleaded guilty of the crime with which he was charged. Lord Kenmure joined the insurgents at Moffat on the 12th of October. nor was I ever accessory to any previous design against him. with my crime. The rose that 's like the snaw. "Willie. on the same day and on the same scaffold as Lord Derwentwater. Here 's him that 's far awa' . first executed. which was " principally remarkable for its brevity. judice against his Majesty. he addressed a speech to the House. His behaviour to the last was calm. and be the means to keep my wife and four small children from starving the thoughts of which. he answered briefly in the negative." The greatest exertions were made to save the life of Lord Kenmure." he said. On the day also preceding his death. that I did not provide myself with a suit of black. He scaffold. .

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J) A 5& S B WTT 0. 1745. . E R . SECOND DUKE OY ORMOUD OB.

and adding. whom he acknowledged as his legitimate sovereign. the executioner. the hands were still found clinging firmly round the block. raised his axe. that he died. After his return to France. 93 which he disavowed the false principles which he had professed in his speech before the House of Lords. time and repeated disappointments seem to have convinced the Duke of Ormond of the fruitlessness of originating or embarking in fresh intrigues. expressing his devotion to the Chevalier de St George. a passing notice is rendered necessary. Having embraced that fatal measure. ." At length. and with two blows severed his head from his body. and having passed a few moments in inward devotion. we find him engaged for some years in the various intrigues which were " set on foot for the restoration of the Stuarts. the fate of the remaining individuals of rank and inwho figured in the insurrection of 1715." he said work as do you may your you will. give you no sign. presented the executioner with some money. presents. with the exception of the striking moral which it affords of fallen greatness. he again rose up. and obtain a pardon by sacrificing his new master." says Archdeacon Coxe. seeing his time.1715. Neglected and almost forgotten. but few features of any interest. and were then carried away in a hearse.] WILLIAM GOEDON. Lord Kenmure divested himself of his coat and waistcoat without betraying the least emotion. he clasped his arms round the block. VISCOUNT KENMUBE. as he had ever lived. and fitting his neck to it. mournful Of service. which was stationed in readiness to perform the . "I shall " but when I have lain down. and putting his hand in his pocket. The head as well as the body were placed in a coffin which was on the scaffold. Having concluded his devotions. The personal history of the DUKE OF OEMOND. " he was too honest and zealous to act like Bolingbroke. he spent the last twenty years of his long life chiefly in a melancholy fluence. or by entering into a compromise with his prosecutors. After the head fell." He then knelt down again. after the failure of his attempt to effect a rising in the West of England in 1715. and having in the first instance laid down to try the block. in the profession of the Protestant religion.

that Ormond and High Church" had been the watchwords of tumult and insurrection throughout the land. Sedgmoor. in his youth. when he lost his " master's confidence. was more fortunate than he had been in schemes for the alteration of her Government. 91 [l715. had once been so idolized by the people of " England. . He gave the first hints for several of the modern improvements of the city. . valier till the beginning of the year 1721. lastly. His remains were brought to England. " was a man of fine taste and in devising modes of improving Edinburgh." says Sir Walter Scott. to which she was entitled by her marriage settlements. THE EARL OP MAR. 1746. and the Boyne who had been one of the principal promoters of the great Revolution of 1688 who had received the thanks of Parliament for destroying the Spanish galleons in the harbour of Vigo in 1702 who had succeeded the great Duke of Marlborough in command of the British army in Flanders and who. after the suppression of the insurrection of 1715. however. and retired into private life. died an exile at Aix-la-Chapelle in 1732. the jointure on her husband's forfeited estates." By his attainder in 1745. sister of the celebrated . George the First. in "Westminster Abbey. Such was the closing career of this once powerful and magnificent nobleman. subsisting on a small pension allowed him by the court of Spain. by which means he made good his He conducted the affairs of the Cheretreat to France. the capital of Scotland. on the 22nd of May. had distinguished himself at Luxembourg. Landen. who had been secretary of State under Queen Anne.THE PRETENDERS AND THEIE ADHERENTS. The Duke of Ormond died on the 16th of November. Lord Mar lost his titles and estates. . and were interred in the family vault in Henry the Seventh's Chapel. The unfortunate Earl. Lord Mar. . confirmed to his Countess Lady Frances Pierrepont. retirement at Avignon. 1745. who had been the favourite alike of the phlegmatic William and of the who had been viceroy of Ireland and Changentle Anne cellor of the University of Oxford who. . . Lady Mary Wortley Montagu . had the good fortune to save his head by embarking from Montrose in the same vessel with the Chevalier de St George.

and in his old age had the easy appointment conferred on him of Governor of the State of Neufchatel. evening of life. contrived to effect his escape to France. my first feeling was to grieve over his sunken and wasted frame but when I raised my eyes on his noble features. These high intellects have bedesired . young Genevese. "With the most penetrating glance. ledge of mankind.GEORGE KEITH. EAEL MAEISCHAL. by whom he was both honoured and beloved. my Lord Marischal is not without defects. whether of value or whether a trifle. He is a thorough libertine. " He " used. entered the civil service of the King of Prussia. EARL MARISCHAL. my Lord gave him. on different occasions. and passionate does everything by starts hath abundance of flashy wit and by reason of his quality. When first I beheld this venerable man. the King immediately granted a commission to the bearer. Though a wise man. He was rewarded by the Prussian monarch for his diplomatic services with the insignia of the Black Eagle. with the nicest judgment. 1715. " in middle age He is very wild." says Rousseau. and. to call me his child. who wished to enter the service of the King of Prussia. and so expressive of truth. little : . instead of a letter. and remembers them at the moment when they least expect it his attentions . after the dispersion of the Jacobite forces. when the latter was in the . . with the deepest know. and his presents capricious. was employed as Ambassador Extraordinary to the Courts of France and Spain. . and after undergoing the various vicissitudes of an exile's life. inconstant. . and can never be disabused of them. On receiving this singular recommendation. He gives or sends away on the spur of the moment whatever strikes his fancy. which can scarcely be regarded as a pleasing one. a small satchel full of peas. he yet is sometimes misled by prejudices. is widely different from that which Rousseau draws of Earl Marischal in his Confessions. yet sets up mightily for Episcopacy a hard drinker a thin body a middle stature ambitious of popularity and is forty-five years old." This picture. Mackay says of Earl Marischal. I was struck with admiration. . There is something strange and wayward in his turn of mind. appear unseasonable. and I called him my father. so full of fire.] 95 GEORGE KEITH. being one day introduced to him. which he A him to deliver to his Majesty. . He appears to forget the persons he sees every day. . had good interest in the country.

EGBERT DALZIEL. like the caprices of a pretty woman. EARL OF WINTOTJN. GEORGE SETON. and having pleaded guilty to the crime of high treason at his trial in Westminster Hall. he is said to have worn out his life in an unenviable retirement. by his sweetness of temper. but after the absence of only a few months. it was scarcely reconcilable either with his conduct during a very trying period. Preston. who was also sentenced to death for his share in the insurrection. rendered the society of my Lord Marischal only the more interesting.96 THE PRETENDERS AND THEIR ADHERENTS. paid a visit to England in 1750. His position was the more pitiable. EARL OF CARNWATH. Deprived by his attainder of his honours and estates. he was nevertheless a sincere He surrendered himself at believer in the Protestant faith. where he died in 1751. is described by Patten as a nobleman distinguished by his affability to his inferiors. [1715. Lord Carnwath died about the year 1726. is said to have been partially affected with insanity. The celebrated Marshal Keith (who also fought in the ranks of the Stuarts at the battle of Sheriffmuir. If such. however. he returned to Berlin. he was at length released from prison by the Act of Grace in 1717. he was sentenced to be executed. alike avoided by his friends and despised by his enemies." Earl Marischal. and after having been respited from time to time. and who closed a long life of glory at the unfortunate battle of Hochkirchen in 1758) was the younger brother of Earl Marischal. and whom his imprudence had reduced to a state of comparative poverty. Though a devoted adherent of the Stuarts. to whom he is said to have been tenderly attached. inasmuch as he was the father of numerous children. "With some difficulty his life was spared. The world seems to have been of opinion that the unfortunate nobleman had purchased a prolonged existence at the expense of his honour. and the ease and facility with which he delivered himself in conversation. Such little eccentricities. tween them a secret language which common minds can never understand. and never warped in his mind either the feelings or the duties of friendship. with the ingenuity which he displayed in conducting his defence. having obtained his pardon from the English Government. was the case. or with the .

Aboyne. LOED WIDDRI^GTON. Unlike his companions in misfortune. by intermarriage. who had also been engaged in the insurrection. among other eccentricities. and partly by the ingenuity with which he contrived to saw the bars of his prison. come to represent the great houses of Gordon. but his honours and estate remained by his attainder. together with his two brothers. . he pleaded guilty to the indictment charging him with high treason. Lord in comparative poverty. he declined appealing to the throne for mercy.1716. and stubbornly refused to sanction any appeal made to the Government on his behalf. 1716. WILLIAM WIDDRTNGTON. and was great-grandson of that Lord Widdrington who fell gallantly in the cause of Charles the First at Wigan Lane. he had lived for a long time as a bellows-blower and assistant to a blacksmith in France. and Eglinton. was de- scended from an ancient family in Northumberland. " He ended his motley life at Rome. whose male descendants have. His estates were forfeited by his attainder. "and with him terminated the long and illustrious line of Seton. under the Act of Grace. and subsequently found means to reach the Continent. 1716. and. " could discover anything like boldness or bravery in him. and have since passed through several hands." says Sir "Walter Scott. Partly by inducing his attendants to connive at his escape. enabled him to amuse his associates with many curious stories of his wanderings and his adventures in low life. Patten has left us a far less favourable account. forfeited Widdrington died at Bath." Of his great-grandson. a mode of existence which.] WILLIAM LORD WIDDRINGHOK. however. he effected his escape from the Tower." Lord Widdrington was taken prisoner at Preston. At the period when he engaged in the insurrection he was only in his twenty-fifth year. at the age of fifty-nine." Lord Wintoun died in 1749. in 1743. and whom Lord Clarendon has immortalized as " one of the most goodly persons of that age." he says. 97 cleverness with which he subsequently effected his escape from the Tower. without holding the slightest communication with his family or friends. " I never. during the campaign of 1715. was sentenced to death on the 7th of The next year he was discharged from prison July. Previous to this period.

received. threw herself at his Majesty's feet as he passed through the royal apartments at St James's. . but falling into the hands of the Government. in the first instance. Esq. " I hope shortly to Lord Nairn distinguished himself on see you a Countess. and when impeached for high treason. who earnestly conjured him to remain at home. he was led on horseback to London with his associates in misfortune. in an agony of grief and suspense. been no intention to remit his sentence. The boon. He resisted the importunities of his wife. he observed playfully. 98 [1715. LOED NAIBN. WILLIAM MUBBAT. he pleaded the cause of his wife and twelve children. During the remainder of his life. and was subsequently released. shorn of his honours and estate. he is said to have repulsed her with a rough and positive refusal. which was refused -to the wife. was member of Parliament for the county of Northumberland. pleaded guilty. the judgment. petition which he addressed to the King was thought undeserving of an answer. valier with the and a person of considerable influence in the North of Eng- As regards his qualifications as a general. After his surrender at Preston. land. however. although the father of twelve children. was nevertheless rash enough to risk his life and fortune in the fatal enterprise of 1715. he why judgment A . and when Lady Nairn. and with every inducement to remain a peaceful citizen under the existing Government. and threw himself enThere seems at first to have tirely on the King's mercy. a respite. was granted to more powerful intercession and Lord Nairn. THOMAS POBSTEB. and on parting from her at the head of his followers to join the standard of the Chevalier. or even as a daring adventurer.THE PEETE>*DEBS AND THEIB ADHEEENTS. it is sufficient to remark that he possessed neither the experience. who was intrusted by the Checommand of the insurgent forces in England. been false to his and to have constantly charged himself with meanness and cowardice in suing for mercy to a Prince whom his conscience assured him was a usurper.." several occasions during the insurrection by his personal gallantry. he was hurried to London. and was sentenced to death. When asked should not be passed on him. is said to have unceasingly regretted having principles. nor the energy to enable him to fill with credit the dangerous post which was assigned to him.

the news reached him that three of his Jacobite associates had been executed the day before. Cambridge. about five hundred were committed to Chester Castle. In this miserable state have most of these mad creatures been for four or five days past several for security. from Carlisle." To the last. These complaints are very uneasy to me. who guided " On reaching Barnet." This. 1st series. p. Then the greatest part them sleep upon bare straw. which conveyed him to France. however. and many more were confined at Liverpool and Carlisle. where the prisoners are lodged. and quartered at Tyburn. vol. 1 Bishop Nicholson writes to Archbishop "Wake. all pinioned. H 2 . 1716. Of the persons of inferior rank who fell into the hands of the Government. His death took place at Paris about the year 1734. is a moist and unwholesome place and our garrison is so thin. more for distinction than pain. ." On his arrival in London he was committed to Newgate." says Patten. three days before his intended trial. in order to be set upon the " gates. WILLIAM PAUL. These hopes. he contrived to effect his escape on the 10th of April. according to their sentence. so that he could not eat with his then unhappy companions. Forster appears to have flattered himself with the pleasing conviction. roaring in fits of the gout or gravel. For though they are generally desirous and sufficiently able to hire beds. were destined to be miserably disappointed. " spoiled his stomach. and that " their quarters were then in a box hard by. the Reverend Robert Patten. Eelays of horses had previously been stationed in readiness for him in the direction of the coast. 167. by which means he reached the town of Rochford in Essex. crowd them all into three rooms. and four or five were hung. Sept. 13.BET.] 99 each prisoner having a trooper riding beside him. : ." Ellis's Original Letters. Nor can I see any appearance of their being relieved. On his approach to London. about a thousand petitioned for transportation a great number were tried and found guilty. that the commandant is forced. drawn. but twenty-two only were executed in Lancashire. to of . from whence. " we were Forster's chaplain. of St John's College." says Mr his horse with a halter. iii. that he and his companions in adversity would be rescued by a Tory mob. 1716 "The Castle. by means of false keys. where a vessel was waiting for him. 1 Of these individuals. Among the latter was the Reverend William Paul. the townsmen are loth to let their goods be carried into a place where they are sure to rot.

They knew of his purpose of escape. He escaped to France. ." says Lord John Russell. Charles Radcliffe. invalid. and fearful of making the least inquiry. Major Nairn. and effected his escape into the open street without pursuit. [1715. they crept down-stairs at eleven o'clock at night. vol. also contrived to effect their escape. Captain Philip Lockhart. Having found means to rid themselves of their irons. knew. were afterwards recaptured. 1715. exhorted the people to return to their allegiance to their rightful sovereign. at the same time professing himself a true and sincere member of the Church of England. by good forTales of a Grandfather. and thirteen others. he saw at a window in the street an ancient piece of plate. especially aa they most probably were residing there under feigned names ? "While he was agitated by this uncertainty. but opposed to the revolution-schis- matic church. 101. brother of the Earl of Derwentwater. Robert Hepburn of Keith. and entering without asking questions. " the blood which they spilt in their enterprise. Captain Shafto. when they knocked down the jailer and rushed into the street. He immediately conceived that his wife and children must be inhabitants of the lodgings. in London ." iii. and on the 10th of May. few of the party. "had pinioned the arms of the turnkey by an effort of strength. But he was at a loss whither to fly. was he to discover them. Brigadier Mac Intosh. otherwise than by setting the well-known flagon where it might. and shamefully given up their ecclesiastical rights. was received in their arms. King George. which had long belonged to his family. and the necessity of securing the kingdom by some examples of severity from further disturbance. 1 " If we consider the object of the rebels. and Ensign Dalziel. catch his eye. who.100 THE PRETENDERS AND THEIR ADHERENTS. whose bishops had abandoned their king. brother of the Earl of Carnwath. In addition to the executions already enumerated. and concealed themselves close to the door of the jail. escaped from Newgate on the llth of December. where they remained till it was opened to admit a servant. in that great city. even had he known in what words to express it. and shot. His wife and family were. that they might afford him immediate refuge but dared not give him any hint where they were. 100. we shall probably be of opinion. lay deprivations authorized by the Prince of Orange. called the Keith Tankard. by submitting to the unlawful. tune." says Sir Walter Scott. he or where to find a friendly place of refuge. and took lodgings as near the jail as they could. four officers. were tried by court-martial as deserters. that as much mercy A 1 "Robert Hepburn of Keith. brother of Lockhart of Carnwath. on the scaffold. pp. not knowing whither to betake themselves. but how. .

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2UQ> S ' 1 ..

After skulking for some time in the mountains. PRINCE CHARLES EDWARD. Lewis." was the eldest son of monly Prince James Frederick. Father on the eve of his Departure for Scotland. however. the Earls of Mar and Melfort. Marischal. till the day on his memorable expedition into Scothistory of his childhood but little is known. and to ex- which he departed on land. that at a very early age he gave high promise of future excellence. Lord Tynemouth.] 101 as was consistent with the safety of the established government. where they remained concealed till they obtained vessels to carry them to France.PBINCE CHAELES EDWAED. com" called the Young Pretender. 1720. and other of the Western Isles. 46. the partisans of the Chevalier de St George were more fortunate than their brethren in arms who surhave already seen that the Earl re*ndered at Preston. CHAELES EDWAED Louis PHILIP CASIMIE STTTAET. . from the Peace of Utrecht. 1720. Sir Donald Mac Donald. the majority of them was shown 1 We passed to Skye." In Scotland. CHAPTER I. and continued to reside principally in the Papal dominions. The same good fortune attended the Marquis of Tullibardine. Joins the Expedition under Marshal Saxe. ii. and that the reports which continued to reach England of his enterprising character and generous disposition were such as to revive the most sanguine expectations among the adherents of the Stuarts. Dispersion of the French His Letter to his Fleet. the Earls of Southesk and Seaforth. and Disappointment of the Prince's Hopes. tingen. It is certain. Hopes and Expectations of the Jacobites from his Character. King of Poland. Of the History of the Principal States of Europe. Serves under Noailles at DetBirth and youthful History of the Prince. and others of the Highland chieftains. and the vindication of the rights of the people. eldest son of John. and Lord Drummond had contrived to escape to the Continent. by Clementina Maria. p. He was born at Home on the 20th of December. 1 vol. daughter of Prince Sobieski.

at the siege of Philipsburg. cite a corresponding degree of apprehension in the minds of the English Ministry. by representing to him the danger he was exposing himself to yet he staid in it a very considerable time. with an undisturbed countenance. In a word. "Just on the Prince's arrival. I conducted him to the trenches. or two. procured him the highest encomiums from all quarters. and as the house I lodged in was very much exposed. when he was sent by his father to serve under the celebrated Duke of Berwick at the siege of Gaeta. even when the balls were hissing about his ears. and one of the last to retreat. where I am pretty certain his Royal Highness will charm the Neapolitans. when he joined the French army under the Due de Noailles. would. and the quickness and intelligence with which he learned the duties of a soldier. till the lamented death of the latter. this Prince discovers. at any rate. his contempt of danger. valour does not wait the number of years. Peace having been concluded between France and the Empire in the following year. On the 7th of August. I was relieved the following day from the trenches. which made me move my quarters. where he showed not the least surprise at the enemy's fire. the enemy discharged. though the walls had been pierced through with the cannon-balls. though I did all I could to dissuade him from it. ! We . His manner and conversation are really bewitching. a few months afterwards. at once. He was present at the battle of Dettingen." From such a person as the Duke of Berwick this was indeed valuable praise. arriving a moment after. go into the house. Charles had no other opportunity of distinguishing himself in arms till the breaking out of the war between England and France in 1743. . Charles was only in his fifteenth year. being one of the foremost to charge the enemy. as much as he has done our troops. [l734. I am now blessed be God for it rid of all my uneasiness. the Duke of Berwick writes from Gaeta to the Duke of Fitzjames. five pieces of cannon against it. which was fought in th ut is said to have highly distinguished year. His conduct during the siege. 1734. set out for Naples in a day. on which occasion he himself by his personal gallantry.102 THE PRETENDEBS AND THEIB ADHEBEKTS. and joyfully indulge myself in the pleasure of seeing the Prince adored by officers and soldiers. Charles continued to serve under the Duke. that in great princes. The Prince. whom nature has marked out for heroes.

] 103 It has been asserted that the education of the young Prince was purposely neglected by his tutor. Sir Thomas Sheridan.PRINCE CHAELES EDWA. who waited only for the certainty of succour from France or Spain. John De Witt. had the story much foundation in fact.BD. nor in that of Prince Charles Edward. hanging on Instead of gold and silver bright. indeed. Owing to the supineness of the Chevalier de St George. the time appeared to be far from distant. in order to depress and keep in the background the intellectual energies of the future champion of Protestantism and liberty in Europe. at the period when it was constantly threatened with destruction from foreign intrigues and domestic discontent. and the appearance of the young Prince on their shores. 1 The signs of the times (at that particular period. . less heated with feelings of deep and devotional loyalty than those of the Highland chieftains. at least. Probably. neither in the case of William the Third. As the young Prince. To imaginations. 1740. when the grandson of Charles the First might be anointed on the throne of his ancestors at Westminster. A similar related of the boyhood of "William the Third. when Charles received his famous story is whom 1 Though for a time we see Whitehall "With cobwebs the wall. progressed towards manhood. secret associations had begun to be formed among persons of rank and influence in the Highlands. and about the year 1740. That glanced with splendour day and night. or hold his peaceful levees at St James's or Whitehall. whom the English Government found means to retain in their This may possibly have been one of those deep-laid pay. schemes of Sir Robert Walpole one of those acts of watchful policy and careful foresight. for the celebrated Pensionary. commonly called the Old Pretender. by which he preserved the sovereignty of these realms to the House of Hanover. however. the English and Scottish Jacobites had long ceased to expect the immediate realization of their darling hopes in the restoration of the House of Stuart to the throne of these kingdoms. to rush into open insurrection. however. and to devote their lives and fortunes to the cause of their legitimate sovereign. and to his increasing age and infirmities. these hopes were once more enthusiastically revived. is said to have provided a tutor of mean abilities.

and. . was at this period in the zenith of his and not only did there prevail throughout unpopularity England a vast amount of distress and misery. Jacobite Song. at the head of whom was An the Premier Duke. that France also would speedily be numbered among her enemies. shall enjoy his own again. influential portion of the English nobility and gentry. England was at this period engaged in a war with Spain. which was ingeniously exaggerated by party writers. When That the King the time we see. and more especially the personal obligation which he was under to the Chevalier de St George. the Duke of Norfolk. That did delight that princely train. The great majority of the Highland sechieftains were enthusiastically devoted to their cause veral of the most influential of the Lowland gentry were known to be well-inclined towards the exiled family while Ireland was certain to embark in a cause of which the watch. by adopting the cause of the Stuarts.THE PBETENDEBS AND THEIB ADHEEENTS. There were many other circumstances which tended to arouse the dormant hopes and expectations of the Jacobites. of the divided state of public opinion in England. The elevation of Cardinal de Tencin to the supreme power in France the well-known enterprising character of that ambitious churchman his regard for the members of the exiled family. but the undue preference which had long been shown. rendered it far from improbable that he would plunge his country into a war with her hereditary enemy in which case he could scarcely fail to take advantage . . moreover. With rich perfume In every room. were known to be thoroughly disgusted with the reigning dynasty. . both by the King and . and though reluctant to risk their lives and fortunes without a tolerable certainty of success. whose interest had advanced liim to the purple. and it was anticipated. 104 [l740. intended for the invasion of England) certainly held out a fair promise of success. These again shall be. words were Papal supremacy and legitimate right. George the Second. . invitation from the Court of France to join the force under Marshal Saxe. with good reason. have seized a favourable opportunity of making a descent upon her shores. were nevertheless secretly prepossessed in favour of the Stuarts.

in the summer of 1743. and accustomed to the enervating pleasures and habits of a soft and luxurious climate. indeed. and. as the usurper of his father's throne. that he had been nursed in the lap of luxury. 105 and petty Electorate over those of England. and heretical. firmly and conscientiously convinced of the righteousness of his own cause. which was intended for the invasion of England.his patrimony. When we remember. Warmed with the generous enthusiasm of youth. circumstances. and bigots. Educated in the most exalted notions of the royal prerogative. to the interests of their native ! . accustomed from his infancy to listen to arguments of sweet and poisonous fallacy. The child of circumstance and of education. and. moreover. perhaps. he panted to set his foot on the land of his ancestors. those civil and religious principles which had deprived his family of their birthright and driven them into exile. Never. by his own sword and his own energies. and he could scarcely regard as otherwise than false. had long excited universal indignation " " No Hanoverian King had become the freand disgust. but of many who had formerly been well affected towards the existing Government and the very term of " Hanoverian" is said to have become a by-word of insult and reproach. to replace his father on a throne which had been the heir-loom of his family for many hundred years.1743. mischievous. the circumstances of his eduthat he had been confided to the charge of priests cation. perhaps. and embarking in what he believed to be a rightful and a righteous cause. . then in his twenty-fourth year. he could be expected to acknowledge neither the principles nor the laws which had deprived him of. and still excluded him from. received a secret invitation from the Court of France to join the expedition under the famous Marshal Saxe.] PRINCE CHARLES EDWARD. was it more cordially accepted. and of which all the laws of legitimacy assured him that they had been wrongfully deprived. not only of the Jacobites. quent toast. and never. was such an invitation offered to one so peculiarly situated. under any his father. we can only . Greorge the Second. we cannot attribute it to him as a crime that he should have fearlessly and gallantly embarked in a cause which he firmly and devoutly believed to be one of religion and of right. Prince Charles. From infancy he had been sedulously taught to regard the reigning sovereign. It was at this crisis that.

even ! ! amongst Highland chiefs while fairer critics proclaimed him the most winning in conversation. always awakened the most ardent praises from all who had known him the most rugged hearts were seen to melt at his remembrance and tears to steal down the furrowed cheeks of the veteran ? Let us. wonder that there should have been generated in such a quarter those powers of endurance. and that spirit to act. 245. and Admiral Mathews ! 1 History of England from the Peace of Utrecht. 106 [1744. or extenuating the degradation of his age. the Prince took an affectionate leave of his father. and which were displayed by him under circumstances of difficulty and danger. " I trust. even thirty or forty years after his departure. observes " But not such was the Charles Stuart of 1745 Not such was the gallant Prince. the most graceful in the dance Can we think lowly of one who could acquire such unbounded popularity in so few months. those kindly and generous feelings. "that I shall soon be able to lay three crowns at your Majesty's feet. p. and departed secretly from Borne with the intention of joining the expedition under Marshal Saxe. as we are told.THE PBETENDEfiS AND THEIB ADHERENTS. as the King of Sardinia had given orders on land. and over so noble a nation as the Scots who could so deeply stamp his image on . speaking of the cloud which overshadowed the Prince's character in later years. do justice to the lustre of his manhood. and scatter his foes before him at Preston and at Selkirk Not such was the gay and Not such was he whose endurance courtly host of Holyrood of fatigue and eagerness for battle shone preeminent. moreover. without denying the faults of his character. " not lose you for all the crowns in the world As the English Government had received information of the Prince's intended movements. of courage. which distinguished the gallant and warmhearted Prince in the early period of his career. their hearts. full of youth." l On the 9th day of January. : ! who. his name. " Be " careful of yourself. and. could rally a kingdom round his banner. of hope. and those clear and excellent abilities." he replied. ." The old Chevalier seems to have been much affected at their separation. 1744. iii. landing with seven men in the wilds of Moidart. that. then." were his parting words to his father. such as it has been the lot of few besides himself to encounter. ! . by the aid of God. Lord Mahon. vol. for I would my dear boy.

" he writes to his father. would laugh very heartily. . had written in the most pressing manner to Marshal Saxe. . 1744. he gave out that he was proceeding on a hunting expedition and having subsequently disguised himself as a Spanish courier. he set off in disguise for the coast of Picardy.PEINCE CHARLES EDWABD. Admiral Eoquefeuille. for nobody knows where I am. urging him to embark them im! : . and squabbling " for a penny more or less And again he writes. " Everybody is wondering where the Prince is some put him in one place. or what is become of me so that I am entirely buried as to the public. whence he rode post to Paris. having sailed up the British Channel. p. but nobody knows where he is really and sometimes he is told news of himself to his face.] 107 at sea. After a short stay in the French capital. and to the consequent destruction of the Prince's hopes. and sailing boldly through the British fleet. through Tuscany and Grenoa to Savona. during which he was not even admitted to the Eoyal presence. Having been furnished with the necessary passports by Cardinal Aquaviva. and where for the first time the shores of had received directions . and finding. for I am obliged very often not to stir out of my room for fear of somebody's noting my face. buying fish and other things. " The " is very partisituation I am in. cular. seems to have been extremely irksome to the young adventurer. of the Rebellion of 1745." The circumstances which led to the failure of the French expedition against England. and some in another. he resided in the strictest privacy during the summer of 1744. attended only by one servant. if you saw me going about with a single servant. Here he embarked on board a small ship. it was necessary that his departure from Rome should be conducted with the utmost secrecy. he traveled post. may be related in a few words. ' England met The time which he was compelled to pass at this place. under the name of the Chevalier Douglas. to intercept his person. I very often think that you his view. that there was no force to oppose him. on his arrival at Spithead. 33. expecting daily and anxiously the arrival of the French squadrons from Brest and Rochefort. arrived in safety at Antibes. where. 1 Home's Hist. with the French fleet. and subsequently took up his abode at Gravelines. who had assembled his troops at Dunkirk. which is very diverting. and cannot but say that it is a very great constraint upon me.

The Prince's mortification at these untoward circumstances may be readily imagined. and place himself at their head. from putting this rash scheme into execution. Hope. by the strenuous opposition of the Earl. and at once make a descent on the shores of England. the consternation which prevailed throughout England . and so confident was he in his own energies and in the affectionate devotedness of his adherents in Scotland. he chose to delay the attack till the next morning. they were overtaken by a violent tempest. when it was discovered that the French had wisely made their retreat towards their own shores. however. he formed another of entering the French army and serving in its ranks. The French troops were drafted from Dunkirk. may be more readily imagined than described. as the Isle of Thanet and the coast of Kent were at this period entirely unprotected by any naval or military force. 108 [l744. that they determined on abandoning the expedition altogether. blowing directly on Dunkirk. and Marshal Saxe appointed tothe command of the army in Flanders. mediately on board the transports. The same storm. before they could reach their harbours in safety. The advice was promptly followed by the Marshal. by which means he might have performed a most important service for his country at one of the most critical periods in her annals. . in which he was also thwarted by the kindly remonstrances of the Earl. A able injury to many of the others. In the mean time Admiral Roquefeuille had proceeded Dungeness.THE PRETENDERS AND THEItt ADHERENTS. For some reason. drove back the French transports with great violence towards thenown coast destroying some of them. Another body of eight thousand men had orders to follow as speedily as possible and. that he even seriously proposed to Earl Marischal to set sail there in a herring-boat. it was the policy as well as the duty of the English Admiral to compel them fell to an immediate engagement. As the force under the command of this officer was vastly superior to that of the French. never deserted him . also. and effecting incalcul. and embarked himself with the Prince on board his own ship. Prevented. from which they sustained great damage. Fortunately. where he off in with the British fleet under Sir John Norris. who instantly hurried seven thousand men on board the first transports. who very . however. disaster so formidable in its effects was not to be easily remedied and so disheartened were the French Government.

They were ready. the Highland chieftains. Neither were the tidings which he received from his friends in the Highlands of a much more encouraging nature. 109 he would entail forcibly argued with him on the injury which on his cause in England. and with at least ten thousand stand of arms. . Charles. indeed.1744. the apparent lukewarmness of his friends in Scotland. the great difficulty which he found in raising money. and occasionally an insignificant sum to meet his personal necessities. fatal to make any attempt on his behalf. in raising money for the purchase of arms and ammunition . on the 3rd of January. and the annoyance to . like Diogenes. During the greater portion of the sixteen months which elapsed between the failure of the expedition under Marshal Saxe till the Prince's actual departure for Scotland. expressed their strong and decided opinion that he should abandon the enterprise till a more fitting opportunity . With the exception of some empty professions of good will. retreat. as long as I think it of service to our cause I would put myself in a tub. in order to intercept the Prince's progress. in the event of a fair prospect of success. : : .] PRINCE CHARLES EDWARD. 1744. by the advice of his father. if necessary. 1745. and to implore him to effect a timely . Murray of Broughton. in June. 1745 in the least. on the Highland coast. it would be useless and. resided in the strictest retirement in the neighbourhood of Paris and in other parts of France. by fighting against his own country- men. he speaks of his seclusion as being that of a hermit and again he writes " This I do not regret to him." His time appears to have been principally occupied in maturing his favourite scheme of making a descent on the Highlands . he met with neither encouragement nor succour from the French Court. In their letters to him. In one of his letters to his father. in carrying on a correspondence with the principal Highland chieftains and in addressing importunate but vain appeals to the French Government to aid and abet him in the design he had in view. with the single exception of the young Duke of Perth. to risk their lives and fortunes in his cause but they added. and they even stationed one of their own body. When we consider the cold treatment which Charles continued to experience from the French Court. they assured him. that unless he landed in Scotland accompanied with a force of six thousand troops.

1500 fusees. in an urgent necesto the cause. 1745 I own one must have a great stock of patience to bear all the illusage I have from the French Court. which had nearly drained England of troops. there being no other part to take. He writes to his father. a merchant of Nantes. and. : . he had obtained a loan of 120. but for arms and ammunition." he writes. and an adequate quantity of powder. on the 7th of March " I wish you would pawn all my jewels for. and flints. thinking that there might be a better use for them so that. I may have a sum which may be of use And again. whose ostensible instructions were to cruize on the coast of Scotland. and that the To enterprise was not abandoned by him in its very birth. that he had only to raise his standard in the Highlands to insure success to his cause. fixed the determination of the Prince. " his father he writes.110 THE PEETEITDEBS AND THEIB ADHEBENTS. and he decided on setting out at once on his hazardous expedition. and more especially the success which had attended the French arms at Fontenoy. agreed to carry him over to Scotland in a fast brig of eighteen guns. One Walsh. though in an underhand and indirect manner. but the captain of which. indeed. balls. I should wear them with a very sore heart.000 livres. called the " Doutelle. But my patience will never fail in either. and the tracasseries of our own people. on this side of the water. or other things which tend to what I am come about to this : : ." a French ship of war mounting sixty-eight guns. moreover. . after saying that he would pawn even his shirt " " It is but for such uses. the French Government assisted him with the escort of the "Elizabeth. that I for money it will never shall ever trouble you with requests for money be for plate or fine clothes." He clung." sity. there can be no doubt. to his early and fond conviction." At length the war with France. we cannot but wonder that his spirit was not entirely broken. From one Waters. He also carried with him a sum of money amounting to about four thousand louis d'ors. 1800 broad-swords. country. [l746. had been furn- ." which he had fitted out to cruize against the British trade. and that all that was wanting besides was a sufficient quantity of arms with which to array the devoted and hardy mountaineers. with which he purchased twenty small field-pieces. on the 16th of January. a banker at Paris. which he was constantly subjected from the petty intrigues which divided his own immediate followers.

I have been. and to carry what money and arms I could conveniently get . . by being much more encouraging. . or got so many encouragements from time to time as I have had. after God Almighty. they are fully persuaded. and die with them. " After such scandalous usage as I have received from the French Court. in whom. to have flung myself into the arms of my friends.] Ill ished with secret orders to assist the Prince in his enterlong as he was enabled to do so without compromising the French Government. or show some sign of life. infallible. had I not given my word to do so. " I have been obliged to steal off. are now very different. the only way of restoring you to the prise. indeed. so : crown. a horse that is to be sold.PRINCE CHAELES EDWJUID. " Let what will happen. or be obliged to return to Rome. which is skip. to tell you a thing that will be a great surprise to you. the stroke is struck. and I havo . and that the least help would make my affair . if after such usage. above six months ago. in honour and for my own reputation. and much less from me. invited by our friends to go to Scotland. it was a great mortification to me never to have been able to speak and open my heart to him that this thing was of such a nature that it could not be communicated by any of the ministers or by writing. there being a certainty of succeeding with the least help. and them to their liberties. my resting lies. I should not show that I have life in me. a few extracts from which may not be unacceptable to the reader " I believe your Majesty little expected a courier at this time. which would be I cannot but mention a parable just giving up all hopes. without letting the King of France so much as suspect it for which I make a proper excuse in my letter to him by saying. You yourself did the like in the year -15 but the circumstances. 1745. the Prince addressed a remarkable letter to his father. twelve days before he embarked for Scotland. but to himself alone. On the 12th of June. if spurred does not here. Tour Majesty cannot disapprove a son's following the example of his father. rather than live longer in such a miserable way here. . nobody would come to have him even for nothing just so my friends would care very little to have me. 1745. this being. which all the world is sensible of. I should have been obliged.

and shooting. ground " Whatever happens unfortunate to me cannot but be the strongest engagements to the French Court to pursue your cause. taken a firm resolution to conquer or to die. elsewhere. which had been fixed upon as the place of embarkation. as showing that Charles was the sole author of the expedition. According "After to the interesting narrative of -5neas Macdonald. will be of the greatest help to me. nor seemed to be any way acquainted. fishing. to save my country. they lodged in different parts of the town and if they accidentally met in the street. which I should be glad to have done immediately for I never intend to come back. if I were sure they were capable of any sensation of this kind. " I should think it proper (if your Majesty pleases) to be put at His Holiness s feet. as far as it lies in my power. During this time. I would perish. as Curtius did. asking his blessing on this occasion . . and took some days' diversion amusements he always in hunting. and stand my as long as I shall have a man remaining with me. the Prince went to a seat of the Duke of Bouillon. and money. "CHARLES P. Henri Quatre. which I hope will procure 1 me that of God Almighty upon my endeavours family. the place appointed meet at.112 THE PRETENDERS AND THEIE ADHERENTS. and that it was undertaken entirely without the knowledge of his father. next to troops. or to . " Tour Majesty's most dutiful son. . if I did not succeed. and make it happy it being an indispensable duty on me. Your Majesty may now see my reason for pressing so much to pawn my jewels. but what I chiefly ask is your own. a favourite seat of his illustrious ancestor. my country . Now. they took not the least notice of each other. and whilst everything was preparing to set sail. . the Prince had settled everything for his subsequent undertaking. the gentlemen who were to accompany him in his voyage took different routes to Nantes. if there was any person near enough to observe them." These passages are not a little curious. which will ever be the only view of. The Prince was at this period residing at the Chateau de Navarre. from whence he proceeded to Nantes. and where he was to meet the few and faithful followers who were to share with him the dangers of his romantic expedition. During their residence there. thereby the better to conceal their designs. and my to serve you.

the Prince. : I asked Helvetius. and that they would be affronted for his cowardice. O'Sullivan. and refused to go on board . In the words used by Helvetius to Hume " ' When the Prince went down to Nantes to embark on his expedition to Scotland. that had been so long in possession of it. 1745. an English gentleman. the historian. in. 4 4. an Mr Kelly. by which means he had been prevented from inheriting his father's title and estates as Duke of Athol. pieds et mains Ufa. and his attendants. ix." at St Nazaire. who had been aide-de-camp to Marshal de Maillebois. on the authority of a conversation which he had with Helvetius. and carried him by main force. 1. p. in the mouth of the Loire.' : * Nichols's Literary Anecdotes of the 18th century. which enabled him to undergo the great fatigues and hardThe individuals ships he was afterwards exposed unto. accompanied by his seven friends. he took fright." says the Chevalier Johnstone. which was no less than that of attempting to wrest the Crown of Great Britain from the House of Hanover. were the Marquis of Tullibardine. . at seven in the evening. 3 Memoirs of the Eebellion in 1745 and 1746. " * This ' story. delighted health. "if he meant literally.' said he." says Hume." 3 Of these persons. is said to have been the only one who had any knowledge of military affairs. 402. who had been the Prince's tutor. literally they tied him. thinking the matter gone too far. earned him in the night-time into the ship. p. Sir Thomas Sheridan. and JEneas Macdonald. O'Sullivan. Francis Strickland. who had been attainted for his share in the rebellion of 1715. 'Yes. J 113 first obliged to it on account of his means he became inured to toil and labour. Bishop of Rochester. By being at this 1 : 1 Jacobite Memoirs. p. in a letter to Sir John Pringle. embarked on board the " 4 Doutelle. Sir John Macdonald. 2 an English clerofficer in the Spanish service. and younger brother of "A most extraordinary Macdonald of Kinlochmoidart band of followers. a banker in Paris. On the 22nd of June. "when we consider the daring enterprise on which they were entering.' Hume.PRINCE CHABLES EDWABD. Kelly had been for many years confined to the Tower on suspicion of having been concerned in the famous plot of Atterbury. I vol. an Irish officer gyman. by the Chevalier de " Johnstone." whose gallantry and personal devotion prompted them to accompany their young master on his almost desperate expedition. in the service of France. brings a curious charge of cowardice against the Prince.

and several times expressed an earnest wish that his own little vessel should take a share in the conflict. not without a little anxiety. in perfect health. on board the " Doutelle. By the return of the 1 entirely refuted by the spirited conduct and almost romantic gallantry for which Charles was on all occasions For a more distinguished throughout his subsequent unfortunate career. his feelings of suspense became so painful. guns. who had distinguished himself in Anson's expedition at the storming of Paita. 114 [l745. it seems. p. p. and his desire to engage so paramount to every other consideration. and expect to be more so but it does not keep me much a-bed. vol." The Prince. in order the better to insure concealment. as the fight grew more protracted. which is just arrived. which " proved to be the Lion." a British man-of-war of fifty-eight for I find the . where he was detained a few days waiting the arrival of the " Elizabeth. At length. and a note to Waverley. namely." watched the result of the action with feelings of the deepest anxiety." with some difficulty." which was maintained with great fury and obstinacy for six hours. revised it is scarcely necessary to remark. God. ii. that if he did not desist from his importunities. 7. and the " Lion. ' Duncan Cameron's Narrative. thank eight guns.) "After having waited a week here. that " Walsh. we have at last got the escort I expected." To Mr Edgar. he allowed his beard to grow till his arrival in Scotland. From hence he sailed to Belleisle. a large ship was descried to windward. but have been a little sea-sick. iii. vol. is edition. a ship of sixtyI am. commanded by Captain Brett. Jacobite Memoirs. returned to one of her own harbours. see Lord Mahon's History of England. he should be forced to exert the power which he possessed of ordering the Prince to his cabin.THE PRETENDERS AND THEIR ADHERENTS. his father's secretary. : . and terminated by both vessels suffering so severely in the conflict. and seven hundred men aboard. . that the "Elizabeth" was compelled to put back to France." was compelled to tell him. 272. On the fourth day after the Prince had sailed from Belleisle. the captain of the Doutelle." He had disguised himself. in the habit of a student of the Scots' College. before he embarked. detailed refutation of this absurd charge. kept his rank a profound secret from the crew of the " Doutelle. 255.S. more I struggle against it the better. p. The Prince. he writes from Belleisle on the 12th of July (N. at Paris and. An " action took place between this ship and the Elizabeth.

Holds his Court at Borrodaile. 1745. the Prince" had the mortification of heing deprived of the greater portion of the arms and military stores which he had provided for the expedition. . His Interview with Macdonald Arrival of the young Prince in Scotland. by the "Doutelle. that not a ray from it was reflected on the ocean. 1 Jacobite Memoirs. As she neared the Hebrides." 1 CHAPTER II. Every precaution was taken to insure secrecy: no lights were allowed in the ship. situated between the islands of Barra and South Uist. At this desert place." The miserable state of the weather." the " Doutelle" was chased. landed with his small band of devoted followers the Marquis of Tullibardine alone. 115 "Elizabeth" to France. Two days after her separation from the "Elizabeth." he said. " that pointed it out to the Prince this is an excellent omen. I 2 . and promises good things to us the king of birds is come to welcome your Royal Highness . upon your arrival in Scotland. of Boisdale. 9. Assembly of Chieftains on board of the Anecdotes of his Landing. were not . The Marquis of Tullibardine " I hope. being compelled to remain on board the "Doutelle. p. with the exception of a and even this was so well consingle one for the compass trived. and fortunately escaped her pursuers. in consequence of his suffering from a severe fit of the gout. Landing Bishop Forbes." Prince. a large an inhabitant of the neighbouring mountains was eagle seen to hover over the vessel.] PRINCE CHAELES EDWABD. : . The Prince was now compelled to trust his fortunes entirely to the small vessel in which he had embarked with his followers. Interview between the Prince and Cameron of Lochiel. Only one other adventure occurred to the Prince during the voyage. and the gloomy character of the scenery which surrounded them. the Prince. on the 18th of July. Its Influence upon him. and prepared for action but at the same time she made all the sail she could. Sir.1745. THE spot on which the young Prince first set foot on the land of his ancestors was the small island of Erisca.

p. his . and said. proved to be the property of Macdonald of Clanranald. Accordingly. . " Here. however. in consequence of ill health and the increasing infirmities of age. . and at the same time hearing him declare he would sit up all night. 11. and neither keep within nor without . lord. but not sufficient for the whole company on which account the Prince. that it was so good a bed. but who. insisted upon such to go to bed as most wanted it. doors?'" The 1 on which the Prince had taken up temporary abode. where some wind-bound sailors had already taken shelter. observing him to search the bed so narrowly. he lost no time in despatching a messenger to Boisdale who. The Prince. was almost choked. chief of a powerful branch of the great clan of the Macdonalds a man who was known to be well inclined to the cause of the Stuarts. and was obliged to go often to the door for fresh air. already depressed by the loss of the "Elizabeth. call out. signed the entire management of his affairs to his brother. being less fatigued than the others.116 THE PBETENDEBS AND THEIE ADHEBENTS. [1745. had reisland of Erisca. Particularly he took care of Sir Thomas Sheridan. the Prince deemed it advisable to address himself to the younger chieftain in the first instance. 1 Jacobite Memoirs. called out to him. that he can neither sit nor stand still. with the view to induce him to obtain the consent of Clanranald to the subsequent rising of the clan. They were met on their landing by a violent storm of wind and rain. and the sheets were so good. In consequence of the paramount influence which Boisdale was known to possess over the mind of his elder brother. Alexander Macdonald of Boisdale." with nearly the whole of their military stores. This at last made the landlord. and went to examine his The landbed. 'What a plague is the matter with that fellow. such as to raise the spirits of the adventurers. not being accustomed to such fires in the middle of the room. Angus Macdonald. that a prince needed not be ashamed to lie in them. they were all refreshed as well as the place could afford. ascertaining that both the brothers were residing at the time in the neighbouring island of South Uist." according to " the narrative of ^Eneas Macdonald. and there being no other chimney than a hole in the roof. and they had some beds. which compelled them to seek refuge in a small house. and to see that the sheets were well aired.

to his own certain knowledge. as two chieftains in whose attachment he could confide.1745. 1 Jacobite Memoirs. Charles. and of the neighbouring cluster of islands. Not only did Boisdale refuse to take advantage of any influence which he might possess over his brother's mind. mentioned Sir Alexander Macdonald. and was even the means of preventing some hundreds of the hardy inhabitants of South TJist." l Boisdale shook his head.] PRINCE CHARLES EDWARD. . adding that. . from joining the standard of the adventurer. yet that he religiously preserved the Prince's secret. . that though he firmly adhered to his determination of dissuading his brother from embarking in the enterprise. of Sleat. among other persons of influence in the Highlands. . continued to urge his former arguments and. I am come home" was the reply of Charles. but he added. 117 without hesitation. 12. "and I will entertain no notion of returning to the place from whence I came for I am persuaded that my faithful Highlanders will stand by me. He explained his reasons for believing that it could never be attended with success. agreed to wait on the Prince the next " morning on board the Doutelle. It must be remarked. p. But Boisdale again implored him not to be too sanguine in his hopes. these gentlemen would not only be found backward in joining his standard. that he felt it to be an act of duty on his own part to do his utmost to dissuade Clanranald from embarking in the cause. and to allow the reply of that chieftain to be the test of the truth of what he advanced. He even proposed to send off an immediate message to Sir Alexander Macdonald. used his utmost endeavours to prevent his falling into the hands of his These facts having come to the knowledge of the enemies. and told the Prince he was afraid he would find himself sadly disappointed. however. in justice to Boisdale. but that in all probability they would be found taking part with the Government. he spoke of the projected enterprise as so rash and desperate as almost to amount to an act of insanity and concluded by urgently and affectionately entreating the Prince to consult " his own safety and to return home." The result of the interview proved far from satisfactory to Charles. after the battle of Culloden. and the Laird of Macleod. and during the subsequent wanderings of the latter among the Western Islands.

The young chief lost not a moment in obeying the summons. It was not till the month of July. and on the 19th of July cast anchor near the small village of Forsy. that the brothers received permission to return to Scotland. 1747." accompanied by Macdonald of Kinlochmoidart. and made his appearance on board the "Doutelle. and together with his brother Clanranald (who. of whose chivalrous devotion to his cause he was well assured. the interior of which was furnished with a variety of wines and spirits. Charles is said to have been deeply affected by the unsatisfactory result of his interview with Boisdale. His first step was to despatch a messenger to the younger Macdonald of Clanranald. Immediately after the departure of BoisThe gallant dale. there entered the tent a tall youth. he was taken into custody. the Lairds of Grlenaladale and Dalily. between the wild and dreary shores of Moidart and Airsaik. a fair round wig. immediately " " CaDing. a plain hat with a canvas string. On entering this pavilion. on the contrary. we were immecarried on board. to whom most of us had been known in the year 1715. in secret. and we were given to understand that we should not probably see his Eoyal Highness that evening. [l745. he never for a moment presented an appearance of dejection or dismay." he says. While we were conversing with the Duke. Although. he did his utmost to infuse into the minds of his followers the same spirit of gallantry and daring by which he was himself actuated. found a large tent erected with poles upon the ship's deck. with a plain shirt. but. had never stirred from his own fireside during the whole of the rebellion) were carried to London by sea. he gave orders to sail to the mainland.118 THE PBETENDEBS AND THEIE ADHEBENTS. Government. our hearts bounding at the idea of diately being at length so near our long-wished-for Prince. by the cheerfulness of his countenance and the gaiety of his conversation. bark entered the Bay of Lochnanuagh. and another gentleman of his clan. dressed in a plain black coat. we were warmly welcomed by the Duke of Athol. the latter of whom has bequeathed to us the following interesting account of what occurred. of a most agreeable aspect. it was said. " About half-an-hour after. for the ship's boat. Clanranald was called away to see the Prince. a cambric stock fixed with a plain silver buckle. one We .

but not to drink to him. and . I chanced to be one of those who were standing when he came in. I felt my throat my .PRINCE CHAELES EDWARD. who had long been possessed with a desire to see and converse with the Highlanders. that the plaid served me for a blanket when sleeping. though I could not suppress a suspicion that he m'ght turn out some greater man. The conversation naturally turned on the subject most interesting to all present and. and I showed him how I wrapped it about my person for that purAt this he remarked. immediately started up again. Taking him at this time for only a passenger and a clergyman. that I believed I should only feel cold in any other. . I presumed to speak to him with perfect familiarity. under the influence of deep 1 Lockhart Papers. and we only made a low bow at a distance. as they paced to and fro along the deck of the vessel. and soon after left the tent. and. a churchman. with a drawn sword in one hand and a cocked pistol in the other. pp. and darling projects. and he took his seat near me but he . black stockappearance ings. 479 and 480. he drank to us all round. when O'Brien whispered to me to pledge the stranger. defence in case of a sudden surprise.] end of which was fixed to 119 one of his coat buttons. O'Brien forbade any of us who were sitting to rise he saluted some of us. 1745. At this he laughed heartily and he next desired to know how I lay with it at night." Clanranald and Kinlochmoidart were the only members of the party who were admitted to the honour of an immediate introduction to the Prince. Charles eagerly laid before them all his romantic plans . I replied. " At his entry. ii. the mysterious youth rose from his seat and called for a dram. At the first heart swell to of this pleasing youth. and brass buckles in his shoes. One of the questions which he put to me in the course of conversation regarded my Highland dress: he inquired if I did not feel cold in that habit ? to which I answered. during war or any time of danger. we arranged the garment in such a way as to enable us to start at once to our feet. Having taken a glass of wine in his hand. but one O'Brien. vol." Among the chieftains who made their appearance on board the " Doutelle. ' . but I informed him that. After a little more conversation of this sort. which confirmed me in my suspicions as to his real quality. and desired me to sit down by him upon a chest. that I must be unprepared for pose. immediately told us that he was only an English clergyman.

which subsequently more than once occurred to him during his romantic expedition in on the result of which depended. without knowing who was on board. his feelings became painfully excited and when by degrees he caught. and imAlas if such was the language which he was desplored. I will !" was emotion. On the present occasion chance. they occasionally passed a young Highlander. was armed at all points. as was then the custom of the country. either the utter annihilation of his ambitious hopes. [1746. who had accidentally come on an idle visit to the ship in search of news. Suddenly turnof deep and kindred ing towards him. which had recently been urged by Boisdale. however. Gradually ascertaining. and in every feature of his . and who. whose manner and gestures are de- scribed as no less animated than his own. the fact. was one of those critical moviews ments in the destiny of Charles. I will. and who were far more calculating in their The present. suggested by reason and expediency. and. whom he had been taught to idolize from his earliest years. a brother of Kinlochmoidart. favoured his designs. Charles is said to have been affected by the incident even to tears. Will you not assist me ? the enthusiastic reply. and from those most devoted to his cause. in fact. after thanking him for . tined to hear from the younger and more chivalrous leaders of the Highland clans. in a remarkable manner. passionately appealed to the feelings of the young and enthusiastic chieftains. what must he expect from those whose feelings were more lukewarm. his sorrow and indignation were forcibly portrayed in every movement of his body. he was doomed to encounter the same cold and unpalatable arguments. in a tone " " " face. from portions of the conversation which he was enabled to overhear. ! ! gree. While he continued to pace the deck with his companions. To his disappointment.THE PBETENDERS 120 ATTD THEIE ADHERENTS. in a great deScotland. entreated. he exclaimed. evident emotion. In vain he argued. and exerted every argument to induce them to declare themselves openly in his cause. The excited state of the young Highlander could scarcely fail to attract the notice of Charles. that he was in the presence of the son of his legitimate Sovereign. or the probable chances of ultimate success. that his brother was in the act of coldly declining to arm on the side of so righteous a cause and so gallant a Prince.

expressed a mournful wish.PRINCE CHAELES EDWABD. during the insurrection. and whom Charles was extremely anxious to induce to declare openly in his favour. ranald and Kinlochmoidart. and consequently removed from the fascination of Charles's eloquence. and partly perhaps imbibing the enthusiasm of the moment. couched in half-reproachful lanClanguage. affected by the rebuke of the Prince. a third brother of Kinlochmoidart. shortly after his arcoast. it may be. partly. previouslypledged themselves to join the standard of the Prince. however. Both of these powerful chieftains were. To these powerful chieftains Charles. they were both absent at this period in the Isle of Skye. and the difficulty and danger which must attend a gathering of their It was true. and the Laird of Macleod. They laid great stress on the circumstance of their followers being widely scattered over the numerous and distant islands of the Hebrides. Finally. however. Fortunately. Their mission. in the event of his landing in the Highlands but the fulfilment of that promise. in fact. who. for their own interests. There were two chieftains of great power and influence in the Western Highlands. 1715. they said. among the mere time-servers of the day. had despatched as his emissaries the younger Clanranald and Allan Macdonald. the expedition must prove fatal to all who were rash enough to embark in it. and the dangerous charm of his personal address. and even warmly expressed their eagerness at once to embark their lives and fortunes in his cause. they admitted. no longer offered any opposition to the Prince's wishes. and unaided by officers of talent and experience. while their hearts secretly . or at all events of watching quietly the and neither arguments nor promises could tide of events shake them in their resolves. they insisted. was altogether contingent on his be- rival on the . the two chieftains having severally come to the fixed determination of taking up a neutral position. that all the other Highlanders were like him. who were known to be secretly prepossessed in favour of the claims of the Stuarts. ing supported by foreign auxiliaries and supplies.] 121 the proof which he had given of his warm-hearted devotion. These persons were Sir Alexander Macdcnald of Sleat. was attended with but indifferent success. who could severally have brought from twelve hundred to fifteen hundred men into the field. that they had clans. that without organised forces. without credit. .

yearned to follow the fortunes of the adventurer. he at least discovered no despondency in his communications with others. "In my opin" it would be a very wrong step to draw many ion. to be admitted into the secret history of their double treason for instance. and I am persuaded we have done it with that success." 2 Sir Alexander Macdonald and Macleod communicated to the Government the fact of Charles having arrived in the High- lands but it is also a fact. 1 CuUoden Papers. yet in one of his letters to the Government he thus "Young Clanranald has been here falsely conceals the fact: with us. indeed. that not one man of any consequence beneath the Grampians will give any sort of assistance to this mad rebellious attempt. though withstanding his assurances to us lately. ." he says. pp. may be mentioned his Jesuitical attempt to dissuade the Government from sending any military reinforcement to Scotland. 208. Whatever may have been the feelings of Charles on learning the defection of two such influential chieftains as Sir Alexander Macdonald and the Laird of Macleod." As another instance of Macleod's perfidy. that they delayed transmitting the intelligence till nine days after his landing. and while they would willingly have persuaded him that nothing but circumstances of extreme exigency ^ould have withheld them from joining his standard. of the troops to Scotland. it is not till eight days afterwards. yet at the same time maintained a clandestine correspondence with the G overnment of the day. 204. 207. * Ibid. but we used ail the interest we had with our neighbours to follow the same prudent method. and has given us all possible assurance of his prudence. 204. in his letters to the Government he thus endeavours to lull them into a sense of false security "Sir Alexander Macdonald and I not only gave no sort of : l : countenance to these people. pp. proved by their own letters. It is curious. and seized every opportunity of unblushingly professing their attachment and allegiance to the reigning Sovereign. notAgain. 122 [1746. as there can be but little danger It is a fact. Macleod. though no one could be better aware that the object of the younger Clanranald's visit to the Isle of Skye was to stir up himself and others to rebellion. ." Indeed.THE PEETENDEES AND THEIE ADHEEEyiS. that Sir Alexander Macdonaldcommunicates to the Government that "Young Clanranald is deluded." Macleod must have been fully aware that the storm of rebellion was about to burst. on the llth of August. that both here.

told me that when the Prince came first upon the coast of Scotland. and whose feelings of triumphant joy may be readily imagined. a younger brother of the Laird of Morar. if he could but get six trusty men to join him. and whose fathers had so often fought the battle of royalty beneath the banners of the illustrious Montrose. who were known to be devotedly attached to the cause of the Stuarts." he says. as to returning to France. No. they congratulated their young master on the accomplishment of this first passage in his extraordinary career. to whom he was now come to put it into their power to have the glory of that event and. foreigners should never have it to say that he had thrown himself upon his and that friends that they turned their backs upon him lie had been forced to return from them to foreign parts. but to his own friends. . Mr " Macdonald." he said. brother to the Laird of Morar. indeed. the Seven men of Moidart." which took place at Leith on the 15th of June. when they thus witnessed the partial realization of those vain but brilliant hopes which they had fostered in the gay salons of Paris. In a word. for the first time. who followed his fortunes from France. he himself was in Edinburgh. relates some " curious particulars respecting the Prince's landing. he did not choose to owe his restoration to foreigners. Hugh Macdonald. 174. and chivalrous yearning for enterprise shone the more conspicuous as the difficulties of his situation increased. When. Charles. . and afterwards in the dingy cafes of Nantes and St Nazaire and when kneeling on the wild shores of the Western Highlands. and in the heart of the territories of the Stuarts and Macdonalds. situated in a mountainous and inaccessible district of Invernesshire." On the 25th of July.5. He was accompanied " to the shore by the seven gallant gentleman. in a Narrative of a Conversation with a Mr Hugh Macdonald.] 123 and. 1750." as they were afterwards styled by the Jacobites.PEINCE CHARLES EDWARD. and earnestly and affectionately implored him to make good his re" " treat to France. . his social cheerfulness. among other Highland gentlemen. The spot which witnessed his memorable landing was a small farm called Borrodaile. belonging to Clanranald. " Bishop Forbes. he would choose far rather to skulk with them among the mountains of Scotland than to return to France. his vigour of mind. set his foot on the mainland of Scotland. endeavoured to impress him with a serious sense of the dangers which awaited him.

merely for the protection of his person.' said Mr I cannot believe you. he would either have fallen into the hands of his enemies. young Clanranald. in returning to the Highlands. 'Prince Charles.' said Kinlochmoidart ' if the matter go wrong. Hugh ' ' . and was afraid of the consequences. consisting of a hundred Highlanders. Kinlochmoidart assured him of the truth of it. ' ' ' ' ' ' . . that since the Prince had risked his person.' replied Kinlochmoidart. as I am going with a message from the Prince to the Duke of Perth. observes in his narrative.' said Mr Hugh. arms has ne brought with him then ? said Mr Hugh. Lochiel.' : You are certainly joking. 17.' Upon this. ' I cannot help it. Certain it is. I have no time to spare just now.' said Kinlochmoidart. was formed for the protection of his person from among the gentle- men of Clanranald's clan there the gay colours of the tartan were alone seen. 121 and that.' said Mr Hugh. thereit fore it was their duty to raise their men instantly.' said Kinlochmoidart. who asked him.' They then took leave and parted. p. let the consequence be what it would. alluding to this meeting. had not joined him. None at all. &c. note. that Keppoch honestly and bravely gave it as his opinion.. and generously thrown himself into the hands of his friends. 'I '11 give you news you '11 see the Prince this night at my house. A guard of honour. 'Then. where. the most 1 .' 'Whatprince doyoumeanr' saidMrHugh. 3 Jacobite Memoirs. 18. I '11 certainly be hanged. 'what number of men has he brought along with him ? Only AVhat stock of money and seven. was conducted to the farm-house of Borrodaile. during several days. immediately on his landing. Jacobite Memoirs. to meet with Macdonald of Kinlochmoidart. he continued to hold his small but warlike and animated court. 'What news?' 'No news at all have I. was most expedient for them to adopt under existing circumstances. or been forced imme- 2 diately to cross the seas again. Mr Hugh said he did not like the expedition at all. Then. crossing the water of Locky." l As soon as the fact of the Prince having landed at Borrodaile became known to the Highland gentlemen in the neighbourhood. "I have heard it affirmed by good authority. they met to consult as to the measures which said Kinlochmoidart. Duncan Cameron.THE PRETENDERS AND THEIB ADHERENTS. he happened [1746. that if Keppoch. day after day. and thither nocked. p. for I am engaged already. Charles.

and drunk rapturously and the company separated. to the delight of the Highlandlegitimate Prince. " without distinction to age or sex. and to the delight of the Highlanders." they were freely admitted to feast their eyes with the sight of their beloved and Charles. perhaps. Be out a simple bonnet . when we see him wearing Our Highland garb sae gracefully. and proposed the health of the King. After this. that. ignorant of the language traordinary enthusiasm. Ere lang we '11 see of kingdoms three The royal crown upon it. The toast was hailed with exslaint au Righ" Charles. 1 Jacobite Song. ers." l It is recorded of Charles. being called upon to drink the usual gracein he the words the drink. desired to have the words iterated to him till he learnt them by heart. on the first day on which he sat down to dinner with his new friends in the hall at " Borrodaile.PEIKCE CHARLES EDWARD. and Charles. from his seat. " Oh better loved he canna be . and the interest which he took in their language and customs. repeated the toast in their own language. . a Highland gentleman rose language. wore their national costume. whither the hardy inhabitants of the neighbouring valleys came in numbers to see him.25 devoted hearts that perhaps had ever warmed for the cause of an outcast and unfortunate Prince. *T is aye the mair endearing. the Highlanders delighted with the winning and affable manners of their young Prince. in which it was pronounced. It was at Borrodaile that the first and memorable interview took place between Charles and the high-minded and chivalrous Donald Cameron of Lochiel. and surprised at the sensation which it created.] 1. This celebrated man . no less gratified at the success which had attended this his first attempt to engage the feelings of so noble and so affectionate a people. Though a' that now adorns his brow ! Yet. He then rose. 1745. During a period of each day he mingled with his followers in a large apartment at Borrodaile. the healths of the Prince himself and of his brother Henry were proposed in Gaelic. " Deoch in Gaelic. and where." necessary repeated English Shortly afterwards.

his sole object seems to have been to impress the Prince with a due sense of the dangers which awaited him. the grandfather of Lochiel. acquainting him of his arrival in the Highlands. Sir Evan Cameron. The younger brother. in the first instance. had fought in the cause of the exiled family by the side of both Montrose and Dundee and even now. and urging him to repair to him immediately. he seems. and to make use of his personal influence with the young adventurer to make good his retreat into France while cir. you . having been attainted for his share in the Rebellion of 1715. and unsupported by money or credit must inevitably terminate in the ruin of all who were rash enough to engage in it and so satisfied was he of the rashness of the undertaking. moreover. the father of the chieftain. was at this period in the prime of life. he determined on waiting on the Prince in person. but by all means to communi" I know you. cumstances still favoured his escape. the chieftain stopped to pay a passing visit to his brother. To his friends he expressed himself satisfied that the expedition unaided as it was by foreign powers. and proverbially the most respected and beloved among the Highland chieftains. Like the majority of the Highland chieftains. On his road to Borrodaile. out a life of exile in France. [l745. strongly urged him on no account to expose himself to the fascinations of a personal interview with the young Prince. not to make him pause and deliberate before he again embarked headlong in a cause which had already proved so disastrous and almost fatal to his race." said Fassecate his arguments by letter. Notwithstanding the enthusiasm of Lochiel's character. Cameron of Fassefern. To Lochiel.126 TIIE PEETENDEES AND THEIB ADHEBENTS. and to his family the House of Stuart were deeply indebted. and his devoted attachment to the House of Stuart. was wearing . and of the utter impossibility of the enterprise being crowned with success. but too well aware of the ardent temperament of Lochiel's character. his family and his clan had already suifered too deeply by the generous sacrifices which they had made to their principles. During half a century. to have judged correctly of what was likely to be the result of their taking up arms against the Government. that when he received a letter from Charles. " If this Prince once better than know fern. With this object in view. yourself.

" History of . had Lochiel remained firm in his determination to resist the Prince's eloquence. Lochiel stood Fassefern.] sets nis eyes CHABLES EDWABD. or to perish in the attempt. I will raise the royal standard. and proclaim to the people of Britain that Charles Stuart is come over to claim the crown of his ancestors to win it. every . 1 " Fassefern. p. indeed. repeated between him and his brother to the author of the Rebellion c/1745. evitably have been extinguished in the North. which had already scattered to the winds the predetermined cautiousness and circumspection of more than one of his present followers. who my father has often told me was our firmest friend. and that the spark of rebellion must in2 Lochiel." he said. who caught " the enthusiasm of the moment. On the llth of August. about seven miles from Borrodaile. in a moment of great excitement. 44. returned to his own house at Auchnacarrie. persisted in his original intenpleases. it may be added. " with the few friends I have. having disembarked his small stock of treasure and arms from the " Doutelle. Charles. the great question of peace or war for. may stay at home. has given me any power !" On the result of this important conference depended. that irresistible appeal to the generous feelings of his listeners. according to Home. 44. he will 127 make you do whatever he ' Lochiel. " In a few days.PBIIS'CE 1745." proceeded by sea to the mansion of Macdonald of KinlochPrevious to moidart. I will share the fate of my and so shall man over whom nature or fortune Prince. his departure. at length decided the fate of Lochiel." says Home. desiring them to hold their followers in immediate readiness to join the standard of the Prince. till the latter. firm against the entreaties and arguments of Charles." No. however. he took an affectionate leave of the faithful . " in the year 1781. on you." tion of waiting on the Prince in person and the result of their interview was exactly such as had been anticipated by For a considerable time. this conversation this history." said Lochiel. Lochiel. and learn from the newspapers " the fate of his Prince. p. note. whence he despatched messengers to the subordinate chieftains of his clan. and by the exercise of that happy combination of language and manner. it was the general opinion in the Highlands that no other chieftain would have joined the standard of the adventurer. 1 Home's History of the Rebellon.

ceive the anxiety I am in to hear from you. 316. Hi. " arrived here in perfect good health. or Tour Majesty may easily conperish with sword in hand.128 THE PRETENDERS AND THEIR ADHERENTS. whatever happens. The worst that can happen to me. If theyall join or. if I should not be able to make my way and that I have promised to them. thank God!" he writes. who has been with me all along. for fear of men-of-war stopping her passage 1 History of England. p. that makes it useless for me to give any accounts and particulars on that head. as you will hear by the bearer. and we. but expect it very soon. the descendant and representative of this 1 gentleman. " if France does not succour me. shall gain an immortal honour by doing what we can to deliver our country. in which he prayed him to reward the valuable services of Walsh with an Irish Earldom. en tout cos. . everything will go on to a wish." Through the same channel. . . Having nothing . is to die at the head of such brave people as I find here. as I understood. que je vous demande depuis mon arrivee dans ce pays . as you know to have been my resolution before parting. I cannot tell the number. should the worst happen. who was. j'espere bien que ce ne sera pas la derniere. in restoring our master. . The French Court must now necessarily take off themask. with Count Walsh. more particular at present to add (not being able to keep the ship longer. the young Prince despatched another and very interesting letter to his father. As I have not yet set up the standard. mais. as soon as the arms are distributed at which we are working with all speed." at the same time presenting him with a letter to his father at Rome. je vous supplie de me Vaccorder. "I was formerly acquainted at " Baden." says Lord Mahon. " " Vest la premiere grace" he writes to his father. but not with little trouble and danger." adds the gallant Prince. I have not as yet got the return of the message sent to the Lowlands. as I expected. [1745 " captain of the Doutelle. but that will be in a few days. "I am. at least. to perish at the head of the brave men who had hastened to his succour.all those to whom I have sent commissions at request." There is reason to believe that the honour was actually conferred. . and expressed his readiness. vol. . I am joined here by brave people.or have an eternalshame on them for at present there is no medium. in which he communicated the fact of his having effected his landing in Scotland.

was placed under the command of a Captain Scott. and the long narrow lakes extending in quiet beauty below. 129 myself with all respect at your Majesty's feet.1745. DURING the period that these events were in progress. CHAPTER III. Charles proceeded by water to the eastern extremity of Loch Shiel. who had been engaged in the rebellion of 1715. Murray of Broughton. Anxious to overawe the rebellious clans. which was altogether inefficient to perform the service required of them. On the following day. . most humbly asking a blessing. This small detachment. Gordon of Glenbucket." The Pretender's Behaviour to his Prisoners. he determined on despatching two new-raised companies of the Scots Eoyal to Fort "William. and who subsequently figured in so conspicuous a manner as the secretary of Charles during the course of the rebellion. SurrenSkirmishes between Captain Scott's Detachment and the Rebels. I shall end. The Character of his Troops. entirely). who had recently performed the dangerous task of having the Prince's manifestos printed for future distribution. on the 18th. the adventurer. 1 Lord Mahon's History of England. " CHARLES P." During his stay at Kinlochmoidart. The soldiers had proceeded without in. Their road lay along the romantic banks of Loch Lochy and Loch Eil the high and misty mountains rising above them. vol. der of the King's Troops. laying " Your most dutiful son. some vague rumours had reached the ears of the Governor of Fort Augustus of the warlike preparations which were being made in the Western Highlands. Lochiel's Treatment of Captain Scott.] PRINCE CHARLES EDWARD. Site chosen for " Raising the Standard. p. xxii. he was joined by a veteran partisan of the House of Stuart. the seat of another chieftain of the Macdonalds. Charles was joined by a valuable coadjutor. On the evening of his arrival. From Kinlochmoidart. Appendix. iii. a fortress situated about forty miles from Kinlochmoidart. Pretender's Reception. passed by water to Glenaladale.

with his best wishes for his recovery. . and took the party under his charge. great rebellion of 1745. where he treated him with the The Governor of Fort Augustus. however. overawed by numbers. Five or six of the royalists were found to have been killed. Almost at the same moment they found themselves exposed to a galling fire from the heights above their assailants being a party of the neighbouring clan of Macdonald of Keppoch. under the command of Macdonald of Keppoch. their ears were suddenly startled by the thrilling and now hostile notes of the bagpipe. Lochiel came up with a body of Camerons. were compelled to submit to an unconditional surrender. Resistance was out of the question and accordingly the royalists. the party. This affair took place on the 16th of August. which was subsequently destined to be extinguished only by the blood of so many brave and highminded men on the scaffold and the battle-field. whom Lochiel kindly ordered to be carried to his own house at Auchnacarrie. Almost at the same moment. in passing the contracted ravine of High Bridge. and fatigued and disheartened by a long march of thirty miles. afford his prisoner the advantage of medical experience and advice. seems. on being made acquainted with the condition of Captain Scott. they had returned as far as the eastern extremity of Loch Lochy. in a moment of sudden enthusiasm.130 THE PBETENDEBS AND THEIB ADHEBENTS. terruption to within eight miles of their destination. the leader of . Thus did a small body of Highlanders. and about as many wounded among the latter of whom was Captain Scott. It was no disgrace to the soldiers of King George that they betook themselves to flight. was more generous. and strike the first spark of the visers. Lochiel. he released him from captivity on his parole. body of Highlanders. Retracing their steps in the direction of Fort Augustus (their enemies being too few in numbers to admit of their pursuing them). when. which afterwards proved to be sufficiently and unaccustomed to so novel a mode of warinsignificant. [l745. headed by Macdonald of Tiendrish. refused to allow any military surgeon to attend Anxious to him. which overarches a mountain torrent. and sent him back to his friends. they had no option but retreat. two days be- . . and unauthorized by Charles or his addeal the first blow. Ignorant of the numbers of their invisible assailants. when they were encountered by another and far more formidable fare. it greatest humanity.

and. it had. To this spot Charles. it is said. proceeded under the escort of two companies of the Macdonalds. might Charles have been proud of the band of few but daring and devoted followers by whom he was now surrounded. as if by the . overhung on each side by high and craggy mountains. Though insignificant as a military exploit. situated about The spot was a forty miles south-west of Fort Augustus. and presently a body of seven hundred Highlanders were seen rapidly descending the mountain-paths. took place on the 19th of August. " The memorable ceremony of raising the standard.FRINGE CHARLES EDWABD. 1745. and grateful also might he well be for their ardent and disinterested attachment. but a short time since. He had anticipated. between which the small river Finnan pursued its quiet course towards the sea. valley. being a narrow and sequestered . and louder and more joyous rose the heart-stirring notes of their national music. having disembarked at the further extremity of Loch Shiel. He had come among them an exiled and a proscribed man and he who. and with floating tartans but. nevertheless. when he entered the desolate ravine. K 2 . the scene changed. however. and with the promise of action and of exploit. romantic and desolate one. in the Vale of Grlenfinnan. the Adventurer appears to have felt himself . now found himself enabled. for the first time since he had quitted France. beholding the valley alive with armed men. it was with hearts beating high with confidence. the Prince was condemned to endure two long hours of feverish suspense. As the latter caught a glimpse of the Prince and his followers. had been doomed to encounter but the cold looks and unmeaning professions of lukewarm friends and calculating politicians in the glittering saloons of Paris. indeed. Suddenly the thrilling sounds of the pibroch were heard in the distance.] 131 fore Charles quitted Kinlochmoidart for Grlenaladale. the effect of raising the spirits of the Highand when they poured forth from their mountainlanders homes to assemble at the great meeting-place at Grlenfinnan. At length." accompanied by the gathering of the clans. it extended before him in its accustomed stillness and solitude. and only three days previous to the raising of the standard at Grlenfinnan. Having entered one of the rude huts of the friendly inhabitants of the valley. thoroughly dispirited and forlorn. the air resounded with their enthusiastic shouts. Well.

identifying himself with their feelings and prejudices. as that which prompted the rising of the hardy Highlanders of 1745. 132 [l745. indeed. there were a few individuals who joined the standard of the Stuarts solely from motives of self-interest. not excepting even the glorious struggles for freedom which have rendered illustrious the wild fastnesses of the Tyrol. and endeavouring to make himself master of their national language. Much of the success which had already attended the progress of Charles was unquestionably owing to his own efforts and dexterity to the fascination of his manner. he had contrived to insinuate himself into the affections of the Highlanders by adopting their costume. and in no age. and to the charm of his personal address. But while allowing full credit to Charles for the talent which he discovered in playing the difficult game intrusted to him. and who played the desperate game of throwing for a coronet or a coffin. was there ever exhibited such romantic devotedness. such a thorough abandonment of all selfish views and interests. which could scarcely have been anticipated either from his years. we must not omit to do justice to the devoted affection and disinterested loyalty of the many gallant men who were ready to sacrifice their lives and fortunes in his cause. in no country. wand of the magician. Perhaps. But such were far from being the motives which actuated the majority of those unfortunate gentlemen who now hastened to join the standard of Charles Edward. who generously discarded every dictate prompted by selfinterest in supporting what they sincerely believed to be the cause of religion and of right . nor the contests on behalf of legitimate right which inflamed the inhabitants of La Vendee. his persuasive eloquence. or from the bigoted school in which he had been nurtured. this gallant body was comprised of individuals whose feelings of pure and devotional loyalty partook but too closely of the character of romance .THE PEETENDEES AND THEIR ADHEEENTS. in the cause of the exiled and unfortunate Stuarts. taking an interest in their manners and customs. Generally speaking. to people the wild valleys of the north brave and devoted as ever fought on behalf of the wildest dreams of freedom or in the cause of legitimate with spirits as right. That. there unfortunately can be but little question. among the Highland chieftains. With a deep-sighted policy. who conscientiously regarded .

of legitimacy. their industry. Not the less should AVC admire the affectionate devotion of those brave men. which would have diminished the danger. it must be remembered. " have been Lord often Mahon.PRINCE CHARLES EDWARD. was not carried into effect. in whatever country. Moreover. to greet the young repre" The Scots. and prudence alone calls back let all history declare. as Cameronians or as Jacobites. who. though it was mistaken. be singled out for employment. iii. that we may well congratulate ourselves that the reigning dynasty was not destroyed. at this distance of time. their superior education. the men ay. and the women of Scotland have quailed from The very fact that any degree of sacrifice or suffering Charles came helpless obtained the help of many. and trusting anew to the tender mercies of the ill-advised and ill-fated Stuarts. . whose zeal. and that the doubtful experiment of restoring the legitimate line. as to a bridal. ! . and generous impulse or deep-rooted conviction on the other when danger and conscience beckon onward. The truth is merely. as followers of Knox or of Montrose. whether in any age or in any cause. ! Mm . 314. They believed him their rightful Prince and the more destitute that Prince. 1 Lord Mahon's History of England. rather than of a native Sovereign. would also have diminished the duty. acknowledged not the supremacy of the German sovereigns of England and who now came forward to hazard their lives and fortunes in a cause which they religiously believed to be that of duty. was not the less admirable . The site which was fixed upon for the "raising of the . and should it not be a matter of praise ? that by their intelligence. Charles was now in the very centre of those tribes which. they will always. But not the less are we to award merit where it is due. ever since they were trained by Montrose." l True it is. 1745. But when a contest lies between selfish security or advancement on one side. vol. such is the stamp that great spirits can imprint upon posterity had continued firm and devoted adherents of the House of Stuart. and placed him in the light of a hostile invader. reproached with a spirit says of sordid gain. and of right. Foreign forces." sentative of their ancient and legitimate kings. . and rise high in the social scale. and who hastened. p.] 133 the reigning sovereign in the light of an alien and a usurper . the more they were bound in loyalty to aid him.

was a small mound in the centre of the sequestered it a valley of Glenfinnan. 1743. with a white space in the " Tandem centre. and was signed James the Eighth. "When the noisy and tumultuous enthusiasm of the clans had a little subsided. was formally carried back to the Prince's quarters. the bonnets which were thrown joyously aloft almost overclouded the sky. Having concluded his brief oration.THE PBETENDEES AND THEIB ADHEBENTS. with all its accompanying advantages of station and of wealth. guarded by a body of fifty Camerons. and. The banner which was of red silk. bearing on Latin inscription. document was dated at Borne. . Another paper was then read aloud. As soon as the reading of this paper was concluded. still points out the memorable spot. Triumphans was unfurled with great ceremony by the Marquis of Tullibardine. and at the same time to respect all existing institutions. where a monument. and expressed his determination to redress them by every means in his power. He had come among them. read aloud the manifesto of the old Chevalier. and privileges whatever. As the banner unfolded itself to the mountain-breeze. he was resolved to conquer or to perish at their head. and. " High-minded Moray. the dear " ! who was at this period labouring under the tortures of disease and the infirmities of age but whose heart continued to beat as warmly as ever in the cause which had been the passion of his youth. in which James granted a commission of regency to his son. the exiled. . in a brief but animated speech. and for which he had already lost a dukedom. supported on account of his infirmities by a Highlander on each side of him. rights. the air resounded with the shouts of the elated Highlanders . December 23rd. because he was satisfied they were prepared to live or die with him and for his part. Tullibardine. and finally set forth the grievances which had befallen Great Britain under the new dynasty. . on which was inscribed the famous motto. in which he denounced the claims of the German usurper exhorted his loyal subjects to join the standard of their legitimate sovereign . 134 standard " [1745. men who now surrounded he said. in the words of a by-stander. Charles presented himself to the admiring Highlanders. he added. This . spoke of the satisfaction which he felt on finding himself among the loyal and gallant gentle- him. the standard.

high chief of Kintail. as well as the eventful circumstances and chivalrous exploits to which it was the immediate prelude. and Sleat Combine with three streams from one mountain of snow. Remember Glenlivat. than of a dry episode in the pages The scene has been well described in glowof real history. ! And resistless in union rush down on the foe ! True son of St Evan. the fearless and free. undaunted Lochiel. and Dundee ! ! Let the clan of grey Fingon. our mountains is dawning at last . when we call to mind the wild scenes amidst which the drama was enacted. when they pour on the foe ! . wide on the winds ot the North let it fly.] 135 Such is a brief description of the famous ceremony of the raising of the standard in the valley of Glenfinnan a cere. and such martyrs to heaven.Gillian. But it roused each high chieftain to vanquish or die. when that dawning shall break. and stretch to the oar ! How Mac-Shiemie The will joy when their chief shall display yew-crested bonnet o'er tresses of grey ! How the race of wronged Alpine. Like the sun's latest flash when the tempest is nigh. Glengary. which.PBINCE CHAELES EDWABD. Place thy targe on thy shoulder. Till far Coryarrack resound to the knell ! Stern son of Lord Kenneth. whose offspring has given Such heroes to earth. Proud chiefs of Clanranald. Let the stag in thy standard bound wild in the gale May the race of Clan. And morn on m the exiled tne dear high-minded Moray In the blush of the dawning the STANDARD uprear "Wide. And the streams of Glenfinnan leap hright the blaze. Unite with the race of renowned Rorri More. ing verse by the greatest modern master of fiction and of mony song : The dark hours of night and of slumber are past. Glenaladale's peaks are illumed with the rays. and burnish thy steel Rough Keppoch. the harp of the aged remind you to wake ? Need That dawn never beamed on your forefathers' eye. give breath to thy bugle's bold swell. partakes rather of the character of a romantic tale. sprung from the kings who in Islay kept state. ! ! ! Ye sons of the strong. To launch the long galley. Shall shout for revenge and murdered Glencoe. 1745. ! Harlaw. the picturesque garb and remarkable character of those who took their part in it.

August 25th. " You may go back to your general. in Badnock. on your islands awake. They call to the dirk. The Captain was taken about a fortnight ago." It seems to have been from the mouth of Captain Sweetenham himself. 1 Flora Macivor's Song. the line and the charge 'T is To the brand of each chieftain. that the intelligence contained in the following letter was derived officer : : " " DEAB " Euthven. When the banners are blazing on mountain and heath . but waited to send you matter of fact. May Or die like your sires. as he styles himself. but not for the chase is the call . for vengeance awake ! Awake on your hills.THE PEETEXDEBS A^D THEIE ADHEBENTS. the blood through his veins flow like currents of Burst the base foreign yoke as your sires did of yore. for freedom. like Fin's in his ire. Captain Sweetenham. 130 [1745. to command three companies of the regiment which is in garrison He is released upon his parole of honour. and say that I am coming to give him battle. To the march and the muster. and the targe. Brave sons of the mountain. the claymore. ! the summons of heroes for conquest or death. Ye sons of brown Dermid who slew the wild boar. SIB. who had recently teen taken prisoner while on his way to take the command of Fort William. "Waverley. who was a prisoner eight days in the pretended Prince Charles Regent's camp. the frith. ! For honour. 1745. Last night Captain Sweetenham came to this barrack. I should have sent some Scottish occurrences before now. and Moy of the Lake." he said " tell him what you have seen. going from this place to Fort William. who arrived among his military friends at Euthven five days after the raising of the standard. 'T is ! but not to the hall the pibroch's shrill summons. Resume the pure faith of the great Callum-More Mac-Xiel of the Islands. who had already treated him with great courtesy. Shortly after the ceremony was at an end. and endure it no more fire ! * ! It may be mentioned. through the intercession of some Irish gentlemen who are along with there. he was summoned to the presence of Charles. . that among those who were spectators of the ceremony of the raising of the standard. and the lake 'T is the bugle. was an of the royal army.

a man above seventy years old. Cope . relate. . month ago. I shall not trouble you with the particular distance of places. that he was often it was madness to attempt these three years invited by them and by others in England and Ireland and that he would not return until he had and be no gained his point or lost his life in the attempt. there were two companies of the Koyal Scots and a sergeant and twelve men of Guise's taken. longer a beggar in France. and are now prisoners in the Prince's camp they were going to reinforce Fort William. where our regiment is at present in garrison and not much farther from the enemy's from whom we expect a visit hourly. " The Prince landed in the north-west islands above a . I have read the The day after the Captain was made prisoner. . . but that was neglected.] 137 the Prince. or Fort George. camp. ' At ' his first landing. appearing like a cloud. . in the title of the rebellious clans. the and told him him go off. " Last Monday the Prince's standard was set up. except his horse's saddle and sword and the Prince had ordered a pair of horses to be given him in lieu of his own . Fort Augustus. and the Prince reviewed them to the number of 1500. . which I shall. or in any other court which answer prevailed upon the Highlanders to join him. Highlanders refused joining him. No gentleman could be better used than he was when he got among the gentlemen neither was there anything that was taken from him but what was returned. and carried by the old Duke of Athol. as you had it word for word in the public papers. in a small vessel carrying eighteen guns. passport. it. and would have but the Prince made answer. : . General is within two . was not heard of for a long time. but refer you to the map of Scotland but it shall suffice that this barrack is not much above twenty-six miles distance (the near way) either from Fort William. 1745. Last Thursday they drew up in their order. The Captain has a passport signed by the Prince he is not to act against the enemy. . who was to conduct him with a number of men on board but fell in with the Lion man-of-war. and came from France with him particularly one Colonel O'Sullivan and Colonel Kelly. Such loud huzzas and schiming of bonnets up into the air.PEINCE CHABLES EDWARD. which gave his ship opportunity to make off. and is to return when required. which was the day the Captain left them. He was separated from a French man-of-war.

Thomas " I have seen Fraser of Gortuleg writes to Lord Lovat and Lieutenants Rose. and five Captain Thomson. or conversing with any officers belonging to the We . be pleased to sincere respects to your fireside. with some artillery. There is none of those we call loyalists here has joined us yet they say they have no arms. the credit which he deserved. to return when summoned thereto. : . but a shallow wall and our small arms which hurry. and . This redoubt has no fortification nor defence. make my compliments to and Mrs D'Anvers. I hope. have seen the evidence borne by Captain Sweetenham to the kind treatment which he met with from the Prince and. They told the Captain that they will be in England in a very little time. until they are at 1 Culloden Papers. to Alder- My Mr man Rogers and Mrs Rogers. Dear sir. ! . They are discharged from touching at any fort or garrison. about the same time. will make excuse for the imper. they met with from the young Pretender they were liberated upon their parole of honour. days' march of this place. I thank God I enjoy good health. fection of this letter. There is no way of sending my wife relief of money as yet. "TEB.THE PKETEKDEES AND THEIE ADHERENTS. 386. p. in order to meet the enemy and the enemy is preparing to meet him. ! . MuLLOT. and am in good people. but about eighteen pattareroes of one pound each. 138 [l745. where they are sure to meet with friends enough. Ferguson sergeants and two or three men of the companies taken They talk a good deal of the civilities prisoners last week. even from his enemies. The Lord only knows how it will end The enemy has neither foreign troops nor artillery. that the consideration and courtesy with which Charles treated the English prisoners which fell into his hands obtained for him. 1 It may be mentioned. " I recommend you and your family to God's care and I make no doubt of your accustomed goodness towards my . to Alderman Revins and be pleased to accept of the like from your most sincere humble . I have lost most of my things at Aberdeen. and threatens high. with four regiments of foot and two of dragoons. heart. Edinburgh . enemy as they call them." servant. God send they may prove I have been called upon several times since I begun loyal to write this scrawl by false alarms.

unlike his colleagues. being appointed its Quarter-Master General. " Duncan " has been Forbes. an Irish officer. At this place he was joined by Macdonald of Glencoe. 1745. The army. or converse with any of the officers in it. with two hundred. he knew. with a hundred and fifty followers by the Stuarts of Appin. and took up his residence in the house of that chieftain at Auchnacarrie. Several of the Macleods also joined him the same night. 2 As late as the 2nd of August. with about the same number of men. . that Charles had the satisfaction of seeing his small army enforced by Macdonald of Keppoch. and by Grlengary the younger.] 130 while here they religiously observed their engagement for they would not go near the Fort. . by his frankness." ! It was about two hours after the raising of the standard. how to temper justice with mercy. eight days after belief. many as sixteen days elapsed from the day of his landing. Charles marched at the head of his forces into the country of Lochiel. yet not too highly. encamped the same night at Glenfinnan O' Sullivan. a devoted and unwearied assertor of the Protestant succession. Charles had landed at Borrodaile. a patriot statesman. ." says Lord Mahon. who had recently joined the Prince. and at length offended. the Government he . the Lord President. under Ardshiel. and nearly three weeks from the period when he opened his communication with the Highland chieftains at Erisca. The ignorance and security in which these functionaries had lulled themselves. Few men ever loved Scotland more. extolled as a most learned and upright judge. 1 Culloden Papers. and even proposed to return to the Isle of Skye with the view of enlisting their fellowclansmen in the Prince's cause. with about three hundred of his clan. The following morning. or served it better. including even the acute and clear-sighted almost surpasses Duncan Forbes. which now amounted to eleven hundred men. we find the Lord President. highly. such was the that as fidelity of those to whom he intrusted himself. Opposing the Jacobites in their conspiracies or their rebellions. who expressed the warmest indignation at the defection of their chief. p. 387. but befriending them in their adversity 1 and their distresses. Although Edinburgh is distant only one hundred and fifty miles from the spot where Charles first set foot in the Western Highlands. it is a remarkable fact.PRINCE CHABLES EDWABD. before the authorities in the Scottish capital received tidings of the Adventurer having arrived on their shores.

" he writes. there is not the least apparatus for his reception. Sir Alexander Macdonald. but to have been fully and sensibly alive to the dangers which threatened the country. W. . a man distinguished by high accomplishments. near Inverness). and gained a considerable mastery of the minds of many. even amongst the few Highlanders who are suspected to be in his in a letter to ' . we have been alarmed with advices. 203. of and particularly of a visit which the intended invasions Pretender's eldest son is about to make us. Mr Pelham. particularly as to the visit just mentioned. his reception In a state. writes from Whitehall to the Justice Clerk. and directed the Sutherlands. . .. and several other chiefs were restrained to a prudent neutrality it was he who inspirited. and by some accounts had upheld by his exertions His seat lying in the North (Culloden House. of profound tranquillity. Fletcher. As early as the 30th of July. iii. . he had always repaired thither in the intervals of the Court of Session he had there cultivated a friendly intercourse with the principal Highland gentlemen. 323.S. Even before the news of Charles's landing was fully confirmed. expressing himself not only ignorant of the fact of the Prince's landing. p. Lord Milton. I confess have not hitherto gained my belief." History of England. he hastened from Edinburgh to Culloden. interest. importing that the French Court was meditating an invasion of his Majesty's dominions." * On notwithstandthe other hand. p. He was the link that bound the fake and fickle Lovat to the Government it was mainly through him that Macleod. the English Secretary of State. the English Ministry ing the distance which they were removed from the scene of action appear not only to have been far better informed in regard to the Prince's probable movements. but adding his firm conviction that there existed not "the least apparatus for " " in the Highlands. on board a French man-of-war. vol. and that the Pretender's son had sailed on the 15th instant. guided. which are said to have been received at London.THE PRETENDERS AND THEIR ADHERENTS. 140 [l745. the Mackays. from Nantz. and by his devotion to the House of Hanover and to the Protestant Andrew succession. if he has not already made it. so far as I can learn. ready to perform every service that the exigency might demand. the Marquis of Tweeddale. This young gentleman's game seems at present to be very desperate in this country and. . and the other well-affected clans in the North. Lord Milton: 2 "This day there have been communicated to the Lords Justices several informations. 1 * Culloden Papers. These informations.

Lord Milton's information is sufficiently incorrect. "a surmise of the Pretender's son having landed . that the Pretender's eldest son landed in Uist on the 1st of this month. there had been any landing in Scotland of any consequence. Letter to Lord Advocate Craigie. p. 14-1 said that he was actually landed in Scotland which part I can hardly believe. that one of the Scottish functionaries. * Culloden Papers. till the 10th of the month." 4 Even at this late period. The 'Elizabeth' is certainly forced back to Brest. but I am persuaded that none of the Highland gentlemen." 2 In reply to Lord Tweeddale's letter of the 30th of July. The Prince effected his landing not at Uist on the 1st of August. expresses his gratification at his not even having heard. p. and has connections both in Lochabar and Glengary. informs the English Secretary of State of the actual fact of the Prince's " This morning.PBIITCE 1745. last ' 1 2 1 Home's Hist. " I consider the report [of the Prince's sailing from France] as impossible. " I landing. acknowledging the receipt of mine of the 30th I am much of your opinion. indeed. Lord Milton. on the 2nd of August. J CHARLES EDWARD. and that the disaifected Highlanders expect every day to hear of a landing in England. may indeed resort to him. 281." and. because I am confident that young man cannot with reason expect to be joined by any considerable force in the Highlands. of the Rebellion. of desperate fortunes. " I received yours by express. if July. will. There are no certain accounts as yet what has become of the frigate which was along with the French man-of-war. but you must have heard of it." he writes to Lord Tweeddale. Lord Milton. on the 6th of August. it was . that it is impossible. p.' which was attacked by the ' Lion' man-of-war. have information from one that lives in Glencoe. 276. However. even as late as the 8th of August. who have aught to lose. 204. Home. Lord Tweeddale writes to the Lord Advocate. the Elizabeth." 1 Again." 3 It is not. lawless men. . Lord President Forbes writes to Lord Tweeddale. and I hardly believe the frigate would pursue her voyage to Scotland. MS. All accounts agree that the Pretender's son was either aboard the 'Elizabeth' or the frigate. dated August 3rd. in every event it is right to take all proper precautions. not having had the least account of it from nny of his Majesty's servants in Scotland. Some loose.

that there remains not the least doubt that the repeated intelligence I sent was true nor was it worth while to mention his dress. He had. a man whose personal gallantry had never been called in question. l CHAPTEE IV. energy. and consequently. March of Sir John Cope into the Highlands. the Commander-in-Chief of the King's forces north of the Tweed was Sir John Cope." but at Borrodaile also. not worthy to be noticed." writes Lord his landing on their shores. on the other hand. but. other difficulties to contend with. moreover. Arrival at Perth. which was said to be a white coat and a brocade vest that he had the star and garter and a broad-brimmed hat with a white feather and other minutiae. that the Scottish newspapers. 290. At the period when he was called upon to take the field against the Jacobites. nearly five weeks after the young Adventurer had made his appearance among the Western Islands. The Pretender's March for the Lowlands. in a crisis which required in a singular degree decision. that it . the 1 Home. informed the world of the memorable fact of Charles Edward having accomplished " I dare say. he was naturally of a dull capacity he was tremblingly alive to the responsibilities entailed on the tenure of public employment and command. " from the accounts I know your Lordship has now received from the Lord Advocate. Charles visits the Palace of Scoon. and a gentleman who came from the Pretender's son's camp on the 21st. p. AT the eventful period of the landing of Charles Edward in Scotland.THE PRETENDERS AND THEIR ADHERENTS. Duncan Cameron. 142 [1745. and who had passed through the subordinate grades of his profession with considerable and with deserved credit. Milton to Lord Tweeddale. . on the 25th of July. as late as the 29th of August. and action. Difficulties of his Situation. Their Effects on the Scottish Chiefs. in a confused and inaccurate account. It may be mentioned was not till the 22nd of August. he was found totally unfit to perform the duties which he was called upon to discharge. His ingratiating Manners.

in with them and. moreover. and . moreover. above all things. There were. These also. mode of warfare adopted by the Highlanders). the Lord Advocate. only questionable. The civil functionaries who at this period held the direction of affairs in Scotland.1745. amounted only to three thousand men. they ought to have taken counsel from the wise and successful policy adopted by the Duke of Argyll during the rebellion of 1715. it was fondly anticipated that the infant rebellion would be crushed at its fall . who originated it ought to have remembered how. and the Solicitor. who. more than once (owing to the peculiar features of the country which they destined to be the scene of action. it must be added. whose loyalty was not little service. and which had helped to decide the fate of the bloody struggle at Killicrankie but. arguments which gave to semblance of being founded on sound sense and it may be mentioned. a signal advantage had been gained by the hardy mountaineers over the disciplined forces of a regular army. were the Lord President (Duncan Forbes). entirely coincided with the personal views and wishes of Sir John Cope it was decided that the latter should immediately march with the forces under his command into the heart of the Highlands that he should attack the disaffected wherever he might . commanded by the Earl of London.] PRINCE CHAELES EDWAED. however. the Lord Justice Clerk (Lord Milton). By the advice of these persons which. birth. 46th. their services could scarcely sidered as available in the present emergency. it may be remarked. from their being in quarbe con- ters north of Inverness. had preferred stealthily waiting his opportunity by guarding the passes into the Lowlands. dangerous ravines. 143 entire military force. exclusive of the troops in garrison. and also to the wild and peculiar this injudicious piece of policy at least the .General. by this means. but. unquestionably. and several companies of a Highland regiment. and 47th). They ought to have called to mind the circumstances which had aided the glorious triumphs of Montrose. comprised two regiments of dragoons (Gardiner's and Hamilton's). under his command. instead of rashly bearding the roused Highlanders among their own wild fastnesses and . that its adoption met with the warmest approval from the English Ministry. who had seen but three newly-raised regiments (the 44th. Those.

as well on account of the difficulty of providing forage for the horses. In addition to the large quantity of baggage which attended him. he carried with him a herd of black cattle. It may be mentioned. By the authorities at Edinburgh he was well provided with all the requisites for carrying on a mountain war. where baggage and ammunition could with difficulty be dragged along. had thus prevented the superior force of the insurgents from pushing their way into the south." wards circulated It was on the 19th of August. where his small army was assembled.144 THE PEETENDEES AtfD THEIE ADHEEEKTS. decided on adopting the vigorous but dangerous a policy policy of marching at once into the Highlands sufficiently fatal and reprehensible. the day on which Charles secret foe. numerically speaking. and which. No man. which he daily received from the designing Jacobites some of the details of which were highly ludi" aftercrous. that Cope received orders at Edinburgh to place himself at the head of his troops and force his way into the Highlands. but he thought it more expedient to leave them behind him. however. when we consider that he was not only commencing a campaign in an enemy's country. the English general found that not a single individual had joined his standard. as from the unfitness of cavalry to act in a Highland campaign. over ground . regardless of these precedents. the Jacobites with comments sufficiently scurrilous. according to Home. and where his men were certain to be exposed at every unfavourable point to the galling fire of a In addition to these difficulties. and a thousand stand of arms. Arriving on the following day at Stirling. cried and. however. regiments of dragoons which were under his orders. which he proposed to distribute among such loyal volunteers as he "might meet with "on his God bless him march. . far superior to his own but also that it was in districts totally unsuited for the evolutions of a regular army. raised his standard at Glenfinnan. and opposed to forces. Sir John Cope was greatly embarrassed by false advices and anonymous communications. [l745. four pieces of cannon. he commenced his march at the head of fifteen hundred inHe might have swelled his numbers with the two fantry. to serve as food for his army. that he ! . and was consequently compelled to send back the greater part of his stand of useless arms to Stirling. and his colleagues. when he reached Crieif. Cope.

continued to mystify and mislead him by false intelligence. On his arrival at Dalwhinnie. His orders. known as the Devil's Staircase. 145 was furnished by the English Government with a proclam30. and the actual numbers of the insurgent army. . From Dalnacardoch he marched to Dalwhinnie. His position had already become sufficiently embarrassing. if not dangerous. active and unencumbered by arms. to his great mortifiHighlanders were already in possession of the wild and dangerous traverses of Corry Arrack. offering a reward to the same amount to whosoever should seize the person of the "Elector of Hanover. His position at this crisis was a sufficiently difficult and unenviable one. offering a reward of young Chevalier which was subsequently retorted upon by Charles.000 for the person of the ation. it could scarcely have failed to lead to the total annihilation of his small army. were practicable only by defiling along a narrow and difficult pass. might easily have poured their frequent and fatal fire on their unsuspecting antagonists. Cope.] PBINCE CHABLES EDWARD. persisted in ascending the mountain. and presenting innumerable breaks and lurking-places in the overhanging crags. he learnt the true state of popular feeling in the Highlands. he had proposed to concentrate his forces. as being in the centre of the disturbed districts.1745. . when at the retired inn of Dalnacardoch he accidentally fell in with Captain Sweetenham. from whence the Highlanders." No sooner did the English general emerge from the Lowlands than he found his difficulties commence. the rapid mountain torrents. which were most . which wound by the side of rugged heights. cation. though affecting to him a sympathy with the cause of the Government. and at once strike a decisive blow against the rebels. spanning occasionally. Over this perilous ascent stretched his path to Fort Augustus at which favourable spot. which rose before him almost as perpendicular as a wall. Had Cope. from whom . the officer who had recently been released on his parole by Charles at G-lenfinnan. . who issued a proclamation. The Highlanders were hostile to him to a man his baggage-horses were stolen in numbers from their pastures at night and the Highland gentlemen. situated near the foot of the great mountain of Corry Arrack. by narrow bridges. learned that the The means of ascending this formidable mountain. indeed.

1 Lord Mahon's History of England. and march northward to Inverness. " think. of the council to the general dom . the Highlanders would either have been compelled to confine themselves to their native mountains. when it was unanimously agreed that the passage over Corry Arrack was impracticable. in the wisof which he seems to have fully concurred that he should so far obey his instructions as to proceed in a and that the royal army. exposed to the certain vengeance of the royal forces. more fatal piece of policy could not possibly have been " The military men here. that though it might not have been fit for his Majesty's service for Sir John Cope to attack the rebels. It was thus confidently expected that the war might be confined to the Highlands till the timely arrival of fresh troops from England. vol. and thus have guarded the pass into the Lowland country. The arguments which had the effect of inducing Cope and his council to adopt this alternative were. yet that he ought to have staid somewhere about Dalwhinnie and. however. the prospect of being joined by some of the well-affected clans during their progress. educated in the most rigid school of military discipline. and all that they possessed. iii. It was the positive . therefore. to the Lord President. be no question. [l745. it would not have been easy for the rebels to have made such a progress into the south before him but. but principally the hope of tempting the insurgents. partly. in that case. p. it is needless to enter into a discussion. to follow in their track it being deemed extremely improbable that the Highland chieftains would leave their homes. as the matter is now over. A . on the other hand. or the English general would have been enabled to force them to an engagement on level ground. to obey them under existing circumstances must certainly lead to the most fatal results. he knew not how to disobey them. instead of forcing their march southwards. indeed. ." writes Lord Tweeddale adopted. and implicit. were to march northwards." l There can. In this emergency. that if Cope had kept his stand in the neighbourhood of Dalwhinnie. . But.THE PBETENDEES 146 A3TD THEIE ADHEEE>'TS. note. northerly direction should turn aside. 326. on the 10th of September. where he would have possessed the advice. . 1745. and to seek an immediate encounter with the insurgents and. Cope summoned a council of war.

country of the Camerons. about five miles from Fort William. 1745. who was present.PEINCE CHAELES EDWAED. It was on the 27th of August that Cope turned aside at the village of Catlaig. situated in the joy. During his progress he was joined at Low Bridge by the Stuarts every individual We . that when he had got together four or five hundred 'men about the standard. 1 2 Home. of having the written opinion of the council of war signed by Lord Milton: ." Jacobite Memoirs. but so it is. that " he had never seen the Prince more cheerful at any time. p. previous to breaking up his camp at Catlaig. or doubtful of the wisdom of the policy he had been induced to adopt took the precaution. unless we had some Highlanders with us and as yet not one single man has joined us. and in higher spirits. which town he reached by forced marches on the 29th. In this country the rebels will not let us get at them. The next day we find him a guest at Fassefern. informed Duncan Cameron. No man could have believed that not one man would take arms in our favour." l According to Home. who related it to Bishop Forbes. in the valley of Grlenfinnan and here Charles is described by one of his followers as having passed two enviable days of elation and 2 On the 21st he removed to Kinlochiel. p. .] 147 very important advantage of being supported by artillery and regular troops. of Tiendrish. or show countenance to us. two ravan-trees (mountain-ash) point out the spot where the Highlanders boasted that the royal army had avoided an engagement with them. . the standard took place on the 19th of August. On the 31st the unfortunate general writes despondingly to " So much fatigue of mind and body I never knew before but my health continues good. Major Macdonnell. though I have lugged along with me three hundred stand of arms. and my spirits do not flag. and where the latter faced about at Catlaig. 24. and took up his abode at a small inn at Letterfinlay on the banks of Loch Lochy. at the head of Loch Eil. L 2 . 318. the seat of a younger brother of Lochiel and on the 26th he crossed the river Lochy. and commenced his march to Inverness. It may be also mentioned that Cope either tremblingly sensible of the responsibilities attached to his command. when confined in the Castle of Edinburgh. must now return to the young Adventurer and his It has already been mentioned that the raising of fortunes. Much depends upon the next step we take. .

where he subsequently took up his abode for the remainder of the night. tying the latchets of his shoes. The next morning. of Appin. the day on which Cope was sitting in council with the officers discussing the difficulties of their Charles placed himself at the head of his gallant position. sounding up the glen And I will tarry at Auchnacarry. who together brought him a reinforcement of four . he himself pushed forward to In- . in a letter to the Lord President. the Prince "called that morning for his Highland clothes. " The tartan plaid The pibroch it is waving wide. at the lonely inn of Letterfinlay. hundred men. . During the march. when the tidings were brought him by one of the Camerons. Was. that an express reached Charles." He was about to ascend the steep heights of Corry Arrack. on the 26th of August. "Was marching bonnily in the van And aye the spell of the bagpipe's yell. while his manner and language expressed that perfect confidence and high exultation which afterwards invariably characterized him on the eve of an approaching engagement.148 THE PRETENDERS AND THEIR ADHERENTS. of men to proceed to take possession of the summit of the mountain and the same night. It was about midnight. the countenance of the young Adventurer is described as having been lighted up with animation and hope. wha can ? '" ' According to Eraser of G-ortuleg. and commenced his march in the direction of Corry Arrack. ' Turn the blue bonnet. numbering nearly three hundred men. and. that Cope had turned aside to Inverness. solemnly declared that he would be up with Mr Cope before they were unloosed. To see my Donald and a' his men. a'. that Cope was about to commence his hazardous march over the He immediately ordered a body in ountain of Corry Arrack. The news was no sooner 1 Jacobite Song. And there I 's saw the King o' them . wha can. . led by Stuart of Ardshiel and on the 26th his small army was augmented by the Macdonalds of Grlengary and the Grants of Grlenmoriston. during a storm of wind and rain of unusual violence. who had just deserted from the royal army. Highlanders. and with the prospect of immediate action and the hope of gallant achievement. vergary Castle. [l715.

by accessions of strength at the mouths of the different little mountain glens through which they passed. and occasionally delighting them by addressing to them a few words in their native Gaelic. having been joined in their progress. into the Vale of Athol. 1745. and may every general in the Usurper's service prove himself as much our friend as he has done. 1752. . however. they were charmed with the evidence which he gave of constitutional hardihood and personal strength. by the charm of his personal manner. and to force them to an immediate engagement. fight. or. he was in the habit. Like the great Dundee. of walking by the side of the different clans." Glasgow. and inducing the timid and wavering to declare themselves at once in his favour. determined on adopting the far wiser policy of pursuing his march into the Lowlands. than they expressed an ardent desire to pursue the royal army. Accordingly. and. than it was received with loud shouts of joy. and directing that every man " present should receive his dram. he "would run. discovered his usual tact of seizing every opportunity of ingratiating himself with.] 149 communicated to the Highlanders.PRINCE CHARLES EDWARD. Calling for a glass of brandy. listening to their national songs. during a march. by taking possession of the capital of Scotland. of giving confidence to the more lukewarm well-wishers to his cause. and in an enervating climate a match even for the hardiest and most active amongst their own people and not only gifted like themselves with the power of enduring fatigue." l They beheld with astonishment a young Prince who had been nurtured in the lap of luxury. he drank to the health of good Mr Cope. Surprising Escape. on the second day. According to a contemporary writer. and distinguishing himself in every manly exercise and amusement. the Highlanders. Charles. by the advice of his council. and exciting the enthusiasm of. or leap with any man in the Highlands. if we may compare him with that extraordinary man. after traversing the mountainous district of Badenoch. in winning the affections of almost every Highlander in his army. on this occasion. Moreover. inquiring into their legends." The tidings of Cope's retreat no sooner became generally known to the Highlanders. Charles by this time had succeeded. Charles. the Highland army descended. like one of their own rivers. but even occasionally superior to themselves in the use of their . 1 " The Wanderer .

that they delighted to compare him with their favourite hero. his temperance. had hitherto determined on keeping aloof from the enterprise and. his surviving fellow-adventurers rarely spoke of him without a sigh or a tear. In short. But I must beg leave to tell you. Eobert Bruce. we are assured that he walked sixteen Scottish . and himself the chief of a powerful clan. Macpherson of Cluny. "I was determined. had recently accepted employment under the Government. his compassion. Charles was joined by a valuable coadjutor. in the sunny plains of Italy. though in his heart he was known to be secretly a warm well-wisher to the cause of the Stuarts. he wants no qualifications requisite to make him a great man. to show myself one day a true Highlander. during his march southwards." In addition to these qualities. may be mentioned the peculiar charm of his manner and personal " address. . his patience." With this object. : ." Who does not remember the dying encomium pronounced by the brave Balmerino on the scaffold on his young and gallant master? "I am at a loss when I come to speak of the Prince I am not a fit hand to draw his character I shall leave that to others. which he rightly judged might afterwards render him respected and beloved by the simple and athletic children of the north. Cluny.150 own THE PEETEIfDEES AXD THEIE ADHEHEJfTS. According to a modern writer. which were so peculiarly adapted to win for the Adventurer the applause and respect of the Highland clans. that the incomparable sweetness of his nature. when age might have been supposed to deaden their early feelings. and his courage. Daring the period he was encamped at Dalwhinnie. indeed. [l745. he was . so much so. his affability. fatiguing the hardiest of his companions. those manly diversions and those habits which insure the endurance of fatigue. the enthusiastic and devoted attachment with which he succeeded in inspiring them was such as no subsequent events could ever altogether extinguish. he had practised in bis boyhood. Having been taken prisoner by a detachment of the insurgent army. " miles in boots. national weapon. and with the probable chance of his being one day engaged in a Highland campaign. are virtues seldom all to be found in one person. he slept with his followers on the open moor and. half a century after they had seen him. the broadsword." " said Charles. his justice." At Dalwhinnie. son-in-law to the celebrated I^ord Lovat. which had been sent to surprise the barracks at Buthven.

Charles reviewed his troops and at night Tullibardine gave . a son of the nobleman who was condemned to death for his share in the Eebellion of 1715. and had got a young horse to ride upon that had not been accustomed to noise. On the following morning. that he behoved to be left behind and accordingly was carried to the house in which Lady Orminston was then living. subsequently. by whom he was received with every mark of the most flattering distinction. where he continued two days. The night of the 30th of August was passed by Charles at That nobleman had Blair. On this. a brother of the Earl of Dunmore and by Lord Nairn. made a precipitate flight on the approach of the royal army. . the seat of the Duke of Athol. Cluny had consented to repair to his own people in the Highlands. but also to the neighbouring and ancient vassals of his family. connected with the Prince's visit to Blair.PRINCE CHARLES EDWARD. could not have resisted " such soothing. and to array his clan in the cause of the exiled family. Duncan was so bruised with the fall. Duncan Cameron was ordered to attend the 1 "When ing Prince's baggage. In a very short space of time. the Marquis of Tullibardine. Soon . Such was the magical effect of Charles's personal manner and address on the minds of those whom it was his object to please or to win Even an angel. Charles missed no opportunity of rendering himself popular with his new friends. leaving the halls of his ancestors to be once more occupied ! by their rightful but attainted possessor. and therefore threw Duncan upon hearing the pipes and the drums. in the neighbourhood of Dalkeith. his elder brother. not only to the Highland chieftains who had joined the standard of the Adventurer. is recorded by Duncan Cameron l in his Nar. The following trifling incident. a sumptuous banquet. as on all other occasions. He partook only of those dishes which were peculiar to Scotland. . Of Duncan Cameron whose Narrative we are indebted for many in(to teresting particulars relating to the landing of Charles in Scotland) Bishop Forbes has left us the following account: the Prince was marchhis army towards England." as were addressed to him by the young Prince. At Blair. the insurgent forces arrived at Perth. that when. and gave the healths of the different Highland chieftains in Gaelic. . Charles had the satisfaction of seeing himself joined by Oliphant of Grask by Lord Srathallan Mr Murray. close applications.] 151 conducted into the presence of Charles. remarked Cluny. the Prince's specious arguments and insinuating address had wrought such an effect on the wavering mind of the chieftain. 1745.

clamations of the populace. This lady was allowed a pass and protection for herself. p. p. and amidst the enthusiastic acrative : . where he was so lucky as to be overlooked. but he told her that he had got a present of bowla sent him as a curiosity to Rome from England. and got a protection for . the seat of a branch of the Robertsons. and he was said to be Colonel Strickland upon which a party of dragoons were despatched to take the Colonel prisoner. and arrived in Holland the 23rd. They sailed from Leith Roads." Jacobite Metnoirs. and accordingly he was inserted in the pass under the name of Duncan Campbell. This is no' mine ain house. ." he says. when others were sent off to England to stand trial. 26. and. consisting of Highland gentlemen. and where. nothing appearing against him. his share in several dances. and a maid-servant. hut He they found only plain Duncan." The first dance he called for was a Strathspey minuet. such as minuets and Highland reels. and there lore he agreed to pass for Mrs Fothringham' s servant. whom they brought into Edinburgh. who was going over to France to her husband. otherwise his fate would have turned out in quite another shape. 152 " [1745.THE PEETENDEES AND THEIE ADHEBENTS. upon Friday. being resolved to return to France. he would prove an exfor her to France." 3 On the evening of the 4th of September. at such a place. because. he went into the garden. Charles entered Perth on horseback. wounded. he said he had never seen a bowling-green before upon which the above lady l called for some bowls. late governor of Dundee. At last he was released. 1 Mrs Robertson. we are told. and glad to go into any scheme where oy he could safely make his way to Holland . However. where he passed the night of the 2nd of Septem" he was very cheerful." 2 From Blair Charles proceeded to Lude. who had been requested by Tullibardine to repair to Blair. Duncan had no mind to make use of that protection. of Lude. cellent Duncan. June 19th. 27. going to his own country in the Highlands. " accompanied by the favourite Jacobite air. to sail for Holland. some time before the indemnity came out. on the other hand. a child. She wanted much to have Duncan Cameron along with her. an Argyleshireman. followed by a gallant cavalcade. 3 Ibid. and took ber. a man-servant. In a letter addressed at this period by one of the spies of the Government to Sir John an information was given that the Highlanders had left one behind them. was committed to the city jail. taking a walk upon the bowling-green. " When the Prince was at Blair. : s Jacobite Memoirs. was fond of guide having it in his power to oblige such a lady. and put the house in order for the Prince's reception. 1749. He luckily fell in with Mrs Fothringham. It was most lucky for Duncan Cameron that it was never known to any of the Government that he was one of those who came over in the same frigate with the Prince the most distant suspicion was never entertained about this. either through sickness or want of evidence. knowing the French language well. that he might see them.

PRINCE CHAELEB EDWARD.

1745.]

153

"

Cope, the Prince is described as habited in a fine Highland
with gold wears a bonnet, laced wears a broadsword had a green, riband, but did not see the star a wellmade man, taller than any in his company." Although the
magistrates of Perth had set the example of allegiance to the
Government, by quitting the town on the approach of the
insurgent army, Charles had little reason to complain either
of neglect or inhospitality on the part of the inhabitants who
remained to welcome him. On entering the town, he was
immediately conducted to the house of Lord Stormont, an
elder brother of the celebrated Lord Mansfield, where he received all the attention and honours due to his high birth.
Lord Stormont, indeed, though sufficiently well inclined towards the cause of the Stuarts, had withdrawn himself, from
prudential motives, on the Prince's approach. He left behind
him, however, his two sisters, who, like too many of the ladies
of Scotland, were enthusiastically devoted to the cause of the
exiled family, and who gladly tended their gallant and handsome guest. One of the sisters is said to have even " spread
down a bed for Prince Charlie with her own hands."
During the week which Charles passed at Perth, he was
busily employed in drilling and exercising his brave but undisciplined troops in keeping up communications with his
dress, laced

;

;

;

;

;

partisans in

England

;

and in devising means

He

for replenishing

his exhausted treasury.
had brought with him only four
thousand louis-d'ors from France, and when he entered Perth,
"

He had but one guinea, which he showed to
says Home,
Kelly, one of the seven who landed with him in the Highlands, and said he would soon get more." From the town of
Perth, he subsequently exacted 500 while, about the same
time, voluntary contributions, to a considerable amount,
reached him from his friends in Edinburgh. "With the view
of further enriching his treasury, military parties were despatched by him through the neighbouring counties of Angus
and Fife, who performed the double service of levying money
in the principal towns, and causing his father to be proclaimed publicly as " King James the Eighth." At Dundee,
one of these marauding parties, consisting of the Macdonalds,
had the good fortune to seize two vessels in the harbour,
laden with arms and ammunition, which were immediately
despatched to the head-quarters at Perth for the service of
the insurgent army.
;

THE PBETENDEBS AND THEIB ADHEBENTS.

154

[l745.

But the duty which principally occupied the time and attention of Charles during his stay at Perth was that of endeavouring to capacitate the gallant but untrained mountainWith
eers to contend with regular and disciplined forces.
this view, he was in the habit of rising with the daAvn of day,
in order to inspect his troops and instruct them in their duties
and so devoted was he to this particular but favourite
occupation, that on one occasion, when invited to a ball by
the ladies of Perth, he is said to have danced only a single
measure, and then, pleading the excuse of being compelled
to visit his sentry-posts, retired suddenly from the gay scene
to the discomfiture of his fair inviters.
;

Occasionally when reviewing his troops upon North Inch,
Charles is said to have been unable to repress a smile at the
awkwardness of some of his intractable recruits. He never
failed, however, to pay a just and even enthusiastic tribute
to their fine bearing, to their extraordinary activity and
powers of enduring privation and fatigue, and to the remark,
able dexterity which they displayed in the exercise of their
native weapon.
Well, indeed, might the young hero have
been proud of that daring and affectionate host, whom he had
been enabled to array in the field.
At Perth, Charles received a vast accession of strength, in
consequence of being joined by Lord Ogilvie, son of the Earl
of Airlie by the Eobertsons of Struan, Blairfitty, and Cushievale as well as by a large body consisting of the retainers of the Dukes of Athol and Perth. But the most valuable accession to his cause, at this period, was in the person
of Lord George Murray, younger brother of the Duke of
Athol.
This nobleman had been openly engaged in the rebellion of 1715, and had since acquired considerable military
experience, and a well-earned reputation, in the service of
foreign powers. Charles immediately nominated him a Lieutenant- General in his army, and we shall presently find him
playing a conspicuous part in the course of the insurrec;

;

tion.

The fair happening to be held at Perth during the period
of the Prince's visit, the accession of strangers and the number of Highlanders who filled the streets, clad in their national costume, gave an agreeable and stirring gaiety to the
scene.
To every individual who attended the fair, Charles
issued protections for their persons and property. With many

PRINCE CHAELES EDWARD.

1745.]

155

of them also he entered freely and familiarly into conversa"
Tell your fellow-citizens," he said gaily to a linen"
draper from London, that I expect to see them at St James's
in the course of two months."
At Perth, Charles, it is said, for the first time attended a
Protestant place of worship. The sermon was preached by
an intrepid clergyman of the Scottish Episcopal church, who
"
For the
selected the apposite text from Isaiah (xiv. 1, 2)
Lord will have mercy on Jacob, and will yet choose Israel,
and set them in their own land and the strangers shall be
joined with them, and they shall cleave to the house of Jacob.
And the people shall take them, and bring them to their
place and the house of Israel shall possess them in the land
of the Lord for servants and handmaids and they shall take
tion.

:

:

:

;

them

captives, whose captives they
over their oppressors."

were

;

and they

shall rule

On the morning of the llth of September, the day on
which Charles quitted Perth, he paid a visit on foot, accompanied only by two or three attendants, to the palace of Scoon.
The

sight of that venerable building could scarcely fail to
excite many strange and mournful reflections in his breast.
It was the ancient palace of his ancestors, the kings of Scotland it was connected with many painful passages in the
;

eventful history of his ill-fated race it was intimately associated with the tale of their triumphs and their misfortunes,
their sorrows and their joys and, moreover, it was in the
chambers of Scoon that his own father had passed more than
one restless night during his unfortunate expedition in 1715,
when, for the last time, the old palace had received the proscribed representative of its ancient kings, the heir of the
devoted House of Stuart.
;

;

THE PRETENDERS AND THEIR ADHERENTS.

150

CHAPTER

[l745.

V.

March

of the Pretender from Perth to Dumblane.
March continued.
Arrival in the neighbourhood of Edinburgh.
Cowardly Retreat of Colonel Gardiner's Troops.
Consternation of the Authorities.
Charles's
Letter to the Town Council. Their conduct upon the receipt of it.

ON

the afternoon of the llth of September, Charles quitted
Perth at the head of a detachment of his army, and the same
day marched to Dumblane, where he waited till the following
evening, in order to allow time for the large body of his army
to overtake him.
In the course of his short march he was
joined by Macdonald of Glencoe, with sixty followers, and,
shortly afterwards, by Macgregor of G-lengyle, with two
hundred and fifty of his clan. It had now become of the
utmost importance to Charles to force his way at once into
the low country. He had recently received the tidings that
Cope, having quitted Inverness, was on his march to Aberdeen, and that it was his intention to embark his troops at
the latter place, and to proceed by sea to the protection of
the Lowlands. It was therefore the great object of Charles
to anticipate this design, and by rapid marches to make himself master of the Scottish capital.
On the evening of the 12th, Charles encamped with the
whole of his army about a mile to the south of Dumblane.
" It was
in this neighbourhood," observes one of his followers,
" that
many of our fathers, and several of us now with the
Prince, fought for the same cause, just thirty years before,
at the battle of Sheriffmuir."

l

On

the 13th, Charles passed with his army close to the
town of Doune, and under the walls of the picturesque but
no longer " bannered towers " 2 of its ancient castle. From
the narrative of the journalist from whom we have just quot"
ed, we learn that the Prince
stopped at a gentleman's house
near Doune, of the name of Edmonstone, and drank a glass
1

Macdonald's Journal, Lockhart Papers, vol. ii. p. 486.
* "
They rise, the banner" d towers of Doune,
They sink in distant woodland soon."

Lady of the Lake.
ruins of Doune Castle, formeny the residence of the Earls
of Monteith, are now the property of the Earl of Moray.
The interesting

PHI^CE CHARLES EDWAED.

1745.]

157

of wine on horseback, where the ladies of the country were
assembled to see him." This trifling incident is recorded,
"
The
with some additional particulars, by a modern writer
Prince drew up before the house, and, without alighting from
his horse, drank a glass of wine to the healths of all the fair
The Misses Edmonstone, daughters to the
ladies present.
:

on this occasion as servitresses, glad to find an
opportunity of approaching a person of whom they had heard
so much and when Charles had drunk his wine, and restored
his glass to the plate which they held for him, they begged,
in respectful terms, the honour of kissing his Eoyal HighThis favour he granted with his usual grace
ness's hand.
but Miss Clementina Edmonstone, cousin of the other young
ladies, and then on a visit at Doune, thought she might obtain
a much more satisfactory taste of royalty, and made bold to
ask permission to pree his Royal Highness's mou.' Charles
did not at first understand the homely Scottish phrase in
which this last request was made but it was no sooner explained to him, than he took her in his arms and gave her a
hearty kiss, to the no small vexation, it is added, of the
other ladies, who had contented themselves with so much less
liberal a share of princely grace."
On this day, Charles crossed the Ford of Frew with his
army, about seven miles above Stirling. He had anticipated
that his passage would have been opposed at this place by
Colonel Gardiner's dragoons but the latter thought proper
He dined this
to retire at the approach of the insurgents.
day at Leckie House, the seat of a gentleman who professed
Jacobite principles, of the name of Muir, and who, on the
host, acted

;

;

'

;

'

;

preceding night, had been seized in his bed and carried off a
prisoner to Stirling Castle, on suspicion that he was making
preparations for the reception of the Prince. As the insurgent army defiled by Stirling, some cannon-shot were fired
at them from the Castle, but without effect.
In the course
of this day, Charles marched over the memorable field of

Bannockburn, and, at night, slept at Bannockburn House,
the seat of Sir
In the
family.

Paterson, a devoted adherent of his
army lay encamped on the
neighbouring field of Sauchie, where his unfortunate ancestor, James the Third, had died in battle against his

Hugh

mean

while, his

rebellious subjects.
1

Chambers, p. 23, from Nimmo's History of Stirlingshire,

p. 564.

THE PRETENDERS AND THEIR ADHERENTS.

158

[1745.

On the 14th, the insurgents advanced to Falkirk, in the
neighbourhood of which town Charles passed the night at
Callender House, the seat of the ill-fated Lord Kilmarnock,
by whom he was but too warmly welcomed. This night his
army were partly quartered in the town of Falkirk, and
partly in some broom-fielda to the east of Callender House.

On the following day, Charles proceeded as far as Linlithgow, situated only sixteen miles from Edinburgh. At this
place he had again expected to have been opposed, on Linlithgow bridge, by Gardiner's dragoons but the latter im;

mediately retreated on the approach of a body of Highlanders,
whom the Prince had despatched for the purpose of dispersing
them. On his arrival at Linlithgow, which for centuries had
been a favoured residence of the ancient kings of Scotland,
he was received by the inhabitants with a hearty welcome,
and with an outbreak of loyal enthusiasm which he could
scarcely have anticipated. Some of the magistrates are even
said to have participated in the general feeling of tumultuous
joy and though the Provost, a staunch Jacobite, had thought
it prudent to make good his retreat to Edinburgh, his wife
and daughters waited, nevertheless, on the Prince, and, clad
in tartan dresses and decorated with the white cockade, were
admitted to the honour of kissing his hand. The Prince, on
entering this ancient town, was conducted in a kind of
triumph to the venerable palace of his ancestors, where the
housekeeper, Mrs Glen Gordon, is said, in an excess of loyal
zeal, to have too freely regaled all the respectable inhabitants
of Linlithgow with wine, which either the old palace or her
own finances could afford. This night the army were encamped about three miles to the east of the town.
The scenes of deep and stirring interest over which the
young Adventurer had passed within the few last days
associated as they were, not only with the most brilliant
passages in the annals of his country, but more especially
with the changes and chances which had befallen his own
ill-fated race
must have awakened emotions of no ordinary
nature in his mind. "All the ground thus traversed," says
Lord Mahon, " by the insurgents is fraught with the
On that field of
brightest associations of Scottish story.
Bannockburn had Liberty and the Bruce prevailed; that
palace of Linlithgow was the birthplace of the ill-fated
alas! how
Mary, and afterwards her dwelling in hours
;

CHARLES EDWABD.

PEIITCE

1745.]

159

of peaceful sovereignty and honourable
those battlements of Stirling had guarded the cradle
there rose the Torwood, where Wallace
of her infant son
yonder flowed
sought shelter from the English invaders
the Forth, which so often had bridled the wild Highlandman.' Surely, even a passing stranger could never gaze on
still less any one intent on
such scenes without emotion,
like deeds of chivalrous renown,
least of all the youthful
heir of Eobert Bruce and of the long line of Stuart kings !" l
It may have been observed by the reader, that the insurgent army, in pursuing the-Ir march to take possession of the
Scottish capital,
instead of following the direct road from
Perth to Edinburgh by passing the Frith of Forth at Queen's
had chosen a much more tedious and circuitous
Ferry,
route.
Their reasons for taking this step were partly on
account of the number of King's ships which lay in the
Forth to intercept their passage, and partly in consequence
of the loss of life which they must have hazarded had they
crossed the Forth at Stirling the bridge at that place being
directly commanded by the guns of the castle.
During the whole of their march through the Lowlands,
the Highland clans, notwithstanding their proverbial addiction to theft and pillage, behaved with the most praiseworthy forbearance. Everything was carefully paid for by

and few

brief

fame

!

;

;

;

'

;

them during

their march, and it may be mentioned, as
dence of the determination of the chieftains to maintain

evidis-

their followers, that Lochiel, having detected
one of his clan in the act of plunder, notwithstanding his
repeated orders, shot the offender dead upon the spot.
cipline

among

On the following day, the 16th of September, the insurgent army recommenced their march in the direction of
Edinburgh, and towards evening encamped upon a rising
ground near the twelfth mile-stone from the Scottish capital. 2
The next morning, Charles continued his march towards Edinburgh, and at night took up his quarters at
Gray's Mill, within two miles of that city.
It may readily be imagined, that the peaceful inhabitants
of Edinburgh were already sufficiently terrified by the news
of the near approach of the insurgent army, and by the exaggerated notions which prevailed at the time, in regard to
1

History of England from the Peace of Utrecht, vol.
2

Home,

p. 36.

iii.

p. 337.

1GO

THE PRETENDERS AND THEIR ADHERENTS.

[l74o.

the wild and ruthless character of the Highland clans. In
the course, however, of this day, an incident occurred which

spread among them fresh terror and dismay. A body,
amounting to about three hundred and sixty men, and consisting chiefly of the peaceful town-guard of Edinburgh and
of civilians who had volunteered their services in support of
the Government, had been sent forward by the authorities
of the city to a place called Colt Bridge, about two miles
west of the capital, for the purpose of opposing the further
progress of the Highlanders. These individuals had quitted
their homes in the morning amidst many disheartening
Not only were they totally unused to the
circumstances.
circumstances and terror of war, but, moreover, in the course
of their march through the streets of Edinburgh on their
way to Colt Bridge, they had been still further discouraged,
and their spirits depressed, in. consequence of the number of
their terrified fellow-townsmen, Avho

taking advantage of
the many narrow alleys and closes which intersect their
had gladly seized the opportunity of slipping
ancient city
away from the main body of their companions, and returning
In addition to these circumstances,
to their own homes.
those who had still the courage to proceed in the direction
of the dreaded Highlanders, had been exposed, in their march
through the streets of their native city, not only to the tears
and entreaties of their wives and female relatives, who vehemently besought them to consult only their own safety and
to return to their quiet homes, but also to the entreaties and
arguments of their fellow-citizens, who conjured them to
remain behind, and reserve themselves for the defence of the
Their campaign was destined to be as brief as it was
city.
inglorious. On taking up their position at Colt Bridge, they
are graphically described, by one who was present, as drawn
up in the form of a crescent in an open field to the east of
the bridge, and betraying looks which spoke eloquently of
doubt and dismay. At their head was the brave and unfortunate Colonel Gardiner, who, on account of his age and
the infirm state of his health, was wrapped up in a capacious
blue surcoat, with a handkerchief drawn over his hat and
tied under his chin.
In addition to the volunteers

and town-guard of Edinburgh, Colonel Gardiner had under his command the only
two regiments of dragoons which at this period were stationed

PRINCE CHARLES EDWARD.

1745.]

161

His military dispositions were already made.
the village of Corstorphine, about two miles in advance
of Colt Bridge, he had posted a small party of dragoons, with
the view, apparently, of bringing him the earliest intelligence
These men were at
of the approach of the insurgent army.
their post when the Highlanders appeared in view and immediately that the Prince perceived them, he gave orders to
some of the Highland gentlemen who constituted his staff to
"
ride up and reconnoitre them.
These young gentlemen,"
"
to
the
dragoons, fired their pistols
says Home, riding up

in Scotland.

At

;

them, who, without returning one shot, wheeled about
off, carrying their fears into the main body."
The example of these craven dragoons decided the fate of
Gardiner's small army, in which consisted the last remain-

at

and rode

'

ing hope of the people of Edinburgh. The dragoons and
volunteers at Colt Bridge no sooner beheld their fugitive
comrades riding terrified and furious towards them, than
they were seized with the same overwhelming and unaccountable panic. Utterly regardless of the threats and
entreaties of their officers, they commenced a shameful and
precipitate flight, and passing, in full view of the people of
Edinburgh, over the ground at the north side of the city,
where the ISTew Town now stands, they never slackened their
speed till they reached the grounds of their own gallant and
This disgraceful flight
afflicted leader, Colonel Gardiner.
was afterwards familiarly designated and spoken of as the
"canter of Colt Brigg."
"Instantly," says Home, "the
clamour rose, and crowds of people ran about the streets,
crying out that it was madness to think of resistance, since
the dragoons had fled." The scene was witnessed with very
by the Jaopposite feeling by the people of Edinburgh
cobites with a secret satisfaction which they were scarcely
able to conceal but by the great majority of the inhabitants
with feelings of unequivocal consternation and distress. 2
;

;

1

Home,

3

Lord Milton writes

p. 88.

Marquis of Tweeddale on the 16th of SeptemI have grief and not glory that my fears have
been more than fulfilled for more than I feared is come to pass. Yesterday, the two regiments of dragoons fled from the rebel army in the sight
of Edinburgh, where many loyal gentlemen stood armed to defend the city,
which was so dispirited and struck with consternation, that they resolved
to open their gates to the rebels, despairing of speedy relief, and unable to
make a long defence." Home, p. 306.
ber,

1745

"

:

Alas,

my

to the

lord
;

!

THE PRETENDERS AND THEIR ADHERENTS.

162

[1746.

Edinburgh, which at no period could have been regarded

was certainly in a miserable condition to
maintain a siege. The walls, which scarcely at any time had
served any better purpose than preventing the admission of
smuggled goods, were in a most ruinous state, occasionally,
indeed, strengthened with bastions, and provided with embra-

as a fortified city,

sures but, generally speaking, they presented no better defence against the attack of an enemy than might have been
In many places, rows of
supplied by a common park wall.
dwelling-houses had been built from time to time against
the city walls and these again were commanded by other
and loftier houses, such as at present constitute the row of
tenements between the Cowgate Port and the Netherbow
Port. Under the superintendence, indeed, of the celebrated
;

;

mathematician, Maclaurin, some ingenious but fruitless attempts had been made, on the first tidings of the approach
of the dreaded Highlanders, to place the city in a state of
The walls were casually repaired some pieces of
defence.
old and almost unserviceable cannon were collected from
Leith and other stores attempts were made to barricade
the ancient gates, and a guard was appointed for the defence
of each port but still, to every eye that could boast of any
military experience, the possibility of defending the city appeared almost as hopeless as it had been before.
The guard, which was appointed for the defence of the
Northern capital, appears to have been even more inefficient
than the works which they were called upon to protect. It
consisted of sixteen companies of the ancient train-bands of
the city, each company comprising a hundred men, who
were officered from among the peaceful merchants and
burghers of Edinburgh, and who, with the exception of an
annual field-day on the King's birthday, had not appeared
in arms since the Revolution of 1688.
Moreover, when the
hour of danger arrived, not above a third of these individuals
appear to have been forthcoming for the defence of their
native city.
Indeed,
including the few volunteers who
came forward in support of the Government, as well as the
Duke of Buccleugh's tenants, who had been despatched by
that nobleman to assist in the defence of Edinburgh, the
number of individuals who were available for the protection
of the city and of their civil and religious rights amounted
to less than seven hundred men.
How lukewarm and in;

;

;

PBINCE CHARLES EDWABD.

1745.]

1G3

different appears the support extended, at this period, to the

Government and to the foreign House of Brunswick,
contrasted with the devoted and affectionate loyalty which
arrayed, as if by magic, the enthusiastic children of the
mountain and the mist, in the cause of the exiled and unfortunate Stuarts
The determination of the authorities of Edinburgh to
defend the city to the last was for many reasons an extremely unpopular measure with the great majority of the
inhabitants.
Somewhat previous, it may be mentioned, to
the unfortunate affair at Colt Bridge,
when the great
"
"
question of to defend or not defend the city was one of
paramount interest and of general discussion, an incident
occurred which increased still more the general impression
which prevailed against the policy of exposing the city,
either to the hazardous and uncertain issue of a protracted
siege, or to the horrors which would probably attend a
successful assault. "While the Provost and magistrates were
engaged in discussing the merits of this important question,
a Mr Alves suddenly made his appearance, and, on the plea
of having important tidings to communicate, obtained permission to present himself before them. He had by accident,
he declared, found himself in the midst of the rebel army,
where he had held a conversation with the Duke of Perth,
existing

!

with
"

whom

he had formerly been personally acquainted.
"
desired me to inform the citizens of
said,

The Duke," he

Edinburgh, that if they opened their gates, their town
should be favourably treated but that, if they attempted
;

must expect military execution and his
Grace ended by addressing a young man near him with the
title of Royal
Highness, and desiring to know if such were
not his pleasure, to which the other assented." For his
imprudence, or, it may be, treason, in so publicly communiresistance, they

;

cating his message instead of confiding it to the private ear
of the first magistrate, Mr Alves was immediately committed
to prison. The nature, however, of his mission soon became
known to the people of Edinburgh, and the effect which it
produced on the public mind was such as had been eagerly
anticipated by the Jacobites. The inhabitants, whose minds
were already strongly excited on the subject, were now heard
redoubling their outcry against the adoption of this un-

popular measure.

M2

THE PRETENDERS AND THEIR ADHERENTS.

104

[l745.

At this crisis, the Provost of Edinburgh came to the determination of calling a meeting, which it was proposed
should consist of the magistracy of the city and of the
Crown officers. The meeting, such as it was, was convened
forthwith but it was found, when the assembly met, that
the officers of the Crown had already secured their safety by
prudent retreat. The meeting, moreover, was attended by
a number of unauthorized persons, who not only vehemently
insisted that the insurgent army should be admitted within
the city walls, but also, by their clamorous and senseless
vociferations, entirely drowned the voices of those who
argued in favour of the adoption of a different policy.
It was in the midst of this din, that a letter was handed
in at the door, addressed to the Lord Provost, Magistrates, and
Town Council of Edinburgh. It was immediately opened
the important
by one of the Council, who at once proclaimed
"
fact that it contained the superscription,
CHARLES, P. K."
The Provost instantly rose to address the meeting, and after
strongly but vainly protesting against so treasonable a document being received or read in the presence of the King's
officers, took his departure, accompanied by several members
of the Town Council, to the Goldsmith's Hall. The letter,
however, in spite of the objections raised by the principal
magistrate, was eventually read to the meeting, and proved
;

jj,

to be as follows

:

"From our Camp, 16th September, 1745.
in a condition to make our way into the
capital of His Majesty's ancient kingdom of Scotland, we
hereby summon you to receive us, as you are in duty bound
to do and in order to it, we hereby require you, upon receipt of this, to summon the Town Council, and take proper
measures for securing the peace and quiet of the city, which
we are very desirous to protect. But if you suffer any of
the Usurper's troops to enter the town, or any of the cannon,
arms, or ammunition now in it (whether belonging to the
"

BEING now

;

public or private persons) to be carried off, we shall take it
as a breach of your duty, and a heinous offence against the
King and us. and shall resent it accordingly.
promise
to preserve all the rights and liberties of the city, and the
one of His Majesty's subjects.
particular property of every
But if any opposition be made to us, we cannot answer for
the consequences, being firmly resolved at any rate to enter

We

rejoined their friends at Edinburgh. CHARLES. it was decided. consisting of Baillie Hamilton and other members of the Council. 2 Home. evidently aware of the motives which induced them to seek delay. with the view of gaining time till Cope should have disembarked his troops at Dunbar. source. * Ibid. R. if any of the inhabitants are us. The frightened magistrates were again summoned to the Council. he added. 1745. to his own and his father's declarations. most of whom were gone to bed. : . . and there to be obeyed as the son and and lastly. in that case. as well as the individual property. wearied and dispirited. P." 3 Another of their instructions was. p. as a sufficient guarantee both for the safeguard of the rights and liberties." the city . and be on his march to the rescue of the capital. was " to beg a suspension of hostilities till nine o'clock in the morning. Accordingly the deputation. p. and as no new or more feasible line of policy was suggested by any one present. in order to negotiate the terms of a capitulation but with instructions to delay as long as possible the final ratification of the treaty. were. of the people his present demands. the object and intention of such a requisition must have ap1 Home.] 165 and. 92. he said. that the magistrates might have an opportunity of conversing with the citizens. Charles received them with his usual courtesy.PRINCE CHARLES EDWARD. but. 2 It was ten o'clock at night when the deputation. that the deputation should again wait upon the Prince." Even to the most obtuse. to obtain from Charles an explanation of what was meant by requiring them to receive him as " Prince Regent. as a last but vain re. and once more use their endeavours to procure delay. they must not expect to be treated as prisoners of war. he returned them the kind of answer which they ought to have anticipated. 95. it was decided that a deputation should forthwith wait upon the Prince. his father emptorily demanded to be informed of their final resolution before bwo o'clock in the morning. Their object at this particular moment. according to Home. to be of Edinburgh received into the city. He appealed. found in arms against 1 In consequence of the receipt of this communication. set out on their mission to wait on the Prince at Gray's Mill. he perrepresentative of the King. The time allowed them for deliberation was sufficiently short.

CHAPTER VI. their leaders being engaged in discussing a variety of prowhen. was now . according as their leader might deem fit. and whose orders were to make themselves masters of Edinburgh before daybreak. who were furnished with a sufficient quantity of gunpowder to blow up the gates of the city if necessary. fathers and with a respite of only two hours' repose. as we have already mentioned. the civil functionaries tion. he had already sent forward a body of eight hundred Highlanders. in order to give egress to the hackney-coach which had conveyed the second deputation to Gray's Mill. the gates were suddenly opened. They lay in ambush for some time in the vicinity of the Netherbow Port. by the Rebels. of the object of the magistrates of Edinburgh in negotiating for delay. This party was confided to the guidance of Murray of Broughton. either by storm or surprise. Preparations for Battle. Fully aware. Marches to give Battle to Sir John Cope.166 THE PEETENDEES AND THEIE ADHEBENTS. jects for making themselves masters of the city. and which having carried the deputies to their homes. about five o'clock in the morning. The result of their second negotiation was even less satisfactory than their first. Enthusiastic Behaviour of Mrs Murray of Broughton. They were formally reminded of the Prince's former assurance to them that he had given them his final answer and they were further informed that they could on no account be again admitted to his presence. the Prince would have condescended to enter into the desired explanaAt two o'clock in the morning. under the command of the celebrated Lochiel. peared sufficiently clear but even had it been otherwise. who had been selected for the duty on account of his intimate knowledge of the localities. Occupation of Edinburgh. . Gives a Ball at Holyrood. [l745. Arrival of Charles in the Capital of his Ancestors. THIS eventful night the eve of the triumphal entry of Charles into the capital of the ancient kingdom of his forewas passed by the young adventurer on the ground. . it was extremely unlikely that. again set out for Gray's Mill. at such a moment.

able occurrence. at Holyrood House. and made " It was about five o'clock themselves masters of the city.PRINCE CHARLES EDWARD. 1745. Mrs Murray of Broughton. who entered the city was a Captain Evan Macgregor. they found that the Highlanders were masters of the city. than the bystanders are said to have rent the air with their acclamations. in the 1 ! ! stood the heralds and pursuivants in their splendid and " courtly dresses. " when the rebels entered morning. Not a moment was lost in taking advantage of this favourIn an instant. When the inhabitants of Edinburgh awaked in the morning. Chambers. of the young man. They immediately parties to all the other gates. a Scottish Charles was so delighted with the daring gallantry baronet. p." The first person. occupied their posts as quietly as one guard relieves another. in the open space which that surrounded the famous Cross of Edinburgh." declarations." says Home. rushed through the gateway. grandson of Sir Evan Murray Macgregor. Perhaps the most remarkable figure in this striking scene was that of a beautiful and enthusiastic woman. making the soldiers upon duty prisoners. and the commission which conferred the Regency on the Prince. 96. surrounded by the armed and picturesque-looking Highlanders. which. concluded their task. headed by Lochiel. note. sent Edinburgh.] peacefully returning to 167 owner's quarters without the its walls. . it may be mentioned. who. uniting with the ] Home. 27. was seen distributing to the bystanders the white ribbon the famous emblem of devotion to the cause of the Stuarts. who. who solemnly proclaimed King James the and concluded the ceremony by reading the royal Eighth. 2 The day had only just dawned. when. Lochiel and his gallant Camerons were seen drawn up in military array. The scene altogether was one of heart-stirNo sooner had the heralds ring and extraordinary interest. eight hundred Highlanders. p. to the astonishment of the inhabitants. he promoted him to the rank of Major. and to the town guard. seated on horseback and with a drawn sword in her hand. that the same night. Alas venerable and interesting relic of the past associated with so many memorable and romantic scenes in Scottish history has since been removed by the sacrilegious orders of the civic authorities of Edinburgh Opposite the Cross.

completed the enthusiasm of the moment. to take possession of the seat of Government. and the triumphs of his ill-fated race. In order to avoid the fire of the guns from the castle of Edinburgh. which the painter might well take delight in committing to the canvas. with all its surrounding scenery. Sir John Cope was actively engaged in landing his troops at Dunbar. The simple fact has been recorded. Arthur's Seat and Salisbury Crags. attended by the Duke of Perth on one side. wild and exhilarating notes of the bagpipe. every foot of which was intimately con- nected with the pastimes. Let us pause. 168 [l745." says one who seems to have been a witness of the scene. with the view of marching to the relief of the capital. and their arms with waving white handkerchiefs. " a number of ladies strained their voices with acclamations. * Ibid. till he reached an eminence below St Anthony's "Well. within a few short Aveeks. It may be mentioned. While these events were passing in Edinburgh. to consider how extraordinary was the change which had taken place. . Of the Prince's feelings at this moment no particular account has been handed down to us. employed in breaking up his camp at Gray's Mill." In the surrounding crowd. in the destinies of the young and daring adventurer. Charles advanced towards Holyrood by a southLeaving his army encamped in a erly and circuitous route. 1 Home. for a short space of time. that at the very time when he was l . in honour of the day. the sorrows. was on his way. Charles having learned the success of his manoauvre. p. where. and by Lord Elcho on the other. and could only have served to add to the picturesque effect of a memorable scene. a hollow site between spot known as the Hunter's Bog. but they must have been of such a nature as to be much more easily imagined than described.THE PRETENSES AND THEIE ADIIEBENTS. for a moment. that on reaching this spot. "In the windows. indeed. he rode forward. continued silently gazing on the interesting scene. he saw extended before him in full view the ancient palace of his forefathers. for the first time. at the head of his army. there were to be seen who " showed their dislike by a stubborn many countenances "2 silence but these constituted by far the minority. indeed. He had parted from his father at Rome animated by high hopes and gallant resolves but he had then received . he alighted from his horse. 102. and.

in less than the short space of two months. by whom he was received with loud and continued acclamations. vast concourse of people. at every step. and of playing that great game of which he stakes were a coffin or a crown. .PRIXCE CHARLES EDWABD. 1 Lockhart Papers. by the gallantry of the exploit. by the charm which usually attaches itself to the sight of royalty. vol. and discovered. the cold looks of the courtiers of Versailles. that a different and adverse policy influenced the counsels of Louis the Fifteenth he was doomed to encounter. captivated by the novelty of the scene. Unquestionably many of these persons were confirmed Jacobites but by far the majority seem to have consisted of the fickle and senseless multitude.] 1G9 an invitation from the first Power in Europe to enlist himbeneath its banners: he had hoped to be the companion- self in-arms of the great Saxe. and to be borne by the mighty legions of France in triumph to Whitehall. where a breach had been made in the wall l to admit of a free inAt this spot he was met by a gress for him and his suite. but with the wary and the old arraying himself with a band as gallant and as devoted as had ever fought in the cause of his family beneath the glorious banners of Montrose or Dundee. And yet Charles was at this . . p. he found. near Priestfield. that he was the mere dupe of the Machiavelian policy of the French ministers. 1745. on reaching France. we have seen him landing among the desolate rocks of the Western Islands we have seen him. . not only with the enthusiastic and the young. to fight by the side of that celebrated man. and now. period only in his twenty -fifth year The Prince entered the King's Park. but too late. and of the venerable palace of his forefathers. . These hopes had been signally and Instead of the triumph which he miserably disappointed. overcoming the scruples of a proverbially cautious race rendering himself almost an idol. had anticipated. It was then that the young and the gallant Prince came to the determination of trusting to the resources of his own genius. and perhaps by the graceful horsemanship and the fine bearing of the young and handsome Prince. by his own native powers of eloquence and persuasion. who. and almost without friends. without military stores. we find him taking quiet possession of the ancient capital of Scotland. 446. contributed loudly to the rapturous Avelcome which ! . Without pecuniary resources. ii.

notwithstanding his Whig principles. They acknowledged that he was a goodly person. [1745. it is evident was in no slight degree infected with the prevailing enthusiasm of the . 99. when he was about to enter the palace of his lathers. the surprise together by long and loud huzzas. amidst a vast crowd of spectators. a tartan short coat without the plaid. or because he rode well and looked graceful on horseback. a blue bonnet on his head. but not like a hero or a conqueror. whole scene. with his own hair combed over the front he wore the Highland dress that is. Charles proceeded through the park to Holyrood by way of the Duke's Walk so called from having been the favourite 1 Lockhart Papers. though he was very near the palace. the royal palace at the Abbey of Holyrood House. the celebrated John Home. but they observed that.THE PEETENDEBS AXD 170 TIIETE ADHEEENTS. who. The Whigs looked upon him with other eyes. who. wise people saw well enough we had much to do still. expressing their joy and Indeed. so quick and amazing seemed the change. moment. . : ." who was himself a " The park was full of people spectator of the scene. they said. The Jacobites were charmed with his ap. was rather like a dream. ii. invited Charles to take possession of the palace of his ances" tors. * Home. whom he resembled." According to another contemporary writer. and on his breast the star of the Order of St Andrew. either to render himself more conspicious. 488. p. even in that triumphant hour. the air of his countenance was languid and melancholy that he looked like a gentleman and a man of fashion. some. in his figure as in his fortune. mounted his horse." " Such. of a fair complexion he had a light-coloured periwig. the author of " Douglas. The figure and presence of Charles Stuart were not ill-suited to his lofty He was in the prime of youth. flocked together to see this uncommon sight. tall and handpretensions. According to a he came to contemporary journalist. though. no doubt. . p. Charles stood some time in the park. to show himself to the people and then. however. is the language of one of the staunchest partisans of the House of Brunswick one. as I have been told by many. pearance they compared him to Robert Bruce. from town and country. vol. amongst whom was the author of this history all of them ' impatient to see this extraordinary person. in describing the triumphant progress of Charles Edward towards Holyrood. .

100. he dismounted. who had been out during the rebellion of 1715. moreover. the existing Government." thus conspicuous was James Hepburn." 2 At the moment when Charles made his appearance in front of Holyrood Palace. a cannon shot was fired at him from the guns of the castle. since the . 1745. and who had ever since continued a staunch adherent of the House of Stuart. James the Second. of Keith. best Whigs. had any scion of that foreign family even in their pride of power and pomp of place and circumstance been received with a tithe of that rapturous enthusiasm which now welcomed the young and proscribed representative of the House of Stuart to the desolate halls of his family. a gentleman of high accomplishment. The mob following him during his progress with repeated acclamations pressing forward to kiss " his hands. and honour. a gentleman stepped out of the crowd. It struck a portion of the building known as James the Fifth's Tower. " When Charles. . manliness. and beloved by some of the says Home. When he was near the door. though by no means an advocate of the indefeasible and divine right of kings. yet so great was his abhorrence of the Act of Union between England and Scotland. and fell into the court-yard below. and walked along the piazza towards the apartment of the Duke of Hamilton. and his repugnance to the German sovereigns who had usurped the place of the Stuarts. accession of the House of Hanover in 1714.] 171 retreat of his grandfather. " came to the palace. and dimming his boots with their kisses and " while numbers were compelled to retire satisfied tears with having been able to touch his clothes.." opposition to. drew his sword. p. Though opposed to the government of James the Second. should himself to a visionary idea of the independence of Scotland. and to the principles which ' had lost that monarch his crown. walked upThe person who rendered himself stairs before Charles. Never. the model of ancient simplicity. 2 Ibid. and " He was idolized. occasioning no more mischief than scattering a quantity sacrifice 1 Home.PRINCE CHARLES EDWARD. during his residence in Scotland." says Home. that he determined on adopting the cause of the adventurer. and chose this singular mode of displaying his dislike of. which stood open to receive him. " by the Jacobites. who regretted that this accomplished gentleman. p. and raising his arm aloft. 101.

passed into the palace without taking any notice of it whatever. Lord Balinerino.172 THE PRETENDERS AND TUEIR ADHERENTS. Charles had derived a considerable accession of strength. Previous to his arrival at Holyrood. It having been by this time ascertained that Sir John Cope was on his march from the North to give him battle. At night. The incident altered not for a moment the countenance of Charles. when he proposed that they should break up their encampment the moved . or to the sympathy which his sufferings awakened in them when the star of his splendour was set. which proved of the greatest service to him in the present emergency. By far the majority of the women of Scotland were already but too well disposed to his cause nor did it require any ocular demonstration of his personal graces and accomplishments to add. Sir David Murray. Sir Stuart Threipland. of rubbish. in the immediate neighbourhood of which place his small army was bivouacking. who. and when he was skulking a proscribed and hunted fugitive among the wild fastnesses of the Highlands. the Prince on the same night summoned a council of the Highland chieftains. Among these were the Earl of Kellie. and of the grace with which he The in the dance. apparently perfectly unconcerned. in consequence of having been joined by several persons of influence and note. which fell with it in its descent. The day also after his arrival at Edinburgh. and on the following day by a party of the Grants of Grlenmoriston. and which perhaps was the first that had enlivened its deserted saloons. since the days of Queen Mary and David Rizzio. ladies of the North were loud in their applause of the Prince's handsome person. either to the romantic enthusiasm which they conceived for him in the days of his greatness. . It may be mentioned also. that from the military magazine of Edinburgh he obtained a thousand stand of arms. on the night of the 19th of September. his standard was joined by Lord Nairn. retraced his steps to the village of Duddingstone. Having spent an entire day at Holyrood. with about five hundred men of the clan Mac Lauchlan. Charles. which has derived immortality from the pen of the great modern master of romance. Charles gave that celebrated ball in the gallery of Holyrood. That gay and me- morable scene was never forgotten by those who were present. and the younger Lockhart of Carnwath. [l745.

1745. He still. insisted on a compromise. they said. As the country. they were ruined and undone . the 20th of . that he could venture to assure his Royal Highness. few. and therefore it was not easy to conjecture in what manner they would conduct themselves. inasmuch as the private men loved the cause in which they had embarked. had been long at peace. victory and defeat would lead to the same result. it is needless to add. Should any accident. befall him. it was certain they would stand by their leaders to the last. \vith the object of forcing Cope to an immediate engagement. On this. however. The Prince. the Prince next expressed his determination of charging at the head of his army. and would alike expose them to the tender mercies of the Government. Charles still continuing to persist in his original resolution. would be found in the thickest of the combat and.] 173 next morning. but also from his knowledge of the Highland character. that the Highland gentlemen. was eventually compelled to yield to their united threats and entreaties. He added. for the first time. the chieftains opposed themselves to his wishes. however. not only from his having served in the French army. At an early hour on the following morning. . . and there make the best terms they could for themselves with the Government. This opinion having been deemed sufficiently satisfactory. though respectfully. and expressed his fixed determination of leading the second line. having consulted together for a short troops. being the best qualified to deliver an opinion on the subject. if any. This proposition having met with the unanimous approbation of the Highland chieftains. inasmuch as. requested permission to name Macdonald of Keppoch as their spokesman that gentleman. they said.PEIXCE CHAELES EDWABD. time. he said. to them at least. of the private men had ever been in action. and march in the direction of the enemy. Keppoch addressed himself to the Prince. and were warmly devoted to their several chieftains. at least. which rendered him peculiarly competent to judge of what was likely to be the issue of an encounter between the undisciplined mountaineers and a regular force. It was then that. the chieftains even went so far as firmly. to express their determination to return to their own homes. Charles next inquired significantly of them in what manner they conceived their retainers would behave when brought into action with regular The chiefs.

My informant remembered. 1 Chambers. crossed the river Esk at the bridge of Musselburgh the same bridge which two centuries before had been traversed by the Scottish army on their way to the field of Pinkie. and the flap of his tartan coat thrown back by the wind. as yesterday. " who in early youth had seen them pass. or who rejected them. to describe the memorable pageant. Charles. his graceful carriage and comely looks. in 1827. who commanded the van. Handasyde. full of high hope and elated by the promise of adventure. where they were secure from the attacks of and might pour down with greater force on their opponents." says a modern writer. led his forces down-hill in the direction of Tranent. The Highlanders strode on with their squalid clothes and various arms. and crossing the street of Newbigging again entered the post-road It was at this place. to the south of the Pinkie Gardens. I have flung away the scabbard. of Fisherrow. having only three men in each rank. drew his sword amidst their enthusiastic shouts. The Prince rode amidst his officers. emerging from Duddingstone Park." The army.174 THE PRETENDERS AND THEIR ADHERENTS. As they defiled along. and exclaimed. l lamity. was able. his long light hair straggling below his neck. diverging to the left. and then. could not help wishing him good fortune. The lady was the late Mrs. 32. the Highland army. " Gentlemen. Desirous of securing for the Highlanders the advantage of fighting on rising ground. " A lady. ascertained that Sir John Cope was encamped with his army a few miles in advance. where he halted them by the side of the post-road. looking around them with an air of fierce resolution. They then proceeded along the post-road till they came to Edge Bucklin Brae. stubble-fields beside the road. preferring to amble over the dry . placing himself at their head. that Lord George Murray. so as to make the star dangle for a moment clear in the air by its silken ribbon. He was viewed with admiration by the simple villagers and even those who were ignorant of his claims." Leaving the town of Musselburgh to the left. [l745. a little to the west of that place. and at least no ca. September. at a little distance from the flank of the column. commenced its march in a column of very narrow front. the insurgent army proceeded by way of the old Kirk road to Inveresk. in the neighbourhood of Preston. It may be mencavalry. . their rough limbs and uncombed hair. p. he advanced for some distance up Fawside Hill.

The people of the country. event. p. the cannon." says Home. Having completed the disembarkation of his troops on the 18th.PEINCE CHARLES EDWABD. indeed. At Dunbar. he was compelled to make his way to Cope at Dunbar attended by . who had quitted Edinburgh on the evening before the capture of the capital. 105." . A few Lowland gentlemen the most considerable of whom was the Earl of Home. flocked from all quarters. Cope had been met on his landing by the judges and other civil officers of the Crown.] 175 tioned. he commenced his march on the following day in the direction of Edinburgh. who held a commission in the Guards had hastened to join the General on his landing but they were attended only by a very few followers. which was responded to with vehement alacrity by the other party. when his descendant would fain have exhibited a similar display of zeal in the cause of the House of Brunswick. " made a great show. It little service was curious. raised a loud shout. and. in his short progress from Dunbar to Preston. the ancestor of Lord Home had been enabled to greet Charles the First at the head of six hundred retainers and yet now. with infinite concern and anxiety for the At Inverness. When the Highland army halted at Tranent. except that . only two servants ! 1 Home. a distance only of about twenty miles. 1745. extended for several miles along the road. beheld this uncommon spectacle. and at Dunbar he was rejoined by the two regiments of dragoons who had fled before the insurgent army at Colt Bridge. with a long train of baggagecarts. . " His little army. The latter. to observe the extraordinary change which had taken place within a few years. the cavalry. as regarded the feudal system in the Lowlands. long unaccustomed to war and arms. were likely to to the cause of the Government. also. that the last two miles of the march were performed in full view of the enemy. the two opposing forces were separated by scarcely more than half a mile from each other. ' Cope had been reinforced by two hundred of Lord London's men. It now becomes necessary to trace the steps of Sir John Cope. on the first appearance of the Highlanders. to see an army going to fight a battle in East Lothian and. their example prove of might possibly influence others. Scarcely a century since. the infantry.

was unusually so. two by two. as the wine-house to the Abbess of Andouillet's digression. chiefly from among the Edinburgh volun- teers. that two of his companions "never came back to Haddington. an unlucky north-country muleteer. " we may perhaps be pardoned On for the passing approaching Musselburgh." says Sir Walter. kept by a cleanly old woman who was eminent for the excellence of called Luckie F her oysters and sherry. Luckie's sign. a writer's (that is.176 THE PRETEKDEES A>*D THEIK ADHEEENTS. . to pass by on his errand to join Prince Charlie. As the story of their disappearance on the eve of the battle of Preston Pans is somewhat curious. and guessed their business he saw the tide would make it impossible for them to return along the sands as they had come. He chanced saw the two volunteers through the window. The patrol were both bon vivants . dores. who had given his indentures the slip and taken the white cockade. who willingly promised their services to patrol the different roads which led to the Highland camp. lad. He there. . That writer informs us. and the latter in a military capacity. Unluckily there was. sufficiently well known as Lord Grardenstone and General Cunninghame. " Among these individuals was Home. the author of Douglas. agreeable companion besides." of whose valuable narrative of the Rebellion we have so often availed ourselves. They had scarcely got settled at some right panwith a bottle of sherry as an accompaniment. about sixteen miles east of Edinburgh. As there existed the possibility of the Highlanders effecting one of their rapid marches and surprising the royal army in the night. at a place nigh its conjunction with the sea. and make their reports to the officer who commanded the piquet. knew them. one of them. and as we are enabled to narrate it in the language of Sir Walter Scott. proved as great a temptation to this vigilant forlorn-hope. attorney's) apprentice. a snug thatched tavern. the former having risen to distinction in a civil. as some Jacobite devil would have it. at the opposite side. the General selected six- teen young men. and the heap of oyster-shells deposited near her door." These persons were. Cope lay encamped with his army in a field to the west of Haddington. in after-life. and whose instructions were to return alternately. and a gay. During the night of the 19th. it being then low water. witty. [l74o. whom we remember in the situation of a senator. "they avoided the bridge to escape observation. somewhat ominously. when. and crossed the Esk.

" l They were carried. moving round his front to the south so as to face the enemy. when they suddenly made their appearance to the southward. to the Highland camp at Duddingstone. and accordingly had arranged his front towards that quarter. a Mr Colquhoun Grant. the only place of crossing the Esk and how he contrived it I could never learn. He immediately changed the order of battle. p. p. Cope learned for the first time that the insurgents were in full march to meet him. placed his foot in route. The plain before him appeared to be well suited to serve as the scene of an engagement. * Home. and handed over to the custody of the officer in command of the Prince's body-guard. as the cavalry and infantry were joined. The reader. the Highlanders would not venture to wait the attack of so complete an army. when he turned off and took the low road by St Germains and Seaton. 177. who vouched for their innocence. and accordingly. it seems. however. xixvi. . that there would be no battle. and not long after he had taken his ground the insurgent forces appeared in view." 2 As the van of the royal army was entering the flat piece of land which lies between Seaton and Preston. will remember that the Highland army had adopted a circuitous and accordingly. Cope had anticipated that the Highlanders would march to meet him from the west. and the Norland whipper: snapper surrounded and made prisoners of the two unfortunate volunteers before they could draw a trigger. Cope resumed his march to- wards Edinburgh.] PRINCE CHABLES EDWABD. On the morning of the 20th." says " Home. 106. but the courage and assurance of bis province are proverbial. and for many years afterwards. the officers assured the spectators. after advancing a short distance further. vol. proceeding along the post-road till he reached Huntington. " In this march. he gave the order for his army to halt.1745. who instantly denounced them as spies. this unexpected movement entirely disconcerted the plans of the English general. for. afterwards a respectable writer to the signet in Edinburgh. which was then. Fortunately they were recognised by an old acquaintance. and subsequently contrived the means by which they effected their escape. and. of whom no small number attended them. narrow. and proposed to hang them accordingly. 1 Quarterly Review. 177 fore placed himself in ambush upon the steep. impracticable bridge.

drawn by a little scribes as . and in his front the town of Tranent and the Highland army. though at some distance. p." l Charles. consisted of fifty mounted ciplined troops. Gallant Eelative Strength of the opposing Armies. 104. CHAPTER VII. . if such it could be termed. His right was covered by Colonel Gardiner's park-wall and by the village of Preston on his left. Order of Battle. gentlemen and their retainers and their artillery comprised a single iron gun. Iir . Conduct of Charles after the Battle. would probably dispirit them not a little were it left behind. 178 [l745. however. and which one who saw it de" a small gun without a carriage. the English general had greatly the advantNot only was he at the head of regular and well-disage. but he artillery. Charge of the Rebels. point of numbers the two opposing armies were pretty equally matched that of Charles numbering about two thousand five hundred men and the force under Cope amounting to about two thousand three hundred. stood the village of Seaton and the sea in his rear were the villages of Preston Pans and Cockenzie. few their if any of the insurgent army had ever been under fire cavalry.THE PRETENDERS AND THEIR ADHERENTS. and accordingly it was allowed to encumber them ou ket's that it 1 Home. had proposed leaving this useless piece of lumber behind him. the chieftains interposed Their men. . In every other respect. however. . Each wing was flanked by a regiment of dragoons and by three pieces of artillery. when he commenced his march from Duddingstone. Highland horse. attached so extraordiin its behalf. Total Defeat of the English Forces at Preston Pans. . Heroic Conduct and Death of Colonel Gardiner. was held in unusual awe by the rude Highlanders. was also supported by cavalry and of which the latter. they said. . To his surprise. the centre of the line. at this period. which was of no other service than to be fired as the signal of march. On the other hand. " nary a degree of importance to the possession of the mus- mother" (as cannon was then denominated by them).

In this emergency.] PRINCE CHARLES EDWARD. if not impracticable. having pronounced the passage of the morass to be in the highest degree hazardous. Charles and his friends came to the unpalatable determination of deferring the attack till the following day. Two wooden spoons were compelled N 2 . Mounted on a little white pony. volunteered his services to decide the doubtful point. and calmly continued his survey. On his return. it was decided that the Highland army should pass the night on the ground. it may be mentioned that many of the Highlanders were without fire-arms that some had only a broadsword. that in the course of this day. Charles had dined with the Duke of Perth. As the latter expressed the utmost eagerness to be led immediately against the enemy. . and another of his officers. in the mean time. and having removed a stone or two. he led his horse over it.1745. and to take advantage of the fiery enthusiasm of the moment. It has already been mentioned. others only a dirk or pistol and that the only weapon of numbers formidable as it afterwards proved was the blade of a scythe affixed to the handle of a their march. The night was a cold and frosty one. that when Charles halted with his forces at Tranent. a distance of scarcely more than The half a mile separated the two armies from each other. at a small inn in the village of Tranent. or common broth of the country. and. the question became one which it was of the greatest importance to solve without delay. he quietly dismounted. he carefully and deliberately examined the nature of the ground. surrounded by his humble but devoted retainers. It may be mentioned. . a gallant officer. over which it was doubtful whether the Highlanders could be conducted with safety. he rode with the utmost coolness over the ground which separated the two armies. ground which divided them consisted of a deep morass. Their food consisted only of the coarse kail. and in the open field. pitchfork. but by the unfortunate descendant of Robert Bruce on a bed of peastraw. and. Encountering a stone dyke in his way. to the admiration of his Highland friends. apparently utterly regardless of the shots which were fired at him. By Sir John Cope it was passed in cheerful quarters at Cockenzie. 179 In addition to these inefficient means for carrying on a successful warfare. and as Charles was naturally willing to gratify their impatience. Colonel Ker of Gradon.

. when their approach was at length discovered by a party of dragoons. that notwithstanding the difficulties of their position. who. unencumbered with baggage or artillery. but also without even being seen by them. The latter.THE PEETENDEES AND THEIE ADHEBENTS. It was then unanimously agreed. and after a short deliberawas unanimously agreed that. The landlady. who were sleeping in clusters around. The night was now far advanced. and listened eagerly to the grateful intelligence. portant fact. were easily aroused. and. to suffice for the three and only a butcher's knife was produced for them to cut their meat. Murray to the presence of Charles. The night was extremely dark not a whisper was heard among the mountaineers during and when the morning at length dawned. from the unromantic circumstance of his having been accustomed to shoot snipes over the surrounding country. being ignorant of their rank. by passing the morass where it presented the fewest dangers. but Lochiel and the other chieftains were instantly sent for. There was present at this council a gentleman. that not only could he enable the Highland army to pass the morass without being exposed to the fire of the enemy. commenced their rapid and stealthy march. . The Highlanders. with Anderson for an attack should immediately be made on the royal forces. Highlanders. 180 [l745. Mr Anderson of Whitburgh. it their guide. had carefully concealed her pewter. and subsequently on Lord George Murray. than he waited. was intimately acquainted with its dangers Modesty had kept him silent during but the council had no sooner broken up. from the fear in which she stood of the predatory habits of the . contented them- tion. To the intelligence afforded by Anderson may perhaps be attributed the successful result of the battle of Preston Pans. which sat in deliberation till a late hour. wrapped in their plaids. an attack should be made at break of day. who sat up in his bed of pea-straw. their advance they had the satisfaction of finding themselves still concealed from the enemy by a frosty mist. He was immediately conducted by Lord George and local peculiarities. whom he found and communicated to them the imasleep in his quarters. however. At night Charles summoned a council of war. which they were forced to eat with their fingers. on Hepburn of Keith. . the debate . it is said. in the first instance. The morass was nearly passed.

indeed. to their accustomed and furious onset. of having suffered his men to become disheartened by keeping them on the defensive. which made a most gallant appearance. The two armies had approached within a short distance of each other." he said. while the Highlanders had every reason to feel dismay at the sight of the firm front of the British infantry. indeed. in a military point of view. and revealed to them their respective strength and positions. of which they stood in such extraordinary awe. It was a sight which was calculated to inspirit the one. " Some of the rebel officers. when the morning mist gradually passed away. " Follow me. gentlemen. Cope. " and. by the blessing of God. and happy people. and only a few words to urge them Some delay. " have since acknowledged. ." Sir John Cope no sooner learned that the Highlanders were on their way to attack him. and his disciplined forces might well have surveyed with contempt the rude mass which had the audacity to confront him . and reluctantly consented to withdraw The prince placed himself gallantly at the their claims.] PKINCE CHARLES EDWABD. both horse and foot. than he exerted all his enHe has been accused ergies to prepare for their reception. or of the measures which he adopted to insure success. I will this day make you a free insisting line. there is no reason for questioning. if so it may be termed. 181 selves with firing off their pistols. .1745. as much as it was to intimidate the other. and then galloped off rapidly to communicate the alarm to the main body of the royalists. and at the prospect of encountering the sweeping blast of the dreaded artillery. that when they first saw the King's army. but with the single exception of this oversight. took place. that the two latter clans yielded to the personal entreaties of Charles. head of the second fine. so proverbially famous in the military annals of England. almost at random. either the propriety of the position which he took up. It required but a short space of time to array the Highlanders in order of battle." says Home. in consequence of the great clan of Macdonald on preferring their claim to form the right of the This claim (which was founded principally on a tradition that Robert Bruce had conferred that honour on them at the battle of Bannockburn) was violently contested by the Camerons and Stuart and it was not till some time had elapsed.

were immediately ordered to advance to their support. which was broken into clumps and clusters. had been strictly enjoined to aim at the noses of the horses with their swords. In this manner. he beheld the clans deLord George Murray preparing for the charge. it was hoped. These injunctions were implicitly obeyed by the Highlanders. The Highlanders. national dirk and target. and thus. note. and. previous to the engagement. that Sir John Cope had only time to ride once along the front of his lines. the Highlanders paused for a moment to utter a brief prayer. and then looked at their own line. the whole army might be thrown into confusion. once more drawing their bonnets over their brows. on the mist clearing away. Taking their bonnets from their heads. were seen galloping in all directions from the field. and then throwing away their fire-arms. and such was the steady and galling fire with which they were received by their opponents. . they drew their long swords. The cavalry made but one charge. p. they fired their pieces as soon as they came within musket-length of their opponents. and disheartened by the . and then. that the former reeled round. and after wavering for a few seconds. 1 Home. The Camerons were the first who reached the enemy's Bushing forward with headlong rapidity. when. but it was only to share the same fate. many of the Camerons and Stuarts rushed directly and with such effect.182 THE PBETENDEES AND THETE ADHEBENTS. grasping in their left hands the lines. against the muzzles of the cannon that almost instantaneously the whole of the frightened arThe dragoons tillery-men were seen flying before them. with the sun shining on their arms. they expected that the Highland army would be defeated in a moment. termined that the royalists should have no time to recover from their surprise instantly issued the welcome order to his foDowers to engage. they darted forward through the smoke in which they had enveloped themselves." So rapid had been the advance of the Highlanders. [l745. they rushed impetuously forward. it being rightly conjectured that a horse so wounded would immediately wheel about. No longer supported by artillery. and swept from the field. and to address a few words of exhortation to his followers. 18. uniting their famous war-cry with the clamour of the wild and heart-stirl ring pibroch.

" he lantly within a few paces of him. throwing down their arms lest they should impede them in their flight. and. we saw no other enemy on the field of battle than those who were lying on the ground killed and wounded. " in less than five minutes we obtained a complete victory. was seen to lay more than one of the insurgents dead at his feet. that in the second line. infantry." During the engagement.] CHABLES EDWABD. one good and gallant man. 36. he was pausing to consider . they fled in the utmost confusion from the field. who was present in the battle. The feelings of this highminded man. the long-lamented Colonel Gardiner. Although he had been twice severely wounded in his attempts to lead his dragoons against the enemy. upheld almost alone the tarnished character of his countrymen. where I was by the side of the Prince. as it was soon stopped up by the fugitives as also along the walls of the enclosures. ' in what manner act." says the Chevalier de Johnstone. without 1 Chevalier de Johnstone's Memoirs. It was gained with such rapidity. The Highlanders made a terrible slaughter of the enemy. inlittle inclination to prolong the conflict. jirid left almost alone on the field. he still persisted in remaining on the field. . " Thus. where they killed without trouble those who attempted to climb them. the English infantry showed but For a moment. they seemed resolute in maintaining their ancient character for steadiness and endurance. sooner. though we were not more than fifty paces behind our first line. on witnessing the disgraceful flight of his companions. and his weakness from loss of blood. Deserted by his followers. running always as fast as we could to overtake them. 183 sight of the flying dragoons. not having been able to find Lord Greorge.PBItfCE 1745. may be readily imagined. fighting gal" Those brave fellows. notwithstanding the pain which he suffered. p. his duty to his sovereign required him to when he chanced to perceive a small party of the royal any officer to command them. and poured a wellNo directed fire into the centre of the Highland forces. however. and near enough never to lose sight of them. particularly at the spot where the road begins to run between the two enclosures. deed. with a terrible carnage on the part of the enemy. did they perceive the large masses of wild Highlanders pouring forward to grapple with them in close combat. and. than they were overtaken by the same panic which had seized their companions .

gave him a stroke. 'Fire on. on taking him up. where he ' ' changed his dress. at the distance of about two miles from the spot of ground on which the Colonel fell. "he rode up to them. my lads. another Highlander. where he continued breathing and frequently groaning till about eleven in the forenoon. he took it in his left hand.' . His obsequies were honoured with the pre- . either with a broad-sword or a Lochaber axe. on the hinder part of his head. and waved it as a signal to him to retreat. where he had usually attended divine service. Dr Doddridge. he was ' ! . he opened his eyes." "Immediately. exclaimed. returned with a cart as soon as possible. " The moment he fell. which makes it something questionable whether he were altogether insensible. which was not till near two hours after the engagement. but also stripped of his upper garments and boots. yet. disguised like a miller's servant. he conveyed him to the church of Tranent. September 24. The hurry of the action was then pretty well over. not only plundered of his watch and other things of value. time was. and. and who was executed about a year after. with which he gave him such a deep wound on his right arm. and immediately fled to a mill. from whence he was immediately taken into the minister's house. and he found his much-honoured master." says his biographer. a nothing Highlander advanced towards him with a scythe fastened to a long pole. [1745. which was the mortal All that his faithful attendant saw further at that blow. while he was thus dreadfully entangled with that cruel weapon. whose name was M'faught. with great solemnity. " The remains of this Christian hero were interred the Tuesday following. when he took his final leave '. and cried out aloud. and undoubtedly rose to those distinguished glories which are reserved for those who have been so eminently and remarkably faithful unto death. "will be cut to pieces for want of a commander. that his hat was fallen off. of pain and sorrow.184 THE PEETENDEBS AND THEIE ADHERENTS. and in this manner. at the parish church of Tranent. dragged off from his horse. yet still breathing and though not capable of speech. and added (which were the last words he ever heard him speak) Take care of yourself: upon which the servant retired. In this condition. and laid in bed. and fear but just as the words were out of his mouth. that his sword dropped out of his hand and at the same time several others coming about him.

and still adhered to by his mi- A litary club." Nothing could be more complete than the victory obtained by Charles at Preston Pans. p. the majority eventually took the road to Coldstream. near which town they were with difficulty rallied by Sir John Cope. and dressed with powder and on the day he died. may still be traced on the oaken floors of that interesting mansion. Some years ago. who were not afraid of paying that last piece of respect to his memory. seemed Chambers. bound firmly with silk. where. 185 sence of some persons of distinction. in the centre of the battle-ground. also. containing about 2500. marks the spot where Gardiner fell. The greater number of the wounded of both armies were conveyed slain to the neighbouring residence of the ill-fated Colonel Gardiner. The dragoons. than they again galloped off in the utmost terror and confusion. never paused for a moment till they found 1 " Doddridge's Life of Colonel Gardiner. though the country was then in the hands of the enemy. passing in full gallop up the High Street. and. So excessive were their fears. which. 2 Of the royal army. Only a small party of the craven dragoons took the road to Edinburgh. his head was found marked by the stroke of the scythe which despatched him. 37. only one hundred and seventy of the infantry escaped. it is said. Not only did the greater number of the enemy's standards. and the remainder were taken prisoners. that when once or twice they were induced to halt during their flight. but they obtained possession also of the military chest. fall into the hands of the insurgents. numbering only three officers and thirty common men. the dark outlines of the forms of the tartaned warriors. as fresh as it could have been . and not more than seventy or eighty being wounded." 2 Chambers. where eight of his children had been interred. whose cowardice may perhaps be considered as the primary cause of the loss of the battle of Preston by the royalists. with the assistance of the Earls of Loudon and Home. Flying in all directions.PlilNCB 1745. on the memorpreviously able mould being incidentally disturbed. pomatum. large thorn-tree. about four hundred fell in the field of battle or in the subsequent pursuit. 37. He was buried in the north-west corner of the church of Tranent. and the whole of their artillery. Their loss.] CHARLES EDWABD. p. caused by their bloody garments. their ears no sooner caught the shouts of the dreaded Highlanders or the distant sound of an occasional musket-shot. on the field of battle was inconsiderable the ' . met owing to the insurgents having no cavalry with which to pursue them with a far better fate than they deserved.

I saw a young Highlander. " that they might run with more speed. The Prince asked him if this was true ? I do not know. whom he had made prisoners." says the Chevalier de Johnstone.. with a pistol in one hand and a sword in the other. and was the first to carry to England the news of his own defeat. . 2 passed unharmed and unquestioned through the midst of the Highland clans. and the Highlander. " They threw down their arms. 'if I killed them. not one thought of defending himself. from their numbers. made them : ' ' ' ! do exactly as he pleased. in consequence of his adopting the expedient of wearing the white cockade. about fourteen years of age. thus depriving themselves by their fears of the only means of arresting the vengeance of the Highlanders. threw down with your arms their arms without looking behind them. Terror had taken entire possession of their minds. These were. having killed.' replied he. it was said. in a condition. however. on seeing themselves made prisoners by a single individual. indeed. but added. themselves at the gates of the Castle. along the road between the two enclosures. the same English soldiers who had distinguished themselves at Dettingen and Fontenoy. The rage and despair of these men. 38." ' John Cope. he would open the guns upon them as cowards who had deserted their colours. fourteen of the enemy. 39. could exaggerate the overwhelming and unaccountable panic which seized the royal army. to preserve order in their retreat.186 THE PEETENDEES AND THEIR ADHERENTS. * Ibid. p. who was presented to the Prince as a prodigy. p. terror-struck. but I brought fourteen soldiers to the ground with my sword. calling at the same time.' Another Highlander brought ten soldiers to the Prince. struck down the hindermost with a blow of his sword. driving them before him like a flock of sheep. No words. having pursued a party to some distance from the field of battle. that if they did not immediately take their departure. Sir The moderation and humanity displayed by Charles (not only after the battle of Preston Pans. may be easily imagined. from a rashness without example. Down The soldiers. and who might justly be ranked amongst It may be mentioned that the bravest troops of Europe. Here they met with the reception which they deserved the Governor not only refused to admit them. scarcely formed. This Highlander. [l74o. Of so many men. but also on every subsequent occasion on which he found himself a victor) have 1 Chevalier de Johnstone's Memoirs.

carefully and with patient kindness. carry a poor wounded soldier on his back into a house. where he left him with a sixpence to pay his charges. After the battle of Preston Pans. he sat down with Glencairnaig and Major Evan to refresh himself. 1 Lockhart Papers. present a pleasing and redeeming contrast to the frightful barbarities which. were so wantonly exercised by the "butcher" Duke of Cumberland after the battle of Culloden. some other and interesting traits have been recorded. ' " came up. moreover. and his first hours employed in providing for the comfort of his wounded adversaries as well as his friends. only did I often hear our common clansmen ask the soldiers if they wanted quarter.] PEINCE CHABLES EDWARD. "Not effects. but I saw some of our private men. His exhortations and example produced the happiest In the words of one of his gallant followers. In all this we followed not only the dictates of humanity. the officers. but to have warmly expressed the sincerest compassion for those whom he termed " his father's deluded subjects. run to Port Seton for ale and other liquors to support the wounded. after the battle. I saw a Highlander. 187 not only been freely admitted even by his enemies. "Sir. and succesand Major Evan in his arms. he had strongly exhorted his followers to adopt the side of mercy . He then commanded the whole of the clan Gregor to be collected in the middle of the field and. a table being covered. there are your enemies at your feet!" Charles is said not only to have refrained from joining in the exultation of the moment. and not only did we. who acted in everything as the true father of his country. his first thoughts were for the unhappy sufferers. exclaimed. all the rest standing round as a guard. and each receiving a Prince.1745. pointing to the field of battle. but. but also the orders of our Prince. sively took Grlencairnaig ." Previous to the battle. and. As one proof for all. congratulating them upon the result of the fight. of my own particular observation. ." says Duncan Macpharig." Of the conduct of Charles immediately after his victory at Preston Pans. exert our utmost pains to save those who were stubborn or who could not make themselves understood. when one of the Prince's followers congratulated him on the victory which he had obtained. and when the victory was gained. finding himself "The accidentally at the head of the clan Macgregor. After the pursuit was at an end. at a later period.

the number of their prisoners. Charles proceeded on horseback to Pinkie House. sleep peas-straw. take his dinner on crust. rendered the young adventurer for a season almost the undisputed master of Scotland. . the tidings of this decisive victory were everywhere received with the most extravagant outbreakings of triumph and joy. were publicly invoked on the head of the young hero and the Jacobite gentlemen. added to the variety of standards which floated in the air. could eat a dry in four minutes. quaffed deeply and enthusiastically to the health of their young and beloved Prince. He was exceedingly merry. by his horse. their picturesque his own again. parading through the principal " The King shall enjoy streets to the favourite Jacobite air. . moreover." dresses. after the battle. and drank a glass of wine. even from the pulpit. his boots and knees much dirtied. or. no longer giving utterance to their treasonable toasts in language of safe and doubtful import." Having concluded the labours and duties of the day. The remainder of the clans delayed their return till the following day. when they marched into the northern capital in long military array. By the Jacobites. [l745. and of inducing many among his wavering and cautious partisans to declare themselves openly in his favour. My Highlanders have lost After this. in a coarse plaid and large blue bonnet. who. Blessings." " I saw the Chevalier. and win a battle in five. The victory of Preston Pans. as it was designated by the Highlanders. It produced. that the Camerons reentered Edinburgh to the exhilarating sound of their own bagpipes. where he passed the night. standing observes. and bearing with them in proud triumph the standards which they had wrested from the recreant dragoons. the effects of his having fallen in a ditch. their plaids and with the greatest composure ate a slice of cold beef. dressed like an ordinary captain. and twice cried out with a hearty laugh. the desired effect of raising the ' ' ! reputation of his arms. of Grladsmuir.188 PRETENDERS AND THEIR ADHERENTS. and the quantity of captured artillery and baggage which brought up the rear. in the words " of one of their own convivial sentiments. with a narrow plain gold lace about it. Andrew Henderson also glass of wine and a little bread." It was only three hours after the victory. he refreshed himself upon the field. the seat of the Marquis of Tweeddale. THF. Their wild appearance.

Charles returned to Holyrood House. some of them. but on recovering her senses." The return of Charles to Edinburgh was followed by the issue of several important proclamations. . seizures. he said. who was at the moment waving her handkerchief from one of the adjacent The young lady was stunned for a few moments. rendered it a sight so remarkable and imposing. they would have said it was ! done on purpose." he says. a devoted Jacobite. "by the loudest acclamations of the people." adds the Chevalier significantly. her first words were those of thankfulness. according to the Caledonian Mercury. qualified by certain provisos. he issued a promise of protection." she said. passing over the heads of the crowd. not so much for her life having been preserved. and abuses. " " The Prince. alluding to a strong wish that had been expressed by many of his friends. in the excess of their triumphant feelings. he strongly deprecated a show of triumph. since the abdication of his grandfather. In one of these. It happened that one of them had incautiously loaded his piece with ball. grazed the forehead of a Miss Nairn. " from all insults. in 1688. whose principles are known had it befallen a Whig. he granted a general amnesty for all treasons. returned to Edinburgh. which had been committed against him or his predecessors. that he should celebrate his recent victory by public rejoicings. which.PRINCE CHAELES EDWAED. James the Second. which. rebellions. In another. had . who are always. balconies. but that the darling cause of her adoption stood no risk of " Thank G-od." on the part of his followers and in a third proclamation. amused themselves with firing their muskets in the air." This fact is corroborated by the testimony of the Chevalier de Johnstone. being injured by the circumstance." In the course of the evening of this day. in his progress to which place he was followed. As the Highlanders passed through the streets of Edinburgh. as not easily to be forgotten either by the adherents of the Government or by the delighted partisans of the House of Stuart. " that the accident has happened to me.] 189 comprising the colours of their respective chieftains as well as those which had been captured from the royal army. injuries. both to the inhabitants of Edinburgh and to the country people. where he was received with the loudest acclamations of the populace. " equally inconstant in every country of the world. 1745. or offences whatever.

Charles never missed the opportunity of taking the side of mercy." The fact is an indisputable one. and on all occasions showed the strongest disposition to make allowances for his adversaries. There were several instances of good nature and humanity. " well of Kirkconnel. in his memoir of the campaign. and to commiserate and forgive. Those whom interest or prejudice made a runaway to his cause could not help acknowledging that they wished him well in all other respects. there is. in the page of history. " as the late victory has been obtained by the effusion of the blood of his Majesty's subjects. admonishing all true friends to their King and country to return thanks to God for his goodness towards them. Those even who were most violently opposed to his principles and to his cause did justice to the excellent qualities of his heart. besides the greatness of the enterprise. that. that made a great impression on people's minds.190 THE PBETENDEBS AND THEIE ADHERENTS. and has involved many un! fortunate people in great calamity. the Duke of Cumberland. that this generous and noble example of forbearance was not followed by George the Second. Considering the rancour which has ever proverbially been the characteristic of civil contests. perhaps. Sundry things had concurred to raise his character to the highest pitch. during his brief career of triumph. has displayed more praiseworthy forbearance and humanity. [1745. and with the charm of his " Everybody. been purchased at the expense of the blood of his father's subjects." proceeds the manifesto of Charles. and could hardly blame him for his present undertaking. was mightily taken with the Prince's figure and personal behaviour. when the latter found himself a victor on the field of " Culloden In so far. How much is it to be regretted. uniting gracefully as they did with his gallantry on the field of battle. we hereby forbid any outward demonstrations of public joy . or rather his butcher-son." says Maxpersonal demeanour and address." . and the conduct that had hitherto appeared in the execution of it. There was but one voice about them. no instance in which a young Prince. flushed with success and victory. as we hereby do for ourselves.

that the battle which he had to fight. In Scotland. Daily Courts at Holyrood. they persisted in absenting themselves altogether from the performance of their religious duties. THE conduct of the Scottish clergy. Charles's desire to march into England counteracted hy his Chiefs. as against the prejudices which attached to his cause from the recollection of the overweening bigotry of his grandfather. when compared with his object of enslaving the religious principles of his subjects. them to return to their Duties. On the part of the adherents of the Stuarts. has been strongly and deservedly reprehended. gations. though it seems to have been the result merely of individual timidity. both in Scotland and England. that his descendants. should have shared the stigma which had so long attached itself to the dreaded bigotry of their preselves* subjected for a . who unfortunately inherited from him the same religious principles. Their reluctant Consent to accompany him. knew better than Charles himself. Balls. James the Second. Whether Charles Edward.] CHAPTEE 191 VIII. 1745. the name of James the Second. to whom. had he succeeded in establishing himself on the throne of his ancestors. had invariably been denounced from the pulpit as the bugbear of Protestantism and therefore it is not to be wondered at. was not so much against the military legions of the House of Hanover. indeed. decessor. there was certainly no slight ground for fearing that the example set by the Presbyterian clergy in Edinburgh might produce a disagreeable effect on the minds of their respective congreNo one. the loss of three crowns had appeared light in the scale. With a pusillanimity for which they were afterwards severely censured even by their own friends. would have . a circumstance which. more especially. ever since the Revolution of 1688. yet had very nearly the effect of being as detrimental to the cause of the Adventurer. when they found themtime to the temporal rule of Charles and his Highland chieftains. Proclamation of Charles inviting Pusillanimous Conduct of the Clergy.PBINCE CHAKLES EDWABD. as if it had resulted from a deliberate policy.

the Prince affirms it to be the solemn intention of the King. his father. towards accomplishing this was deemed of the utmost consequence that the Presbyterian clergy should be induced to return to the discharge of their religious duties. let the blame lie : entirely at their own door. but to redress and remove the encroachments made upon them not to impose upon any a religion which they dislike. be upheld by his protection and support. Charles. people. that they should .XD THEIE ADHEBENTS. That such was the opinion of the great majority of the people of England. laws. no one was more fully aware than the Prince himself. but of course can never be proved. but. proved himself sincere in his professions of securing to his subjects that religious toleration which (in the halcyon days when he was a candidate for their suffrages and support) he had so freely promised them. During the brief annals of the reign of James the Second. may perhaps be doubted. under the domineering influence of an intriguing priesthood. . nor how important it was that the public mind should be disabused of the idea that he was treading in the steps of his grandfather. ." Again. at least. notwithstanding hereof. present attempt. on the contrary. As a object. a free and great people to a monarch who. as we are resolved to inflict no penalty that may possibly look like persecution. might be induced to renew the insane and tyrannical line of policy which was enacted by the second James. which it might still be fatal for her to forget neither can it be doubted. as the Roman Catholic clergy continues sedulously to insinuate its wily and ambitious . any shall be found neglecting their duty in that particular. England had learned a lesson. therefore." he " is not undertaken in order to enslave a free says. policy alike into the closets of kings and the cottages of the that it would be dangerous to intrust the liberties of poor.THE PBETENDEES 192 A. to reinstate all his subjects in the full enjoyment of their " Our religion. issued a solemn proclamation. in which he invited the Presbyterian clergy to resume the performance of public worship in their respective churches promising them that they should receive no interruption in the fulfilment of their duties. lest their absence from their respective pulpits might be ingeniously construed into an act of oppression and intolerance on the part of the Prince. therefore. and liberties. it first step. so long. The proclamation " concluded If. in another proclamation of a similar character. [1745.

chiefs. "on the 17th [October]. 139. "to carry on business with the appearance of royalty. but even was bold enough to pray openly for King George. Nairn. who was sent about this period from York to Edinburgh. some inter" In order. and received the ladies who came to his sat he then supped in public.] 193 but to secure them all in the enjoyment of those which are respectively at present established amongst them. not only to preach as usual. Home. l . or Ireland. and all the Highland . where his army lay. he appointed a council to meet in Holyrood House . and generally drawing-room there was music at supper. " When the council rose. thou port. and sometimes with him." esting particulars have been handed down to us. p. though significant im" " Bless the King. Lord Elcho. has left us some additional particulars relating to the habits of Charles during the time he held his court at Holyrood." l An Englishman." was one of his prayers. Holyrood House. either in England. " which often for his councillors frequently differed in very long. . says Home. O'Sullivan. however. these repeated exhortations. was usully clothed in language of dubious. and Lewis Gordon. and a ball afterwards. and usually went to DuddingIn the evening he returned to stone." This council consisted of the two lieutenant-generals. colonel of the Prince's horse-guards. " I was introduced to him. Lords Ogilvie. : every day at ten o'clock. brother of the Duke of Gordon. knowest what King I mean and may the crown sit long easy on his head and for the man that is come among us to seek an earthly crown." he says. . notwithstanding many of the Highlanders were in the habit of forming a part of his congregation." says Home. Charles dined in public with his principal officers. by name Macvicar. we beseech thee in mercy take him to thyself. His loyalty. Sir Thomas Sheridan. Pitsligo. opinion with one another." Notwithstanding. to be a spy upon the Prince's actions.PRINCE CHARLES EDWARD. and give him a crown of glory. continued. Scotland. however. the clergy still persisted in absenting themselves from their religious duties. Secretary Murray." Of the habits of Charles during the brief period that he held his court in the ancient palace of Holyrood. the Duke of Perth and Lord George Murray the quarter-master-general. After dinner he rode out with his life-guards. 1745. and only one of their body.

and a St Andrew's cross hanging by a green ribbon at his button-hole but no star. a round brown-complexioned face not full under the chin a neck under small long pretty He is always in a Highhis jaw a pretty many pimples. brothers. The young Chevalier is about five feet eleven inches high. 41." l . . as are all about him. Mention has already been made. . appear to have done essential service to his cause. the The and troops. From a MS. and so bravely conducted. 717. As an instance corroborative of this fact. a small but lively nose and mouth eye. . He constantly practises all the arts of condescension and popularity talks familiarly to the meanest Highlanders. When I saw him. was usually dressed with great " in a habit of fine silk tartan. land habit. to declare themselves in his favour. [l745. audience lasted for a quarter of an hour. and .. with the ribbon. if we except the Duchess of Perth and Lady Pitsligo. by inducing their lovers. that by far the majority of the women of Scotland were enthusiastically devoted to the cause of the young and gallant Prince. p. . he had a short Highland plaid (tartan) waistcoat breeches of the same a blue garter on. and that grace and propriety for which he was so balls given : eminently distinguished. and order of the garter. given in his Caledonia. star. 1 . we are told. there is no particular record. son velvet breeches and at other times in an English court The dress. me several questions as to the number of the when he asked affections of the people of England. captivated by his polished manners. . which were held in the long gallery at Holyrood. in the possession of the late George Chalmers. with crimcare and elegance. may be mentioned Chambers. . He dines every day in All sorts of people are permitted to see him then. who attended them. Charles. and took place in the presence of two other persons. TO!. Esq. public. his high birth. wears his own hair. the women of Scotland gave him their suffrages and their prayers and on many occasions. by Charles at Holyrood are described as having been unusually gay and splendid of the ladies of rank. has a full forehead. very proportionably made. Dazzled by the romance of the enterprise which he had so boldly undertaken." At his balls.194 THE PRETENDERS AND THEIR ADHERENTS. p. . as" he always has. however. and sometimes their husbands and . his insinuating address and handsome person. makes them very fair promises. li. He had his boots on.

careful to call alternately for Highland and Lowland tunes. 195 the case of a Miss Lumsden. with everything national in. if possible. taking care to give no particular preference to either. He^ras either delighted. if so they may be styled.1745. and was subsequently made happy by receiving the In the best families in Scotland. who were possessed of jewels and other female ornaments. in a considerable degree. is said to have been the characteristic expression of his countenance even among the gayest scenes increased. when listened to even at the present day. and assisted. Charles. in inflaming the spirit of popular enthusiasm which . he was peculiar to. the promised reward. threw a magic charm over the cause of the unfortunate Stuarts. Scotland. willingly sold or pledged them to relieve him in his pecuniary difficulties while those to whom fortune had behaved more niggardly yielded to him at least their warmest wishes in the days of his prosperity. He accommodated himself indifferently to all ages and to all He could be gallant with the fair. lively with the ranks. which. allude to the national poets of Scotland. actuated partly perhaps by motives of deep policy. and awake romance in the heart. who. the deep interest with which he was regarded by the fair ladies of the North. and with the celebrated white cockade. on condition that he might hereafter claim her hand. missed no opportunity of flattering the prejudices of the Scottish people. as in the case of his great-grandmelancholy look father. or At the balls at Holyrood. or pretended to be. We already prevailed on their behalf. young. on his part. Robert Strange. and grave with the old. he fortunately survived the dangers of the enterprise. still bring a tear to the eye. to join the standard of the Prince. in honour of the young and handsome hero.] PRINCE CHABLES EDWARD. and partly by a feeling of gratitude to those who had risked everything in his cause. and rendering himself the object of their love. Thousands. o 2 At one hour of the day . and their Even the pensive and tears in the hour of his distress. ladies were seen decorated with white ribbons. afterwards the celebrated line-engraver. Charles the First. There was another class of persons to whose influence and attachment to his cause Charles was scarcely less indebted than to that of the fair sex. who prevailed upon her lover. by those pathetic and heart-stirring melodies which. Yielding to the entreaties of his mistress.

of Goostrees. and that they should have sedulously courting their esteem ? been pleased at seeing their palaces. " Such was the " bonnie Prince Charlie of Scottish song and when we remember the circumstances of his romantic ." the result of the labour and research of eighteen years. compassion. who ruled them with feelings of equal indifference from their palace at St James's. prised that they should have yielded up their homage and love. expedition. in his secret examination. to the lineal and gallant descendant of Robert Bruce ? Another circumstance which tended to swell the ranks of Charles. and to render his cause a popular one. or from their still more distant and more favourite retreat at Herenhausen ? Can we wonder that the greater portion of the Scottish nation should have hailed with affectionate pleasure the appearance of the representative of their anthat they should have been flattered and cient kings? gratified by his identifying himself with their prejudices. 1 Evidence of Murray. In 1763. and afterwards in Flanders. he was fortunate enough to effect his escape to France taking up his residence in the first instance at Sedan. courtly hospitality of former days ? mated as they were by the most generous feelings of adcan we be surmiration. it may ments. [1745. was the author of the celebrated " Inquiry into the Principles of Political Economy. can we wonder that a nation be. . of Broughton. having received an assurance . almost unconditionally as it were. Sir James Stewart. and national pride. he was seen conversing familiarly with the humblest of at his Highland followers at his camp at Duddingstone another he was engaged in deliberating in solemn council with his principal officers and at night he was seen leading the dance. and joined the Prince's standard shortly after his arrival at Edinburgh. and dallying with the fair dames of Edinburgh in . as the Scotch. 1746. After the battle of Culloden. again becoming the scenes of the splendid and aniand. but still so proverbially affectionate to should have forgotten for a season their their kindred allegiance to their German masters. in a word. . was the proclamation issued by him on the 10th of October. August 13. The credit of having drawn up this remarkable document has been given to Sir Thomas Sheridan and Sir James Stewart: 1 there seems. the old halls at Holyrood. and his own personal graces and accomplishso prudent. so long deserted by royalty.196 THE PBETENDEES AND THEIE ADHEEENTS. He had formed an intimacy with Charlen on the Continent.

"represented as a bloodthirsty tyrant. I have. and the most solemn promises to grant whatever a free Parliament shall propose for the happiness of the people. to be little doubt. After dwelling on the misfortunes which had befallen the country. than in my royal forefathers ? Have they or do they consider only the inter: . breathing out nothing but destruction to all those who will not immediately embrace an odious religion ? Or have I myself been better used ? But listen only to the naked truth. whatever miscarriages might have given occasion for them have been more than atoned for since. that it received several important touches from his pen. Charles thus forcibly con" Is not my royal father. ill-provided with money. I confess. . who has in so remarkable a manner protected me and my small army through the many dangers to which we were at first exposed. Has the nation during that period of time been the more happy and flourishing? Have you found reason to love and cherish your governors as the fathers of the people of Great Britain and Ireland ? Has a family. arms. As to the outcries formerly raised against the royal family. where he died in November. from the resemblance which the language bears to the style of Charles's private letters. and who has led me in the way to victory.] PEIKCE CHABLES EDWABD. . retained a due sense of so great a trust and favour ? Have you found more humanity and condescension in those who were not born to a crown. or friends I arrived in Scotland attended by seven persons I publish the King my father's declaration. in consequence of the misrule of the House of Hanover. if it was not entirely his own composition. and after explaining his own and his father's views as to the manner in which existing religious and political grievances ought to be remedied. upon whom a faction unlawfully bestowed the diadem of a rightful Prince. the greatest reason to adore the goodness of Almighty God. and Scotland in particular. and proclaim his title with pardon in one hand and in the other liberty of conscience. that he should not he molested hy the Government. and to the capital of this ancient kingdom.' 1780. That our family has suffered exile during these fifty-seven years everybody knows." cludes his spirited exhortation he says. and the nation has now an opportunity of being secured against the like for the future. he returned to Scotland. 197 however. I with my own money hired a vessel. at the age of sixty-seven.1745. amidst the acclamations of the King my father's subjects.

from his high sense of honour. several of the Lowland gentlemen joined the standard of the Prince. or he who cannot. and put all upon the issue of a battle. if he pleases. and the charm of his personal character. Among these were Lord Ogilvie. had only a moderate fortune. and Swiss. though established by all the civil power. at the head of four hundred followers. but he was much beloved and greatly esteemed by his neighbours. The accession of the latter nobletor of Hanover's allies. against the undisciplined part of those he has ruled over for so many years ? Let him. who had taught themselves to believe that any act of Lord Pitsligo's must in" be right. he who. and Lord Pitsligo with about one hundred and twenty." During his stay at Edinburgh. Danes. when I see a foreign force brought by my enemies against me. with the aid of his own subjects. . had he won for himself as much love and influence in the Lowlands as Lochiel had obtained in the Highlands. and secured by a strong military force. prudence. support his government. indeed. but also. and strong sense. Lord Pitsligo was. who drew after him such a number of gentlemen. and of a wary and cautious temper so that when he. . indeed. other benefit from them than an immense load of debts ? If I am answered in the affirmative. the Elecbeing called over to protect his gois it not high time for the King my father to accept also of assistance ? Who has the better chance to be independent of foreign powers. eldest son of the Earl of Airly. My was undertaken unsupported by either. can wrest the government out of the hands of an intruder. who looked upon him as a man of excellent judgment. from his almost proverbial reputation for wariness. But. he was the occasion of his example being followed by many of his Lowland neighbours. fallibly ." says Home. try the experiment let him send off his foreign hirelings. far advanced in years but not only. and when I hear of Dutch. " This peer. vernment against the King's subjects.198 THE PEETENDEES AKD THEIH ADHEKEKTS. Hessians. without assistance from abroad. est of these nations ? Have you reaped any [l745. : man was of great importance to Charles. and I will trust only to the King my father's subjects. why has their Government been so often railed at in all your public assemblies ? why has the nation been so long crying out for redress ? " The fears of the nation from the powers of France and expedition Spain appear still more vain and groundless.

most of the gentlemen in that part of the country where he lived. my lord would urge in his defence the general corruption of manners. where his Royal Highness lies every night. Monday. who favoured the Pretender's cause. and the other intrusted to Lord Balmerino. and by their means be enabled to follow up his recent success by a still more decisive blow. thinking they could not Dr follow a better or a safer guide than Lord Pitsligo. and by Macpherson of Cluny with three hundred of his clan. who was deemed . after obtaining his victory at Preston Pans." l King. p. to march at once into England. troop of horse-grenadiers was also enrolled. where he hoped to be immediately joined by many of the most influential among the English Jacobites. under the command of 1 2 Home's History of the Rebellion. would have amounted pretty nearly to an act of insanity. and not unfrequently 3 slept in the camp without taking off his clothes. "The Prince's tent has been erected in the camp near Duddingstone. Every effort and exertion was made by Charles and the leading chieftains to organize and discipline the insurgent army. It had been the darling wish of Charles. which was placed under the command of the unfortunate Lord Kilmarnock. declared his purpose of joining Charles. 199 so wise and prudent. He takes the utmost pleasure in reviewing his people. p. ob" I always observed him ready to defend any other serves. put themselves under his command. s . 129. my Lord Pitsligo would always find something good to say of him as a counterpoise.1745. and is highly beloved by them. To have adopted this measure. Two troops of cavalry were enrolled with the utmost expedition one of which was placed under the command of Lord Elcho. and the frailties and infirmities of human nature. however. also." Edinburgh Mercury. who was well acquainted with Lord Pitsligo. A under existing circumstances. and quite unknown to him. Charles was joined by General Gordon of G-lenbucket with four hundred followers from the highlands of Aberdeenshire. Anecdotes of his own Time. If the person accused were of his acquaintance. wrapped up in his Highland plaid. Already the royal forces. The Prince paid a visit to his camp at Duddingstone nearly every day. There was yesterday a general review. person who was ill-spoken of in his company. If he were a stranger. September 30. and with his present inefficient means. 145. also. for the purpose of reviewing or exercising his troops." 2 While at Edinburgh.] PRINCE CHAULES EDWABD.

also. time by the French Government. 1 746. moreover. to Charles. From the city of Glasgow he had exacted the sum of 5000. whose arrival at the head of their respective . since the battle of Preston fatal results. many of the Prince's own followers had returned to their native mountains. and died unmarried in 1754. who had declined joining the Prince's standard. the Right Honourable Lord Lewis Gordon. as was their custom. came and kissed the Prince's hand. in order. Dundee. however. and which could only be landed with safety at Montrose. Banff. which was very numerous and splendid. had deposit their booty with their families. moreover. unless some one or other of the sons of the illustrious house of Gordon was to head them. October. the hour arrived when Charles rightly judged that to remain any longer in supineness in Edinburgh while Marshal Wade was rapidly concentrating a superior and perhaps overwhelming force must inevitably lead to have seen that. the Prince had been joined by fresh and considerable accessions of strength both from the Highlands and Lowlands. or some other of the north-eastern ports of Scotland. and in Aberdeenshire the Gordons were being raised by Lord Lewis Gordon. both of ammunition and money. will now readily come up and*join the army. which he trusted would be sent to him in a short . Already the powerful clan of the Frasers was taking the field under the Master of Lovat. Pans. besides various other useful articles for the service of his army. brother of the Duke. 200 [l746. The public revenues and the King's rents had been levied in every the goods were part of Scotland where it was practicable We . and Murray. were making head at Doncaster and. and from Edinburgh he had obtained one thousand tents and six thousand pair of shoes. and his name appears on the List of the Navy till the month of June. he must have abandoned all hope of receiving some important supplies of money and ammunition. and joined his Royal Highness' s standard. 16." Edinburgh Mercury. 1 In point of supplies also. seemed in great joy on this occasion. but many others in the shires of Aberdeen. 1745. had he marched at once into England. yet to be joined by many of the most powerful of the Highland chieftains. Field-marshal "Wade. vassals he was anxiously expecting and. He was attainted for his share in the Rebellion. At length. The court. 1st of August. His lordship was some time an officer in the Navy. " Yesternight. 1744.THE PBETENDEBS AND THEIB ADHERENTS. 1 . as several gentlemen. Lord Lewis Gordon was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant. third son of the deceased Alexander Duke of Gordon. not only of the name of Gordon. the Prince's resources had been greatly augmented.

and this would have been a most fortunate circumstance for the Prince.] 201 seized in the custom-houses at Leith and at other ports. by every possible secure himself in the government of his ancient means. they said. with a great portion of her Lowland population prejudiced on behalf of that family. 45. if he had followed it. that passiveness would be construed into pusillanimity and that. he received 5000. besides five thousand stand of arms. Notwithstanding the improved condition of the Prince's the Highland chieftains displayed a singular and obstinate reluctance to be led into England. 1 Chevalier de Johnstone'a Memoirs. . and. In vain did Charles argue on the absolute necessity of giving battle to Marshal Wade. . By thus fomenting. the war would have become national. 46. 1745. which contained all that they held dear in life. and immediately converted into money. by a French ship. the natural hatred and animosity which the Scots have in all times manifested against the English. .PRINCE CHABLES EDWABD. was the adtry. pp." l Such were the vain and absurd aras if it guments insisted upon by the Highland chieftains were possible that Scotland with almost all her civil and military officers in favour of the House of Hanover. and to defend himself against the armies of England. before the latter could concentrate a still superior force in vain did he insist that they had thrown away the scabbard that all their hopes depended upon immediate action. without attempting for the present to extend his views to that coun" " This. and on each occasion he found himself vehemently opposed by the Highland chieftains. which arrived at Montrose. and with the armies of England and her allies arrayed against her could have held out beyond one . which brought him the additional sum of 1000." says the Chevalier de Johnstone. vice which every one gave the Prince. and several French and Irish officers. and more recently three more ships had appeared off the north-eastern coast. though they might at present boast of being masters of Scotland. Three several councils were summoned by Charles for the purpose of deliberating on this important question. to endeavour. he might still perhaps have been in possession of that " kingdom." adds the Chevalier. It ought to be the Prince's chief affairs. to kingdom. depended upon their also making themselves masters of England. . a train of six field-pieces. yet that the tenure even of that country. object.

whose principles were that kings and princes can never either act or think wrong. so. had they not been prevented. This very often was no difficult matter to do Sir Thomas Sheridan. The other two-thirds (who thought that kings and princes were sometimes like other men. . were altofor as the Prince and his old governor. [l745. always first to dePrince. Disgusted with this repeated opposition to his dearest wishes. which. that the above was written by Lord Elcho after he had had a violent quarrel with the Prince. and so let them know only what he pleased. and were not altogether infallible. finitively agreed upon." It is but fair to remind the reader. is said to have shamed the chiefs into a reluctant concession. in consequence. gentlemen. Charles at length betrayed himself into a peremptoriness of language and manner.THE PRETEXBEBS 202 A2U) THEIR ADHERENTS. and both much for the doctrine of absolute monarchy. ." says Lord Elcho. There was one-third of the council. 1 " I see. The Prince could not bear to hear anybody differ in sentiment from him. and then he asked everybody's opinion in their turn." Charles. . for he had a notion of commanding the army as any general does a body of mercenaries. when violently opposed by his council. according to Lord Elcho. 1 they always confirmed what the Prince said. when they could give sufficient reasons for their difference of opinion. the gether ignorant of ways and customs of Great Britain." he exclaimed. and defend your country but I am not the less resolved to try my fate in England. more than any other circumstance. have fallen into blunders which might have hurt the cause. clare what he himself was for. had obtained a deep insight into human nature and this speech. in council. they would very often. or two unprofitable campaigns among the rugged fastnesses of the Highlands. and that this Prince was no more so than others) begged leave to differ from him. though I should go alone. and accordingly a march across the border was at length de. and when his feelings were probably coloured by his dislike. and took a dislike to everybody that did. young as he was. " The " used. he gave vent to on more occasions than one. and expected them to obey without inquiring further about the matter. " that you are determined to stay in Scotland.

and of Lord Pitsligo's regiment of horse.] CHAPTER 203 IX. which. Cameron of Lochiel Stuart of Ardshiel Macdonald of Clanranald Macdonald of Keppoch Macdonald of Kinloch Moidart Lochiel Appin Clanranald Keppoch . . . Angus men Perth Duke Nairn Edinburgh Lord Nairn Athol . Strength of his Army. Roy of Perth Stuart 600 900 700 200 450 . generally speaking. His Arrival Derby. The Duke of Cumberland's Army only Nine Miles distant Carlisle. .PRINCE CHARLES EDWARD. at this period. OK the 31st of October. and well furnished with arms. 1767. he rode to Dalkeith. Ogilvie Lord George Murray Lord Ogilvie. . at six o'clock in the evening." 8vo. Kinloch Moidart Glencoe . . . he proceeded to Pinkie House. . . . Macinnon Macpherson . . and the palace of his ancestors. Arrival at ManMrs Skyring presents her Purse to the Chevalier. The next day. The Pretender's March into England. and departed on his memorable expedition into England. . where he passed the night. at noon. Charles bade farewell to the ancient capital of Scotland. London. where he was joined by the great body of his troops. . well clothed. At the head of his guards. Arrival at Courageous Conduct of Sergeant Dickson. . . chester. Macdonald of Glencoe Macinnon of Macinnon Macpherson of Cluny . at from the Rebels. Macdonell of Glengary Gordon of Glenbucket Maclauchlan of that ilk Robertson of Struan Grant of Glenmoriston . 1 in is given CLAN REGIMENTS AND THEIR COMMANDERS. 1745. . . They were. . . 700 200 300 200 100 120 120 120 300 300 200 200 100 2960 LOWLAND REGIMENTS. . Proper precautions had been 1 The following statement of the numbers of the Highland army " The Life of the Duke of Cumberland. are computed by Home and the best authorities to have amounted to about five thousand six hundred men. Glengary Glenbucket Maclauchlan Struan Glenmoriston .

on ascertaining that lately at . a pleasing compliment. Previous to his departure. 1 A some trifling bequest. where the ladies of "Whitborough. where they halted two days. After the Prince had crossed the bridge. and they carried with them provisions for four days. to Carlisle. he is said to have been received by marks of the most gratifying devotion by the Lowland inhabitants. . but for which act of hospitality she is said to have lost a pension of 1000 a-year. and was clear of the town. compliment of a similar character was paid to him on passing Fala Dams. Accordingly Charles cut for them a piece of velvet from the hilt of his sword a relic which is said to be still ladies for . who frequently ran out of their houses to snatch a kiss of his hand. 49. had ordered a breakfast to be prepared for him and his suite. p.204 THE PBETENDEES AND THEIE ADHEBEKTS. he commenced Passhis march at the head of the remainder of his troops. On the 1st of November. On the 5th of November the Highland army arrived at Kelso. who died 120 80 60 Ibid. " An old man. * Chambers. Jedburgh. but more especially by the women.. Lord Elcho and Lord Balmerino Lord Pitsligo Earl of Kilmarnock . by way of Peebles and Moftat. which had been conferred upon her in consideration of her having brought up her children in the principles of the Protestant religion. which they might hereafter exhibit as having been presented to them by the gallant hero of 1745. remembered having witnessed the departure of the insurgents from nis native town. [l745. taken for the transfer of their baggage. As Charles marched along at the head of his troops. 50. Charles himself remained behind till the 3rd of the month passing the two intervening nights at the palace Dalkeith. a touching request was made to him by the . who resided in the immediate neighbourhood. by means of waggons and sumpter horses. 3 HORSE. had prepared a banquet for him and his suite in the open air. he rode back to see that none of his men had remained behind and. a large detachment of the Highland army commenced its march. ing by Prestonhall Grate he was informed that the Duchess of Gordon. 2 preserved at "WTiitborough with religious care. On the morning of that day. sisters of one of his most valued adherents. * p. Robert Anderson. and from thence proceeded in a direct route to Jedburgh.

on finding themselves on the English side of the Border. According to her report. fact. by whom the circumstance was 1 universally regarded as an evil omen. So great. The Highlanders.] 205 Marching from Jedburgb. ' ' ! . vol. Cope beasts. As at many other places. at the same time drawing their swords and nourishing them in the air. who had been seven years of age when the Highlanders passed her native town. Charles. Lochiel. under the Duke of Perth. in the first instance. in November 1826. by the way of testifying the contempt in which they held him. he saw an ancient lady. some show of resistance but on a battery being constructed. before they had advanced many miles into England. p.. In the mean time. was their aversion to it. by way of Hawick and Hagiehaugh. Charles was here saluted with marks of devout homage by of the many people as he passed all the women running out to get a kiss of his hand. had the misfortune to cut his hand. and the sight of their chieftain's blood is said to have thrown a sudden damp over the spirits of the Highlanders. had made good its advance to Carlisle. and a breach opened on the east side of the town. that Charles is said to have passed an hour and a half before he could prevail on the great body of his followers to march forward indeed. and who distinctly remembered all the circumstances of the memorable pageant. She saw some of them dressing these animals in a stable. 1 Lockhart Papers. it was computed that they had lost a thousand men by desertion. If the march into England was distasteful to the Highland was still more unpopular with the humbler clansmen. . raised a loud shout of exultation. p. it . 45. on the 8th of November. &c. they had a great number of horses. The town and citadel made. and under an engagement not to serve against the Prince for the space of twelve months. galloped after the column." 50. li. the name of that unfortunate general having apparently been applied to all the horses taken from his army. chieftains. which it was said they had taken from the dragoons at Preston. When the author was at Jedburgh. indeed.PRINCE CHAELES EDAVAED. a division of the Highland army. they surrendered upon certain easy conditions. for the first time set his foot in England at the small town of Brampton. and had conceived an idea that some fatal disaster must infallibly result from the measure. who had a superstitious dread of being led across the Border. she remembers hearing them call to the Stand about. . Chambers. however. which he overtook at a little distance from the town. 1745. and could mimic the strange uncouth jabber which they used in performing the duties of hostlers. In particular. while in the act of drawing his weapon.

67. with the usual formalities. much to the dissatisfaction of the Duke of Perth. 1 3 Henderson's of the Eebellion. Charles enforced the strictest discipline and good order in his army. leaving a garrison of about three hundred men at Carlisle. acted under the severest penalties a contribution from the He . p. " made The cess. was extorted and the private men among them committed many outrages. The same evening they arrived at Penrith. took his departure from that city at the head of a force which was now reduced to four thousand four hundred men only. Charles. at [l745. . excise. At Carlisle. and himself Begent. was received with coldness by the inhabitants. However." l other places. History See Chevalier de Johnstone's Memoirs. as at chiefs could not prevent. where they halted for a single day. Charles caused his father to be proclaimed King. leaving the roads to the South open to the Highland army. Between Charles and the south was stationed Field-marshal which their Wade with six thousand men. That general had made a demonstration. During his march towards the south. upon pain of military execution. Every article was promptly paid for in the towns through which he passed. on reference to his curious householdbook printed in the " Jacobite Memoirs. Charles himself entered the town of Carlisle in triumph. 55. and land-tax were exexcessive demands. which 2 proved of great service to him.DHEBENTS. on learning the news of the capitulation of Carlisle. p. while here. and of which Lord George Murray. was appointed general in command under the Prince. to his former quarters. as he himself alleged. either from the irresolution which had increased with the advance of years. On the 2 1st of November. . indeed.206 THE PEETENDEES AND THEIE A. and it may be seen. The keys were delivered to Charles mayor and aldermen on their knees. Brampton by the On the 17th." says Henderson. he marched back. inhabitants. for they had little reason to be favourably disposed to " his cause. The rebels. Here also a considerable quantity of arms fell into his possession. were his orders enpersonal expenses. by marching across the country from Newcastle to Hexham. with the view of raising the siege of Carlisle." that he himself set the first example by the most punctual payment of all his So rigidly. from his army being impeded by the heavy snow-storms and intense cold. or.

indeed. their strange dress and language.] 207 among his followers. Chevalier de Johnstone's Memoirs. taking off their bonnets. supplicated him to take her life.' The children immediately left the press. He asked her if she was in her senses. and their peculiar many places. Mr Cameron having assured her that they habits. before meat. A Mr would not injure her or her little children. or any person whatever. from a belief that the flesh of infants curious instance of this constituted their favourite food. Nothing surprised the English more than when they saw the Highlanders act like ordinary beings the commonest show of gratitude or civility on their part was regarded with looks of astonishment and to such an extent was this feeling of prejudice carried. children. were related of their ferocity and blood-thirstiness among other instances of which. and saying grace. it may be mentioned that the women in the midland counties were in the habit of concealing their children at the approach of the Highlanders. as Cameron of Lochiel entered the lodgings assigned to him. that the Highlanders. that everybody said the Highlanders ate children. note. " of the English. and tears in her eyes. that in a letter written at the period. The uncouth appearance. where she had concealed them. his landlady. the writer expresses his amusement and surprise at seeing them. when she answered. however. she looked at him for some moments with an air of surprise. of the wild mountainforced eers. threw herself at his feet." says the Chevalier de Johnstone. was truly inconceivable. : .PRINCE CHARLES EDWARD." l air. led to their being regarded. p. Come out. with the greatest terror and aversion by the English inhabitants. far from indulging in their proverbial habits of pilfering and plunder." 2 1 * Chambers' s History of the Rebellion. 1745. but to spare her two little children. The most wonderful stories. expressing the humblest gratitude for any slight refreshment that was given them. 101. 52. calling out with a loud ' voice. and told her to explain herself. in . were seen at the doors of the houses and cottages which they passed by in their march. and in many cases they seemed bereft of their senses. and made them their common fdod. One evening. assuming a reverential " as if they had been Christians. the gentlemen will not eat you. p. an old woman. and threw themselves at his feet. and then opened a press. and with uplifted hands. "The terror prejudice occurred to the celebrated Lochiel. .

he forded the stream at the head of his division. The appearance of the army. and with his target slung across his shoulder. comprising the different regiments which had been raised in the Lowlands.208 THE PRETENDERS AND THEIR ADHERENTS. and as soon as was over. 1 Only on one occasion. half asleep. The blacksmith having been " You are the first person. they levied the public revenue scrupulously. he is related to have walked for several miles. being commanded by the Prince in person. chap. the Highland army marched out of Penrith in two divisions the one. he was in the habit of throwing himself upon his bed about eleven o'clock. the fatigues and Of dinner he was never known to privations of the march." said job. it is mentioned that on his reaching the river Mersey. in common with the humblest Highlander. Insisting that Lord Pitsligo. they were in the habit of levying a sum of equal value from the unlucky subscriber." Among other incidents recorded of him during his march. . it . I believe. 8. when in Lancashire. having worn a hole in one of those which he was in the habit of wearing. worn indiscriminately by every infantry regiment which composed the insurgent force. At the head of his own division marched the young and gallant Prince. the nearest village in order to have a thin plate of iron fastened to the bottom of the sole. the bridges over which were all broken down. [l74>5. he stopped stt a blacksmith's shop in partake . In cases where money had already been subscribed for the service of the Government. without undressing. book ii. however. . though the water rose to his middle. paid for his " who was ever paid for having shod the son of a Charles. and usually He did not even carry with rose the next morning at four. is Charles said to have discovered any symptoms of fatigue. being headed by Lord George Murray. In this instance. king. In the different towns through which they passed. 1 Smollett. his principal meal being his supper. as it defiled along. . consisting entirely of the Highland clans. exacting no more than what was actually due to the Government. when passing over the dreary district between Penrith and Shap. should take possession of the carriage which had been reserved for himself. he shared. him a change of shoes and it is said that. on account of his age and infirmities. and the other. clad in the Highland costume. is described as peculiarly picturesque and striking the Highland garb being . On the 23rd.

the Highlanders had conceived a notion that this was the fatal boundary beyond which a Scottish army was never destined to pass. such as had occasioned so much desertion in their ranks when they first found themselves on the English side of the border. the insurgent army advanced Passing by Shap to Lancaster. and Kendal. 236. at Preston. At the latter place. "To counteract this superstition." 2 At Preston. whom I had enlisted from among the prisoners of war at Gladsmuir." says Sir Walter Scott. . on the 27th. He had quitted. at which town the Chevalier arrived in the evening. and in many places throughout the road to Wigan. 1745. where the two divisions met on the 27th. who forgot their terrors of the wild-looking mountaineers. * Tales of a Grandfather. and having marched all night. " named Dickson. in their desire to catch a view of the gallant young Chevalier. and the more recent disaster which had befallen Brigadier Mac Intosh at Preston in 1715." says the Chevalier de Johnstone. that he had been beating up for recruits all day without getting one and that he was the more chagrined at this. with Ms mistress and my drummer . and from thence marched by way of Grarstang to Preston. Neither promises nor threats. a young Scotsman. and of so remarkable a sight as a Highland army passing by their quiet homes.] 209 leaning on the shoulder of one of the clan Ogilvie. and very much attached to my interest.PRINCE CHABLES EDWABD. Charles was received with loud acclamations by the populace. p. could induce them to enlist beneath the Prince's standard and when arms were pressed upon them. in order 1 to prevent himself from falling. as brave and intrepid as a lion. and their road to London was considered as laid open. as the other sergeants had had better success.' The . P iii. informed me. he arrived next morning at Manchester. -vol. which is about twenty miles distant from Preston. a mile beyond Preston. however. " Lord George led a part of his troops across the Kibblebridge. the Highlanders were again overtaken by a superstitious panic. that they did not understand fighting. " One of my sergeants. and immediately began to beat up for recruits for the yellow-haired laddie. 52. . p.Preston in the evening. ' 1 Chambers. their usual answer was. Bearing in mind the famous defeat of their countrymen under the Duke of Hamilton during the great rebellion. The spell which arrested the progress of the Scottish troops was thus supposed to be broken.

he proudly paraded undisturbed the whole day. in all directions. vol. 63 66. those of the inhabitants of Manchester who were attached to the House of Stuart took arms. facing and behaving like a lion. . they surrounded him in a tumultuous manner. I doubt not but we shall have more to-night. without any others. and a girl." says the writer." The incident here related is corroborated in a letter from Manchester. The Chevalier after* wards complains that these recruits were taken from him. the drummer is a Halifax man. with the intention of taking him prisoner. On presenting me with a list of one hundred and eighty recruits. he soon enlarged the circle which a crowd of people had formed round them. dated the 28th of November. They say we are to have the Pretender to-morrow. to rescue him from the fury of the mob so that he soon got five or six hundred men to aid him. . and drafted into what was called the " Manchester Regiment. Having continued for some time to manoeuvre in this way. enlisting for my company all who offered themselves. Dickson presented his blunderbuss. who dispersed the crowd in a very short time. and they are now going to beat up. . came into the town amidst thousands of spectators. The sergeant has a target. This adventure of Dickson gave rise to many a joke at the expense of the town of Manchester. and the alarm and terror with which the English were seized. [l745. " Just now. mer. Dickson now triumphed in his turn and putting himself at the head of his followers. a drummer. accompanied him and by turning round continually. The circumstance may serve to show the enthusiastic courage of our army. p. The sergeant is a Scotchman. with his drum. 400. iii." * Lord Mahon's History of England. alive . which was forwarded by the Duke of Cumberland to the Government. which was charged with slugs. These two men and the woman. I was agreeably surprised to find that the whole amount of his expenses did not exceed three guineas. and flew to the assistance of Dickson.210 THE PEETENDEES AND THEIB ADHEEENTS. threatening to blow out the brains of those who first dared to lay hands on himself or the two who or dead. populace at first did not interrupt him. conceiving our array to be near the town but as soon as they knew that it would not arrive till the evening. " are come in two of the Pretender's men. from the singular circumstance of its having been taken by a sergeant. a sergeant. I have seen them. and a woman with them. They are dressed in plaids and bonnets. a drummer." 2 1 Chevalier de Johnstone's Memoirs. pp.

Prince of Wales. and with a more open display of popular enthusiasm for his cause. than he had hitherto experienced since crossing the Border. . The guards and officers are all in a Highland dress a long sword. party came in at ten this morning. The populace received him with loud acclamations the bells were rung in the different churches bonfires were lighted thousands of individuals openly at night in the streets wore the white cockade. plaid. offered five guineas advance many took on each received one shilling. 1745. and a blue velvet bonnet. and bring their last acquittance. P 2 p. to avoid fighting I do not see that we have any person in town to Ligonier. to have the rest when the Prince came They do not appear to be such terrible fellows as has been represented. town Charles had the gratification of finding his presence hailed with greater marks of good will. 53. and numbers thronged to kiss his hand. ornamented with a knot of white ribbons in the form of a rose. and have been examin- will A 1 Chambers. and innkeepers.PBINCE CHAELES EDWARD. on pain of military execution. Charles. give intelligence to the King's forces. . The bellman went to order all persons charged with excise. in the midst of a gallant band of Highland His dress was a light tartan chieftains and gentlemen. He took up his quarters in a large house in Market Street. The writer of the letter from which we have just quoted thus addresses himself to the Duke of Cumberland on the in which .] 211 On the 29th. and stuck with pistols their horses all sizes and colours. about two o'clock in the afternoon. and to make him offers of service. and all officers under the Government. but many clever men among them. . Many of the foot are diminutive creatures. with a blue sash for a belt. . : . make all haste through Derbyshire. as all our men of fashion are fled. the insurgent army marched into Manchester. forthwith to appear. which for many years afterwards continued to be designated as "The Palace. and has recently been pulled down and replaced 1 by another building. " The two Highlanders who came in yesterday following day. The Prince himself entered the town on foot. and beat up for volunteers for him they call his Boyal Highness. and as much ready cash as that conIt is my opinion they tains." It was subsequently converted into an inn. ! .

which is thus related by Lord Mahon. " on the authority of the late Lord Keith On the opposite bank of the Mersey. Those that came in l last night demanded quarters for ten thousand to-day. place . iii. like those of Preston and other places. Several thousands came in at two o'clock: they ordered the bells to ring and the bellman has been ordering us to illuminate our houses to-night. On his crossing the river Mersey." the of Charles and Notwithstanding apparent popularity his cause. Ever afterwards she had.THE PRETENDERS AND THEIE ADHERENTS. which must be done. p. at three o'clock. he and his wife continued devoted to the royal cause. showed the strongest disinclination to take up arms on his behalf. had afterwards to undergo not merely neglect. The Chevalier marched by my door in a Highland dress. of considerable literary attainments. and fixed upon Mr Dicconson's for the Prince's quarters. a lady in extreme old age. Her father. but oppression. surrounded by a Highland guard no music but a pair of bagpipes. her prayers. Charles found a few of the Cheshire gentry drawn up ready to welcome him. however. they consisted almost entirely of the meanest of the rabble. Their officers. . moreover. indeed. styled magniloquently " the Manchester Regiment. : . from that thankless monarch still. 400. and the other The same night crossing the river lower down at Cheadle. with rigid punctuality. and amongst them Mrs Skyring. at the head of one division. ing the best houses. all her thoughts. the two divisions reunited at Macclesfield. 212 [1745. her hopes. daughter grew up as devoted as they. vol." were subsequently enrolled. As a child. the inhabitants of Manchester. comprised some respectable merchants and tradesmen of the . . was a Roman Catholic gentleman of ancient family. who was appointed their colonel. an old cavalier. and Mr Townley. and. were directed to another restoration. and though a body of two hundred men. fording the river Mersey at Stockport (all the bridges having been broken down by order of the Government). On the 1st of December the army quitted Manchester. an affecting incident is said to have occurred to Charles. After the expulsion of the Stuarts. and their . laid aside one half of her yearly income to remit for the exiled family abroad concealing only 1 Lord Mahon's History of England. she had been lifted up in her mother's arms to view the happy landing at Dover of Charles the Second. on foot. in two divisions Charles.

a spy of the Duke of Cumberland. only nine miles to the south-west of him. entered the town of Derby. and carried to the Prince. and every little article of value she possessed. "making a very respectable appearance.PRINCE CHARLES EDWARD. she was told of the retreat. Highland army advanced more southerly. Such. Leek. At Congleton Charles had received the important and unexpected intelligence. early on the 4th of December. and pressing his hand to her shrivelled lips. aversion. and Ashbourn. she laid at the feet of Prince Charles. Many of the Highland chieftains insisted that he should be ordered for immediate execution but he was rescued from the gallows by Lord George Murray. situated only one hundred and twenty-seven miles from the capital of England. who. in a purse." In the course of the day the The entry first 1 History of England. her plate. that she did not survive the depart in peace shock when. She had now the parted with her jewels. straining her dim eyes to gaze on his features. now lettest thou thy servant It is added. relative to the numbers and movements of the Duke of It may be mentioned that. . attended by a small band of Highland and Lowland gentlemen. the price of which. she said. 1745. at the head of the life-guards. in return for this good office. in the words of Simeon. Nearly at the same time. and fiction loves to imitate l ! Marching through Congleton. p. that the King's army (headed by the Duke of Cumberland. which. even when misdirected in its object. obtained from him much important and useful information. and indeed in many places with marks of positive . as the Cumberland's army. who rode in on horseback. they were received by the English with very equivocal signs of sympathy and good will. one "Weir. was the old spirit of loyalty in England such were the characters which history is proud to ' ' ! ! record. a few days afterwards. into Derby was made with much state. she exclaimed with affectionate rapture. and amounting to twelve thousand seven hundred men. the Highland army. and might give them pain if they remembered the unkind treatment she had formerly received. while. comprised chiefly of veteran regiments) was at Newcastle-underLyne. was taken prisoner. was of no importance to them. or exaggerated in its force. 403. The person who entered the town was Lord Elcho. Lord.] 213 name of the giver.

vol. 1 2 Lord Orford's Works. p. It was found. and himself Regent. for their money. ii. they at least showed an equal unconcern for the interests of the reigning family and as there appeared no immediate likelihood of their lives or fortunes being affected by a change of dynasty. The bells were rung in the different churches. [l?45. however. in different detachments. vol.211 THE PEETENDEES AND THEIE ADHERENTS. never. that they had taken the precaution of sending them out of the town. who were ordered to attend in their official robes. There can be little question that the feeling which pervaded the majority of the people of England at this period was indifference." says Fieldtliis number am I." In London. and consequently their attendance was dispensed with. . 383. and they look as if the rebels had just driven away the company." l London. Nobody but has some fear for themof selves. If they exhibited no extraordinary regard for the cause of the Stuarts. when the Scotch were said to be at Stamford. and for a " There season the most extraordinary panic prevailed. and at night there were bonfires and an illumination. and took up his quarters in the house of the Earl of Exeter. the case was widely different. the poet. "lies open as a prize to the first comers. . 87. 1746. caused his father to be proclaimed King. and the proclamations were made by the common crier. as usual. Y. It was intended that the ceremony should be performed in the presence of the magistrates. Charles himself entered on foot. their colours flying and bagpipes playing. however. Gray. . whether Scotch or Dutch. than if it were the battle of Cannae. p." . they seemed to have been perfectly indifferent whether Greorge the Second or the Chevalier should hereafter fill the throne. writes to Horace Walpole from Cambridge." Walpole so melancholy a town no kind of public place open but the playhouses. and actually were at Derby. "was to Sir Horace writes Horace Mann. 3rd of " Here we had no more sense of danger February. "Walpole's Correspondence. I heard three sensible middle-aged men. main body of the army marched in. talking of hiring a chaise to go to Caxton (a place on the high-road) to see the Pre" tender and Highlanders as they passed." says another contemporary. where the rebels were expected shortly to arrive. Charles. or for their friends in the army " 2 When the Highlanders.

in readiness to sail at a moment's and literally faced its creditors. with their most precious effects. who were paid in sixpences in order to gain time. which was filled with terror and consternation. they struck a terror into it scarce to be credited. Many of the inhabitants fled to the country. got 215 between the Duke's army and the metropolis." i 2 " True Patriot. the news of a battle. . People thronged to the Bank to obtain and it only escaped bankruptcy by a stratagem. at London on the 5th of December and the following day (called by the English Black Monday) the intelligence was known throughout the whole city. King George ordered his yachts. . was expected every moment and they dreaded to see our army enter London in triumph in two or three days. . 1745. incredible march. Payment was not indeed refused but as those who came first were entitled to priority of payment." 2 Johnstone's Memoirs.PE1NCE CHABLES EDWAHD. preserved its credit shops were shut. p. payment of its notes. and brought it back by another so that the bond fide holders of notes could never get near enough to present them and the Bank. for the result of which they were in the greatest alarm. that our . to remain at the Tower quay." and the Chevalier de Johnstone also ob" Our arrival at Derby was known serves in his Memoirs. These agents went out at one door with the specie they had received. warning. 74. : It being known at London army was within a few miles of that of the Duke of Cumberland. and all the 1 . by this artifice. the Bank took care to be continually surrounded by agents with notes.] "by a most ing. in which he had embarked all his most precious effects.

a camp was being formed on Pinchley Common. . and of several other regiments which had seen foreign service. At the head of this force George the Second had expressed his intention of taking the field in person. X. fully confiding. Conduct of for a Retreat towards the North. of the metropolis. with an army that more than doubled his own in numbers . another force. NOTWITHSTANDING the apparently promising state of the Prince's affairs. Notwithstanding this threatening aspect of his affairs. and which were expected to arrive immediately from abroad. Charles desirous of marching upon London. under the command of Marshal Wade. nothing could be more precarious than his actual condition. for this purpose. in the resources of his own genius and in the gallantry and efficiency of his followers. Heaven had declared itself that Satisfied. his Army on its Retreat. thoroughly convinced that the great majority of the people of England looked upon George the Second in the odious light of an usurper. Surrender of Carlisle to the Duke of Cumberland. never for a moment appears to have entertained the remotest anticipation of The plan which he had laid down in his Duke of Cumberland the slip. for the defence . the sanguine and high-spirited young adventurer. Duke of Cumberland's George the Fourth and Mrs Pennycuik. own mind was to give the by stealing George the Second beneath the walls of London. CHAPTER [1745. when he and. give battle to disaster or defeat. was skirting along the western side of Yorkshire while. and he continued to be supported by the same sanguine hopes of ultimate success. a day's march on the enemy. in his own mind. Reasons of his Commanders His reluctant Consent. up to this period. which he had never failed to entertain since the commencement of his enterprise. the spirits of Charles appeared unbroken. Within a few miles of him lay the Duke of Cumberland. consisting of six thousand men. The Pretender continues his Retreat. in his favour. also. and that they would too gladly transfer their allegiance from him to the rightful line.216 THE PBETENDEBS AND THEIB ADHERENTS. which it was intended should who had been marched out of London consist of the Guards. Lord George Murray gives a Check to the advanced Guard. His Arrival at Glasgow.

what could they expect in districts which perhaps were hostile to them to a man ? What was their own force. . was he of success and triumph. Accordingly. remonstrated with him on the absolute necessity of an immediate retreat to Scotland. headed by Lord George Murray. that the counties through which they had just passed were those which were most favourably inclined to the cause of the Stuarts ? and when it Avas remembered that in those very counties only the most insignificant number had been induced to join them. They had been principally induced. So confident. of five thousand men. all the commanders of battalions and squadrons. yet we have another army to encounter before we arrive at James's and in case of a defeat we shall be exposed to the rage of the country people. on the morning of the 5th of December. Whether fortunately or unfortunately for Charles. that the Elector is to raise his standard at Finchley Common." daily being reinforced by fresh battalions ? who was the Lord oracle of the Lowland Pitsligo. the fortune of war is doubtshould we pass him. though at present uncombined. 217 doubted not to obtain a victory over the usurper. though respectfully. the Elector had already in the field. and the advantage of being in possession of London is known from the case of Edward the Fourth. they asked. and which was " I am told. Should we fight the Duke of Cumberland. and an indelible stain upon the Scottish people. they said. Was it not well known. made their appearance before the Prince. and by this means make himself master of the capital. and earnestly.1745. .] PBLSCE CHARLES EDWABD. that his common conversation after dinner at Derby was as to the manner in which he should make his public entry into London whether on foot or on horseback. or whether in the Highland or Lowland dress. when opposed to an army of thirty thousand. ful . indeed. . which may be done. but hitherto there had appeared not the slightest likelihood of either of these events taking place. which. farther than any Scottish army had as yet advanced into England. from the assurance which had been held out to them that they would speedily be supported by a rising among the English and a descent from France. Let us not then bring certain destruction on ourselves. his council differed widely from him as to the good policy of marching farther towards the South. they said. says " gentry. to march so far.

Memoirs of Captain Daniel. on the other hand. 1 * ' Henderson's Life of the Duke of Cumberland. " I would wish to be 3 In vain he argued and entwenty feet under ground!" treated till at length. who. still it was utterly impossible that he should be able to retain possession of so vast a city. it was urged by Lord George Murray that even victory must prove of no service to them for. when unanimous. iii. Johnstone's Memoirs. 178. and with marks of . the forces of the Elector at Finchley. p. finding all remonstrance useless." l In addition to these arguments. . says the Chevalier de Johnstone.ND THEIE ADHEBEKTS. Lastly. .THE PRETENDEBS 218 A. The Duke of Perth. MS. that he is said with difficulty " to have prevented himself from shedding tears. . too. p. should he escape being killed in battle. vol. Resting his head against the fireplace. Supposing. Lord Mahon's Hist. "We will conduct you back. of his chivalrous enterprise. [1745. must inevitably fall into the hands of the enemy. 71. the possibility of a defeat. he listened to the dispute without uttering a single word but at last he declared himself loudly of the 2 opinion of the other chiefs. at the very crisis. The young Prince listened to these arguments with the most manifest impatience indeed. "and by an honourable retreat secure that safety and that character. and be so fortunate as to overcome . p. it was insisted. unless the populace declared themselves strongly in his favour." he added (turning to the Chevalier). still they must necessarily suffer such a loss as would prevent them from taking advantage of their success. of both which the rash adventuring forward bids fair to deprive us." he cried vehemently. Rather than go back. as far as their present experience and means of intelligence could be depended upon. even without incurring the hazard and consequences of a battle. alone took no part at first in these debates between the Prince and the chiefs of the clans. 410. not a man in the army could reasonably hope to escape to Scotland. so great was his vexation at this threatened destruction of all his darling hopes and romantic projects. as he believed it to be. never marched so far as we have done. and the Prince himself. even should they be enabled to give the Duke of Cumberland the slip. an event on which. they had not the slightest grounds to calculate. he broke up the council in silent indignation. that should the Prince find himself master of London.

that this was the last council which he should ever summon. and that he was prepared to return with them immediately to Scotland. Nevertheless. however. Finding them inflexible. and which alone had induced them to march to so great a distance from their own country. in language which too evidently told the tale of ruined hopes and blighted ambition. the leaders of the insurgent army unquestionably argued wisely when they pressed upon the Prince the necessity of a retreat nor could they but perceive that the assurance of immediate relief which he had so long continued to hold out to them. Disappointed in the expectations which had been so constantly held out to them. had received orders to effect a landing on the southern Little did he know that the premier peer coast of England of Great Britain. than on any . more certain or satisfactory basis. Thus terminated the last reasonable hope of the Stuarts' regaining the sovereignty of these realms. the Duke of Norfolk whose example would probably have been followed by most of the influential Roman Catholics was on the very point of declaring himself in his favour and not less was he aware that many of the Welsh 1 gentlemen had already quitted their homes to join him. not only giving him but also pledging themselves to join him at whatever spot and in any manner he might please Had Charles been aware of these facts. he coldly communicated to the council that he consented to accede to their wishes. were founded rather on his own sanguine hopes and ardent feelings. The remainder of this eventful day was passed by Charles in remonstrating singly with the different members of the council. he again summoned the council in the evening. and that hereafter he should hold himself responsible for his actions only to Grod and his father. and. 56. that already ten thousand French troops. . Little did he know.PRINCE CHARLES EDWARD. p.] 219 unequivocal disgust. and had be conseassurances of their fidelity. ! 1 Chambers. To this he added imperiously. with his brother Henry at their head. and that a messenger was actually on his road from Lord Barry! . 1745. it is curious to speculate how different might have been the result had Charles been permitted to put his favourite plan of marching to London into execution. in the bitterness of the moment. more and Sir Watkin Williams Wynne. when he consented to quit Derby. both of an English rising and a French descent.

In short. p. and professing the Romanist religion. p. " I believe. . the chivalrous ardour which they displayed at the prospect of an approaching struggle partook almost of the character of romance. animated on that occasion to the highest pitch of enthusiasm. he might soon have been tempted to assail at the very least. and had displayed to . and they would have nad a much worse. Bred up in arbitrary principles. . and that the Stuarts might once more have held their court at Whitehall As it was. 2 It was not till the day had dawned. notwithstanding the vast superiority of their opponents both in numbers and discipline. it was not improbable that he would have made himself master of the throne of Great Britain. Mahon' s History of England. congratulating themselves. the English would have been led to expect a much better government than King George's. 2 vol. from imquently pursued possible that the dynasty of Great Britain might have been changed. No sooner did the fact become known. than the embarkation of the French troops was countermanded. 67. would have widened the breach some rivalries between his court and his father's might probably have rent his own party asunder and the honours and rewards well earned by his faithful followers might have nevertheless disgusted the rest of the nation. and the English Jacobites remained in their quiet homes. iii. " There was a great disproportion." Lord . His own violent though generous temper. he would have alarmed a people jealous of their freedom. the Highland army commenced its retrograde and mournful march from Derby. and a church tenacious of her rights. and.THE PBETENDEES AND THEIE ADHERENTS." says the Chevalier de Johnstone. . quarrelling about who should be the first to sharpen and give a proper edge to their swords. and breathing nothing but a desire for the combat. "between the numbers of the two armies but the inequality was balanced by the heroic ardour of the Highlanders. On the 6th of December. They were to be seen during the whole day in crowds before the shops of the cutlers. "that had Charles marched onward from Derby he would have gained the British throne but I am far from thinking that he would long have held it. 416. and his deficiency in liberal knowledge. the author finds that he is not singular in presuming that. had Charles marched to London. the retreat from Derby sealed the fate of Charles and his gallant followers." says Lord Mahon. Johnstone's Memoirs. Hitherto the devoted mountaineers had imagined themselves on the eve of an engagement with the his march to London. it is far ! l royal forces. 1 Since writing the above. 220 [l745. perhaps. that their cautious policy had preserved for them their fortunes. and not improbably their lives. before the day dawned.

If we had been beaten. 221 them many a familiar object which they had recently passed by in their hour of triumph." says the Chevalier de Johnstone. that the Highlanders perceived in what direction their chieftains were leading them. . he was in the habit of lingering gloomily behind till the whole army was in advance of him. . p. moreover. In the march to Derby. and they found that they were retracing our steps. and instead of delighting to share the fatigues of his men on foot. it had been his custom to rise with the dawn of day. 73. . The conduct of Charles. J PRINCE CHAELES EDWABD." 1 It has already been mentioned. the day allowed them to see the objects around them. nothing was to be heard throughout the whole army but expressions of rage and lamentation. had been distinguished by a forbearance and good conduct which would have done credit to a more civilized people and more disciplined troops but now. The English Jacobites. the grief could not have been greater. were the persons whose position was the most critical at this particular period. and with his target slung over his back.1746. irritated by disappointment. indeed. that the conduct of the Highlanders. their progress was marked by repeated acts of violence and rapine. his former high hopes and elation of spirits had yielded to the most melancholy depression of mind. They knew not. and with a kind word to the humblest Highlander. riding forward on horseback. Vestigia nulla retrorsum had hitherto been his favourite and adopted motto but now that this motto appeared to him as a reproach. of the name of 1 Johnstone's Memoirs. tended to increase the feelings of vexation and discontent which pervaded the army in general. and proving himself their equal even in their boasted powers of enduring the most harassing march. which was the best step to take . or to remain behind and trust themselves to the tender mercies of the Government. whether to retreat with the Highlanders into the fastnesses of their native mountains. and then their vexation almost exceeded that of their broken-hearted "As soon. sullen and dejected. and then. One of these persons. who had volunteered to serve in the Prince's army. took his place at the head of the column. "as Prince. he was in the habit of marching But now he appeared gaily at the head of his division.inthe courseof their triumphant march to Derby.

In consequence of some wanton act. Even the Prince's own life was on one occasion in imminent danger. they would not have dared to do if he had permitted a village. and annoyed them considerably by a desultory fire." He adhered to his determination. who had received them on their onward march with every manifestation of welcome and joy. irritated by such frequent instances of the enemy's malice. The conduct of the Highlanders. pro- voked the anger and revengeful feelings of the country people in the districts through which they passed while the latter naturally seized every opportunity of retaliating on their oppressors. On reaching Manchester. observed with every mark of gentleman in the Prince's " astonishment. iii. wherever their course lies. that the army was retreating to Scotland. remarked with an oath.THE PRETENDERS AND THEIR ADHERENTS. that it were better to be hanged in England than starved in Scotland. The army. 1 service of the King of Spain. and died an officer in the . on the 9th. Some zealous royalist had conceived the idea of assassinating him. the inhabitants. and the consequence was. who retorted by setting fire to the The people of the country had by this time provided themselves with arms. and. Morgan. "I am determined to go with them. 241. which. Search was made for him. Even the sick. he fired his piece at the former. were treated with unjustifiable violence. on the " contrary. during their march. another English service. that they more than once fired on the rear of the insurgent army. of the insurgent army." was Vaughan's reply." vol." Morgan. "but in vain and no great matter for anything he would have suffered from us for many exercised their malice merely on account of the known clemency of the Prince. : . p." says one of the Jacobite officers. but mistaking the person of Mr O' Sullivan " for that of the Prince. either of violence or pillage. however. and died on the gallows while Vaughan had the good fortune to escape. which was committed by the Highlanders at a village near Stockport. on their quitting the town. . began to little 1 " Tales of a Grandfather. now appeared hostile to them almost to a man. the inhabitants fired on the patrols . more severity in punishing them. 222 [l745. and killed the enemy's stragglers whenever they fell into their hands. addressing himself to one Vaughan." "Be it so. a large mob followed in their rear. who were necessarily left behind by the Highlanders during their rapid march.

ward his light cavalry. having been detained for a considerable time by the breaking down of some baggage-waggons. under the command of Lord George Murray. they were surprised to see the light horse of the enemy commanding the adjoining heights. who cut him to pieces in an instant. last man to bring up the rear. sensibly alive to the importance of the trust confided to him. 1745.] 223 behave with less forbearance. to four thousand men advancing upon him in two lines on Clifton Moor. vol. when Lord George Murray for the first time perceived in his rear being the a large body of the enemy's cavalry which now amounted." says the Chevalier de " Johnstone. when we reached the top. "They ran so fast. p. of Captain Daniel. Lord George resumed his march. had been compelled to pass the night at Shap. ! manner did we march out of England. Early on the following morning. The sun had now set. and. Lord George Murray. who immediately fled in disorder. stealof horses there was amongst us. . the main body of the Highland army reached J this Penrith. and whom we wished to make prisoner to obtain some intelligence from him but it was impossible to save him from the fury of the Highlanders. or anything else but the bare back of the In horses to ride on and for their bridle only a straw-rope . 87. through which the that name. with Charles at their head but the rear-guard. and twilight had almost merged into darkness." On the 17th. instead of the English army.PKINCE CHABLES EDWARD. about half a mile from the village of On one side of the road. Diverting ing. that they reached the summit of the hill almost as soon as those who were at the head of the column. and of whom we were only able to come up with one man. without either breeches. and pressing it was to see the Highlanders mounted. and now few there were who would go on foot if they could ride and mighty taking. . Lord George Murray gave an order to the Glengary clan to ascend the nearest hill and attack them. to find. p. 2 Johnstone's Memoirs." 2 The rear-guard continued its march. 1 MS. it is said. only three hundred light horse and chasseurs. just as the Highlanders were entering the enclosures around Clifton Hall. Memoirs Lord Mahon. who had been We thrown from his horse. but the delay which had taken place on the previous day had enabled the Duke of Cumberland to push for. 418. iii. were agreeably surprised. saddle. Immediately.

after which we made our retreat in good order. 1 " The officers who were with me. as they wore no breeches. determined on an immediate attack." says the Chevalier de Johnstone. No." was the reply of the chieftain. ! . and it succeeded. of less extent. with the evident intention of surprising him. broke the English battalions. but only a sort of petticoat." . that to retreat when the enemy were within less than musket-shot would he very dangerous. . "we must instantly charge!" At the same time he drew his broadsword. " I will attack the enemy sword in hand. 42. fell down on their knees." says Lord George Murray. Claymore " midst of the enemy. During this operation. in his Letter to Hamilton of Bangour. with an inconceivable intrepidity. " There is no time to be lost. he inquired hurriedly of him what he considered ought to be done. . were the vast enclosures of Lord Lonsdale's estate. I own I disobeyed orders . 224 [1745. and began to cut down the thorn-hedges with their dirks a necessary precaution. " provided you order me. they received the fire of the English with the most admirable firmness and constancy and. as soon as the hedge was cut down. but allowed themselves to be Platoons of cut to pieces without quitting their ground. ifter receiving the enemy's fire. and. " agreed in my opinion. we went in sword in hand and dislodged them .THE PRETENDERS AND THEIR ADHERENTS. as at the battle of Grladsmuir." said Lord George. but what I did was the only safe and honourable measure I could We take. and shouting out the famous war-cry of the " " he was the first to dash into the Highlanders. the chief of that branch of the clan. which reached to their knees. but the moot occasionally broke through the dark clouds and in one of these intervals of light Lord George perceived a large body of dismounted dragoons gliding forward along the stone dykes. Placing himself at the head of the Macphersons. Home's Appendix. enemy must necessarily reach him. or defences. who suffered so much the more as they did not turn their backs. perceiving the importance of giving the enemy a check before they could be supported by a larger force. Lord Greoge Murray. and we would probably be destroyed before we came up with the rest of our nad nothing for it but a brisk attack and therefore. " immediately ran to the enclosures where the English were. they jumped into the enclosures sword in hand. l The night was extremely dark." Almost at the same moment they received a sharp fire of musketry from the dragoons on the other side of the dyke. and taking his station by the side of his friend Cluny. army. The Highlanders. and on the other side were the Clifton enclosures.

who commanded " Cumberland and his cavalry. however. 1745. in their accounts of the affray. was left severely Honeywood. quoted in Notes to "Waverley. and in such great confusion. 91. and pursued them across three enclosures to a heath which lay behind them. if the pistol with which a Highlander took aim at his head had not missed fire. Clunie of M'Pherson asserts that there were one hundred and fifty men killed . and the Chevalier de Johnstone says that the loss was estimated by some as high as six hundred men. M'Pherson's MS. The royalists. and four officers wounded. without being permitted to attack them. It is somewhat difficult to ascertain the exact loss of the royal forces at the skirmish at Clifton. At length. it is beyond question that the Duke of Cumberland and the bulk of his cavalry had been taken prisoners. The only prisoner they took was the Duke of Cumberland's footman. estimate the loss at forty private men killed and wounded. suffered severely in the conflict the dragoons. while dashing through the hedge. p. who fled in all and Colonel directions. " fled with precipitation. The Prince had the politeness to send him back inl stantly to his master. in his unworthy fabrications and prejudiced statement of the " affair. Nothing could be more complete than the victory gained by the Highlanders. the Highlanders forty . said." In the onset. The Duke of Cumberland. The Highlanders were with great difficulty withheld from pursuing their opponents. On the other hand.PRINCE CHARLES EDWARD. Memoirs." 2 The defeated dragoons took up a position on a distant part of the moor. but without again venturing to attack the rear of the insurgents. exclaiming that it was a disgrace " " to see so many of the Prince's enemies standing fast upon the moor. and fought bareheaded the foremost in the assault.] 225 and fifty men might be seen falling all at once under the swords of the Highlanders yet they still remained firm. . The English. who declared that his master would have been killed. on the contrary. Q . and closed up their ranks as soon as an opening was made through them by the sword. that if the Prince had been provided with a sufficient number of cavalry to have taken advantage of the disorder. Lord George lost his bonnet and wig (the latter being commonly worn at the period). forced them to give way." it is wounded on the spot. which were published in the London Gazette by au1 8 Johnstone's Memoirs.

who could scarcely fail to anticipate the dreadful fate which awaited them. colonel of the English. 420. . where a considerable number were cut to pieces. most willingly acquiesced. The Prince inquired his reason for making the demand. they forced them. [l745. and that the Highland army would presently pass by her re! 1 Clifton Moor is the scene where the chieftain of Glenaquoich is represented in Waverley to have heen made a prisoner. p." says an officer who was present." reduces the total loss to only a dozen men. had little to fear from falling into the hands of the Duke of Cumberland. being engaged in the French service. were cut off and surrounded before they could effect their purpose. to fly to the open moor. entreated him to order the bagpipes to leave off playing.226 THE PRETENDERS ATO) THEIR ADHERENTS. but it was different with the others. consisting of the Manchester regiment. which suddenly shone out. and some French and Irish. But the moon. the Highlanders lost no more than twelve in the conflict. to be left. they resumed their march. though the latter never assented to or desired it. amongst others their brave chieftain. thority. and yet resigned themselves to their lot with a cheerfulness and devotion which did them the highest honour. to the support of their companions. and in all probability to have been taken prisoners. a stranger forced his way up to him. Such is the too frequent difficulty in establishing the simplest historical fact According to all accounts. the Highlanders endeavoured to recover the enclosures but several of them. not only in his own name. the Prince's passed the night. vol. lii. on Colonel Townley's coming back." * MS. when he was informed that a lady of the name of Dacre had just been brought to bed. showed to the English the" small number of asTwo squadrons of horse moving sailants. and telling them that it was the Prince's pleasure that they should remain at Carlisle. and. a few Lowlanders. taking it as 2 coming from the Prince. they all. many of them wishing to undergo the same fate as their royal master. "Mingling with the dismounted dragoons. leaving behind them a garrison of three hundred men. However. birthday. . Memoirs of Captain Daniel. The two latter. Lord Mahon." While Charles was passing through Carlisle at the head of his troops. at the sword point. 1 On the 19th the insurgents entered Carlisle. accosting him in a tone of great earnestness. but in the name of all the officers of the Manchester regiment. " Mr Townley. which small number are stated to have pushed too far forward on the moor. where they On the following morning. disordered by their own success. " petitioned the Prince.

in an isolated citadel and in hostile land. which had been brought from Whitehaven. that "they should not be put to the sword. but reserved Of the eighteen officers who served in the Manchester regiment. the Highlanders crossed the Esk. however. some cannon. with his usual grace. he took it from her and wore it during the rest of the day. when at his desire she produced the identical cockade which had been presented her by Charles. and expressed a desire to capitulate. and true to their principles to the last. when. By his own desire the new-born infant was brought to him. had he not been firmly convinced that the Duke of Cumberland was unprovided with battering artillery. arrived the following day. for his Majesty's pleasure. bearing their dreadful fate with piety and resignation. he took the white cockade from his Highland bonnet and fixed it to the bosom of the child. The reply of the Duke was. finding that further resist. He insisted on hearing the anecdote of her infancy from her own lips and one evening. 227 Charles instantly gave orders for the bagpipes to cease playing. Their manner of fording the rapid current was ingeniously contrived. hoisted a white flag upon the walls. The little garrison defended itself to the best of its abilities but on the 29th. ance could avail nothing. and on reaching the house he alighted from his horse and went in. and during the last century was for many years the leader of fashion in sidence. . The Duke. This little creature became afterwards the wife of Sir James Clerk of Pennycuik.1745. When George the Fourth visited Scotland she was in her seventy-seventh year. and was treated by that monarch with marked attention. On the afternoon of the 20th of December." Q 2 . and had the satisfaction of finding themselves once more on their native soil. began to play against the crazy walls.J PRINCE CHAULES EDWABD. nine perished on the scaffold at Kennington Common. Edinburgh. and the besieged. under the most aggravated circumstances of cruelty and horror. and invested Carlisle with his whole army. Previous to taking his departure from Carlisle. The Highlanders formed themselves into ranks of ten or twelve abreast. Of these. seventeen were condemned to death on the 19th of July following. Charles publicly returned his thanks to these brave and devoted persons who were drawn up to receive his parting address. There can be no doubt that he would never have consented to leave them behind him.

a short distance below the spot where the rest of his army was crossing. 58. leaving a sufficient space between their ranks for the passage of the water. one of those trifling incidents occurred which had so often endeared Charles to his humble followers. who had been drifted from the hold of their companions. cohear!" that is. the retreating army lost only forty men. were With great dexterity and carried near him by the stream. help!" supported the man in safety till further In crossing the Esk not a single man was lost. . with the greatest coolness and deliberation. 221. "Help. fail . that this famous that it retreat was made in the heart of a hostile country. and exclaiming in Gaelic. as " entitled to rank with the most celebrated in either ancient or modern times." 3 Wh en we consider. iii. 228 [l?45. in spite of two armies of overwhelming suthat." Thus was accomplished the memorable march of the Highland army from Derby to Scotland. "were kindled to dry our people as soon as they quitted the water and the bagpipers having commenced playing. " Fires. 75. indeed. which has been designated by one writer as "one of the most surprising retreats "2 that has ever been performed and by another. the Highlanders began all to dance. and which they had continually nourished ever since their departure from Derby. p. we cannot Johnstonc's Memoirs. The Highlanders displayed excessive joy on finding themselves once more in their own country. He was fording the river on horseback. 3 Chambers. to save any of those who might be carried away by the violence of the current. when we consider 1 1 Smollett. l .THE PRETENDERS AND THEIE ADHERENTS. them by the hair presence of mind." says the Chevalier de Johnstone. . Only a few unhappy girls. assistance arrived. whether by sickness or the sword. p. periority. were carried away by the rapidity of the current. vol. notwithstanding they were closely pursued by cavalry. he caught hold of one of " of his head. who had chosen to share the fortunes of their lovers. all these circumstances. with their arms locked so as to support each other against the rapidity of the stream. p. expressing the utmost joy on seeing their country again and forgetting the chagrin which had incessantly devoured them. was performed. Cohear. Cavalry also were stationed in the river helow the ford. and suffered intensely from fatigue and hunger. when one or two men. While the Highlanders were engaged in fording the Esk.

indeed. "an aged female Place. a non-juror. at his departure. in who recollected the occupation of Dumthe army. At Dumfries. " that the late Mrs McCulloch of Ardwell. and when. and the bonfires remained unextinguished in the streets. 229 to be struck with astonishment and admiration at a retreat so skilfully conducted and so successfully performed. when a child of six years old. For this unpalatable display of hostility to his cause. He imposed a fine of 2000 on the town." . had induced the inhabitants to celebrate the retreat of the insurgents with illuminations and bonfires and when Charles entered the town. to show her the Pretender. a town which had long been distinguished for its attachment to the reigning family and Their excess of zeal. Charles marched with the main body of his army to Dumfries. z "Widow Blake. the candles were still in the windows. under the condition that little Miss Corsan was in future to call him the 1 Neither did they carry their threats into execution against the Prince. "was the name of this remarkable person. pied by the Prince was a Mr Richard Lowthian. he carried off with him the unfortunate Provost 1 and another magistrate." says Sir Walter Scott. note." Tales of a Grandfather. He had shown himself a staunch friend of the Government. Provost or his mansion. being taken out of her father's house. and proprietor of Stafford Hall in Cumberland. very long since. fries The Provost of Dumfries was a gentleman of the name of Corsan. as if it was to be instantly burnt. and feared the The proprietor of the house occuissue of the expedition. and was consequently threatened with the destruction of his house and property by the " It is not enraged insurgents. as securities for the pay- ment of the remaining sum. and which is now the Commercial Inn." says Mr Chambers. quently saw him. In her father's house several of the men were quartered. From the banks of the Esk. vied a heavy a tax on the inhabitants. who died fully at the age of 108. who held her in his arms.] PBINCE CHARLES EDWABD. daughter of Provost Corsan. Though well lived in Edinburgh. only 1100 was forthcoming. iii. Charles le. told me that she remembered well. 249. says Mr Chambers. Charles took up his quarters in the Market what was then the most considerable house in the " Within the town. being then seventeen years of Highland by 2 She lived opposite to the Prince's lodging. p. and it was in her recollection that they greatly lamented the course which they had taken. She had been the wife of a dragoon in the reign of George the Second. which the good-natured Gael did.1745. Too young to be sensible of the danger. vol. to the Protestant succession. last three years" (1840). she asked the Highland officer. and freage.

the tenth Earl. 1 came forward to grace his court. that his being kept back from the company of his guest was only a matter of decency. . The expedient he adopted in this dilemma was one highly characteristic of the time. who was condemned to death for the share which he took in the Rebellion of 1715. the capitals of which are touched with dim gold. already taken Carlisle. One M'Grhie. and was advancing to Dumfries. of the most beautiful damask. resembling the finest satin. paneled all round with Corinthian pilasters. a pair of leather gloves. * History of the Rebellion. in the possession of a private family. a painter in Dumfries. the seat of the The daughters of Robert Dalzell. that he hurriedly left the dejected. particularly those of the attainted House of Carnwath. as token of regard. His wife. is a very handsome one.THE PEETENDEES AND THEIE ADHEBENTS. town the next day. 230 [l745. did the honours of the house without scruple and some other Jacobite ladies. had been imposed upon at Annan with the false news that the Duke of Cumberland had . when he was told that a messenger had arrived with intelligence respecting the enemy. 1745. so extremely fine that they could be drawn through her ring. His life was spared. one of a set of table napkins. in care due to the most precious relics. These. these honours were restored in the person of Robert Alexander Dalzell. who could not well be taxed with treason. as well as the bed he had slept on. and yet neither did ie wish to offend him by the appearance of deliberately going out of his way. He got himself so extremely drunk. Mrs Lowthian received from him. the day on which Charles quitted Dumfries. by 1 courtesy. and soon after returned to his friends with a countenance manifestly The consequence was. and are still in existence. he saw. Charles received this intelligence in another room." Mr Chambers observes in his History of the Eebellion of " When the writer was at Dumfries in 1838. but his titles were forfeited by attainder. were carefully preserved by the 2 family. In 1826. which Charles received company. and a friend of the insurgents. p." The night of the 23rd. sixth Earl of Carnwath. he judged it prudent not to appear in his company. was passed by him at Drumlanrig. 59. affected to the Prince's cause. and which they had kept ever after with the The drawing-room. which the ladies Dalzell had taken to grace the table of the Prince. He was sitting here at supper with his officers and other friends.

chap. and Queen Anne presents from the last of these sovereigns to James Duke of Queensberry. . he is said to have made no remuneration whatever. he scrupulously defrayed the expenses of his entertainment wherever he stopped but both at Drumlanrig and at Douglas. by hacking with their swords the portraits of King William. The refit of the Highland army is said to have cost the corporation of Glasgow 10. Charles marched with his army through the romantic Pass of Dalveen into Clydesdale. partridges. 1745. . Generally speaking. The result of the day's sport speaks but little perhaps in favour of his skill as a sportsman the men . and at night took up his quarters in Douglas Castle. as may be seen in the Prince's curious household-book. is described as having been in the most dilapidated condition. in consequence of their long and continuous march of two months. At Hamilton he allowed his troops a day's rest he himself taking up his residence at the palace of the Duke of Hamilton.] Duke of Queensberry. where he amused himself by shooting in the park. the wealthiest and the most populous town in Scotland. and numbered nine hundred men. 1 . 1 Chambers. whose dress. Charles consequently retaliated upon them. two and a deer. 59. . and the most violently opposed to the cause of the Stuarts. From Douglas Castle Charles led his troops by way of Hamilton to Glasgow. in consideration of his services in promoting the union between the two kingdoms.000 at least. the masters of which mansions were hostile to his cause. Prom Drumlanrig. Queen Mary. 2 During the time he remained in this city. such is the amount of the sum which they subsequently received as a remuneration from the Government. which was commanded by the Earl of Home. only game which he brought down being two pheasants. lay upon straw in the great During their short stay at Drumlanrig. while a number of his 231 He himself slept in the state bed. 2 Home. p. vii. The inhabitants had recently raised a regiment for the service of the Government.PEINCE CHAELES EDWAED. landers seized an unfortunate opportunity of displaying their zeal in the cause of the Stuarts. On the 26th Charles entered Glasgow. the Highgallery. by forcing them to pay the expenses of refitting his gallant Highlanders. the seat of the Duke of Douglas.

THE PRETENDEBS 232 AJSD THEIR ADHERENTS. nor the fascination of his personal address." . In so populous a city as Glasgow. ladies. than he had done at any former period. as in all other parts of Scotland. Charles held a grand review " of his troops upon " ihe Green. constantly nocked to be presented to him. "though formerly much against us. at the west end of the Trongate." marched out." says " with drums beating. who had come from all parts to see us. even in the Whig and fanatic city of Glasgow. says Captain Daniel. had won for him the kind interest and best wishes of the fair sex. whose pistol fortunately missed fire and he himself was heard to complain. Previous to quitting Glasgow. that nowhere had he made so few friends. and where the ladies of Glasgow and the neighbourhood." He held a kind of small court in the Trongate. [l745. Neither did his gallant appearance. On one occasion he was shot at by a fanatic in the streets. who were unable to resist the temptation of visiting their wives and families after so long an absence. We . bagCaptain Daniel. though formerly much against us. Charles appears to have been par- by the attentions paid him by the ladies during his residence in the Trongate. during the whole week that he remained there. were now . who. In consequence of the numerous desertions of the Highlanders. in spite of the remonstrances of their husbands and lovers. only sixty individuals joined his standard. the quarters of Charles were in the best house which it conModern improvetained. Charles had the satisfaction of finding that. Charles had hoped to compensate himself for these desertions by the number of recruits which he expected to enlist but. he is said to have paid greater attention to his dress and personal appearance. pipes playing. where he was to be seen in public twice a-day surrounded by his principal officers. colours flying. and especially the ticularly gratified of Glasgow. and all the marks of a triumphant army. the insurgent army was now reduced to three thousand six hundred foot and five hundred horse. with great bitterness. produce any effect on the calculating minds of the inhabitants of this commercial city. . Nevertheless. and the charm of his personal appearance. were now charmed by the sight of the Prince into the most enthusiastic loyalty. to the appointed ground attended by multitudes of people. the romance of his enterprise. for. ments have since caused it to be rased to the ground. " The ladies.

61. peared in his pale fair countenance and downcast eye." says the writer. 1818). p.1 233 charmed by the sight of the Prince into the most enthusiastic I am somewhat at a loss to give a description ol the Prince. . divine. No object could be more charming. p. and seemed to have a melancholy foreboding of that disaster which soon after ruined the hopes of his family for ever.PEINCE CHARLES EDWABD." 2 1 Chambers. " to get so near him." l Another portrait of the Prince. I managed. . drawn at this period by a grave citizen of Glasgo\v. and its interest was much heightened by the dejection which ap. He evidently wanted confidence in his cause. as he passed homewards to his lodgings. that I could have touched him with my hand and the impression which he made upon my mind will never fade as long as I live. than his at this time was for. above any comparison with the heroes of the last age and the majesty and grandeur he displayed were truly noble and loyalty. as he appeared at the review. no personage more captivating. which was the characteristic of the countenance of Charles. He had a princely aspect. peculiar expression of melancholy. J Attic Stories (Glasgow. and which had already been commented upon by the inhabitants of Edinburgh in " his happier and more prosperous days. being well mounted and princely attired. having all the best endowments of both body and mind. no deportment more agreeable. he appeared to bear a sway. may not be uninteresting to the It is curious to find the writer dwelling on that reader. 290 . 1745.

on the 10th of January. the Mac Kenzies. he opened the trenches against that important fortress. pearance of the Pretender's Forces. moreover. Shortly after his arrival at Stirling. The person named as his successor was Lieutenant-general Henry Hawley. with the intention of laying siege to Stirling Castle. of whom. the Mac Intoshes. CHAPTEE The Pretender's Retreat to Stirling. as well as of a considerable body of men which had been raised by Lord Lewis Gordon. With this addition of strength supported. Battle The Duke succeeded in his Character. it may be expedient to say a few words. partly to . when he was suddenly recalled to London. passing the night himself at Bannockburn House. the Command Surprised by the Reapof Falkixk. considering the important part which he played in the subsequent period of the rebellion. Charles evacuated Glasgow. by a quantity of battery guns and engineers. This force consisted of the Frasers. having forced the citadel of Carlisle to surrender. In the mean time. and accordingly. amounting in all to about four thousand men. and appears to have been indebted for his advancement to the high post which he now filled. by Lieutenant-general Hawley [l746. Charles now found himself in command of an army of nine thousand men. in order to assume the command against the threatened invasion from France. The march occupied three days.THE PRETENDERS AND THEIR ADHERENTS. This brutal and self-sufficient individual was a person of ordinary capacity. which Lord John Drummond had recently succeeded in transporting from France he felt himself in a condition to lay siege to Stirling Castle. . who has already been mentioned as one of his most devoted adherents. The first night was passed by him at Kilsyth House. was advancing in pursuit of the Highland army. Charles had the satisfaction of finding his army strengthened by a large accession of force. XI. 1746. the seat of Sir Hugh Paterson. and the Farquarsons. the Duke of Cumberland. the residence of Campbell of Shawfield the next day he led his troops to the famous field of Bannockburn. ON the 3rd of January. and the regiments of Scots Boyal and French piquets.

according to custom. sent a gentleman. on arriving at Edinburgh. Well. frequent and sudden executions Last winter he had intelligence of a spy to are his passion. when he arrived at Ghent. vol. ii.' said Hawley. and kicking him down. the magistrates. went to the Town Hall on their refusing him entrance. and his unfeeling patron. is called Lord Chief Justice . or. He caused several executioners to attend his march and one of his first steps. 17th January. with no smaD bias to the brutal. present remarkable exceptions to the general rule that a brave man is never cruel. the Duke of Cumber- land. to engage his favour he told the gentleman. and partly to his having served in the royal army in Scot- land. is marched from Edinburgh to put the rebellion I must give you some idea of this man. during the rebellion of 1715. One of the surgeons of the army begged the body of a soldier. he burst open the door with his foot. and seated himself abruptly : ' ' ! . and hand in it. 96.] 235 his being a personal favourite of the Duke of Cumberland. as it seems rather to have been intended. to hang up in the guard-room and able. Two years ago. as an indication of the fate of the rebels who might fall into his hands. and that he should go and tell the magistrates so at the same time dragging him He then to the head of the stairs. to dis' sect. who was hanged for desertion." writes Horace " "Walpole. who never dared to appear in the town while he stayed told them he in it. in great wrath. of Executioner in Chief in Scotland. He. was to cause two gibbets to be erected. p. : had been affronted. "General Hawley. which it was presumed had given him due experience in the Highland mode of warfare. He give a mortal blow to the pride of the Scotch nobility. who will quite out. "Walpole's Correspond- . was persuaded they had no demanded to have the gentleman given up to him. with the offer of a sum of money. His barbarities had already rendered him famous. 1748.PEINCE CHAELES EDWABD. Such was the military Jeffreys of his age Perhaps army during its . 1746. that the King his master paid him. come from the French army the first notice our army had of his arrival was by seeing him dangle on a gallows in his muff and boots. but then you shall give me the He is very brave skeleton. Mann." l Such was the individual who was deputed by the English Government to fill the post of Commander. ! 1 Letter to Sir Horace ence.

I give As to my other relations. on the particular manner in which he desired to be buried. to my sister who want and. and. as I never was married. On the 13th of January. whose brutalities only exceeded those of his royal patron. that the Highlanders were incapable of withstanding a charge of cavalry." General Hawley died. After dwelling. of all professions." he says. both at Preston Pans and Clifton. Pay the carpenter for the carcass-box. possessed of considerable property. he took up his quarters at Callander House. about the year 1759. human is always curious. whose husband was serving under the Prince's standard. and have the worst opinion of all members of the law. even of the the Duke of Cumberland . on which occasion he had been engaged in the The insurgent right wing of the Duke of Argyll's army. This lady is said to have lavished the charms of her gaiety and wit on the English general. army he affected to designate as "the Highland rabble. "The priest. he persisted in retaining the most contemptible opinion of his hardy and gallant opponents. priests. in his last will and testament. This notion he seems to have formed from the success which had attended a spirited charge of the English cavalry at Sheriffmuir. I have none 5000. with my own hand and hate all because I I this did. if so. The infatuation of this military ruffian on all points connected with his critical position almost exceeds belief. but as a picture. will have his fee let the puppy take it. him : . we will allow to give the finishing touch to the portrait with his own pen. " I have written all this. with the insidious intention of keeping him from the performance of his military duties. His will is dated 29th March. with the intention of marching to the relief of StirHe arrived at Falkirk on the 16th. 1 . at the ling Castle. enough has already been said of this ferocious savage. he always expressed it as his fixed opinion. In opposition to past experience. if the latter were ably and properly conducted. [1746 . the plot of the wily lady proved an eminently successful one) that his army might be surprised in the absence of their chief. 1749.236 THE PRETENDERS AND THEIR ADHERENTS. Hawley led his troops from Edinburgh. "I conclude." he adds. and perhaps with the hope (and. . Notwithstanding the lessons which the Highlanders had taught the King's troops." 1 dark side of nature. invitation of the Countess of Kilmarnock. the seat of the Countess. I have no heirs.

PEIKCB CHARLES EDWABD. advanced his army to Bannockburn on the 17th. Expecting momentarily to see the English columns advancing towards him. messenger was immediately despatched to General Hawley at Callander House. p." Two of the bystanders. they announced the ! . to use the language of one of his followers. Hawley was at this time enjoying the hospitalities of Callander House and the fascination of Lady Kilmarnock's society and as he showed but little inclination to advance. by means of a telescope. Charles. and self-sufficient. In the words of one of the A Jacobite ballads of the period 1 : Johnstone's Memoirs. who shortly afterwards galloped up in breathless haste. however. He was without his hat. The Highland army had forded the water of Garden. when a countryman rushed into the " Gentlemen. " Some of the Highlanders will be immediately upon you " officers cried out. stai-tling fact to their companions.] 237 and he neglected even the commonest precautions to insure success to his arms. 84. he pertinaciously insisted that the Highlanders would never dare to encounter him. exclaiming. he drew up his men in order of battle. where they were drawn up on the plain to the east of the village. had "acquired a strong relish for battles" ) summoned a council of war. 174. Charles (who. and awaited the attack. but would disperse themselves on the first tidings of his approach. one o'clock. he affected to attribute the loss of the battle of Preston Pans to General Cope's cowardice and inefficiency and even on the very eve of the day on which the battle of Falkirk was fought. and. confident. Seize that rascal he is spreading a false alarm. . within three miles of Hawley's camp. having discovered the advancing lines of the Highlanders. Vaunting. having ascertained that General Hawley was pushing forward to give him battle. what are you about ? the camp. In the mean time. and the English soldiers were on the point of sitting down to dinner. before the royalists It was about received the least notice of their intention. . 1 attack. and had all the appearance of having recently risen from Lady Kilmarnock's hospitable board. about seven miles from the English camp at Falkirk. climbed a neighbouring tree.6. when it was determined to anticipate the advance of the royal forces by an immediate .

and for some time it seemed a kind of race between the Highlanders and the dragoons. The cavalry had gained a considerable distance in advance of the infantry. ." Hawley's first step was to order his three regiments of dragoons to gallop with all speed to the top of Falkirk Muir. their artillery stuck fast in a morass. They pushed forward. compelled to leave their artillery behind them. from whence no efforts could extricate it. fierce the wind does blaw. a'. Hawley drew up his army in order of battle on . moreover. Hawley. Up and rin awa. could boast of any advantage over the other. thus obtaining the advantage of having their backs turned to the high wind and heavy rain. Hawley. Hawley . The latter had to contend against other disadvantages. Their relative force also was very nearly equal. to increased energy and speed. urging forward at the head of his dragoons. however. and by his words and gestures exhorting his men . and Had ye hut An hour. [l748 " Gae dight your For face. his head uncovered. Hawley who. each army numbering abotit eight thousand men. Foiled in his first attempt to obtain an advantage over the Highlanders. Up and rin awa. and Ye might have hastard snout. To gie your lugs a claw. The philahegs are coming doon. and turn the chase. Your bacon houk. And Highland Geordie 's at your tail. who marched up the hill with their bayonets fixed but the day had now become overcast. staid wi' lady's or may he twa. whatever were his faults. Perth. and his white hairs streaming in the wind. Hawley. Hawley. followed by a large body of infantry. almost blinded them. saved them a'. who should first arrive at the summit of the hill. Hawley. and a violent storm of wind and rain beating directly in the faces of the soldiers.238 THE PRETENDERS AND THEIR ADHERENTS. which pelted directly against the faces of the English. As the Highlanders had been . The Highlanders. in this respect. maid Hawley. They were annoyed by the smoke caused by their own fire many of their pieces were rendered unserviceable by the rain and. were the first to attain the summit of the hill. Wi' Drummond. was no craven presented a conspicuous object. neither army.

assured me that whilst he was lying upon the ground under a dead horse which had fallen upon him. that the English. and trampling the Highlanders under the feet of their The most singular and extraordinary combat immeThe Highlanders. each of them having aimed at a rider. The Highlanders. being the strongest. diately followed. and having killed him with his dirk. which were opened by our discharge. and carried the right wing of their army with them in their flight. he came to his assistancce and drew him with difficulty from under his horse. but pursued them keenly with their swords. the riders by their clothes. Some seized thrust their dirks into the bellies of the horses. and stabbed them with their dirks several again used their pistols but few of them had sufficient space to handle their swords. advantage they had obtained. the Highlander. The commander of this body of cavalry. chief of one of the clans of the Macdonalds. . without the power of extricating himself. ranks. and not allowing them a moment's time to recover from their fright so . Macdonald of Clanranald. he saw a dismounted horseman struggling with a Highlander fortunately for him. closing their his men. 121. to induce us to fire. throwing down everything before them. and did not halt till they were within twenty paces of our first line. discharged their muskets and killed about eighty men. stretched on the ground. put spurs to their horses. the moment the cavalry halted. and forced to retire. threw his antagonist. running as fast as their horses. dragged them down. that the English cavalry. The resistance of the Highlanders was so incredibly obstinate. and. breaking their ranks. threw them immediately into disorder. The Highlanders did not neglect the .1746. .] PRINCE CHABLES EDWABD. were at length repulsed." Subsequently some of the dragoons rallied. and rushed upon the Highlanders at a hard trot. supported ' 1 Johustone's Memoirs. "The English. who had been particularly enjoined not to fire till the army was within musket-length of them. 239 the lower ground. horses. p. who had advanced some paces before The cavalry. began the attack with a body of about eleven hundred cavalry. ." says the Chevalier de " Johnstone. was of the number. drawn up in order of battle behind them. after having been for some time engaged pell-mell with them in their ranks. falling back on their own infantry. who advanced very slowly against the right of our army.

and thus enabled the main body of the army to make good their retreat to the town of Falkirk. the second in command. were the first who also gave way at the battle of Falkirk. p. . who had behaved so shamefully at Colt Bridge and Preston Pans. At this crisis.' there did not intervene more than ten minutes so soon may an efficient body of men become. sacred this day!" Cobham's dragoons were the last who fled. a feeble and . received a sharp volley from the Highists land line. and rush in far-spread disorder over the face of the hill." says Chambers. and in consequence of the increasing darkness and the violence of the wind and rain. after doing his utmost to ascertain the movements and intentions of the enemy. The dragoons again gave way. used to describe its main events as occupying a surprising brief space of time. by one transient emotion of cowardice. they were heard to exclaim "Dear brethren." 1 was twilight when the battle of Falkirk was fought. Ligonier's and Hamilton's dragoons. had not General Huske. Lord George Murray. and Brigadier Chobnondeley made a gallant stand with the forces which they could collect together. The whole of these events occupied less than a quarter of an hour. by a body of infantry which had not been hitherto engaged. of the royalwould have escaped. they saw the discomfited troops burst wildly from the cloud in which they had been involved. we shall all be masin terrified voices. " Some individuals. if any. consisting of Lord John Drumraond's regiment and the Irish piquets. . 240 [1746. Charles marched up at the head of his reserved corps. and turned the scale in favour of the Highlanders. There can be little doubt but that few. and as they galloped down a ravine which led them to the town of Falkirk. From the commencement till what they styled the break of the battle. and heard the pealing sounds of the discharge immediately after. As they were borne back through the disordered ranks of their own infantry. 66. and again disordered the infantry in their flight. deemed it imprudent to follow up his success by It 1 History of the Rebellion.THE PEETENDEBS AND THEIR ADHEBENTS. " who beheld the battle from the steeple at Falkirk. ' contemptible rabble. They first saw the English army enter the misty and stormcovered moor at the top of the hill then saw the dull atmosphere thickened by a fast-rolling smoke. they advanced to the charge.

Sir Thomas Sheridan. Apprehensive of some sudden attack. and by the inclemency of the elements. who had been a general officer in the French service. rejoin their colours. previous charge comfiture of the English army. had taken up his position in the second line on a rising ground. It has already been mentioned that the numbers of the two armies were very nearly equal. beheld the flight of the Scots Royal. under the impression that the English had gained the victory. and distinguished himself This is an exaggeration. not to expose himself. who commanded the right wing. Observing no enemy near them. in his narrative of the action which he drew up and transmitted to the Kings of France ! and Spain." he said. indeed. 1 . had been the issue of the conflict. we remained masters of the field of battle but as it was near five o'clock before . he flew to their relief with an ardour that was not to be restrained. they were heard " What is become of inquiring of each other in Gaelic. who at the beginning of the action had been conjured. These men. it was quite night before we could follow the fugitives.1746. which is still known by the name of CHAELIE'S HILL. and such was the confusion occasioned by the darkness of the night. where are they?" And when Lord John Drummond. Many of them are said to have actually sought safety in flight. 211 pursuing them into the town of Falkirk. both amounting to about eight thousand men. "After an easy victory. for the love of his troops. them.] PEINCE CHAELES EDWAED. and irresolute. was thrown into some disorder. and fought on foot during the whole action at the head of his Highlanders. gained by 1 eight thousand over twelve thousand. disordered. and as it required time for the Highlanders to recover their muskets. and which is now covered with wood. observes. which had now set in. scattered. lest some stratagem So sudor ambuscade might have been prepared for him. ended. the majority knew not which way to turn. surely this is a feint to the which led to the final disCharles. The Prince. was in the second line of the piquets but as soon as the left wing it . and remained on the field of battle. he could scarcely be" lieve his own senses. and form again in order. he followed the advice of Lord George Murray. " behaved ad" at mirably Fontenoy. In the disposition of his troops. Lord John Drummond commanded the left. that the greater portion of the Highland army were ignorant of their own success. den.

by direction of the Earl of Cromartie and the Macdonalds and all the Sir Robert's was the only body chiefs attended his funeral." says Sir "Walter Scott. wounded. and another on the mouth. . The same Highlander fired another pistol into my uncle's breast.THE PBETEXDEES 2-12 A>*D THEIE ADEEEEXTS. their loss must have amounted to about twenty officers. one over the eyes. he then despatched a servant of my father's. . "This battle dressed to the Lord President. then less ruinous than at It was commanded by Mr Stewart of Balloch. He took two prisoners with his own hand. thus my dearest father and uncle perished. governor for Prince Charles. was put into the castle." " In " 1746. and for some time defended himself with his half-pike. he A seventh. were slain. according to the accounts pub" lished by authority. after being deserted. My father. extremely. ' 1 Culloden Papers. and was wounded in the left arm with a musket-ball. The castle became at that time the actual scene of a romantic escape made by John Home. as it comes from some who were eye-witnesses to it. I am informed and this information I can depend on. [l74C. 267. your Lordship knows. . the Highlander with his sword gave him two strokes in the face. Two of the six. My father's corpse was hon." the English lost in all only two hundred and eighty in killed. observes. could not be dissuaded from attending him. There both my dear father ." At the hattle of Falkirk. on the part of the Chevalier. I am informed. on the field on our side that was taken care of. coming up. to give assistance if need required. Obsdale. and about four or five hundred priSir Harry Monro of Fowlis. had no particular business to go to the action but out of a most tender love and concern for his brother. The last. proves to me a series of woe. falling. the greater number of which were sent to the romantic castle of Doune. the author . ourably interred in the churchyard of Falkirk. Among these was John Home. as present. and missing but according to all other accounts. groin upon which. a garrison. and uncle." Several prisoners were made. in a pathetic letter advates. which instantly ended a brave man. was attacked by six of Lochiel's regiment. p. had his horse shot under him. He was a man of property near Callander. and with his sword terribly slashed him whom when That killed. fired a pistol into my father's killed. the celebrated author of " Douglas. .

next morning. ever. chap.' riding furiously through the country in quest of the ful gitives. An old gentleman told the author he remembered seeing the . having been taken at the battle of Falkirk. a very valuable Almost at the same animal. who. he dislocated his ankle. royalists made only one prisoner.' and some other prisoners. commander Stewart. were confined there by the The poet. a brave young Englishman. reached the ground in safety the fifth.PEINCE CHABLES EDWABD. and had several of his ribs broken. a particular friend of Home's. and immediately mounted it. devised and undertook the perilous enterprise of escaping from his prison." The loss of the Highlanders at the battle of Falkirk is usually computed as only thirty-two oflicers and men killed The in action.] 243 of 'Douglas. Determined to take the risk. The unfortunate person in question was a gentleman of the Macdonald clan. He inspired his companions with his sentiments. The sixth was Thomas Barrow. Barrow committed himself to the broken rope slid down on it as far as it could assist him. hurried his unlucky rider into the English ranks. but the rope broke with self. who. 1746. xxxviii. and the circumstances of were somewhat singular. and thus to descend. . the English dragoons. fiery red with haste. were able to bear him off in safety. took possession of his horse. having dismounted an English officer. with Home himropes. Bloody with spurring. 1 Note to Waverley. moment. and when every attempt at open force was deemed hopeless. howThe Highlanders. stock of that romantic and enthusiastic spirit of adventure. or carried forward by excitement into the midst of his flying companions. they resolved to twist their bed-clothes into Four persons. and one hundred and twenty wounded. who was a tall lusty man. His friends beneath succeeded in breaking his fall. even in such unfavourable circumstances. who had in his own mind a large insurgents. routed in their contest with the Highlanders. His companions. galloped off in full flight. and then let himself drop. which he has described as animating the youthful hero of his drama. B 2 . The animal. Nevertheless. a brother of Macdonald of Keppoch. his capture either desirous of returning to his old quarters. sought for their prisoners with great activity.

far beyond compare Linlithgow is excelling . and abandoning Falkirk with their baggage and train. ADHEEENTS." The Duke of Cumberland. "I can run away from fire as fast as you can. Finding that her entreaties met only with contempt. who had apartments in the palace remonstrated with General Hawley on the reckless conduct of his men. He appears to have felt his own disgrace most severely and the more so. was censured in all quarters for his conduct both before and after the battle. from the remembrance of his previous boastings. who had boasted that with two regiments of dragoons he would drive the insurgents from one end of the kingdom to the other. . at the same time." Marmion. the Livingstone family. "Within an hour or two. Queen of Scots 1 caught fire. the English army passed the night of the battle in the ancient and once splendid palace of Linlithgow and in its vicinity. "General." says the Chevalier de Johnstone. It has been said that the English soldiers deliberately set the palace of Linlithgow on fire. In Scotland. General Hawley. Half perishing from the cold and rain. 1 " Of all the palaces so fair. How blithe the blackbird's lay ! The wild-buck-bells from ferny brake. Built for the royal dwelling. [1746. The venerable palace the birth-place of Mary. " The menotwithstanding all his efforts to restrain him. " which poor Macdouald cut may be easily conceived. and was almost entirely destroyed. The coot dives merry oil the lake." and having given vent to this sarcastic speech. How sweet the merry linnet's tune.244 THE PBETENDEKS AND THEIB. had no taste for the ludicrous. they lighted such large fires on th^ hearths as to cause considerable alarm in the minds of the inhabitants lest the One of these persons a lady of edifice should catch fire. perhaps. ludicrous figure. but there is much reason to doubt the fact. The saddest heart might pleasure take To see all nature gay. and the taunts which he had formerly heaped on Sir John Cope. she took horse for Edinburgh. and "poor Macdonald" perished shortly afterwards on the scaffold. And in its park in jovial June." was the retort of the high-spirited lady. lancholy and. General "Wightman writes to President Forbes on the . however. by raking the live embers from the hearths into the straw pallets. her fears were actually realized. Setting fire to their tents.

1746. who was radiant with joy at Hawley 's discomfiture. what was of more importance to him. addressed Sir John Cope by the title of General Hawley. the idea of the two generals was so 22nd of January situation as General Cope. for. p. all countenances were marked with doubt and apprehension excepting those of George the Second. even worse than Cope did a few hours after his scuffle. and Sir John Cope. however. p." says Sir Walter Scott. to the amount of ten thousand guineas. Indeed.] PErtTCE CTTAftLES " General EDWABD. and appeared everywhere. that a noble peer of Scotland. 3 Prose Works. the Earl of Stair. to have been carried about London in a sedan-chair to conceal himself from the derision of the mob. he looked most wretchedly." to offer bets. during the whole winter which succeeded his defeat at Preston Pans. when I saw him at Fala. . to a certain degree he recovered his honour. and everything would have gone to wreck in a worse manner than at Preston. Cope had been heard quid pro quo. On the authority of a pamphlet. Johnstone's Memoirs. 303. he is said. upon the same day. he is stated to have pulled back the curtains of his chair. when I was with him on Saturday morning at Linlithgow. arrived of Hawley's discomfiture at Falkirk. to the no small amusement of those who heard the 2 Many weeks previous. 245- is in much the same was never seen in the field during the battle. " which took place at St James's on the day the news arrived. if General Huske had not acted with judgment and courage. Hawley He l closely connected. He is even said to have realised a considerable sum by the success of his wagers^ 3 and. which has been attributed to Hume the historian. xix. that the first general sent to command an army against the Highlanders would be beaten. p. vol. When the news. 106. and to have dis" played his face and red ribbon to all the world." " In the drawing-room. 267. Hawley seems to be sensible of his misconduct." * 1 Culloden Papers.

Clanranald. his bed being concealed from view by folding doors. The house. he received signed by Lord George Murray. Charles was still engaged in carrying on the siege of Stira paper ling. . Retaliates hy attacking Lord Loudon at Inverness. ON the night on which the battle of Falkirk was fought.246 THE PEETENDEES AND THEIE ADHEEENTS. Chivalrous Adventure of Lord G. is opposite the steeple. Charles continues his Retreat northward. leaving Lord George Murray behind with a portion of his army. Commences his March for Culloden. numbers. as was customary with them after a victory. The chiefs had become disgusted at being no longer summoned to consult with him in regard to the movements of the army while the common men. [1746. and on the^lSth returned to Bannockburn. Murray. deserted daily in great . make good their retreat to Edinburgh. p. urging upon him the ab1 Chambers. who had heeu exposed for five hours to the inclemency of the weather and the pelting of the storm. But the fortunes of Charles were now evidently on the decline. and all the leading chieftains. Charles derived but little advantage besides glory. and is now used as the Post-office. he insisted that it would be a disgrace to his arms were he to raise the siege of Stirling and accordingly the operations were renewed with increased vigour. Duke of Cumberland resumes the Command of the Army of the North. Instead of pursuing and annihilating Hawley's army before they could Charles. Charles was compelled to hold his small court and eat his meals in the same apartment in which he slept. 67. the widow of a physician. which still remains. CHAPTEE XII. Lochiel. . From the success which had attended his arms at Falkirk. 1 Charles passed only one night at Falkirk. with the view of depositing their plunder in safety with their wives and families. Though the house in question was considered the best in the town of Falkirk. His Arrival at Stirling. Charles's Escape from Lord Loudon's Snare to take his person. was conducted by torchlight to the house of a Jacobite lady of the name of Graham. Keppoch. Incidents showing the Attachment of the Scottish Ladies to the Cause of the Chevalier. to his great grief and surprise. when.

They concluded by assuring the Prince. make themselves the undisputed masters of the North. where they would be enabled to annihilate the forces under Lord Loudon. and. that they would continue cheerfully in this case to serve beneath his banner. through the medium of Sir Thomas Sheridan. Not only was he at this period a great favourite with the army. he sullenly and re1 luctantly assented to the terms of his domineering followers.] 247 solute necessity of effecting an immediate retreat to the So great. " have I lived to see this ? " Some attempt was made by him. the Duke arrived Edinburgh on the 30th. 355. that this abrupt communication from the Highland chieftains amounted rather to a command than a remonstrance. they said. Their only hopes. Notwithstanding that General Hawley had the good fortune to retain the favour of his sovereign. to induce the refractory chiefs to alter ! their resolution. Home's Appendix. they added. . which they doubted not they would be able to raise. North. that not only must they expect to be defeated in the event of an engagement. it was deemed expedient to send a general to Scotland in whom the soldiers had greater confidence. but it was also hoped that the circumstance of his being a prince of the blood might produce a beneficial effect on the minds of the Scottish people. Such was the light in which it was viewed by the young Prince. but at the present moment they were not even in a fit condition to carry on the siege of Stirling. had been the desertion in their ranks. and with an army of eight or ten thousand men. 1746. and accordingly the Duke of Cumberland was selected for the purpose. twenty-five four months. " Good God " he exclaimed. having performed the journey in 1 John Hay's account of the p. by capturing the different Highland fortresses. whose manner betrayed the most violent emotion while perusing the terms of the unpalatable proposition.PEINCE CHAKLES EDWARD. He was nearly of the same age as Charles namely. at the Chevalier being the older by only Quitting London on the 26th of January. Dashing his hand with such vio- lence against the wall as to cause him to stagger back. but finding it ineffectual. retreat from Falkirk. It is scarcely necessary to remark. would follow his fortunes wherever he pleased. of insuring ultimate success lay in an immediate march to Inverness.

THE PEETENDEES

248

A2O)

THEIE ADHEEEXTS.

[l746.

what was then considered the very short space of four days.
He took up his quarters at Holyrood, where he slept in the
same bed that had been occupied by his unfortunate cousin
during the period he remained at Edinburgh. After resting
himself for two hours, he rose and proceeded to the despatch
of business with Generals Hawley and Huske. Later in the
day, he held a levee in the same gallery in which Charles had
held his gay court, and had given his balls to the
The principal citizens had the honour
Ereviously
idies of Edinburgh.
of kissing his hand, and his levee was also attended by several
"Whig ladies of distinction. The Duke kissed the latter all
round, expressing, at the time, his satisfaction at their loyalty

and

zeal. 1

On

the 31st, the Duke took his leave of Holyrood, having
remained in Edinburgh only thirty hours. At night he slept
at Linlithgow, and the next day walked to Falkirk on foot at
the head of the Scots Royal. On his arrival at the latter
"
town, he is said to have inquired for the house which his
had
he
that
it
cousin
would be
said,
occupied," being sure,
the most comfortable and best-provisioned in the place. Here
he passed the night, in the same bed in which Charles had
slept on the evening of the battle of Falkirk. The following
morning he marched to Stirling, with the intention of giving
the insurgents battle but, on his arrival there, he learned
that they had evacuated the place on the preceding day.
Quitting Stirling on the 1st of February, the Highland
army marched to Dumblane, at which place they encamped
;

for the night, Charles himself sleeping at Drummond Castle,
the seat of the Duke of Perth. The following night they arrived at Crieff, near which place Charles took up his quarters
at Fairnton, the residence of Lord John Drummond.
The march of the insurgent army was conducted with so
much haste and confusion, as to resemble a flight rather than
a retreat. Their young leader seemed almost broken-hearted,
and, to all appearance, took but little interest in the movements or discipline of his army. At CriefF, a separation was
decided upon one division of the insurgent forces, headed
by Charles, and consisting chiefly of the Highland clans,
marching towards Inverness by the Highland road, and the
other, commanded by Lord George Murray, taking the coastroad by Montrose and Aberdeen. During their progress, the
;

1

Chambers,

p. 73.

PRINCE CHARLES EDWARD.

1746.]

two divisions severally carried off
towns through which they passed.

their garrisons

249
from the

On approaching Inverness, Charles found it in the possession of Lord Loudon, who had to a certain degree fortified
it by throwing round it a ditch and palisade.
Here he had
cooped himself up, with a small army of two thousand men,
consisted chiefly of the Grants, Monros, Bosses, Macdonalds
of Skye, and the Macleods. Taking with him a small guard
of three hundred Highlanders, Charles took up his quarters
in the Castle of Moy, situated about sixteen miles from Edinburgh. This place was the principal residence of the Laird
of Macintosh, who, though supposed to be secretly attached
to the cause of the Stuarts, was now holding a commission
in Lord London's army.
His lady, however, a daughter of
Farquharson of Invercauld, remained at Moy, too happy to
"
Of
perform the rites of hospitality for her illustrious guest.
all the fine ladies," says General Stewart, "few were more
accomplished, more beautiful, or more enthusiastic." Devoted, like the majority of her countrywomen, to the cause of
the exiled family, she had distinguished herself by raising the
fighting- men of her husband's ancient clan to the number of
three hundred and though the command of them in the field
was intrusted by her to Mac Gillivray of Drumnaglass, yet
she herself had ridden more than once at their head, clad in
a tartan riding-habit richly laced, with a Highland bonnet on
her head, and pistols at her saddle-bow. 1 Her husband at a
Jater period being taken prisoner by the insurgents, Charles
"
delivered him to his wife, saying,
he could not be in better
security, or more honourably treated."
Charles was quietly enjoying the hospitalities of Moy,
waiting till the arrival of his forces should enable him to attack Lord Loudon in his intrenchments, when he very nearly
fell into a snare which had been laid for him
by that nobleman, who, by gaining possession of the Chevalier's person,
hoped to put an end at once to the war. With this object,
on the night of the IGth of February, he ordered out fifteen
hundred of his followers, with instructions to march as
stealthily as possible to Moy, and to seize the Prince's person at all hazards. Fortunately for Charles, he received
timely intimation of the plot which was laid for him. "Whilst
some English officers," says the Chevalier de Johnstone,
;

1

Tales of a Grandfather, vol.

iii.

p. 270.

250

THE PEETENDEBS

JLN'D

THEIB ADHERENTS.

[l746.

"

were drinking in the house of Mrs Bailly, an innkeeper in
Inverness, and passing the time till the hour of their departure, her daughter, a girl of thirteen or fourteen years of age,
who happened to wait on them, paid great attention to their
conversation, and, from certain expressions dropped by them,
she discovered their designs. As soon as this generous girl
was certain as to their intentions, she immediately left the
house, escaped from the town, notwithstanding the vigilance
of the sentinels, and immediately took the road to Moy, running as fast as she was able, without shoes or stockings
which, to accelerate her progress, she had taken oif in order
She
to inform the Prince of the danger that menaced him.
reached Moy, quite out of breath, before Lord Loudon; and
the Prince with difficulty escaped in his robe-de-chambre,
night-cap, and slippers, to the neighbouring mountains, where
he passed the night in concealment. This dear girl, to whom
the Prince owed his life, was in great danger of losing her
own, from her excessive fatigue on this occasion but the
care and attentions she experienced restored her to life. The
Prince, having no suspicion of such a daring attempt, had
l
very few people with him in the Castle of Moy."
According to other accounts, the Lady of Moy received
the first intimation of Lord London's intentions by two letters from Inverness ; the one from Fraser of Gortuleg, and
the other from her own mother. In whatever manner, however, the plot may have transpired, the circumstances under
which it is said to have been subsequently defeated were not
;

a

little

Lady Macintosh, it seems, had employed
headed by the blacksmith of the clan, to

curious.

five or six persons,

In
act as patrols on the road between Moy and Inverness.
the course of the night, their ears caught the distant sound
of Lord Loudon's advancing force, on which the blacksmith,
with great promptitude, placed his men in ambush at different
points by the side of the road, giving them orders not to fire
till they shoidd hear the
report of his own musket, and then,
not to fire altogether, but one after another. As soon as the
enemy came within musket-shot, the blacksmith fired his piece
at the advancing column, by which the piper of the Laird of
Macleod, considered the best in the Highlands, was killed.
fired off their muskets as they had been
same time shouting out the well-known war-

The remainder then
directed, at the

i

Johnstone's Memoirs, p. 145.

1746.]

PEIKCE CHAELES EDWAED.

cries of Locliiel, Keppoch, and other clans
their adversaries with the idea that a snare

251
thus impressing

had been laid for
them, and that the whole of the Highland army was advancing
upon them. Fully convinced that such was the fact, and
confused by the darkness of the night, they fled in the utmost
precipitation, throwing down and trampling upon their terrified companions in the rear, and never desisting from their
rapid flight till they found themselves in safety at Inverness.
So great was their terror and confusion, that a brave officer,
the Master of Boss, who afterwards passed through a long
life as a soldier, and was exposed to many perils, was heard
to declare in his old age, that never had he been in so piteous
a condition as at the Rout of Moy.
The following day Charles determined to retaliate on Lord
Loudon, by attacking him in his quarters. Inverness, hownor had Lord
ever, was in no condition to stand a siege
Loudon a sufficient force under his command to enable him
to cope with the Highlanders and accordingly, when the
insurgents appeared before the town, they found that the
Earl had evacuated it, and had transported his troops into
;

;

Two days afterwards the citadel, or fort, also surrendered, and about the same time Lord George Murray arrived, at the head of his division, having suffered many privations during a long march through a country covered with
snow. During the stay of Charles at Inverness, he resided
in the house of Lady Drummuir, the mother of Lady Macintosh, being, it is said, the only house in the town which
boasted of an apartment in which there was no bed. 1 After
the battle of Culloden, the Duke of Cumberland, much to the
annoyance of Lady Drummuir, occupied the same apartment
and the same bed in Avhich Charles had previously slept. " I
have had two Kings' bairns living with me in my time," said
"
the lady, and, to tell you the truth, I wish I may never hae
another."
The military operations which were earned on during the
eight weeks which intervened between the arrival of Charles
at Inverness and the fatal battle of Culloden present but few
incidents of any great importance, and may be detailed in a
short space. On the 20th of February Fort George fell into
the hands of the insurgents, and on the 5th of March Fort
Augustus was also taken and destroyed. In the attack on
Eosshire.

1

Chambers,

p. 77.

252

THE PBETENDEHS AND THEIE ADHERENTS.

[1746.

Fort "William, the insurgents were less successful, for the
place was so ably and vigorously defended by Captain Scottj
and was so well supplied by sea with provisions and other
military supplies, that, in the beginning of April, they found
themselves compelled to abandon the enterprise. About the
same time, an inroad was made by the Earl of Cromarty into
Rosshire, whither he followed Lord Loudon, compelling him
to disband his forces, and forcing him to take refuge in the
Isle of Skye.

But another adventurous and even chivalrous expedition,
which was conducted by Lord George Murray, about the
middle of March, into his own country, Athol, deserves a
more lengthened notice. Several military posts, consisting
such as Kinnachiefly of the houses of private gentlemen
had been estabchin, Blairfettie, Lude, Faskallie, and others
lished in that country by the Duke of Cumberland. They
were, generally speaking, buildings of some antiquity, and of
a castellated form, and having been partially fortified by order
of the Duke, were severally garrisoned by small detachments
from the regular army. Deeming it of considerable importance to make himself master of these scattered fortresses
about thirty in number Lord George Murray placed himself at the head of seven hundred Highlanders, and commenced
his march in the twilight from Dalwhinnie.
As he was entering into the heart of an enemy's country, where a force
much larger than his own might, on the slightest alarm, be
easily concentred against him, he decided on making an attack
on each of the small forts at one and the same time. He
divided his force, therefore, into different parties, and assigned
to each a particular point of attack directing them, after
having accomplished the duty confided to them, to repair to
him at the bridge of Bruar, if possible before the break
of day.
In the mean time, some intimation of the Highlanders being
abroad had reached the ears of Sir Andrew Agnew, who had
been appointed governor of the Castle of Blair, with a large
garrison under his command. Anxious to ascertain the intentions and numerical force of the enemy, he sallied forth
from Blair Castle late in the night, with five hundred armed
men, and proceeded in the direction of the bridge of Bruar,
only two miles distant from his own post. Lord George
Murray was already at the place of rendezvous, anxiously

1746.]

PRINCE CHABLES EDWABD.

253

awaiting the return of his followers, when he received the
news of Sir Andrew Agnew's approach. The force which he
had under him amounted only to twenty-five men. Besistauce, therefore, was out of the question, and it was strongly
urged that the little party should make good their retreat to
the neighbouring mountains. To this advice Lord George
Murray turned a deaf ear, and his reply was worthy of the
man. " No," he said, " if we leave the place of rendezvous,
our parties, as they return in detail from discharging the duty
intrusted to them, will be liable to be surprised by the enemy.
This must not be. I will rather try what can be done to
impose upon Sir Andrew Agnew's caution by a fictitious display of strength."
His plan was rapidly devised and executed. He drew up
his small company, within a certain distance from each other,
in a continuous line, along a stone dyke, so as to give them
as much as possible the appearance of an extended and formidable front. Fortunately he had with him all the pipers
of the force, and these he ordered to strike up, and the colours to be elevated, as soon as the royalists should appear in
view.
The stratagem fully answered his expectations. On
the approach of Sir Andrew Agnew and his followers, the
pipers sounded their thrilling pibroch, while the Highlanders,
who had all the appearance of officers at the head of men
preparing to charge, brandished their broadswords as they
directed.
Sir Andrew was completely
Believing that he was on the point of being attacked by a force far superior to his own, and apprehensive
that another party of Highlanders might have been despatched
in the mean time to make themselves masters of Blair Castle,

had previously been
deceived.

he deemed it more safe and prudent to march his garrison
back to that place. Lord George Murray remained at the
Bridge of Bruar till he was joined by his several detachments,
all of which had
completely succeeded in performing the duties confided to them.
Lord George Murray now determined to lay siege to Blair
Castle, a strong old fortress belonging to his brother, the
of Athol, and which had long been the residence of his

Duke

He was, indeed, but indifferently provided with
and with the requisites for effectually carrying on a
siege but he still hoped to reduce the place by famine before
succour could arrive from the Duke of Cumberland. With
ancestors.
artillery
;

254

THE PRETENDERS AND THEIR ADHERENTS.

[l748.

this view he established a close blockade, directing his men
to keep a sharp look-out, and to fire on any person who might
show himself either on the battlements or at any of the

windows.

The governor of Blair Castle was a person of considerable
"
in his day.
Sir Andrew Agnew,"
importance and notoriety
"
says Sir Walter Scott, famous in Scottish tradition, was a
soldier of the old military school, severe in discipline, stiff

and formal in manners, brave to the last degree, but somewhat of an humourist, upon whom his young officers were
occasionally tempted to play tricks not entirely consistent
with the respect due to their commandant. At the siege of
Blair, some of the young wags had obtained an old uniform
coat of the excellent Sir Andrew, which, having stuffed with
straw, they placed in a small window of a turret, with a spyglass in the hand, as if in the act of reconnoitring the be-

This apparition did not escape the hawk's eyes of
siegers.
the Highlanders, who continued to pour their fire upon the
The
turret window without producing any adequate effect.
best deer-stalkers of Athol and Badenoch persevered, nevertheless, and wasted, as will easily be believed, their ammuniAt length Sir
tion in vain on this impassible commander.
Andrew himself became curious to know what coxild possibly
induce so constant a fire upon that particular point of the
castle. He made some inquiry, and discovered the trick which
had been played. His own head being as insensible to a jest
of any kind as his peruke had proved to the balls of the Highlanders, he placed the contumacious wags under arrest, and
threatened to proceed against them still more seriously and
would certainly have done so, but, by good fortune for them,
the blockade was raised after -the garrison had suffered the
l
extremity of famine."
Another rather amusing anecdote is related in connection
with Sir Andrew Agnew and the siege of Blair Castle. En"
Genuine
sign, afterwards General Melville observes in his
"
"
Lord George here played off
Narrative of the Blockade,
a jocular experiment upon the well-known choleric temper
He sent down a summons, written
of Sir Andrew Agnew.
on a very shabby piece of paper, requiring the Baronet forthwith to surrender the castle, garrison, stores, &c. No Highlander could be prevailed upon to carry that summons but
;

;

1

Tales of a Grandfather, voL

iii.

p. 278.

1746.]

PEINCE CHA.ELES EDWARD.

255

the errand was undertaken by a handsome Highland girl, the
maid of M'Glashan's inn at Blair, the rendezvous of Sir Andrew's officers. She conceived herself on so good a footing
with some of the young officers that she need not be afraid
of being shot, taking care, however, as she approached the
castle to wave the paper containing the summons over her
She delivered her message
head, in token of her embassy.
with much earnestness, and strongly advised a compliance,
as the Highlanders were a thousand strong, and would batter
the castle about their ears. The young officers relist-ed the
joke, desired Molly to return and tell those gentlemen they
would soon be driven away, when the garrison would become
visitors at M'Glashan's as before but she insisted that the
summons should be delivered to the governor, and a timid
Lieutenant, with a constitution impaired by drinking, was
No sooner, however, did the
prevailed upon to carry it.
peerless knight hear something of it read, than he furiously
drove the Lieutenant from his presence to return the paper,
vociferating after him a volley of epithets against Lord George
Murray, and threatening to shoot through the head any other
messenger he should send which Molly overhearing, was
glad to retreat in safety with her summons to her employer,
who, with Lord Nairn, Cluny, and some other chiefs, were
waiting in the churchyard of Blair to receive her, and ap1
The blockade of
peared highly diverted with her report."
Blair Castle lasted till the 31st of March. By this time the
garrison were reduced to extremities from want of food, and
they seem to have been on the point of surrendering, when
the timely approach of the Earl of Crawford with a large body
of Hessian troops compelled Lord George Murray to raise
the siege, and make good his retreat to Inverness.
In the mean time, the Duke of Cumberland had pursued
the insurgents as far as Perth, where he arrived on the 6th
of February. The rapidity, however, with which the movements of the Highland army were conducted had already
enabled them to obtain three days' march in advance of him
and when the Duke reached Perth, owing to the inclemency
of the weather, and the roads which led to Invernesshire being almost impassable, he determined on quartering his
troops there till the weather should prove more propitious.
;

;

;

1

" Genuine Narrative of the
Blockade of Blair Castle, by a Subaltern
Scot's Magazine, 1808, p. 332.
employed in the Defence."

Officer

256

THE PRETENDERS AND THEIR ADHERENTS.

[l746.

Quitting Perth, he followed the same route which had been

pursued by Lord George Murray, passing through Angus
and Aberdeenshire, in which counties he found the inhabitants opposed to the claims of the House of Hanover, almost
Horace Walpole writes to Sir Horace Mann on
to a man.
"
The Duke complains extremely of the
the 21st of March,
he
Scotch
says he can get no intelligence, and reckons
loyal
himself more in an enemy's country than when he was warring with the French in Flanders." At Forfar, he very
nearly captured a party who were publicly beating up for
recruits for the service of the Chevalier and on the morning
on which he quitted Grlammis Castle, the seat of the Earl of
Strathmore, not only was it discovered that the girths of all
his horses had been cut during the night in order to retard
his march, but on his taking his leave, the family ordered the
bed in which he had slept to be taken down, in order that
their ancient residence might retain as few mementos as possible of its having been the resting-place of so offensive a
In passing through the town of Brechin, where his
guest.
progress was rendered difficult by the immense crowd, the
face of a young and beautiful girl, who was standing on a
"
He paid
stair-head," caught the eye of the young Duke.
a particular tribute to her beauty by raising his hat to her
but instead of his gallantry meeting with the return which
might naturally have been expected by a young Prince at the
head of a gallant army, the fair girl not only received the
thorough contempt, but
compliment with signs of the most
"
with a gesture which does
is even said to have returned it
not admit of description." l
The Duke of Cumberland remained at Aberdeen from the
2oth of February till the 8th of April, on which latter day
he recommenced his march towards Inverness with the last
On the 10th he reached Banff, where
division of his army.
he seized and hung two spies, who were found employed in
notching the numbers of his army upon sticks. On the llth
he reached Cullen, and on the 12th found himself on the
banks of the Spey. It has frequently excited astonishment
that the passage of the royal troops over this deep and rapid
mountain-stream was not disputed by the Highlanders. Had
Charles adopted this step, there can be little doubt that
either the Duke of Cumberland must have been compelled to
:

;

;

1

Chambers, p. 76.

PRINCE CHARLES EDWARD.

1746.]

257

had he succeeded in forcing the passage of the
only have been effected with considerable loss.
This unfortunate error can be accounted for only on the supat so early a period of the
position that the Duke's advance
year was unexpected by his opponents.
On the afternoon of the 12th, the Spey was forded by the
royal army in three divisions, their bands playing the tune
"Will you play me fair play,
turn back,

or,

river, it could

Bonnie laddie, Highland laddie

?

"

which seems to have been intended as an insult to the High"
His Royal Highness," says Henderson, " was the
landers.
first to enter the water at the head of the horse, who forded
it, while the Highlanders and grenadiers passed a little higher:
the foot waded over as fast as they arrived, and though the
water came up to their middles, they went on with great
cheerfulness, and got over with no other loss but that of one
dragoon and four women, who were carried down by the
Thus was one of the strongest passes in Scotland
stream.
given up a pass where two hundred men might easily have
kept back an army of twenty thousand a sure prelude of
;

;

the destruction of the rebels." l
On the 13th of April, the Duke of Cumberland marched
through Elgin to the Muir of Alves, and on the following
day advanced to Nairn, only sixteen miles from the Highland
camp. The 15th, being the Duke's birthday, was set apart
as a day of relaxation and festivity for the whole army.
It was difficult for two armies to be more unequally
matched, than those which were so soon about to be opposed
to each other on the memorable field of Culloden. The force
under the Duke of Cumberland amounted to about nine
thousand men that of Charles to only five thousand. Moreover, not only did there exist this great disparity of numbers,
but it must be remembered also that the army under the
Duke was comprised of highly disciplined troops, and, moreover, was regularly supplied by a fleet, which moved along
the coast, with provisions and every other requisite for effectOn the other hand, dissensions
ually carrying on the war.
had crept into the ranks of Charles he himself was on indifferent terms with Lord George Murray
his army
owing
to the difficulty of keeping the Highlanders together was
widely scattered over the surrounding country the want of
;

;

;

;

1

Henderson,

p. 112.

THE PRETENDERS AND THEIR ADHERENTS.

258

[l746.

food was hourly occasioning fresh desertions his troops were
disorganized from want of pay and, indeed, so reduced was
the Prince's treasury, that for some time he had been com;

;

pelled to pay his followers in meal, which had given rise to
1
great discontent.
Charles, however, notwithstanding the threatening aspect
of his affairs, continued to display the same elation of spirits
and confidence in his own resources, which had characterized
him in the hour of his greatest prosperity. During a visit
which he paid to Elgin in the middle of March, he had been
attacked by a fever, and for two days his life was in some
danger but, as Captain Warren writes to the old Chevalier,
"
a timely bleeding hindered the cold turning into a fluxion
de poitrine, and caused a joy in every heart not to be expressed." However, on his return to Inverness, all traces of
indisposition had disappeared, and notwithstanding the near
approach of the Duke of Cumberland's army, he usually employed his forenoons in hunting, and his evenings in giving
balls, concerts, and parties of pleasure. It may be mentioned
that the ladies of Invernesshire betrayed the same enthusiasm
in the cause of the young Prince, which had already been
displayed by their fair countrywomen in almost every part
of Scotland which he had hitherto visited. President Forbes
"
writes to Sir Andrew Mitchell
What was more grievous
to men of gallantry, and, if you believe me, more mischievous to the public, all the fine ladies, if you except one or
two, became passionately fond of the young adventurer, and
used all their arts and industry for him in the most intem"
One of the ladies noticed by the Presiperate manner."
"
dent," says Q-eneral Stewart,
finding she could not prevail
her
husband
to
the
rebels, though his men were
upon
join
ready, and perceiving one morning that he intended to set
off for Culloden with the offers of his service as a loyal subject, contrived, while making tea for breakfast, to pour, as if
by accident, a quantity of scalding hot water on his knees
and legs, and thus effectually put an end to all active movements on his part for that season, while she despatched his
;

:

" Our
1
army had got no pay in money for some time past, but meal only,
which the men being obliged to sell out and convert into money, it went
but a short way for their other needs, at which the poor creatures grumbled
exceedingly, and were suspicious that we officers had detained it from
them."

Macdonald't Journal, Lockhart Papers,

vol.

ii.

p. 608.

PELSrCE

1746.]

CHABLES EDWARD.

259

to join the rebels, under a commander more obedient
to her wishes."
On the 14th of April, Charles received the intelligence of
He immediately
the approach of the royal army to Nairn.
ordered the drums to be beat and the bagpipes to be played
through the town of Inverness, for the purpose of collecting

men

and shortly afterwards, the young Prince appeared himself in the streets, marshalling his men, walking
backwards and forwards through their lines, and exhorting
them to display the same ardour and undaunted courage
which had distinguished them at Preston and Falkirk. He
was received and listened to with the most enthusiastic acclamations, and voices were heard exclaiming in the crowd,
"
"
The Prince
'11
give Cumberland another Fontenoy
then mounted his horse, and, with the colours flying and the
bagpipes playing, he marched his troops to Culloden Moor,
about four miles from Inverness, and passed the night with
his chief officers at Culloden House, the residence of ono of
the staunchest and ablest partisans of the Government,
President Forbes. The night was passed by the remainder
"
the heath," says
of the army under arms on the ground,
"
a subaltern officer who was present, serving us both for
T
Early on
bedding and fuel, the cold being very severe."
the following morning, Charles drew up his forces in order
of battle, under the impression that the Duke of Cumberland
was on his march to attack him. In the course of the day,
his followers

;

We

!

however, Lord Elcho, who had been despatched to Nairn to
watch the movements of the royal army, returned to the
camp with the tidings that, being the Duke's birthday, the
soldiers were spending it in joviality and mirth, and that
there was no appearance of their advancing on that day.
At this eventful period, such was the miserable state of
the Prince's commissariat that, during the whole of the 15th,
a small loaf, and that of the worst description, was all the
food which was doled out to the unfortunate Highlanders.
"
Strange as the averment may appear," says a modern
writer, "I have beheld and tasted a piece of the bread served
out on this occasion being the remains of a loaf, or bannock,

which had been carefully preserved for eighty-one years by
the successive
i

members of a Jacobite

MS. Memoirs

of Captain Daniel,
s

2

family.

Lord Mahon,

It

is

hnpos-

vol. Hi. p. 448.

Lord Mahon. had he but a thousand men 2 and so entirely. 1 2 * Chambers. note. and a coarse unclean species of 1 dust. two in the open field. argued strongly in favour of a nightmarch. as the sight of this singular relic. similar to what is found upon the floors of a mill. that he was willing to attack the enemy. that he rose up and affectionately embraced him. than were they to await the onset of regular troops by daylight Charles had been heard to declare. as he himself informs 3 us. were made to Lord George Murray's probut the debate terminated by a night-attack being jections. Letter of Lord George Murray. inasmuch as the scarcity of their provisions rendered it imperative on them to hazard an engagement. did Lord George's sentiments coincide with his own. MS. Account . their prospects of success were likely to be increased in a tenfold degree by attacking the Duke of Cumberland's camp in the dark. indeed. 81. however eloquent. definitively agreed upon. and taking his soldiers by surprise. Some obsible to . Its ingredients appeared to be merely the husks of oats.THE PRETENDERS AND THEIB ADHERENTS. 449. 1749. Appendix. Charles called a council of war the first which he had summoned since he commenced his retreat from Derby for the purpose of deliberating on the steps which it was most advisable for him Lord George Murray. except the Prince. p. 260 [1746. position. of the Transaction." Satisfied that the Duke of Cumberland had no intention to resume his march till the following day. could have impressed the reader with so strong an idea of the real extent of that misery. August 5. imagine a composition of greater coarseness. p. who was the last to speak to take. days before. Home. vol. iii. insisting that. of the miseries to which Charles's army was reduced. . or less and perhaps likely either to please or satisfy the appetite no recital.

The hour which had been named for the attack was two o'clock in the morning but when that hour arrived. As the distance from Culloden Moor to the enemy's camp Nairn was only nine miles. were soon overcome by the sleep of which they stood so greatly in need. ." Charles placed himself at the head of his men. Culloden Moor. His flight. the heath was set on fire. Disposition of the contending Armies in sight of each other. Night-March. 1746. it was found that the advanced column. in order to deceive the enemy into the belief that his troops were occupying the same position. . however. under Lord George Murray. Barbarities of the Duke of Cumberland's Soldiers. HATING again embraced Lord George Murray. The men were strictly enjoined to march in profound silence. Unfortunately. but with their broadswords and Lochaber axes to cut the ropes and poles of the tents. for they would rather die at once than starve any at : longer. still greater numbers.] CHAPTER 261 XIII. but numbers straggled from the ranks in search of food. Charles's determination to attack the English Army. His Arrival at Displeasure at Lord George Murray for ordering a Retreat. and gave the order to march. and assigned watchword "King James the Eighth. they declared that they might shoot them if they pleased. it was computed that they might easily reach their destination shortly after midnight. and on no account to speak above their breath. declared their utter inability to advance further. there were many circumstances which tended to retard and embarrass the Highlanders in their march not only were they greatly impeded by the darkness of the night. By the time they reached the wood of Kilravock. and throw- ing themselves down among the trees. Total Defeat of the Pretender's Troops. They were also ordered not to make use of their fire-arms in their attack on the enemy's camp. By the Prince's directions. and when expostulated with by their commanders. overcome by faintness and hunger. Battle of Culloden.PBINCE CHARLES EDWABD. and to stab with their utmost force as the wherever they perceived any swelling or bulge in the fallen canvas.

" Whatever may have been the amount of the information which was conveyed to the Duke by his spies. 290. had signally failed. with an army treble in the his ." says Home. take their ground in the night. [1746. has long since been completely cleared. and it is believed . Under these circumstances. had become frightfully thinned. a most unfounded charge of treachery was afterwards brought against Lord George Murray. perhaps. . who spoke the Gaelic language and wore the Highland dress. The ranks of the Highlanders. indeed. there can be little doubt that defeat and disaster would have been the results. He would willingly. and behave like brave fellows. and by no one was he more fully exonerated than by Charles himself. to the entreaties of Hepburn of Keith. and attack him in the morning for the soldiers were ordered to lie down to rest with their arms by them. " The Duke. . Lord G-eorge Murray. however. he had not the opportunity of communicating with him. so many were exhausted and dispirited from the want of food. and renovated. it is certain that. distance in the rear. that it would have amounted almost to an act of madness to have advanced. mixed with the rebels as they marched but none of these spies knew anything of the intended attack. p. Had he yielded. he at first expressed the utmost indignation. It was evident." For having taken the step which he did. number to that of his opponents. At this moment. that they could escape observation only a short time longer. moreover.262 THE PBETE5TDERS AlfD THEIR ADHERENTS. moreover. notwithstanding the vehement remonstrances of Hepburn of Keith and others. took upon himself the responsibility of ordering a retreat. ' . by sleep and their morning repast. and adhered to the original project of attacking the enemy's camp. was still four miles distant from the English army. His character. he would have defeated 1 Jacobite Memoirs. have consulted with the Prince on the occasion but Charles being a considerable . and that the object. " 'T is no matter we shall meet them still. for which the night-march had been decided upon. and of the remainder. therefore. in command of the second column. When the Prince was informed of the orders which had been given by Lord G-eorge Murray. though he afterwards exclaimed in a calmer tone. "had certain information of the night -march and spies. the distant roll of drums was heard from the enemy's camp. Duke supposed that the rebels intended only to approach camp.

About five o'clock in the morning. and. . meat. 1 Lockhart Papers.] 263 the unfortunate Highlanders with even still greater ease than he subsequently did at Culloden. they raised repeated huzzas. p. on the contrary. when between seven and eight o'clock less than three hours after he was roused from his slumbers. upon the alarm of the enemy's approach. appeared . A cannon was fired to assemble the sleeping or drums were ordered to beat. and Lord John Drummond. that. as the lines of their opponents neared them. and the neighbourhood." says Macdonald. having taken only one drink of ale to supply all my need. they exhibited no signs of despondency but. Fatigued by his night's march. The Prince. where with much difficulty some bread and whiskey were procured for him. where they had the by Macdonald of Erasers. The Prince. 509. . an accession of strength which occasioned universal joy in the army. designing to take one hour's rest or two. Lord satisfaction of seeing themselves joined Keppoch and the George Murray. vol. and others to three or four miles distance. both be scattered in all directions. immediately mounted his horse and rode to the field. Unfortunately. ii. accompanied by the Duke of Perth. Culloden. as I did myself. Charles repaired to his old quarters at Culloden House. the and the pipes to play the clans. the Highlanders again found themselves on Culloden Moor.PRINCE CHARLES EDWARD. 1746. both gentlemen and others. which were responded to no less eiultingly by the royalists. By this means we wanted in the action at least one-third of our best men. and of those who did engage many had hurried back from Inverness." 1 Notwithstanding the vast superiority on the part of the Duke of Cumberland's army. "many had slipped off" to take some refreshment in Inverness. his return to Culloden and informed that the enemy's cavalry was not more than two miles distant. and the disadvantages under which the Highlanders laboured from the want of sleep and food. sleep. he had lain himself down to rest. on his part. and drink. and the main body of their army not above four miles. where they had friends and and the said refreshment so lulled them acquaintances asleep. they were afterwards surprised and killed in their beds. gatherings of their respective officers and men were found to " Through their great want of scattered Highlanders.

enthusiastic cheers. his army. in excellent spirits. Charles placed himself on a small eminence behind the right of the second line. The reserve consisted of Lord Kilmarnock's regiment of foot-guards. was stationed the first troop of horse-guards. . and was headed by Lord George Murray the second line was formed principally of the Low Country and foreign regiments and the Irish piquets. he rode along the lines of victory. the Camerons. and was commanded by General Stapleton. forcing the bayonet on one side. and then. and spoke confidently of gaining the Previous to the battle. In all former engagements with the royal forces. In order to obviate the effect of this successful manoeuvre. Having completed the disposition of his army. On the right of the first line. . the Stuarts. to exceed even the valour which they had displayed was answered by the most at Falkirk and Preston. The first consisted of the Athol brigade. the Highlanders had obtained a great advantage from the skilful manner in which they had contrived to receive the points of their enemy's bayonets on their targets. thrusting their dirks or broadswords into the exposed and defenceless bodies of their adversaries. on the left of the second line.264 THE PRETENDEBS AND THEIE ADHEEENT8. and somewhat behind it. . to aim at the one who fronted their right-hand comrade. by his words and gestures. On perceiving the disposition of the insurgent troops. The insurgent army was composed of two lines. which was done with great skill. by which means the Highlander would be wounded under the sword-arm before he could ward off the thrust. and by the most eloquent professions of He devotion and love. the Duke of Cumberland formed his own army into three lines each wing being supported by cavalry. the Duke addressed his followers in a short speech. the Duke had carefully instructed his soldiers. and. [l746. Fitzjames's horse. He implored them to be cool and collected to remember the great atake for which they were about to fight. and some other clans. cannon being placed between every two regiments which composed the first line. and the remains of Lord Pitsligo's and Lord Strathallen's horse. instead of directing their thrust at the man immediately opposite to them. with Lord Balmerino's troop of horse-guards and a troop of . exhorting the Highlanders. and two pieces of . a troop of Fitzjames's horse.

to believe that there could be any man in the British army who had a disinclination to fight but should there be any. The Macintoshes. when the Highlanders. could no longer be restrained from dashing against the enemy. You remember what a dessert they got to their ! . his face being bespattered with the dirt thrown up by one of the balls. Immediately raising one loud shout. at the spot where Charles was stationed with his small body of cavalry. when Lord George Murray. and doing but little execution while the royal cannon. it would be a bad omen. " will fight better and more objected. This appeal was responded to by the most enthusiastic shouts. . and he himself had a narrow escape.] 265 remembrance of all former disasters from was unwilling. would prefer to retire. rendered furious by the galling fire which was thinning them. and by loud cries of "Flanders Flanders!" It being now one o'clock. Two pieces of artillery were pointed. But to this he decidedly " The men.PRINCE CHABLES EDWABD. he added. landers with a thousand determined men to support him. made dreadful havoc in the ranks of the insurgents. The cannonading had continued for some time. . and a servant who was holding a led horse being killed by his side. their balls passing over the heads of their adversaries. were the first to rush forward. and heedless brandishing their broadswords. who. Several of his troopers were shot. than be backed by an army of ten thousand if a tithe of them should be lukewarm. and several discharges were made. the Highlanders alike of the smoke and hail which poured full in their faces. perceiving that the rest of the clans who formed the right line could be kept back no longer. dinner at Falkirk !" The commenced by the two armies that of the Highlanders was ill-pointed and ill-served. as he would far sooner face the Highand to dismiss the He their minds. gave the order for the attack.6. and thirsting to revenge their fallen comrades. moreover. he begged them in God's name to do so. being served with great precision. from being averse to the cause or from having relations in the rebel army. actively with empty bellies and. he said. 174. who had never before been in action. and of the galling grape-shot which swept through their battle opening their fire at each other artillery of the ." he said. it was submitted to the Duke that the soldiers should be allowed to dine before they went into action. .

p. and made themselves masters of two pieces of cannon. so as to insure them against falling off in the ensuing melee. A . when every some dear friend who had fallen a victim to the murderous artillery. who were stationed on the left." Chambers. Had the Macdonalds. and. It was an exhibition of terrible passion. Thus an entire rout took place of the whole right and of the centre of the insurgent army. ranks rushed furiously against the firm ranks and fixed 1 So impetuous was this first bayonets of their opponents. as ne surveyed the extended line at this moment. Having broken through the first line. who fell from the effects of his wounds. brows. it was no disgrace to them that they fled. and with little distinction of regiments or clans. they through Monro's and Bun-el's regiments. in the event of its being broken by the onset of the clans. that broke onset. was this motion performed with so much emphasis as on the pre- man's forehead burned with the desire to revenge sent occasion. the second bending forward. Many of their chieftains were either killed or trampled down. these brave men had no choice but to retreat. used always. 1 " It was the emphatic custom of the Highlanders. and who survived till a late period. with a of something like awe. Lowland gentleman. to that is. they were dashing madly forward. They had performed all that could be expected from the most romantic valour. who was in the line. which the Duke foreseeing the probability of what actually occurred had purposely strengthened and stationed so as to support the first line. opposed as they were to overpowering numbers. fortunately. but. when they poured in so well-directed and destructive a fire as to throw them into utter confusion. Some few. in relating the events of Culloden. indeed. before an onset. Drawn up three deep the front rank kneeling. his two henchmen succeeded in carrying him from the field. when they encountered the second. So dreadful was the slaughter at this particular part of the field. that after the action the bodies of the unfortunate Highlanders are said to have been found in layers of three andfowr deep. Mingling together in the greatest disorder. 85. Among the latter was the gallant Lochiel. but not one of them returned to tell the tale of his valour. never to be forgotteE by the beholder. to comment. [l746. continued to dash furiously against the enemy.266 THE PRETENDERS AND THEIR ADHERENTS. Never. perhaps. and the third standing upright they reserved their fire till the Highlanders had come within a yard of the point of their bayonets. to pull their little blue caps down over their scruff their bonnets. upon the terrific and more than natural feeling expression of rage which glowed on every face and gleamed on every eye.

before the breath deserted his body. 425. They were disgusted. Unflinchingly enduring the are described. as hewing up the heath with their swords. in which case he would hereafter be proud to adopt the surname of Mac- In vain did the gallant Keppoch urge them to follow him." says one of their officers. their retreat must have been converted into a most disastrous rout. and in vain did their chief" of the clan tain endeavour to lead them to the charge.] 267 charged simultaneously with the other clans. however. only a few him to the ground. and paces. in galling fire of the English infantry. at having been. he rushed forward at the head of a few of his own kinsmen. but. removed from the post of honour. and with his own 1 Macdonald's Journal. p. ." they resisted every entreaty which was made to induce them In vain did the Duke of Perth shout the wellto advance. ii. vol. known "Claymore!" and in vain did he tell them that it lay in their power to make the left wing a right. with a drawn sword in one hand. battle of Bannockburn. " Macdonald. thought it ominous that we had not this day the right hand in battle. however. and calmly gazing on the last agonies of their dying chieftain. self-devotion act of this romantic did not even produce any effect on the enraged clansmen. Exhibiting every symptom of the bitterest agony. it is far from improbable that victory would have been decided in favour of Charles. "My God!" exclaimed the chieftain in the agony of the moment. Lockhart Papers. and had it not been that the French and Irish piquets covered them by a close and spirited fire. at this moment. 510. threw them into the utmost confusion. as formerly at GHadsmuir and at Falkirk. they the height of their exasperated feelings. when a musket shot brought he had only time to entreat his favourite nephew to consult donald. 2 See Jacobite Memoirs. He had proceeded. It was not till they beheld the other clans give way that they fell back and joined them .PEIXCE CHAELES EDWABD 1748. a But safety. and which our clan maintains we had enjoyed in all our battles and struggles since the We l Stubborn in their displeasure. Hawley's regiment of dragoons and the Argyleshire Highlanders pulled down a park-wall that covered their right flank. Thus was completed the entire discomfiture of the Highland clans. "have the children of my tribe forsaken me ?" Uttering these words. p. and the cavalry. falling in among them. and a pistol in the other.

and. who carried the standard horse-guards. who left a dying attest- ticularly the evidence of the cornet of the second troop of ation that he himself saw the Prince earnestly urging his officers to make a fresh charge at the head of the reserve. Lord Elcho who had risked fortune. iii. and amongst the foremost of his train on that occasion Lord Elcho. I think he is likely to remain where he is " he did History of England. and that he would have done so had not O'Sullivan seized the bridle of his horse. in the . and cruand so elty to our prisoners. unfounded. "saw the Highlanders repulsed and flying. p. and insults. assisted by Sheridan. There still remained the Lowland troops and the French and Irish piquets and at the : moment when the Highlanders were retreating before the overpowering force of the English infantry. and to make a last effort to change the fortune of the day. I must further observe that Lord Elcho was appears a man of most violent temper. and no very constant fidelity. Charles beheld. 1 this story. as he has distinguished himself beyond all the Jacobite commanders by brutality. to go down and rally them but the earnest entreaties of his tutor. but which. life. 268 tears rolling [l746. forced him from the field. several of the Prince's officers most solemn manner. and . the flight of his followers. in fact. appears to be little worthy : of credit. " Some " should attach to the whole of suspicion. 458. from the eminence on which he stood. that he invariably quitted Paris whenever Charles entered that city. it is said. down his face. and to have implored him by all that was sacred to place himself at the head of the reserve. he advanced. "When Charles. vol. Within two months from the date of this battle. that they had seen their unfortunate master forced from the field by Sir Thomas Sheridan and others of his Irish officers and we have more pardeclared. he would never see his face again it is added. On the contrary. The official account now lies before me of Charles's first public audience at the Court of France after his return. and the annihilation of his fondest hopes. but. Sir Thomas Sheridan. Lord Elcho is said to have ridden up to the ill-fated Prince. moreover. ! . 1 Such is the story which has often been related.' says Horace "Walpole." says Home. which he had never seen before.THE PEETENDEBS AND THEIE ADHEBENTS. His entreaties proving of no avail. that he kept his word. and everything that the heart holds most dear in the cause of the Stuarts is stated to have turned from him with a bitter curse declaring that . he made overtures for pardon to the British Court." says Lord Mahon. and when they were both exiles in a foreign country. because the latter part is certainly ' ' ' .

The latter. presented one frightful scene of dead bodies. . the remainder of Charles's little army which still remained unbroken had no choice but to seek safety in flight. fled in the utmost confusion. indeed. Preston. . battle and Inverness. where they were easily overtaken by the enemy's light horse suffered dreadfully in the purThe five miles. what with killing the enemy. thousand. who assured him that it 269 was impossible. the Highland army divided themselves into two bodies. had approached to witness the battle fell victims to the indiscriminate vengeance of the victors." Being closely pressed by the royal forces. Scot's Magazine. which lay between the field of suit. p. The writer of a contemporary letter observes: "By this time our horse and dragoons had closed in upon them from both wings. one of which took the road to Inverness. The royalists computed their loss at the battle of Culloden at three hundred and ten men that of the insurgents is stated to have been a line. and splashing it about one another. 1 * History of the Rebellion.] others. their pipes playing and colours flying and the French auxiliaries marched in good order to Inverness the rest. however. by their disgraces and discomfitures. prevailed upon him to leave the field. 1746. carnage. while the latter made the best of their way to the Highlands. had been provoked to the most savage thirst for revenge. The moor was covered with blood and our men. 1746. that when a coward finds himself a conqueror he is always the most cruel. . 239. and then followed a general carnage. Their conduct at Culloden presented a curious exemplification of the old Latin proverb. Many who. and many of the Highlanders never paused for a moment till they found themselves in their own homes in the distant Highlands. from motives of curiosity.PRINCE CHARLES EDWARD. and blood. April. . A part of the second 1 quitted the field with tolerable regularity. that the troops who seemed to take the greatest pleasure in butchering the flying and the defenceless Highlanders were the craven dragoons who had behaved in so dastardly a manner at Colt Bridge. After quitting the fatal field. The former in consequence of their route lying along an open moor. . and Falkirk. indeed. looked like so many butchers!"'2 It is remarkable. dabbling their feet in the blood.

Coxe's Pelham Administration." has described the frightful horrors which disgraced the victory of Culloden : " Yet. And unimpair'd remembrance reigns. ." 2 The almost unparalleled barbarities which were permitted by the Duke of Cumberland after the battle of Culloden (barbarities which he speaks of with brutal jocularity." Johnstone's Memoirs. as " a little blood3 letting") ought rather to have stamped him as a monster of 1 History of England. in his "Tears of Scotland. vol." says the Chevalier de Johnstone. some : acted a part in this cruel scene of assassination the uninspired by sentiment. Her helpless orphans cry for bread . the day of our unfortunate engagement. Resentment of my country's fate ! . food. She views the shades of descend ni^ht And stretch' d beneath the inclement skies. iii. in one of his letters to the Duke of Newcastle. victor's soul was not appeased . and massacred those miserable wretches who lay maimed and expiring nay. doom'd to death. p. untriumph of low illiberal minds. 303. p. when the rage of battle ceased. vol. In still more powerful language. " The road from Culloden to Intinctured by humanity." l " was everywhere verness. " with the the main road. officers . Smollett. The The naked and forlorn must feel Devouring flames and murdering steel The pious mother. and friend. "While the warm blood bedews my veins. Bereft of shelter. till three o'clock on the afternoon of Friday. "Within ' s my filial breast shall beat. Forsaken wanders o'er the heath The bleak wind whistles round her head. . 270 [l746. who had resisted the effects of the continual rains. blood which was so profusely shed in the heat of action. were then despatched. Weeps o'er her tender babes and dies. strewed with dead bodies. The Duke of Cumberland had the cruelty to allow our wounded to remain amongst the dead on the field of battle.THE PBETENDEBS AND THEIB ADHERENTS. stripped of their clothes." says Smollett. they traversed the field after the battle. 197. 229. i. The scenes which were acted on the field of battle were even more frightful than those which were perpetrated on " Not contented. p. when he sent detachments to kill all those who were still in life and a great many. from "Wednesday.

But there could be neither justice nor policy in hanging up. whose principles almost invariably regulated their own. who had sacrificed his own life to preserve that of his chief. to reflect on the promiscuous slaughter of the flying and unresisting Highlanders after the battle of Culloden. . than to have assisted to procure for 271 him those honours and rewards which were showered upon him for his easy victory over an army so inferior in numbers to his own. in almost countless numbers. It is impossible. and on the numbers which were sacrificed on the gallows. and as the more active and prominent disturbers of peace and good order. . the brave and devoted clansmen. who were not competent. and chivalrously supporting the cause of a Prince whom they conscientiously believed to be their rightful master. 1 "The idea of patriarchal obedience. indeed. They knew little more than what they had heard from their fathers that the Stuarts were their hereditary and rightful sovereigns while both duty and inclination told them to follow the orders of their chieftains. The ferocity and vindictiveness which he displayed towards his unfortunate opponents. that he saw 1 nothing wonderful in the matter he only did his duty. moreover. and who. and who. a Highlander who was present coldly observed. without execrating the authors of these detestable barbarities. who mistaken though we may admit them to have been had committed no crime but that of bravely defending their principles. might with propriety have been made severe examples of by the Government. wiU ever deservedly continue to be a blot on his name. as the instigators of others. There were unquestionably persons in the ranks of the insurgent army men of influence and family who adopted the cause of their unfortunate master as much from motives of self-interest as from any principles of duty. to form a proper estimate of what might be the consequences of their embarking in a rash but gallant cause. that when some Lowland gentlemen were extolling with wonder the devotion of a clansman. "was so absolute. or of the true merits of the quarrel in which they were un- happily engaged.1746. were labouring under every possible disadvantage." says Sir "Walter Scott.] PRINCE CHARLES EDWARD. on the numerous murders which were subsequently committed in cold blood. iniquity. either by education or any other means. had he acted To punish men otherwise. he would have been a poltroon and a traitor.

The Duke inquired of him to whom he belonged. stabbing some with their bayonets. only a few months before. as well as the military abilities. he perceived a young man Charles Fraser. The Duke instantly turned to Major Wolfe. inquired of him if his piece was My who were bred in such principles. It has already been mentioned. many of the wounded were inhumanly allowed to remain mingled with the dead. iii. as they must have done. and enduring." whom. 300. seems it would be to hang a dog for the crime of following his as unjust as master." said Wolfe. but I cannot consent to become an executioner. As he rode along among the dying and the dead. The strange and almost ridiculous stories which at this period were generally current. reflect more dispassionately on the frightful effusion of blood of which these persons were the principal authors. " To the Prince!" was the undaunted reply. [1746. of the Duke in their proper light. the younger. but even took his share in the painful tragedy. The greater number of the wounded. that for as long as two days after the battle of Culloden. who held a commission as Lieutenant-colonel in Fraser of Lovat's regiment who was lying wounded on the ground. were despatched by parties of the victors who traversed the field after the battle. vol." Tales of a Grandfather.272 THE PEETENDEBS AND THEIE ADHERENTS." After one or two other ineffectual attempts to induce some officers who were near him to pistol the unfortunate Highlander. and the agonies of hope deferred. but who raised himself up on his elbow as the Duke and his followers passed. the Duke . indeed. they had nearly exalted into an idol. and cutting down others with their swords and through this frightful scene. note. . had unquestionably the effect of turning aside much of that generous commiseration which would otherwise have been excited by the illegal massacres of the Duke of Cumberland and his executioner-in"When the world. of intolerable thirst. p. however. and grew to execrate that man under the name of " the Butcher. for following their chiefs into war. of Cumberland not only calmly passed with his staff. they naturally viewed the conduct. "is at the disposal of your Royal Highness. of Inverallachy. all the horrors of bodily pain. the Duke. perceiving a common soldier." commission. who was near him. came to chief. General Hawley. of the wild habits and ferocious character of the Highland clansmen. and desired him " to shoot " that insolent scoundrel.

It might also have been argued. The victors carried havoc and bloodshed. when they found themselves victors at Falkirk As some palliation for the frightful scenes which were enacted after the battle. with some appearance of reason. who. 1746. as regards the terrible catalogue of ravages. in which the Highlanders were enjoined. xiii. and were capable of being reassembled and arrayed against the King's troops. he 273 commanded to perform the required duty.. it was alleged that the order for mas! sacring the wounded originated in the humane purpose of It was insisted also. 87. which were subsequently perpetrated in cold blood. But none of these arguments hold good. were not unlikely to wreak their vengeance in too summary and merciless a manner. that the excesses which disgraced the victory of Culloden were the result of a stern but necessary policy a policy which was called for in order to strike terror into the surviving followers of Charles. m . ever existed. ! . signed by Lord George Murray. with the same show of reason. into the castle of the chieftain and the cabin 1 Kebel-* p. It might have been advanced by the Duke of Cumberland and his admirers. lion. Chambers. to give no quarter to the King's No such order. by the late Sir Henry Steuart. however.PEINCE CHAELES EDWABD. in fact. in the of Allanton. in the event of their gaining the victory. that a regimental order was found on the person of one of the insurgents. From a critique upon Home's History of the Antijacobin Review. as a further putting them out of pain justification of the indiscriminate slaughter which took place on the road to Inverness. inflamed by the victory which they had obtained over a foe who had lately been their conquerors. to the him How humanity and consideration which Charles and his gallant Highlanders displayed towards their wounded enemies. slaughters. who. and all the frightful extremities of war. though defeated.] loaded ? The man replying in the affirmative. that the carnage which took place was partly the result of the exasperated feelings and brute-like propensities of the common soldiers. by any of the insurgents. vol. were still formidable. 1 widely different was the conduct of the Duke of Cumberland and the English after the battle of Culloden. and executions. which was instantly done. was ever seen or heard of troops. Bart. nor is there the slightest reason to believe that it.

and whose homes had been burned to the ground. was to hang thirty-six deserters from the 2 royal army who had joined the standard of the adventurer. Great numbers were confined in the church and tolbooth of Inverness. dying of cold and hunger and it is a fact. who were dragged to prison. which contained a number of wounded Highlanders. and the herds and flocks driven off. who showed any symptoms of life. till they were carried on board ship. as many as thirty corpses were found blackened by the flames.274* THE PBETKNDERS AND THEIE ADHERENTS." says Sir Walter Scott. . 302. and made to run races naked on horseback " for the amusement of the brutal garrison. in order to be sent to London and placed at the disposal of the Government. when not only was eve*ry individual who attempted to escape immediately bayoneted. Among these was a relation of Lord Forbes. and the rest. whose husbands and brothers had been murdered. were seen shivering in the clefts of the rocks. iii. vol. whose only crime was their loyalty to their legitimate Prince women and children. * . ' Tales of a Grandfather. was set fire to by the soldiers. that at Fort Augustus women were stripped of their clothes. They were thrust half naked into the holds of the different vessels. and allowed only so small a quantity of meal daily as was scarcely sufficient to support life. where. Nineteen wounded officers belonging to the Highland army were dragged from a wood in which they had sought refuge. or followed the track of the plunderers. ." l One of the first acts of severity committed by the Duke of Cumberland. see Chevalier de Johnstone's Memoirs. of the peasant they spread ruin and desolation among a free. deprived of clothes. a gallant. p. When the men were slain. " the houses burnt. as the miserable means of supporting a wretched life. begging for the blood and offal of their own cattle. where they slept on the . where the greater number were shot. slain for the soldiers' use. but when the building was burnt to the ground. Their condition at sea was even worse than on land. a hut. 203. was scarcely less terrible. p. The fate of such of the survivors of the battle of Culloden. [l746. In one instance. . and carried into the court -yard of Culloden House. and warm-hearted people. the women and children perished from famine in many instances. For a curious anecdote connected with his execution. they passed a miserable existence. had their brains knocked out by the soldiery.

so great was the mortality occasioned by the cruel deprivations which they had to endure. together with a great number of wounded prisoners. Lieutenant-colonel Howard. 1 See Donald Macleod's Narrative. extracted from the dying declaration of one of the unfortunate victims on the scaffold. * " T 2 . p. In regard to the terrible policy adopted by the Duke of Cumberland. one of the Scotch kirks. 406. and then left to die of their wounds without the least assistance and though we had a surgeon of our own. only fortynine individuals survived to tell the tale of the miseries to . and their amount of daily food being no more than about ten ounces of an inferior kind of oatmeal to each man." says the unhappy sufferer. the following account. Our general allowance. three years afterwards only eighteen were left to point out the graves of their companions. a prisoner in the same place." General Hawley. was half a pound of meal a-day.1746. in which one hundred and fifty-seven of these brave but unfortunate men had been embarked. and Major Lockhart. many died on ship-board and of eighty-one who reached their pestilential destination. Of a large number of human beings who were shipped to Barbadoes. to feel some satisfaction In recording that two out of the number were Scotchmen. which they had been exposed. " Jean " of Leith. Even at this distance of time the heart almost sickens with the details of the horrors and privations . during the whole of which time they were kept huddled together on board ship. yet he was not permitted to dress their wounds. may be taken as a 2 "I was put. who were stripped naked. to which these faithful and gallant people were subjected. . perhaps.] PHINCE CHABLES EDWAED. On board of one vessel. that after the lapse of eight months. Captain Caroline Scott. "into specimen. It is natural. but his instruments were taken from him on purpose to prevent it and in consequence of this many expired in the utmost Several of the wounded were put on board the agonies. and carried out by his brutal agents. and there died in lingering tortures. as an Englishman. which was sometimes increased to a 1 .i The principal agents in carrying out the Duke's brutal policy were his executioner-in-chief. &c. while we were prisoners there. and to bewail their own fate. Human nature revolts at such sickening details. 275 stones which formed the ballast their sole allowance of drink being a bottle of cold water. Jacobite Memoirs.

ness. is built. just before his execution. indeed. and delivered by Sheriff or Surrey. Their baras not to suffer the men who were put barity extended so far " " on board the Jean to lie down even on planks. and honour. by which means their legs swelled as big almost as their bodies. exaggerations of the defeated Jacobites. but by persons of high integrity. 1746. and. " Mm 1 to the Paper read by Mr James Bradshaw." These merciless inhumanities. but never exceeded it and I myself was an eye-witnumbers were starved to death. it must be remembered. These are some few of the cruelties exercised. '[l746. as I hope for mercy at the day of judgment. The details. in many instances. ing man.276 THE PBETENDERS AND THEIB ADHERENTS. on Friday. I am obliged to add an asseveration to the truth of them and I do assure you. that great . upon the word of a dy. which being almost incredible in a Christian country. partisans of the Government. November 28. not on the partial authority. pound." . of the almost demoniac retribution exacted by the Duke of Cumberland and his myrmidons would appear almost too dreadful to be credited. and by the victors by the themselves. I assert l nothing but what I know to be true. station. but they were obliged to sit on large stones. indeed. were they not fully substantiated on the most undoubted Their truth. were independent of the numerous legal executions which were permitted by the Government. and to which we shall not at present refer.

Charles's Embarkation. now commence the eventful history of the adventures after his defeat at Culloden. supported by a small band of Highlanders. taking leave of his Followers. His Extremities at Sea. moreover. Lands and takes Shelter in a " Grass-keeper's " Hut in Benhecula. His situation was perhaps even more critical than that of his great-uncle.277 PRINCE CHARLES EDWARD.000 was offered for his capture. a reward which held out as it was to a poor it was thought and. AFTER THE BATTLE OF CULLODEN. Precautions to prevent the Escape of the Chevalier. when he beheld the slaughter of his gallant followers and the downfal of his own ambitious hopes. the large sum of 30. Visited in his Retreat by Clanranald. the French troops. part of the Highlands where it was probable that the unhappy fugitive might seek to conceal himself. In order to insure the Prince's safe retreat from the field of battle. arrest. an avaricious people would inevitably lead to his speedy discovery and certain . "Writes from prehension. Glenbiasdale. The feelings of the unfortunate young Prince. made a last and desperate stand against the onset of the royal forces. after the battle of Worcester. and with a faithful . Charles the Second. CHAPTEE I. may be more easily imagined and escapes of Charles Edward than described. which enabled Charles to place a considerable distance between himself and his pursuers. Already the enemy's cavalry were on his track the royal troops were being despatched to every . Reward for his ApHis Retreat through Scotland as a Fugitive. Followed by a large body of horsemen. as it was believed. numbers of vessels of war were cruising along the coast for the purpose of intercepting any foreign ship which might be sent to carry him off and.

are visible to men only from one twinkle of the eyelid to another. p. These persons were. who was acting as secretary in the absence of Murray of Broughton. he rode forward in the direction of Invergarry. for his guide. "who. remained at Gortuleg only a short time. [l746. and each endeavour to insure his own safety as he best might.carrier in Edinburgh. the only occasion apparently on which they ever met. certainty more dreadful than the presence of fairies. one Edward Burke. the fugitives spent a few minutes in deliberation. indeed. and drunk a few glasses of wine." says Sir Walter Scott. on which she was gazing with indolent composure. Allan Macdonald a priest." 3 The reasons which induced Charles to visit the crafty old peer have not been explained. of which he stood greatly in need. . impressed with the belief that they were fairies. lady. of Muiravonside. and two servants. and who resisted the temptation of thousand pounds. she strove to refrain from the vibration which she believed would occasion the strange and magnificent apTo Lord Lovat it brought a parition to become invisible. who. and having partaken of some food. Charles made the best of his way to Grortuleg. situated on one of those beautiful lochs which now form the links of the Caledonian Canal. l "A 1 Burke. O'Neal.278 THE PKETENDERS AND THEIB ADHEEENTS. or even demons. vol. about four miles from Inverness. neither do we know the topics that were discussed at their strange interview. was * * Prose Works. accompanied by only ten individuals. Having crossed the stream. described to us the unexpected appearance of Prince Charles and his flying attendants at Castle Dounie. Highlander. The wild and desolate vale. 83. xi. according to Highland tradition. Edward Burke the guide. when it was decided that the Prince should make the best of his way to the western coast. the seat of Macdonnell of Glengarry. Alexander Macleod. John Hay. the two latter being the Prince's aids-de-camp. party should separate. that. Sir David Murray. He at this period a servant to Mr Alexander Macleod. was at once so suddenly filled with horsemen riding furiously towards the castle. thirty drudged out the remainder of his days as a sedan. where he had an interview with the too-celebrated Lord Lovat. where it was hoped that he would find a French and that the majority of the vessel to carry him to France. Charles rode rapidly forward till he reached the river Nairn. was residing in Lord Lovat's family. 0' Sullivan. 2 Accordingly. The Prince. Sir Thomas Sheridan. who accompanied the Prince as a guide during a great part of his wanderings. then a girl.

Jacobite Memoirs. It may be here mentioned. he proceeded to Mewboll. So completely was he worn out with the fatigues which he had lately undergone." The next morning. he slept till the middle of the next day. with the exception of O'Sullivan. where he passed the night. there being no longer any roads in the route they were about to pursue. p. O'Neal. and there was neither food nor furniture in the house but as Charles had now ridden nearly forty miles since he quitted the field of battle." At Invergarry. Unfortunately the chieftain was absent. which were the ornament of the latter for the . when he partook of a small repast which had been prepared for him by Edward Burke. and Edward Burke the Prince putting on the coat of the . as the latter informs us. in Clanranald's country. when Charles took up his quarters in the house of Donald Cameron of Grlenpean. The little party reached Loch Arkaig at nine o'clock in the evening. About three o'clock he again rode forward in the direction of Loch Arkaig. which.1746. as he himself informs us. Charles found himself at Oban. 279 About two o'clock in the morning the little party galloped by the ruins of Fort Augustus. His only drink was the water from the loch. On the evening of the 19th. and as the previous night had been occupied in the unfortunate march to Nairn. he " made ready in the best manner he could. . 364. it may readily be imagined that he would have welcomed sleep under any circumstances. The plate was carried off and melted the house and grounds were laid waste and the military even carried their vengeance so far as to blow up with gunpowder two beautiful chestnut trees. 1 Edward Burke's Journal. Here the whole party were compelled to abandon their horses and to proceed on foot.] PE1NCB C1IABLES EDWAED. fell out seven guineas. from which. that he fell asleep while Edward Burke was unbuttoning his " there splatterdashes. the 18th. the whole of the party took leave of their unfortunate master. place. it was made to pay a severe penalty for having afforded a resting-place to the Prince. that when the English troops subsequently visited Invergarry. and the meat was reckoned very l savoury and acceptable. and about two hours afterwards found themselves in safety at Invergarry. . purpose of disguising himself. Stretching himself on the floor. but the faithful guide had contrived to catch two salmon. .

he said. by the advice of his followers. 208. Circumstances. No one could tell whether the scaffold would not be his fate. "was truly affecting: we bade one another an eternal adieu. To these persons the Prince's " letter came as the death-blow to their hopes. near the spot where he had first set his foot on Scottish ground. who was intimately ac. There were many among the Highland chieftains who clung to the fond belief. a faithful and gallant old Highlander from the Isle of Skye. and that the enterprise might still be crowned with success. compelled him at present to retire to France but he trusted ere long to return from that country. was one Donald Macleod. expressing the deepest gratitude for all the gallantry and the devotion which they had displayed in his cause. to remove to the "Western Isles. Our separation at Buthven. p. The next day he laboured on foot over a range of high and rugged hills." says the Chevalier de Johnstone. and it was his earnest prayer. he said. where he was compelled to sleep in a wretched hovel used for shearing sheep. In the mean time he recommended that each of them should look to their own safety. where it was hoped that he would meet with greater facility in obtaining a passage on board a foreign ship. he determined. [l746. and on the point of being plundered. that the game which they had been playing was not yet lost. The individual who had the high compliment paid him of being selected to be the guide of the unfortunate Prince during his approaching expedition. bringing with him succours which would be certain to insure success. where they had assembled to about the number of a thousand men. near the head of Loch Morar.280 THE PRETENDERS AND THEIR ADHERENTS." 1 In consequence of information which Charles received at G-lenbiasdale of the number of English cruisers which were lying in wait for him along the coast. and in the evening arrived at the small village of G-lenbiasdale in Arisaig. . ers gave vent to their grief in wild bowlings and lamentations the tears flowed down their cheeks when they thought that their country was now at the discretion of the Duke of Cumberland. without resource. 1 Johnttone's Memoirs. From G-lenbiasdale Charles wrote to his followers at Buthven. whilst they and their children would be reduced to slavery. into a state of remediless distress. that the Almighty should bless and direct them. The Highlahd. and plunged.

leod was at this period at Kinlochmoidart. where I may look for more safety than I can do here. Donald. adding. 'What diel could help greeting. and the first person he encountered on approaching Glenbiasdale was the Prince himself." said the Prince. and who had recently been intrusted with the important mission of bringing off a large sum of money from the Island of MacBarra. you are a good pilot. He advanced towards 'the old man." " When Donald. Donald posi"Does not your Excellency tively refused to undertake. quainted with the difficult 281 navigation of the neighbouring seas." he said. This mission. therefore.1746. but who. with me?" "Then. he grat sore. in the "I am the same man. however. and know all this coast well. your Highness. I am in distress. He immediately set out on his journey. The Prince then remarked. pleasure Donald. where a messenger was despatched to him. and inquired of him if he was Donald Macleod of Guattergill. who was walking alone in the wood. . "was giving me this part of the narrative. and this within a distance of not more than ten miles from Glenbiasdale. I hope. when speaking on sic a sad subject?'" The first request which Charles preferred to Donald was to carry letters from him to Sir Alexander Macdonald and the Laird of Macleod. that there was no personal risk which he would not undergo to insure the safety of his Prince. and fit to be trusted." says Bishop Forbes. " I hear. as has been already mentioned. and he said. directing him to repair immediately to the Prince at Borrodaile. the tears came running down his cheeks. had treacherously made their peace with the government. who had formerly been the loudest in their professions of devotion to his cause. and let you do with me what you like." The old Highlander immediately assented. which had been left there by a French vessel. "you see. I throw myself into your bosom." was Isle of Skye? " I am at your service.] PRINCE CHARLES EDWARD. that these men have played the rogue to you ? and will you trust them again ?" He mentioned also the fact. that both these renegade chieftains were searching for him with their followers in all directions. I hear you are an honest man. " know. what is your the plain-spoken reply. you will carry me safely through the islands. which as Charles still clung fondly to the belief that they were secretly his well-wishers must have been extremely painful to him.

So infected was he with the enthusiasm of the times. Charles. and he earnestly entreated the Prince to defer his deCharles. in the dusk of the evening of the 24th of April. adding. an eight-oared boat having been procured. and expressed a wish to return to the shore but Donald explained to him that the " attempt would be a vain one. Previous to their embarkation. 382. but. that he had run away from a grammar-school at Inverness." Though little accustomed to the raging element on which he was now borne. a youth of only fifteen years of age. at length ." said Donald to Bishop joined him at Grlenbiasdale. and they were without a compass to guide them on their way. which Macleod himself though a seafaring man. Donald Macleod took the helm. with the Prince seated between his knees. 1 Jacobite Memoirs.THE PRETENDERS AND THEIR ADHERENTS. and they had no pump with which to lighten their small vessel the night also was extremely dark. he arrived on the field of Cul- loden in time to share the dangers of the battle. Accordingly. Charles exhibited neither fear nor perturbation. escape the dangers which threatened him on the mainland. . was the son of Macleod. Charles now began to perceive his danger. of whom Edward Burke. that it was as good for them to be drowned in clean water." 1 In addition to the lightning and thunder. and accustomed to the squally tempests which rage among the Western Islands assures us in his Narrative was " greater than any he had ever been trysted with before. the experienced eye of Donald Macleod had assured him that a storm was gathering. and having contrived to provide himself with a broadsword. Allan Macdonald. 282 [1746. He subsequently found means to trace the road that Charles had taken and after tracking him from place to place. dirk. as to be dashed in pieces upon a rock and be drowned too. p. when a storm arose. and eight watermen. Donald Macleod. " And. anxious to parture till the following day. however. on the . there were twelve persons embarked in the boat O'Sullivan. " this was the way that I met wi' my poor boy. embarked at Lochnanuagh. the Prince's guide from Culloden. They had proceeded only a short distance." Forbes. and pistol. insisted on putting to sea. the rain came down in torrents. acted as one. and the tempestuous sea. . O'JSTeal. it may be mentioned. near the place where he had first landed in the Highlands. One of the watermen. Besides the Prince.

in addition to his many miseries. by singing them a Highland song. could 1 . from the mouths of several persons. 1765. They landed. 3 Jacohite Memoirs. 283 contrary. with almost unexampled spirit and gallantry. or to be thwarted in his most trifling desires. each of whom he might naturally have regarded with suspicion that the vast sum of thirty thousand pounds was fixed as the price of his capture or of his blood and that the majority of those who were intrusted with his secret were among the poor and the needy. in the desolate island of Benbecula. expressed more than once his confidence in the mercy and goodness of Providence. 1 " Narrative of the Several Passages of the Young Chevalier.] PRINCE CHARLES EDWARD. . thus did a young Prince (who it might have been expected would have been enervated by the soft air and effeminate pleasures of an Italian climate) endure. assisted him iu .1746. As the storm subsequently recommenced with increased violence. that the whole naval and military force of a powerful nation was emthat he was in ployed to intercept the huuted wanderer the power of every individual who surrounded him. Having dragged the boat on dry land. . and boiled a portion of a cow which they had caught and killed. his only couch being an old sail spread on the bare ground. even had the unfortunate prince been of a disposition to take the most favourable view of human motives and human actions. at which they dried their drenched garments. having undergone eight hours of discomfort and danger. Indeed. and his only food some oatmeal and the boiled flesh of the slaughtered cow. 385. they found themselves on the coast of Long Island. Towards morning the storm abated and when the day dawned. they lighted a fire. We must remember. London. where they found an uninhabited hut. . in which the Prince took up his quarters. Charles was compelled to take up his quarters in this wretched place for two days and nights. with some difficulty. that he was very well pleased. privations and dangers to which even the most wretched outcasts are rarely exposed. and at other times endeavoured to enliven the sinking spirits of the crew. Tet we are told by one of his " companions in misfortune." 2 Though nursed on the lap of luxury. at Roonish. who either gave him succour." p. 9. or his escapes. and slept soundly. and unaccustomed to practise self-denial. p.

for all the spirits. 384. for Ned Burke. and never ! . fatigue he underwent. on whom the Duke of Cumberland and the detestable agents of his cruelty practised horrors which were only equalled by the authors of the massacre of St Bartholomew. l 1 Jacobite Memoirs. never slept above three or four hours at most at a time. he reasonably have expected that there existed on the face of the earth a people so loyal and disinterested as not to numher among them a single Judas. the principal port in the Island of Lewis. which he never failed to drink off at a draught. who was now actively engaged in furthering the views of the Government. saying. he was indeed a bit of a doctor. 284- [l746. by another storm. the Prince and O'Sullivan taking the names ' ' . " I asked Donald. that the Prince. p.THE PRETENDERS AND THEIB ADHERENTS. or Glass. and were compelled to put into the small island of Scalpa. where he hoped to find a French vessel to convey him to France. and Ned gae him sae mony draps out o' the little " soon was as well as ever he had been. happening once to be unco ill of a colick.' said Donald. who could be tempted by so magnificent a bribe ? And yet such were the gallant and devoted people. where they landed before daybreak on the morning of the 30th. indeed. the Prince said. did Charles endure all the privations and dangers to which he was exposed. They were overtaken. if anything should ail him. I hope to cure him of that and accordingly he did so. As this island belonged to the Laird of Macleod. for he bottle. he hoped he should cure himself. the Prince was more or less suffering under some disorder but that he bore up most surprisingly. and that when he awaked in the morning he was always sure to call for a chopin of water. He said he had a little bottle in his pocket. with the intention of setting sail for Stornoway. during the whole time. And faith. for that he was something of a doctor. if the Prince was in health all the time that he was with him ? Donald said that the Prince would never own he was in bad health.' On the evening of the 29th Charles quitted Benbecula with his attendants. . however. Donald added. though he and all that were with him had reason to think that. Let him alane." " says Bishop Forbes. they assumed the characters of shipwrecked merchantmen. or by the priesthood of Madrid Gallantly. out of which he used to take so many drops wanted every morning and throughout the day.

to procure a larger and safer vessel for the Prince. in consequence of the ignorance or mismanagement of their guide. and not less than two or three hundred men under arms. and to proceed to Stornoway on foot. who rented the island from the Laird of Macleod. His servant.PRINCE CHARLES EDWARD. and had blabbed for whom the vessel was hired adding. had got drunk. Charles had been four days a guest of the hospitable Campbell. and thence to another clergyman in the Lewis. he sent forward the guide to Donald Macleod. at the head of five hundred men. but. discovered but little uneasiness. that the Prince was in the neighbourhood. that he had procured a vessel of the description required. they said. Nevertheless. their journey was lengthened to about thirty-eight . to enable him to proceed to Stornoway. The Prince immediately put to sea in a small boat. miles. and subsequently conducted him to the house of Mrs Mackenzie of Kildun. Charles. and even declined accepting a large sum of money which he offered to any one who would pilot them to their destination. nor to molest him in any way all they asked was. the latter playing the part of the father. The distance from Loch Sheffort to Stornoway was not above twenty miles. it appears. On the return of Donald to Stornoway. They had no intention. when informed by Donald of the threatening aspect of his affairs. In vain did Donald endeavour to expostulate with them on the absurdity of their fears. he found the whole place in commotion. it is said. but the wind blowing right against them. who immediately repaired to him with some brandy and bread and cheese. They met. and who lent his own boat to Donald Macleod. and the rain poured down in torrents." says Edward Burke in his Narrative. however. where he passed the night. As soon as Charles had arrived within sight of Stornoway. to injure the Prince. and the former of the son. "only : . led over a dreary moor the night was extremely dark. they were compelled to land in Loch Their way Sheffort. This intelligence was rapidly spread by a chain of alarms communicated by a clergyman in South Uist to his father in the Harris. when he received a message from Macleod. " "We were then.] 285 of Sinclair. they refused to allow Donald to make use of the vessel which he had already hired. with civility and kindness from Donald Campbell. 1746. that he should quit the place without delay.

p. "as there was any money among us. I was positive that the deil a man or woman should have it to say that the Prince ate their meat for . who. however. mistaking the Prince and his companions for a press-gang despatched from one of the vessels in the offing. leaving their fish drying 1 Jacobite Memoirs. and positively insisted on her accepting the price of the animal "for so long. and for which that lady had at first refused payment. and. 366. on perceiving the commotion which the Prince's presence had excited. The provisions which they carried with them consisted of some oatmeal. which I hope will " never be alive. they found those that they were to put on as wet as the ones they had thrown oft. when they stripped to dry those that were upon them. With this inefficient crew. brandy. O'Sullivan. according to Donald Macleod. and in a small boat but little suited to cope with the sudden squalls and tempests so peculiar to the Western Isles. and a little to the north of Scalpa. Upon the alarm. about twelve miles from Stornoway. besides the Prince. which had originally consisted of four persons." says Donald Macleod. and sugar. doubtful in what His companions in adversity direction to steer his course. How long is it. and we had four hired rowing the barge. Ned. ' that number.' At this time. was now reduced to half four in men number for ' . ." The land. were now reduced to O'Sullivan and O'Neal Allan Macdonald having taken his leave of him at Stornoway. or Iffurt. near the Harris. besides some portions of a cow which they had slaughtered during the time they were the guests of Mrs Mackenzie. since you turned cowardly ? I shall be sure of the best of them before I am taken. in order to make the best of his way to South Uist. Charles put to sea on the 6th of May. " frequently. nought. fled with the utmost precipitation to the interior of the island. Charles.THE PRETENDERS AND THEIR ADHERENTS." Their crew. which when they came induced them to put into the small desert island of Eiurn. and O'Neal had only six shirts among them. in consequence of two of them having fled frightened to the mountains. I advised they should take to the mountains but the Prince said. It happened to be the temporary resort of some fishermen. 286 [l746. would not be denied. the Prince. fugitives had advanced only a short distance from the in sight of four vessels of war.

PRINCE CHARLES EDWARD. But." of the Perhaps something flattery of a court existed even among the desert and inhospitable isles of the Hebrides. indeed. and though without knives and forks. during his wanderings. " we found plenty of good dry land. which the fishers had left upon the island. As we had plenty of brandy and sugar along with us. 1 called .] 287 " Upon this desert isupon the shore in large quantities. "When they were parting with Lady Kildare (Mrs Mackenzie)." says Bishop Forbes. luckily found an earthen pitcher. we wanted much to have a little warm punch. p." says Donald Macleod. in the superiority which was thus awarded to the Prince. gentlemen. whisky." " When Donald. fish. " was asked. and this served our purpose very well for heating the punch but the second night the pitcher." Edward Burke usually acted as cook and baker but whenever the Prince lent a hand to prepare the homely repast. by some accident or other. with a sail-cloth . like etiquette was still kept up amongst those whom misfortune had reduced to a common level. if ever the Prince used to give any particular toast. was broke to pieces. Charles. or the commonest culinary utensil. he meant the second daughter of France and I never heard him name any particular health but that alone. we " are told that he was reckoned the best cook of them all. of which we were resolved to make the best fare we could without any butter. expressing his conviction that that monarch had the cause of the exiled family and was anxious to do all in his power to warmly at heart. always spoke in terms of gratitude and affection. 391. When he spoke of that lady. and gave him a junt of butter betwixt two fardles of bread. he said that the Prince very often drank to the Black Eye. ' ' . 1746.' said Donald. and with no other shelter than a ruined hut. she Ned aside. or the like.' the King of France. by which." he invariably added. so that we could have no more warm punch. which Ned put into a wallet they had for carrying some little baggage. which he did frequently. 391." Jacobite Memoirs. I can assure you that a king and his council are two very different had in 1 We . he " Of appeared to be more than ordinarily well pleased. when they were taking a cup of cold water. p. Something. and found very good springs upon the island. " " assist them. * Jacobite Memoirs. not knowing of the junt that Ned his wallet. to cheer our hearts in this cold remote place. things.

" and even Never. however. He was told. was induced to forego his honest intentions. bad. Charles inon going a short distance out of their way for the purpose of landing once more in Scalpa. . they again set scruples. Charles. When the dawn broke they were without food or fresh water. Previous to quitting the island. in order to thank Donald Campbell for the -civilities he had shown them. that he called it " no bad " " ate of it very heartily. and the gentlemen of his party. and who had no claim to it. Charles." says Donald Macleod." The Prince himself observed. They again therefore put to sea. be it good. accordingly. that the Prince had been his guest. "did any meat or drink come wrong to him for he could take a share of everything. after a residence of four days upon sail." On the 10th of May. that should he ever ascend a throne. used to smoke a great " bacco." and would sometimes sing them a song to keep up their hearts. and they were compelled to row during the whole night. Charles had placed some money upon one of the fish which they left behind. that either it would be taken possession of by persons who might accidentally land. and was always cheerful and contented in every condition. we have the evidence of two of the persons who were with him in the boat. nevertheless. what was of still more importance. however. had already gone abroad." But the want of food was not the worst which they had to sisted . though apparently not without much violence to his conscientious this desolate spot. as the price of what they had consumed and taken away." food. for the roof.288 THE PBETENDEBS AND THEIR ADHEBENTS. invariably partook of their meals apart from their humbler companions. and during the whole day their only sustenance consisted of some meal mixed with sea-water and some brandy. but the wind had now gone down. that it might lead to the discovery of their real rank. we are told by one of his " deal of tocompanions in adversity. and also to remunerate him for the use of his boat. carrying with them two dozen of the dried fish which they found upon the rocky beach. [l746. or. and the hospitable Highlander had himself become a fugitive. Passing along the shores of the Long Island. he should never forget those " who dined with him that day. the Prince. The rumour. or indifferent. Unpalatable as must have been this fare to the unfortunate Prince.

in Benbecula. proscribed fugitives like the Prince himself." Fortunately the wind went down. of which he stood greatly in need. however. 368.] 289 As they continued on their melancholy voyage. they came to a wretched uninhabited hovel. "a poor grass-keeper's bothy. it still offered the advantages of security to the persecuted wanderer. Charles all the time animating them to " " fresh exertions. Charles found himself safely landed at Loch-wiskaway. fatigue. I will be sunk rather than taken. he despatched Donald Macleod to the mainland. as well as shelter for the night. they found themselves suddenly chased by an English vessel of war. Forbes. and he determined on remaining there for some time. as it must have been to be confined in this wretched spot. and were moving stealthily along the shore. Macleod traced them to their hiding-places at the head of Loch Arkaig. when they were perceived and chased by another vessel. or hut. . he being tall. u . to let him go the easier into the poor hut. and to obtain a supply of money. Anxious to ascertain the fate of his friends. and anxiety. occasion. and put heather below the Prince's knees.PRINCE CHABLES EDWABD. you shall have a handsome reward if not. 1 1 Jacobite Memoirs. which very nearly succeeded in capturing them indeed it was only by the greatest efforts of the crew that they contrived to escape. After a dreary walk of two miles. they had less difficulty in effecting their the calmness of the weather was in their favour. . but they had no money to send to their Prince. in capturing which the Prince had shown great eagerness. who were concealed among the Western Highlands. He expressed himself highly gratified at his numerous escapes adding. and after undergoing twenty -four hours of thirst." Miserable. On this encounter. however. After a short time. and the ship becoming becalmed. 1746. they were enabled to conceal themselves in one of the small inlets formed by the rocks on the dreary coast of the Isle of Harris. Carrying with them some crabs which they caught among the rocks." he said. with directions to find out Lochiel and Secretary Murray. p. they again stole out. that he was now satisfied that he should never die by water or by the sword." as Edward Burke described it to Bishop " which had so low a door. that we digged below it. and after an escape : . If we escape this danger. "With the sagacity of a Highlander. they proceeded inland in hopes of finding the provisions of which they stood so much in need.

and exposure to the weather. immediately repaired to him in his wretched retreat. and the ac. moreover. " He found the youth. Donald returned with some brandy only. Clanranald brought with him some Spanish wines and other provisions. reclining in a hovel little larger than an English hog-stye. and his shirt. to whom he had sent a message acClanquainting him with his hiding-place and his wants. as dingy as a dish-clout. AFTER a residence of two or three days in Benbecula. a manner. from its vicinity both to the mountains and the sea. Plan for his Escape in disguise to the Isle of Skye. and which. Scouts were stationed in all directions to give the earliest notice of the approach of an enemy . 2 The month which was passed by Charles in South Uist was perhaps the least painful or wearisome of any period of his 1 History of the Rebellion of 1745-6. His various narrow Escapes while resident there. removed to a secluded spot in the centre of the neighbouring island of South Uist. and guides in the event of his being compelled to fly to the mountains. ranald. Charles removes to the Island of South Uist.290 THE PRETENDERS AKD THEIR ADHERENTS. * Lockhart Papers. offered a double chance of escape in the event of his retreat being discovered. a boat was always in readiness for him to put to sea. CHAPTEE II. During the absence of Macleod. . by the advice of Clanranald. hunger. p. ceptable present of half-a-dozen shirts. Accepts the proffered Services of Flora Macdonald. [1746. Charles. where he was less likely to be hunted out by his pursuers. which perhaps was sufficiently acceptable." says " who had recently agitated Britain in so extraChambers. absence of eighteen days." l To the great satisfaction of Charles. Charles was cheered by a visit from Clanranald. 96. 542. and perhaps more filthy his face haggard with disease. as well as some shoes and stockings. and whose pretensions to a throne he ordinary considered indubitable. to use the expressive language of Dougal Graham. p. acquainting him with the complete ruin of his affairs. accompanied by his lady. and with two letters from Lochiel and the Secretary.

" amusements by entering a small boat. if I have the power to support him. 543. South Uist was formerly celebrated for its abundance of game.] 291 wanderings. and Charles frequently amused himself with shooting we are assured. the boy sought out a large body of the Campbells. 396. very nearly led to serious results and. . and fishing with handlines along the coast. Sir Alexander Macdonald of Sleat. which they regarded as an impudent falsehood. . he received constant supplies of the newspapers of the day. u 2 Jacobite Memoirs. when a half-starved boy suddenly pushed in between them. Edward Burke. . Why. though trifling in itself." he said. " I cannot see a Christian perishing for want of food and raiment. p. Though his present habitation was only a better kind of hut. and though his bed consisted only of two cowhides stretched upon four sticks. He had one day shot a deer. and Macdonalds. who were in search of the Prince. : During his stay in South Uist.PRINCE CHAELES EDWABD. remarking. and acquaint. it may perhaps be as well to record it. indeed. they only ridiculed his story. in preparing some collops from it. that " he was very dexterous at l Sometimes he would vary his shooting fowl on the wing. man. moreover. a step 1 : Lockhart Papers. as the circumstances connected with it display Charles's character for humanity and good-nature in a very pleasing light. Edward Burke immediately struck him with the back of his hand. an incident occurred. and in the evening was assisting his chef de cuisine. ed them with his hiding-place. had he not been stopped by the " " Prince. however. paid him frequent visits and from Lady Margaret Macdonald. clothe the naked ? you ought rather to give him meat than a stripe. and his brother Boisdale. which. do not you remember the us which commands to feed the hungry and Scripture." 2 His humanity met with a very indifferent return. Fortunately. and made an attempt to snatch some of the meat out of the dish. the wife of his former adherent and present persecutor. 1746. At length the period arrived when Charles was again compelled to change the scene of his wanderings. Macleods. he was nevertheless well supplied with comforts and even luxuries Clanranald. p." He then ordered some food and some old clothes to be given to the boy. Having discovered the rank of his benefactor. and probably would have repeated the blow.

and near a leg of beef laid on a chest before us. . and Highland brogs his upper coat being English He called for a dram. . This important information was communicated to the Prince by his kind friend. if he would risk staying himself. [l746. . The Prince told us. we could not. I spoke to Boisdale about leaving Glencoradale. . Boisdale says to me. and face. and then putting on a clean shirt. tarshirt. said they were Macdonalds and Macleods. being the first article of a cloth." he says. hands. his Clanranald a short kilt. I replied. As soon as we had done. Balshair has himself left us a very interesting account of his mission to Charles and his small court of Grleucoradale " " Being a misty day. as they were Highlanders. who seemed to be a very welcome guest to the Prince. and vest of the same. as they had been together above once before. as it was but seldom he met with friends he could enjoy himself with. . got from Lady his night-cap all patched with soot-drops. which he was importuned to : . He then said he was not the least concerned. Lady Margaret Macdonald. Highland entertainment which being over. The Prince advised Edward Burke to fill the bowl but before we would begin with our bowl.292 THE PItETENDEBS AND THEIB ADHERENTS. which was rendered absolutely necessary in consequence of a large body of militia having landed in search of him on the neighbouring island of Eriska. who should enter the hut but Boisdale. to gentleman. he called for There was about a half-stone of butter laid on a meat. all patched with soot-drops. Boisdale insisted on his being shaved first. O'Sullivan indiscovered me. part with him that night. he would not on any account part with us that night. who employed a gallant Highland m North Uist. and of no advantage to him. surprised they troduced me to the hut. The Prince saluted me very kindly. I came near them before which them. patched with the same tan hose. that I would for my part. as our stay there would be of dangerous consequence. of Balshair convey to him the tidings. notwithstanding its being washed toties quoties. timber plate. " Boisdale then told him there was a party come to Barra He asked what they were ? Boisdale in pursuit of him. Hugh Macdonald. in good manners. His dress was then a tartan short coat. and more especially such. and told me he was heartily glad to see the face of an honest man in such a remote corner.

" Then. and even of three nights. Boisdale. ' . some time afterwards.] 293 and Burke shaved him. she reluctantcommitted it to the flames. he would be one night merry with his Highland friends. He told me they had little or no reBoisdale then told him that his predecessor. do n't be rubbing up old sores." Previous to his taking his departure from Glencoradale. as no search was man. what put on it. p. Mr Macdonald. but. Clanranald. she put it carefully by. when the King's troops actufearful lest a discovery of the letter ally paid her a visit. At last I started the question if his Highness would take it amiss if I should tell him the greatest He said not. I will not burn it I will preserve it for the sake of him who wrote it to me: and although King George's forces should come to the house. she rose up when he placed the letter in her hands. might give a clue to the Prince's movements. do . According to the narrative of Captain Roy Macdonald. we were turning more free. told him that Popery and arbitrary government were the two chiefest. and at the same time expressing a wish that she would throw his letter into the fire when she had read it. We continued this drinking for three days and He had still the better of us. MS. I objections against him in Great Britain. 97. ly 1 Lyon in Mourning.PBINCE CHABLES EDWAfcD. had fought seven set battles for his yet. we could have no access to him if he was settled at London and he told us then. who was the Prince's messenger on the occasion. I hope I shall find a way to secure it. the case would be otherwise with me. lion.' he says. he was not owned by King Charles at court. I told him I religion are all the princes of Europe of ? imagined they were of the same established religion of the nation they lived in. exclaimed. ligion at all. frank and free. and after kissing it. Charles despatched a letter to Lady Margaret Macdonald. thanking her for all the kindness he had received at her hands. notwithstanding his being as able a bowlsl say. "No. I dare . an act which. after the Eestoration. for if I came home. He said it was only bad constructions his enemies Do you know. Boisdale himself. that notwithstanding the freedom we enjoyed there with him. as any in Scotland. 1746. As we were turning merry. quoted in Ckambers's History of the Rebel- . if he had never so much ado. ' ' ' . stepping into a closet.' I then said to him. The Prince said. Then we began with our bowl.

they found themselves close to some vessels of war. Donald Macleod informs us. Sir Alexander. It was the principal object of Charles. surrounded and beset on all sides by the royal cruisers and the numerous militia-boats. "are they not our own people still? Besides" he added. we should be as sure of them for friends as any other men whatsoever. employed in searching for the Prince. and the following one at Aikersideallich. It may be mentioned that her husband. while the rest busily employed themselves in concealing the boat. by means of Captain Eoy Macdonald. . "What would you have me do with them?" was Charles's generous reply. and Donald Macleod. but. that he one day asked the Prince. [l746. 399.294 made ted. where Charles slept in a fissure in the rocks. His pursuers had by this time traced him to the Western Isles. In the morning the fugitives again put to sea. on approaching South TJist. was at this period absent in the neighbourhood of Fort Augustus. situated between South TJist and Benbecula. should he ever "come to his own again. she is said to have afterwards deeply regretFrom Lady Margaret Charles received. accompanied by O'Sullivan. p. with the intention of returning to their old quarters at Glencoradale. with his bonnet drawn over his eyes. THE PEETEKDEBS AKD THEIE ADHERENTS. retired regions. but whither to proceed appears to have been the doubtful question. lest any display of gold might lead to a susWith all her endeavours. picion of his real rank. Edward Burke. It was important to the Prince in his wanderings that he should have as much of his money in silver as possible. to . where he was kindly received by one Ranald Macdonald. near Uishnish. O'Neal. for papers." what he would do with Sir Alexander Macdonald and the Laird of Macleod. the fugitive knew not where to seek shelter even for a single night."^ On the 14th of June. some wearing-apparel and a purse of twenty guineas. however. and. The two next nights were spent at a desolate spot called Rossinish. Lady Margaret could obtain change only for a guinea and a so little money found its way in those days into these half. " if the King were restored. Charles took his leave of Grlencoradale and South Uist. They immediately landed in a small loch Charles and three of his companions flying to the mountains. who chanced to be there grazing his flocks. The first four nights were passed by him in the little island of Wia. in returning 1 Jacobite Memoirs.

and also presented Donald Macleod with a draught on his late secretary. "The account of Boisdale's being a prisoner. and said it was a woeful parting indeed. Charles learned to his dismay that there was a body of five hundred regular troops and militia within a mile and a half of him. did not forget the dangers or discomShe sent him four bottles of brandy. to seek out his old and valued friend Boisdale." Lady Boisdale.] PEINCE CHAKLES EDWARD." says Donald Macleod. by walking a mile and a half to the English quarters. highly does it raise our estimate of human nature.1746. faithful loyalty and intimate knowledge of every place of concealment in the Long Island rendered his assistance and advice of the greatest importance. forts of her Prince. Mr Hay. therefore. and by far the majornot one appears ity were among the humble and indigent. It now became necessary that he should part from his faithful companions in misfortune. Previous to taking leave of his companions. as will subsequently be The seseen. to have contemplated his betrayal. which. as he was the person principally concerned in the preservation of the Prince. when we reflect that any one of these simple and uneducated men. that when Donald Macleod spoke to him of the parting. Charles had . and all along had been most careful to consult his safety in his dangers upon and about the Isles. "distressed the Prince and his small retinue exceedingly much. O'Neal alone. 295 South Uist. so many hardships and dangers. and Bishop Forbes informs us. and during the three days he remained on the island supplied him with every comfort she coiild procure. that Charles learned that the gallant chieftain had fallen into the hands of the enemy. appears to have been deeply Edward Burke earnestly entreated to be allowed affecting. with the deepest regret and disappointment. might have made himself master of the vast reward which was offered for whose the Prince's capture! And yet of all the numerous individuals to whom he confided his secret. "he greeted sore. On the second day after his landing. shared who had natural with those as was together paration. to accompany' the Prince till he should see him in safety. in lamenting the loss of her husband." Charles ordered the rowers to be paid a shilling for each day that they had attended him. remaining with him for a short time longer. for sixty pistoles. It was. however. the How faithful Highlander appears to have never received.

but. arranged thatthey should take different routes. to whom was confided the task of sinking the boat. . effected his escape on board a French cutter which made its appearance off South Uist O'Neal was less fortunate. besides his own gun and sword. after wandering about for some time in Skye and other islands. It was not destined. he subsequently returned to Edinburgh. the celebrated . after wandering about North Uist for seven weeks with no other food than the shell-fish which he picked up on the beach. when he commenced a toilsome and dreary march in the direction of Benbecula. or. ascended the summit of the highest hill in the vicinity. that they should meet again. Donald Macleod. at last found refuge in a small cave. where he was fed by a shoemaker's wile in the night.296 THE PRETENDERS AND THEIR ADHERENTS. while NielMackechan followed with the Prince's fusee and pistols. Charles. was taken on the 5th of July. Charles had recently attached to his person one Niel Macdonald. he was arrested in Benbecula and sent a prisoner to London. and some of his Jacobite admirers having contributed to purchase him a sedan-chair. O'Sullivan. The remaining companion of Charles. when concealed by the foliage of the oak. like his great-uncle. was also sent to London as a prisoner. At the recommendation probably of Clanranald. Edward Burke. Charles the Second. where he not only found a safe hiding-place. Accompanied by O'Neal and Niel Mackechan. Charles and O'Neal carrying their own scanty allowance of linen. that he was so fortunate as to obtain as a companion and guide an interesting and beautiful girl. Niel Mackechan. some time afterwards. This person appears to have been a kind of tutor in Clanranald's family. though in his sixty-eighth year. and is remarkable as having been the father of the celebrated Marshal Macdonald. he continued to follow his original avocation for the rest of his life. Duke of Tarentum. who will be found playing a conspicuous part in the Prince's subsequent wanderings. Finding himself fortunately included in the general act of grace. It was at this critical period in the history of the fugitive Prince. and reassemble at a particular place. Here he remained till night set in. on taking his melancholy farewell of his other companions in adversity. for. [l746. and. he also obtained a clear view in the plain below of the movements of those who were sent in pursuit of him. as he was more usually styled. however.

.

.

and even to write surreptitiously to Charles by a trustworthy messenger. to allow his step-daughter to aid in the Prince's escape. there can be no doubt that she came prepared. She was intimately acquainted with. Hugh Macdonald of Arnadale. have never been clearly explained. and which there is every reason to believe to be the production of his faithful follower. As it appears also that they met by appointment. whose name has become so intimately associated with the Prince's romantic wanderings and escapes.] PRINCE CHARLES EDWARD. 1840 (No. probably at the instigation of Lady Margaret Macdonald. nis proceedings from the time when he quitted his companions in South Uist to his being joined by Flora Macdonald in Benbccula. which appeared in the New Monthly MagaNovember. making him the acceptable offer. It supplies a very important desideratum in the of the Prince's story wanderings. and was at present on a visit to her brother in South Uist. which has only recently been published. within three or four miles of Clanranald' s seat of Ormaclade. 1 zine for . either by her father or Lady Margaret. The latter has himself left us an account of what took This interesting narrative. and indeed related to. Niel Mackechan. Hugh Macdonald. in South Uist. though in command of a company of the royal militia. The circumstances under which Flora Macdonald was introduced to Charles. It has been affirmed and the story is far from being an improbable one that her own step-father. appears to the author to bear internal evidence of its having been written by Niel Mackechan after his return to France. the Clanranald family. and which induced a young and beautiful girl to become the companion of his wanderings and the sharer of his dangers and almost unexampled hardships. l Whatever the circumstances may have been. to listen to O'Neal's persuasions. with the object of inducing her either to accompany him in his flight. 297 Flora Macdonald. it is certain that O'Neal (who had been previously acquainted with Miss Macdonald. as to induce him.1746. in the Isle of Skye. and since his death had usually resided with her step-father. was still in secret so well disposed towards the cause of the Stuarts. 239). or at least to concert measures for his escape. Such is the account given in a very curious narrative written by one of Charles's companions in adversity. in which country he had been educated at the Scot's College at Paris. This spirited and noble-minded young lady was the daughter of the late Macdonald of Milton. and who is said to have conceived a tender but hopeless attachment for her) was despatched on a mission to her by Charles.

having seen the Prince and O'Neal concealed safely among the rocks. however. would accord her a pass for herself and a servant. I then demonstrated to her the honour and immortality that would redound to her by such a glorious action and she at length acquiesced. convey the Prince to her mother's. than to propose to Miss Flora to convey him to the Isle of Skye. which is the more curious. and that she could. who were maintaining a strict guard over the ford. it was it was the Prince. as we have the authority of Bishop Forbes. . place at the interview. : . where her mother lived. he found himself in the midst of a large number of the Skye militia. She promised to acquaint us next day. and instantly brought him in. by assuring her Sir Alexander was not in the country. whom I formerly knew. saying. " At midnight. after the Prince had told her the sense he would always retain of so conspicuous a service. and went with a design to inform myself if the independent companies were to pass that way next day. but declined it. To his dismay. This seemed the more feasible. when he reached the narrow ford which separates Benbecula and South Uist. and could think of no more proper and safe expedient.298 THE PRETENDERS AND THEIR ADHERENTS. with the greatest facility. as she lived close by the water-side. The Prince assented. when things were ripe for execution. and we parted for the mountains of Coradale. as the young lady's step-father. No and said they were not to pass till the day after. with some emotion. being drawn up in a line at the distance of about a gun-shot of one another. "We then consulted on the imminent danger the Prince was in. in order to arrange with her the details of the Prince's flight. Then I told her I had brought a friend to see her and she. Niel Mackechan. " we came to the hut. proceeded to meet Flora Macdonald. [l746. where by good fortune we met with Miss Flora Macdonald. being captain of an independent company. to go and visit her mother. I quitted the Prince at some distance from the hut. It was now . . Sir Alexander Macdonald was too much her friend for her to be the instrument of his ruin. and immediately proposed it to the young lady to which she answered with the greatest respect and loyalty. The young lady answered me." On approaching Benbecula." says O'Neal. I endeavoured to obviate this. that it is in accordance with what he subsequently learnt from Flora Macdonald's own mouth. . asked me if I answered her.

when she was taken prisoner by the militia. without first carrying him before their commanding officer. accordingly. her till she a good spinster. in the event of her proving as dexterous a spinster as their daughter described her. The indefatigable and noble-minded girl had already arranged with Lady Clanranald. as she tells me. when. is here." . that he should be disguised in female attire. she would speedily join them with the clothes and provisions which were necessary for their expedition. Niel made the " I have sent 1 The letter was as follows your daughter from this country. Niel Mackechan. you may employ her. in order to get ready the necessary articles for completing the Prince's disguise. being unfortunately unprovided with passports. she learned that it was her own stepfather. the means by which the Prince's small boat had been secured escape was to be effected. Clanranald's house. she determined to await his return. Though compelled to pass the night in the guard- house. and were resorting to every posThe orders of the sible expedient to prevent his escape. he found Flora Macdonald and her maid. who. to her great satisfaction. you may keep spins all your lint or. had also been detained in custody. and. 1 Having received Miss Macdonald's directions to convey the Prince without delay to Eosshiness. act the part of maid to Miss MacThe latter. militia were on no account to allow any one to pass. and Betty Burke. Macdonald of Armadale. along take care of them. where. an Irish girl. If her spinning pleases you. I your daughter your dutiful husband. am HUGH MACDONALD. she added. least she should be any way frightened with the troops lying She has got one Betty Burke. 1746. where. under the name of Betty Burke. to his astonishment. was on her way to Lady donald. A to carry him from Benbecula. through the medium of a trustworthy messenger.PEIXCE CHABLES EDWAKD.] 290 evident that the pursuers of the unfortunate Prince had traced him to South Uist. He also furnished her with a letter to her mother. Her first inquiry was as to the name of the officer in command of the detachment. who. Niel was brought to the guard-house. she was told. and it was further settled. Accordingly. was absent at present. and would not return till the following morning. recommending her to take the latter into her service. and Betty Burke. who. to I have sent Niel Mackechan with : . if you have any wool to spin. and was rewarded by obtaining from him passports for herself.

he learned that twenty of the Skye militia had landed two days before. was the depth and slipperiness of the mire. their only hope of escape lay in reaching Benbecula by sea. and having represented themselves as unfortunate Irish gentlemen who had . who is described as shivering all the time from the cold and wet. They had before them a long and painful walk to Rosshiness over a desolate moor the rain by this time was descending in torrents a cold and piercing wind blew directly in their teeth and. whom he found still concealed in his wretched hiding-place among the rocks. He fell or slipped at almost every step he took. 300 [l746. "When night set in. however. while he himself went forward to ascertain if the coast were clear. Charles. As it would have been hazardous for them to approach nearer to it by daylight. they again set out in the direction of Kosshiness. however. which was all the shelter he had from the storm. they had no means of obtaining a mouthful of food. and that they were actuOn ally in a tent within a quarter of a mile from the hut. they were welcomed by the kind-hearted inhabitants with the best fare which the wretched hovel could afford. lay himself down to rest among the high heather. in the Prince's fatigued state. they again proceeded on their way the wind and rain still beating violently in their faces. Charles. they came to a small habitation. from Culloden. to add to their discomforts. . best of his way back to Charles. when fortunately they perceived a small fishing yawl. Niel left the Prince and O'Neal at some distance off. which his companions had great difficulty in recovering. and frequently lost one or other of his effected their escape . As the vigilance of the militia would have rendered it an act of madness to attempt to pass the fords. On . and the night being so dark. and easily prevailed upon the crew to land them upon the nearest rocks. and about five o'clock found themselves within three miles of that village. To his dismay. approaching the hovel which had been fixed upon as the meeting-place between Charles and Flora Macdonald. when his miseries were at their height. who had tasted nothing since the preceding evening.THE PEETENDEES AKD THEIfi ADIIEEENTS. After resting themselves a short time. To obtain a boat appeared almost an impossibility. . About the middle of the day. was so exhausted by hunger and fatigue as scarcely to be able to walk. shoes. Another source of discomfort. that they could not see three yards before them. Fortunately.

there lay such a swarm of mitches upon his face and hands as would have made any other but himself . for the purpose of bringing him food. did Charles pass two miserable days and nights sometimes. was naturally great indeed. Thus. the unfortunate Prince was obliged to be hurried off before daybreak to the rocks by the sea-shore. rival of Flora Macdonald. notwithstanding his incomparable patience. . which had neither height nor breadth to cover him from the rain which poured down upon him so thick as if all the windows of heaven had broke open. suspense at length became so unbearable. he determined on sending O'Neal to her. Niel helped him to his feet. from the storm for two or three hours but as the militia visited the hut every morning for the purpose of procuring milk. Resisting the splendid dairy temptation of a bribe of thirty thousand pounds. indeed. and giving him intelligence of the movements of his enemies. till their faithful scout came for the last time and told them they might return to the house. which." " -maid were the same person. who had been unavoidably detained by the difficulty which she found in procuring the necessary articles for effecting his disguise. into despair. and. which she might so easily have obtained by communicating the Prince's secret to the militia. . almost within hearing of the voices of his persecutors. what torment the Prince suffered under that unhappy rock." says the narrative attributed to " Mackechan.] PBIXCE CHABLES EDWABD. where the good dairy-maid took care to make a rousing The " faithful scout " and the " good fire for their coming. that in order to ascertain the worst. where he remained con" cealed in a small cave during the rest of the morning. who stood all this time beside him. enjoying warmth and shelter in the hospitable hut. Niel. but at another moment hurried off to some wretched His anxiety for the arhiding-place in the neighbourhood. It is almost inexpressible. for that the militia was gone. to complete his tortures. miserable condition he continued for about three hours. made him utter such hideous cries and complaints as would have rent the rocks with compassion. and they marched away to the house. could be of no more service to him than to let run to the ground the rain which stagnated In this in the lurks of the plaid wherein he lay wrapped. .1746. 301 hearing these unpleasant tidings. she visited him as frequently as she could fall in the course of the morning. Charles appeared to be almost broken-hearted. He obtained shelter. indeed.

and carried to London. Charles. 1747. either of a bullock or a sheep. for whom he professed a great deal of kindness at that time. " His disguise. on his way to Lady Clanranald' s seat at Ormaclade. The latter afterwards informed Dr Burton of York that the Prince himself assisted in cooking their dinner. heart. [l71G. where she afterwards had to undergo a strict examination from Ferguson. Flora Macdonald desired Charles to dress himself in his new attire. with an advanced party. dined very heartily." he said with a smile. and a mantle of dun camlet. . to his indescribable joy. which we are told consisted of "a flowered linen gown. informed that the faithful Flora. it 1 Jacobite Memoirs. made after the Irish fashion. On the departure of Lady Clanranald. we . the news came that a Captain Ferguson. through the same ordeal of hardships and privations which it has been my lot to undergo. where she remained a prisoner till released in the month of June. a white apron. could elicit nothing more satisfactory from her than that she had been absent on a visit to a sick child. on the third day after his arrival in the neighbourhood of Rosshiness. gave Lady Clanranald his arm to the small hut. Lady Clanranald deemed it prudent to return to her own house. and his present miserable condition. while O'Neal performed the honours to Flora Macdonald. and having handed the ladies from their boat. . She was subsequently taken into custody." At length. not so much to further the Prince's with that embassy affairs as to be in company with Miss Flora. 414. liver. was within two miles of them. which consisted of the and kidneys. shortly afterwards." "While they were still seated at table. who. and Lady Clanranald on his left. was approaching by sea. accompanied by Lady Clanranald. he immediately proceeded to the landing-place. she herself sitting on the Prince's right When one of the hand. together with her husband. and.302 THE PBETENDEES AND THEIE ADHERENTS. a servant arrived out of breath. and which were roasted on a wooden spit. In consequence of this information. she said. was who. a light-coloured quilted petticoat. 1 altered party expressed their deep concern at the Prince's " It would be fortunes. however. with a hood. p. with the alarming tidings that General Campbell had landed in the neighbourhood with a large body of troops. " was mighty well pleased to be intrusted are told. They all. " if they could pass well for all kings. Forgetting his danger in his gallantry and delight.

545. at eight o'clock in the evening. and the wherries sailed to the southward without stopping.PBINCE CHABLES EDWABD. but in the course of the night. They reach the Isle of Skye. after they had advanced some distance from the shore. and singing ballads. them gay song The storm died away before morning. . and among others sang them the lively old called "The Restoration. however. Arrest of Kingsburgh (Macdonald) Charles proceeds to Kaasay. they were shortly afterwards compelled to extinguish in consequence of the approach of some wherries towards the shore. Charles did his best to raise their by telling them cheerful stories. they proceeded along the coast to the spot where their boat was waiting for them. within a gun-shot of the spot where Charles and his companions lay concealed among the heather. for harbouring the Prince. Charles took leave of O'Neal. a storm arose. accompanied by Flora Macdonald and Niel Mackechan. The weather at first was calm and favourable. Fortunately they were unperceived by any on board.] 303 is added. Parts with Flora Macdonald. however. Before setting out. Various Expedients for keeping up the Prince's Disguise. for their guide. Critical Situation of the Fugitives in an open Boat. but that the boatmen also were uneasy at their situation. Perceiving that not only his fair companion. was completed "not without some mirth and raillery distress and perplexity. With Niel l Mackechan. As it would have been dangerous for them to sail before night set in. and a mixture passing amidst all their " of tears and smiles. who earnestly entreated to be allowed to remain with him." sinking spirits. which. embarked on board the small boat which his friends had procured for him. CHAPTER III. passing. therefore. but to this Miss Macdonald would on no account consent. which they at length reached extremely wet and fatigued. 1746. Charles. Enter- tained by Mr and Mrs Macdonald. p. and shortly before daybreak they found themselves close to the point of Water1 Lockhart Papers. and they were for some time in imminent danger. OK the 28th of June. they lighted a fire among the rocks.

insisted that his preservation was of greater importance than hers. the seat of the Prince's enemy. and nish. however. which with some difficulty he was induced to do. and positively refused to obey him unless he followed her example. The rowers in the Prince's little vessel immediately pulled away from the shore with their utmost force. whom he earnestly entreated to lie down at the bottom of the boat to protect her from the bullets: she generously. The weather was now propitious. during their wanderings. Isle of Skye. and to have consulted her slightest wish. accompanied by Niel Mackechan. extremely critical one for. was at present absent on duty at Fort Augustus. on the western coast of the [l746. an fire. displayed the greatest anxiety lest she should be disturbed by any unnecessary noise on the part of the rude mariners. fell asleep at the bottom of the boat. as has been already mentioned. however. the soldiers at the same time raising their muskets. Flora Macdonald. and of the bullets." 1 plied with the greatest cheerfulness. and shouting out to them to land. they assured him unanimously that they had "no fear for themselves. After rowing about twelve miles farther. . They were about to land at this usually deserted place. . within a short distance of Mugstat. Sir Alexander Macdonald. but only for him. exhausted by the fatigues which she had undergone." to which he re"Oh! no fear for me. at this period. . Leaving Charles on the beach. and. proceeded to wait on Lady Margaret Macdonald. diers. in the island of Skye. when they suddenly perceived that it was in the possession of the militia. of the threats of the solpracticable. who. Charles. and as they proceeded on their voyage over the calm waters.301 THE PRETENDERS AND THEIE ADHEEEKTS. who. or they would The situation of the fugitives was. the little party landed at Kilbride. 546. and consequently escape appeared almost imHeedless. appears to have taken the deepest interest in her. which presently afterwards whistled over their heads. Charles incited the boatmen to renewed exertions. but there were also several of the royal cruisers within sight." Straining every nerve. remained seated beside her. Flora Macdonald. telling them "not to fear the villains. not only had they to fear the fire of the militia. who had three boats drawn up on the shore though fortunately they were without oars. p. His next thought was for his fair companion. while watching her slumbers. 1 Lockhart Papers.

and whom Flora Macdonald well knew to be a warm adherent of theexiledfamily. It was not without considerable difficulty that Kingsburgh succeeded in allaying her apprehensions for his part. a devoted and noble-minded old man. and subsequently they conversed together at dinner in the most amicable manner possible. Alexander Macdonald of Kingsburgh. by the advice of Kingsburgh. It happened that one of the guests of Lady Margaret was a Lieutenant Macleod. he found Lady Margaret and Kingsburgh holding an earnest conversation together in the garden. "When he came near. proceeding to another apartment. stepped aside from Kingsburgh to speak with him. and Lady Margaret. With the presence of mind. and say: : ." he says in his narrative. ing narrative of what subsequently occurred. upon seeing him. having been wounded in the foot at the battle of Culloden. On approaching Mugstat. desiring that he would apprize their hostess as soon as possible of the Prince's critical situation. who commanded a small detachment of militia which was quartered in the immediate neighbourhood. spreading out her hands. 305 to acquaint her that the prince was in the neighbourhood. Subsequently. or whether he awaited a natural death. Accordingly. Flora Macdonald answered with the utmost composure the numerous questions which he put to her. in the excitement and anguish of the moment. he was an old man. without the suspicions of the militia officer being in the least degree aroused. he said. she seized an opportunity of confiding her secret to Kingsburgh. was at present residing in a surgeon's house about two miles off. which never appears to have failed her. whose alarm was so great on learning the tidings. who acted as factor to the absent chieftain. There was another guest of Lady Margaret Macdonald. which. Finding some difficulty apparently in communicating with Lady Margaret. in the hopes This person has himself left us an interestof being cured. however.] CHABLES EDWABD. and it mattered little to him whether he died with a halter round his neck. in the common course of nature. Lady Margaret sent a messenger for Donald Boy. she gave a loud scream. who. that. "he dismounted.PBIffCE 1746. and who had at present three or four of his men with him in the house. could not be far distant. exclaiming that she and her family were ruined for ever. and was quite willing to take the hunted Prince to his own house he had but one life to lose. Kingsburgh sent for Lady Margaret.

for the purpose of conducting him to a more retired spot. Charles. Kingsburgh proceeded to find out the Prince's hidingplace. in order to prepare him to receive the Prince for his guest. which with some difficulty he discovered. have already mentioned more than one instance during the wanderings of Charles. 'O Donald Roy. We . in the event of its being visited by the royal forces. in any of the numerous hidingplaces which the island afforded. as if terrified by the presence of a human being. and some biscuits. Being answered in the affirmative. however. entered into familiar conversation with his new companion. and having spread their light repast on a piece of table rock. in which he intimated by some cursory remark that he believed himself to be under the especial guidance and protection of Providence. Carrying with him a bottle of wine. During his search. to whom the island belonged. we are ruined for ever!' Having come to this determination. the Prince's advisers were well assured that he would too gladly offer the royal wanderer an asylum in his own house. or. he appeared satisfied. by way of Kingsburgh. Donald Roy proceeded to find out the young Laird of Raasay. [l746. persuaded him to take some refreshment before he set out. and from his enthusiastic character. and thence by water to the opposite island of Raasay. Kingsburgh. The unfortunate Prince. while Niel Mackechan was at the same time despatched to Charles. " After much ing. he proceeded towards it. and expressed a wish that they should immediately commence their journey. who seems to have enjoyed it extremely. and found himself suddenly confronted by Charles in his female attire.306 THE PRETENDERS AND THEIR ADHERENTS. Macleod of Raasay. a tumbler. and drank gaily to his health. had served in the Jacobite army at the battle of Culloden. perceiving some sheep flying from a particular spot. From Niel Charles learned the nature of the precautions which had been taken for his safety with the additional information that he might shortly expect to be joined by Kingsburgh. discussion the three councillors at length came to the unanimous conclusion. that the best means for insuring the Prince's safety was to convey him that night to Portree. On the present occa. and inquired of him in a stern manner whether he was Mr Macdonald of Kingsburgh. who had been selected to be his guide to Portree. advanced towards him with a thick stick in his hand. suspecting perhaps that he was betrayed.

Charles. for she had seen her before. "When you were last here. Kingsburgh maid.] PEINCE CHABLES EDWAED. but in crossing the next brook he fell into the opposite extreme." Miss Macdonald did her best to avert her suspicions." As soon as Miss Macdonald could rise from table without exciting suspicion." great many entreaties and remonstrances followed. and mascu- line gait immediately attracted the notice of MissMacdonald's "I think. and be at home in these troublesome times. Miss Macdonald urging them to increased speed. The companions of Flora Macdonald during her journey to Kingsburgh were Niel Mackechan. he held up his petticoats so improperly high as to induce Kingsburgh to remonstrate with him on the subject." Lady Margaret at length gave her consent to her departure. 419. and compel her to pay a longer visit." she said. Providence sent you there to take care of me. He promised faithfully to be more careful in future. They soon overtook the Prince and his companion. "desired to be excused at that time. but Miss Macdonald. x 2 . tell you the cause. 1 Jacobite Memoirs. in hopes that the Prince might thus escape l observation. and in fording a small brook which ran across the road. "you promised that A the next time you came you would pay me a long visit." " said Charles. Mrs Macdonald of Kirkibost. and that " I will he could recall no motive for his having done so. the whole party riding on horseback.1746. by allowing his clothes to float upon the water. however. . and two servants. she took a formal leave of Lady Margaret. "I never saw such an impudentlooking woman as Kingsburgh is walking with: I dare say she is either an Irishwoman. whom they passed in a brisk trot. and how awkwardly she manages her petticoats. because she wanted to see her mother. saying that she knew her to be an Irishwoman. His strides were unnaturally long for a woman. appears to have supported his assumed character with more awkwardness than might have been expected from his natural tact and graceful person. or a man in woman's clothes see what long strides the jade takes. His strange appearance. indeed." she said. to use her own words. adding that she should certainly lay an embargo on her the next time she visited Mugstat. sion. 307 when Kingsburgh happened to observe that it was by mere accident that he had visited Mugstat that day. p. who affected to part with her with the greatest reluctance.

THE PRETENDERS AND THEIR ADHERENTS.

308

[l746.

now became

greatly alarmed, and therefore quitting the regular road, he led the Prince over the hills to his own house,
where they arrived, drenched to the skin, about eleven o'clock
at night on the 29th of June. When they entered the house,
they found that Miss Macdonald and her companions had also

just

made

their appearance.

hall, Kingsburgh sent up a
servant to his wife, desiring her to inform her mistress that
he had arrived with some guests, and that they were greatly
Mrs Macdonald, however (or, as
in want of refreshment.
she was usually styled, Lady Kingsburgh), had already retired
to rest, and being unwilling to be disturbed, she sent her
apologies to her husband and his guests, with a request that
the latter would make themselves welcome to whatever was
in the house. Just at this moment, her daughter, a little girl
of seven years old, ran into the room, and exclaimed in a
voice of fright and surprise that her father had brought home
the most "odd, muckle, ill-shaken-up wife she had ever seen,
"
and had taken her into the hall too.
Kingsburgh himself
shortly afterwards made his appearance, and in a hurried
and mysterious manner desired his wife to rise without delay,
and attend to the comforts of their guests.
Though little imagining that the Prince was her guest,
yet, from Kingsburgh's sententious manner, Mrs Macdonald
seems to have suspected that her husband had brought home
with him some person of rank and importance, who had been
deeply implicated in the late troubles. Accordingly, having
risen from bed, she sent down her little girl to the hall for
her keys; but the latter soon came running back to the
apartment more alarmed than before. She could not go in
for the keys, she said, for the "muckle woman" was walking
up and down the hall, and she was afraid of her; and accordingly Mrs Macdonald was compelled to go and fetch them

Leading Charles into the

herself.

When she entered the apartment, Charles was seated at
the end of it. He immediately rose and saluted her, and she
was not a little surprised and alarmed when she felt a man's
rough beard brushing her cheek. Not a word was exchanged
between them but her suspicions were now confirmed, and
hastening to her husband, she expressed her conviction that
the pretended female was some unfortunate gentleman who
had escaped from Culloden, and inquired whether he had
;

PB1NCE CHAHLES EDWA.ED.

1746.]

309

"

brought any tidings of the Prince ?
My dear," said Kingsin his own, " it is the
burgh, taking both" his wife's hands
The Prince " she exclaimed in the greatPrince himself."
" then
we are all ruined we shall all be hanged
est terror
now!" "Never mind," he replied, "we can die but once;
and if we are hanged for this, we shall die in a good cause,
in performing an act of humanity and charity."
He then
desired her to get ready as soon as possible some eggs, butter, and cheese, and whatever else the house afforded. "Eggs,
"
she exclaimed, " what a supper is that
butter, and cheese
"
"
"
for a Prince ?
Wife," he replied, you little know how
he has fared of late our supper will be a feast to him besides, if we were to make it a formal meal, it would rouse the
suspicions of the servants, and you must therefore make haste
with what you can get, and come to supper yourself." To
this latter proposal Lady Kingsburgh made a fresh objection
"
Me come to supper " she exclaimed, " I ken naething how
"
You must come," replied her
to behave before Majesty."
husband " for the Prince would not eat a bit without you,
and he is so obliging and easy in conversation that you will
find it no difficult matter to behave before him."
At supper Charles sat with Flora Macdonald on his right
!

;

;

!

;

;

:

!

;

hand, and Lady Kingsburgh on his left. He appeared in ex"
cellent spirits, and made a plentiful supper
eating," we
are told, " four eggs, some collips, and bread and butter, and
drinking two bottles of beer." He then called for a bumper
"
of brandy, and drank joyously to the health and prosperity
of his landlord and landlady, and better times to them all."
After supper he produced a small pipe, the only one which
he ever made use of, which is described as having been " as
black as ink, and worn or broken to the very stump." He
had suffered much, he said, from tooth-ache during his
wanderings, and tobacco usually alleviated the pain.
After Lady Kingsburgh and Flora Macdonald had retired,
Kingsburgh made some punch in a small China bowl, which
was several times replenished in the course of the evening.
At length, it being three o'clock in the morning, Kingsburgh
reminded the Prince how important it was that he should rise
early on the following day, and earnestly entreated him to
;

retire to rest. Charles, however, notwithstanding his fatigues,
and the length of time which had elapsed since he had enjoyed
the luxury of a bed, was so delighted with the conversation

310

THE PBETEITDER3 AND THEIR ADHERENTS.

[l746.

of his warm-hearted host, and with his excellent punch, that
he insisted on having another bowl. Kingshurgh now became positive in his turn, and even rose to put away the bowl.
Charles, however,

still

good-humouredly, though pertinaciand in attempting to snatch
the bowl from Kingsburgh's hands, it was broken into two
pieces. The dispute was by this means settled, and the Prince
ously,

demanded a

no longer

To use

insisted

fresh supply,

on

sitting up.

own

words, he "had almost forgotten
what a bed was," and so grateful was the luxury, that though
he seldom rested more that four or five hours, yet on this
occasion he slept for ten his considerate host, notwithstanding the remonstrances of Miss Macdonald, refusing to allow
him to be disturbed till one o'clock on the following day.
Although it had been decided that he should resume his male
"attire, yet, in order that the servants at Kingsburgh should
be kept in ignorance of his next disguise, it was determined
that he should quit the house in the same costume in which
he had entered. As soon as he had dressed himself, Lady
Kingsburgh and Flora Macdonald were summoned to his
apartment to put on his cap and apron, and to dress his head.
The former afterwards told her friends that he laughed heartily
during the process, with the same glee as if he had been put"
Oh, Miss," he
ting on women's clothes merely for a frolic.
said to Flora Macdonald, " you have forgotten my apron
give me an apron, for it is a principal part of my dress."
Before Miss Macdonald put on his cap, Lady Kingsburgh
Charles's

;

;

spoke to her in Gaelic to ask the Prince for a lock of his
She declined doing so, but on Charles inquiring what
they were talking of, she mentioned Lady Kingsburgh's reHe immediately laid his head on the lap of his fair
quest.
preserver, and told her to cut off as much as she pleased.
She severed a lock, half of which she presented to Lady

hair.

Kingsburgh, and the rest she kept herself.
From Kingsburgh Charles obtained the acceptable present
of a pair of new shoes. Taking up the old pair which Charles
had cast off, Kingsburgh tied them together, and hung them
carefully on a peg, remarking that they might yet stand him
in good stead. The Prince inquiring of him the meaning of
his words,
"Why," he said, "when you are fairly settled to
St James's, I shall introduce myself by shaking these shoes
at you, to put you in mind of
your night's entertainment

PKINCE CHABLES EDWAED.

1746.]

These

311

and protection under my roof."
wanderings were preserved with religious care by Kingsburgh
as long as he lived, and after his death were cut to pieces,
and given from time to time by his family to their Jacobite
"
It is in the recollection of one of his descendants,"
friends.
"
that Jacobite ladies often took away the
says Chambers,
l
pieces they got in their bosoms."
Having thanked Lady Kingsburgh for all her kindness,
and accepted from her a small " mull," or snuff-box, as a
"
keepsake," he proceeded, under the guidance of his host
and Flora Macdonald, in the direction of Portree, where he
hoped to find a boat in readiness to convey him to Eaasay.
As soon as he had quitted the house, Lady Kingsburgh
ascended to his bed-room, and taking the sheets which he had
used from the bed, declared that they should never again be
used or washed during her life, and should serve as her winding-sheet when she was dead. She subsequently was induced
to give one of them to Flora Macdonald, who carried it with
her to America, and, agreeably with her dying wish, it was
wrapped round her in the grave.
Having advanced to a safe distance from Kingsburgh,
Charles entered a wood, where he changed his female attire
for a Highland dress. He then took an affectionate leave of
Kingsburgh, who, as well as himself, shed tears at parting.
While they were bidding each other adieu, a few drops of
blood fell from the Prince's nose, which alarmed Kingsburgh
for a moment, but Charles assured him that 'suck was always
the case when he parted from those who were dear to him.
Having parted from Kingsburgh, the wanderer, attended by
Niel Mackechan, and with a boy for their guide, again set
out on his journey, leaving Flora Macdonald to proceed to
Portree by a different route. The clothes which he had taken
off were hidden by Kingsburgh in a bush. He
subsequently
removed them to his own house, but from fear of their being
discovered by the militia, he was induced to burn the whole
except the gown.

"

relics of the Prince's

The preservation of the gown," says

his daughter, who insisted on keepas a relic of their Prince, and because it was a pretty

Chambers, "was owing to
ing

it

pattern.
1

This

is

A Jacobite manufacturer, of the name of Carmichael,

a much, more probable account than that given by Boswell, in
"a zealous Jacob-

his tour to the Hebrides, that after
Eongsburgh's death,
ite gentleman gave twenty guineas for them."

312

THE PBETENDEES AND THEIE ADHEEENTS.

[l746.

at Leith, afterwards got a pattern made from it, and sold an
immense quantity of cloth, precisely similar in appearance,
to the loyal ladies of Scotland."

For the protection which Kingsburgh afforded the unforfew days
tunate Prince, he was made to suffer severely.
after the departure of Charles from his house, he was arrested
and sent to Fort Augustus, where he was thrown into a dungeon and loaded with irons. During one of the examinations
which he underwent, he was reminded by Sir Everard Fawkener of the " noble opportunity" he had lost of making his
own fortune and that of his family for ever. " Had I gold
and silver," was the reply of the fine old man, " piled heaps
upon heaps to the bulk of yon huge mountain, that mass
could not afford me half the satisfaction I find in my own
breast from doing what I have done." Again, when an officer
of rank inquired of him if he should know the Pretender's
head if he saw it ? " I should know the head," he said, "very
"
But what," said the ofwell, if it were on his shoulders."
"
if the head be not on the shoulders: do you think you
ficer,
"
In that case," replied Kingsshould know it in that case ?"
burgh, "I will not pretend to know anything about it." From
Fort Augustus he was removed to Edinburgh Castle, where
he was kept in close confinement till released by the act of
grace on the 4th of July, 1747. His death took place on the
13th of February, 1772, in his eighty-fourth year.
It has already been mentioned, that Donald Hoy had been
despatched in search of young Macleod, of Raasay, in order
to prepare him to receive a visit from Charles in that island.
"Without waiting to communicate with his father, who was
lying concealed in Knoydart, in Glengarry's country, the
young chieftain proposed that the Prince should immediately
be brought to the island, where he might at least remain till
they could communicate with Eaasay himself, and ascertain
his advice as to what was most expedient to be done. Their
great difficulty consisted in procuring a boat, in which to
convey the Prince from Portree. It might have been fatal
to confide in the common boatmen of that place, and, moreover, all the boats of the island had been carried off by the
military with the exception of two, which belonged to Malcolm Macleod, a cousin of young Eaasay, and which he had
concealed they knew not where.
Such was their dilemma, when a younger brother of young

A

PBINCE CHARLES EDWABD.

1746.]

313

Raasay, who was in the house at the time, recovering from
the wounds which he had received at Culloden, called to
mind a small boat which was kept on a fresh-water lake in
the neighbourhood. With the aid of some women, and by
the greatest exertions, the boat in question was dragged over
the intervening country, consisting chiefly of bogs and preThere was some danger in putting to
cipices, to the coast.
sea in so fragile a vessel, but the gallant brothers had their
hearts in the enterprise, and accordingly determined on proceeding at once to Raasay, in hopes of finding out their cousin, Malcolm Macleod, and obtaining from him one of his
larger and

more

serviceable boats.

Fortunately, almost the first person whom they encountered on their landing was Malcolm himself, who had fought
under the Prince's banner at Culloden, and was devotedly
attached to his cause. With the greatest alacrity, he got
ready one of his boats, and at the same time procured the
services of two sturdy boatmen, John M'Kenzie and Donald
M'Friar, who had also served in the Jacobite army. It was
the advice of Malcolm Macleod, who was an older and more
cautious man than the two brothers, that as his cousin,
young Raasay, had hitherto taken no part in the insurrection,
and was consequently at present under no fear of the Government, he should on no account accompany them on their expedition. "As to Murdoch and myself," he said, "we are already so deeply implicated, that it matters little to us if we
are plunged still deeper in the mire." Toung Raasay,
however, positively refused to be left behind, adding with an
oath, that he would go if it cost him his fortune and his life.
Finding him obstinate in his resolution, "In God's name,
then," said Malcolm, "let us proceed." The boatmen, however,

now became

refractory, positively refusing to

move an

they were informed where they were going. As argument would have been useless, they were sworn to secrecy
and they were no sooner assured that they were engaged to
aid in the escape of their beloved Prince, than they displayed
scarcely less delight and alacrity than their employers. After
a short voyage of three miles, they landed within half a mile

oar

till

;

of Portree.

As

might have excited suspicion if the whole party had
shore, Donald Roy proceeded alone to the only
public-house which the place boasted, leaving young Raasay
it

come on

THE PRETENDERS AND THEIB ADHERENTS.

314

[l746.

and his brother, and Malcolm Macleod, in the boat. He had
waited but a short time, when he was joined by Flora Macdonald, who informed him that Charles was approaching, and
in about half an hour the Prince himself made his appearance.
"He no sooner entered the house," says Donald Eoy in his
interesting narrative, "than he asked if a dram could be got
there the rain pouring down from his clothes, he having on
a plaid without breeches, trews, or even philibeg. Before he
sat down, he got his dram, and then the company desired
him to shift, and put on a dry shirt. He refused to shift, as
Miss Flora Macdonald was in the room; but the captain 1
and Niel Mackechan told him it was not a time to stand upon
"
ceremonies, and prevailed upon him to put on a dry shirt.
When Donald Boy expressed his concern that the Prince
should have had to encounter such disagreeable weather,
Charles replied, "I am more sorry that our lady" (for so
he used to style his fair companion) " should have been ex"2
posed to such an evening.
"
Having partaken of a hearty dinner, consisting of butter,
and
roasted
Charles
called
for
some
tofish,"
bread, cheese,
bacco, for which the landlord charged him fourpence-halfpenny. The Prince gave him sixpence in payment, not intending to take the change but Donald Eoy desired him to bring
it, telling Charles that in his present situation he knew not
how soon " the bawbees might be useful to him." As the
;

;

common to all comers, Donald
once urged the Prince to depart. As soon,
therefore, as the three,
Charles, Donald Eoy, and Niel Machad finished a bottle of whiskey between them,
kechau,
Charles called for the bill, and having given the landlord a
He then asked for
guinea, received the difference in silver.
change for another guinea, but the landlord had only eleven
shillings left in the house, which the Prince seemed inclined
to take in lieu of his guinea; but Donald Eoy checked
him, telling him that it might tend to excite suspicion of

room

in which they sat was

Roy more than

his real rank.

From the Macdonalds, notwithstanding the hostility of
their recreant chieftain, Charles had experienced so much
kindness and fidelity, that he expressed the greatest reluctance to part with Donald Eoy, and made use of every argument and entreaty to induce him to accompany him to Eaa1

Donald Roy.

*

Jacobite Memoirs, p. 448.

PBINCE CIIABLES EDWABD.

1746.]

315

As long, he said, as he had a Macdonald with him, he
say.
should feel himself safe. Donald Boy, however, resisted his
importunities insisting that he would be of more service to
;

him by remaining in Skye, and added, that the wound in his
foot rendered him incapable of travelling, except on horseback, which would attract more attention than would be
convenient or

safe.

The moment had now arrived when Charles was forced to
separate from his fair and generous preserver, Mora Macdonald.

Before parting from her, he reminded her that he

owed her a crown which he had borrowed of her, but she
told him it was only half-a-crown, which he returned her

He

then bade, her an affectionate farewell,
"
For all that has happened, I
shall
in St James's yet."
we
meet
Within
hope, Madam,
ten days from this time the noble-minded girl was taken
into custody, and sent to London in order to be dealt with as
the Government might deem proper her adventures are of
At Portree,
sufficient interest to claim a separate Memoir.
also, Charles took leave of his faithful companion, Kiel
Mackechan, who it was decided should accompany Flora
Macdonald to her mother's house at Armadale. Mackechan
subsequently effected his escape to France, where he rejoined the Prince.
with thanks.

and saluted

her,

saying

:

Shortly after quitting the public-house, Donald Boy, happening to look back, perceived the landlord standing at his
door watching them and in order therefore to deceive him,
they were compelled to proceed to the shore by a circuitous
It appears that this person had conceived some susroute.
;

picion of the Prince's real rank, for when Donald Boy reentered the house, he began to question him on the subject :
the other, however, replied, with apparent unconcern, that
it was only an Irish Jacobite, a Sir John Macdonald, who
had been hiding among his friends in Skye, and who was
now on his way to the Continent. This intelligence satisfied
the inquisitive landlord, who, however, remarked, that he
had at first entertained a strong suspicion that it was the
"
Prince, for he had something about him that looked very
noble." 1
On the 1st of July, after a passage of ten miles, Charles
landed at a spot called Glam, in the island of Baasay. He
1

Jacobite Memoirs, p. 456.

316

THE PRETENDERS AND THEIR ADHERENTS.

[l746.

slept a little during the voyage, and at other times spoke of
his misfortunes, and of the kindness of those in whom he had
He looked upon those, he
confided during his wanderings.

true friends, who had shown their friendship for
in adversity, and he trusted that none of them would
have cause to repent the good service they had done him.
He still hoped, he added, to end happily what he had begun,
and he was resolved either to succeed or to perish in the
said, as his

him

attempt.
Fortunately, at this particular period, there were neither
but even this secluded
militia nor regular troops in Raasay
island in the Atlantic had not escaped the fury of the Duke
of Cumberland's soldiers, and when Charles landed, he
learned that almost every cottage had been burned to the
ground. After some discussion, it was determined that the
whole party consisting of young Raasay and his brother
and cousin, Murdoch and Malcolm Macleod should take up
their abode together in a small hut, which had recently been
While the rest of the party embuilt by some shepherds.
ployed themselves in lighting a fire, and spreading a bed of
heath for the Prince, young Eaasay set out in search of food,
and in about two hours returned with a young kid, which was
immediately roasted, and, with the aid of some butter, cream,
and an oaten loaf, afforded an excellent supper. Charles
gratified the prejudices of his Highland companions by affect"
ing to " prefer oaten bread to wheaten
whiskey and oat"
he said, are my own country bread and drink." l
bread,
"After the little repast was over," says Murdoch Macleod's Narrative, " the Prince began to inquire narrowly about
the damages done in the island. Upon his being told of all
the houses burnt, and of the other great depredations in the
island, to which the houses were but a trifle, he seemed much
affected, but at the same time said that, instead of the huts
burnt, he would yet build houses of stone. Afterwards, walking on a narrow green near the cottage, he said that this was
a bitter hard life, but he would rather live ten years in that
way than be taken by his enemies, and seemed a little surprised himself how he did bear such fatigues; 'for,' says he,
'
since the battle of Culloden, I have endured more than
would kill a hundred men sure Providence does not design
this for nothing I am certainly yet reserved for some good!
;

:

:

'

:

1

BoswelTs Narrative, Tour

to the Hebrides.

PEIKCE CHARLES EDWAHD.

1746.]

317

Thus they passed the day, and after supper he went to rest
with as great pleasure, and in outward appearance as little
One of the
concerned, as if in the greatest prosperity."
party asking him in the course of the evening, what he
thought his enemies would do with him, should he have the
"
misfortune to fall into their hands, I do not think," he said,
"that they would dare to take away my life publicly; but I
dread being privately destroyed, either by poison or assassination."
his habitual cheerfulness, the persons
Charles at this period describe his health as
a good deal impaired by hunger, fatigue, and watching. Boswell was told by Malcolm Macleod, that on the night on
which the Prince landed in Baasay, though he slept a long
time in consequence of the fatiguing day he had past, his
slumbers were broken ones, and he frequently started in his
"
speaking to himself in different languages, French,
sleep,
One of his expressions in English
Italian, and English."
"O God! poor Scotland."
was,
Probably there was no period during the wanderings of
the unfortunate Prince, in which he was safer from the pursuit of his enemies, than during his short stay in Eaasay.
There were no soldiers on the island; the few inhabitants
were devoted to his cause; Donald Roy was conveniently
stationed in Skye for the purpose of giving him the earliest
notice of the approach of an enemy; and the two faithful

Notwithstanding

who were with

boatmen, M'Kenzie and MTriar, were placed as sentinels on
different eminences, which rendered it impossible for any
person to approach the Prince's hiding-place without being
seen. One incident, however, occurred, which caused serious
alarm to Charles and his companions, the circumstances connected with which were thus related to Boswell by Malcolm
Macleod. "There was a man wandering about the island
selling tobacco.
Nobody knew him, and he was suspected
of being a spy. M'Kenzie came running to the hut, and told
us that this suspected person was approaching; upon which
the three gentlemen, Eaasay, Murdoch Macleod, and Malcolm, held a council of war upon him, and were unanimously
of opinion, that he should instantly be put to death. The
Prince, at once assuming a grave and even serious countenGod forbid that we should take away a man's
ance, said,
life, who may be innocent, while we can preserve our own.'
'

318

THE PRETENDERS AND THEIR ADHERENTS.

[1746.

The gentlemen, however, persisted in their resolution, while
he as strenuously continued to take the merciful side. John
M'Kenzie, who sat watching at the door of the hut, and overheard the debate, said in Erse,
"Well, well, he must be
shot; you are the King, but we are the Parliament, and will
do what we choose. The Prince, seeing the gentlemen smile,
asked what the man had said, and being told in English, he
observed, that he was a clever fellow, and, notwithstanding
the perilous situation in which he was, laughed loud and
heartily. Luckily, the unknown person did not perceive that
there were people in the hut at least, did not come to it,
but walked on past it, unknowing of his risk." Had the intruder approached nearer to the hut, there can be little doubt
that he would have been shot. Eaasay is said to have had
his pistol in his hand ready cocked for the purpose; and Malcolm Macleod told Boswefi, that under the circumstances he
would have shot his own brother. The individual who had
this narrow escape, afterwards proved to be one of their own
party who had made his escape from Culloden, and who was
a proscribed wanderer like themselves.
'

'

CHAPTER

IV.

Charles proceeds to the Isle of Skye. His consideration for those accompanying him. Malcolm Macleod. Arrival of Charles in the Mackinnons'
His narrow escape. Proceeds to Borradaile, the residence of
country.

Argus Macdonald.

ON the 3rd of July, after a residence of two days and a half
in Eaasay, Charles set sail for Skye, in the same small boat
which had conveyed him from Portree, and with the same
party which had accompanied him from that place. His companions would willingly have prevailed upon him to remain
where he was, but he refused to listen to their arguments. It
was highly inadvisable, he said, for him to continue long in
the same place and, moreover, he added that he was extremely
anxious to reach the country of the Mackenzies, where he
expected to find a French vessel on the look-out for him in
the neighbourhood of Lochbroom.
;

The little party had been at sea only a short time,
the wind blew so violently, and the vessel shipped so

when
much

PBI3TCE CIIABLES

1746.]

EDWAED.

319

water, that his companions strongly recommended Charles
He insisted, however, on proceeding
to return to Raasay.
"
Providence," he said, "has carried me through so many
dangers, that I do not doubt it will have the same care for
me now." He appeared extremely cheerful during the whole
voyage, and, we are told, "sang an Erse song with much viObserving the great exertions which were made to
vacity."
bale out the water in order to keep the boat from swamping,
"
"
Gentlemen," he said, I hope to thank you for this trouble
at
St
James's."
yet
At eleven o'clock at night, after a dangerous voyage of
:

fifteen miles, the fugitives effected a landing on the
coast of the Isle of Skye, at a place called Nicholson's

north
Great

Rock, near Scorobreck in Troternish. According to the in"
In
teresting narrative of one of the Prince's companions,
found
the
and
coast
bad
rowing along they
dangerous
very
yet, when they came to the rock, the Prince was the third
man that jumped out into the water, and cried out,
Take
care of the boat, and hawl her up to dry ground
which was
immediately done, he himself assisting as much as any one of
;

'

'

;

them. The Prince had upon him a large big-coat, which was
become very heavy and cumbersome by the waves beating so
much upon it, for it was wet through and through. Captain
Macleod proposed taking the big-coat to carry it, for the rock
was steep and of a very uneasy ascent but the Prince would
not part with the coat, wet as it was, alleging he was as able
to carry it as the captain was." l After a walk of about two
miles, they came to a wretched cow-house, which they approached with great caution, young Raasay going forward to
;

"

What must become

of your Royal Highness,"
there be people in the house, for
certainly you must perish if long exposed to such weather."
"
I care nothing for it," was Charles's answer, "for I have
been abroad in a hundred such nights." Young Raasay having reported that the coast was clear, they took up their abode
in this miserable place, and having contrived to light a fire,
they sat down and partook of some bread and cheese which
inspect
said

it.

Murdoch Macleod,

"

if

they had brought with them.
The next day, Charles took leave of young Raasay and his
brother Murdoch, whom he despatched on different missions
over the island. On parting with the latter, he presented him
1

Malcolm Macleod's Narrative, Jacobite Memoirs,

p. 471.

which was of much plainer materials. with his silver spoon. presenting them." Bishop Forbes informs us. 1 " I now throw myself entirely into your hands. insisted on going by land. " Why. knife. note. Taking off his periwig. 474. he tied a dirty white napkin under his He then took the chin." he said. They had left the cow-house a short distance behind them. His dis: . Malcolm. of Pennycuik. while he himself followed at a respectful distance. that he more than once heard Macleod speak of the utter uselessness of the Prince attempting to dissemble the indefinable air which " There is not a person. p. 320 [l746." said Charles." he replied. came into the hands of Mary Lady Clerk. and tore the ruffles from his shirt. upon his visit to Scotland." he said. but in consequence of the numerous parties of militia and regular troops which were scouring the island. who intrusted me with the honourable commission of in her Ladyship's name. he desired his companion to walk in advance. that I believe nothing I could do would disguise it. when Malcolm made bold to inquire of the adventurer where he proposed to go. Macleod intimated that he still thought he might be recognised.THE PRETENDERS AND THEIR ADHERENTS. "must now act the master. knows what the air of a noble or great man is. "Why. Charles. given * Malcolm Macleod's Narrative. in 1822. and leave you to do with me as you please I wish to go to Mackinnon's country. and I the man. and by the Chevalier to Dr Macleod. and fork. "I have got so odd and remarkable a face. upon see"The case. buckles from his shoes. 1 fork. but. which he put in his pocket." He then divested himself of his waistcoat " of scarlet tartan with gold twist buttons. Notwithstanding his disguise." "You." BosweU's Tour to the Hebrides. I hope you will 2 Macleod assured him that he could carry accompany me. guise was soon completed. and taking from Macleod the bundle which contained his linen. adding that "in their situation there was no doing anything without running risks. Jacobite Memoirs. Malcolm. and if you can guide me there safe. but without acquainting him in what direction he intended to proceed. to his present Majesty. it would be extremely hazardous to proceed by land. He then set off with Malcolm Macleod. . knife." says Sir Walter Scott." which he made Macleod put on he himself wearing in exchange his companion's vest. which he desired him to keep till they met again. " who distinguished him. in his assumed character of a servant. however. so as nearly to conceal his face. "with the silver spoon." him there safely by sea. or rather his disfigurement.

showed no sign of fatigue. his companion. was opposed by Malcolm. and also from the scantiness of their provisions. he found himself excelled by the Prince. " So far from breaking it. A . he had little doubt that he should outstrip them in the chase. that though himself an excellent walker." "Why. however. 480. " " till at last." " would engage to do for the other two.] 321 ing the Prince in any disguise he could put on. which consisted only of some mouldy bread and cheese. 165. The bottle of brandy." that Malcolm was compelled to obey him. " But what. This. Malcolm positively refused to do. " that if there were no more than four of " And I. and some water. adding. however. 1 Jacobite Memoirs." ob" " served Malcolm. . indeed. remarked Malcolm. if you should be suddenly surprised ? " " " should I he to be sure. a bottle of brandy. and it may come to drink many a cask of whiskey to me yet. " I will preserve it as a curious piece. 1746. Charles proposed that they should break it." I said. pleasing instance of Charles's consideration for those about him was related by Malcolm Macleod to Bishop Forbes. however. " the devil a drop of it he would drink himself. p. he told Bishop Forbes that he still hoped . which they had brought with them. Remarking that Malcolm was more fatigued than himself.PE1NCE CHAELES EDWABD. would see something about him that was not ordinary something of the stately and grand." Accordingly he hid it among the heather." rejoined them. Malcolm Macleod. Charles desired him to drink the remainder. I could engage to manage two." l The distance to Mackinnon's country was more than thirty miles." he said. and in return attempted to force it on the Prince. He boasted also to his companion of the swiftness with which he could run adding that if he should be pursued by the English soldiers. p. we are told. and the journey was rendered particularly harassing in consequence of the rugged character of the country which they were compelled to traverse. assured Boswell. Charles. Having drained the bottle." 2 Charles. think. and when he was afterwards on his return to Skye from his captivity in London. had been a source of great comfort to them during their painful journey but unfortunately they had still some miles to go when it was reduced to a single glass. * Ascauius. the kind contest rose very high between them. even for a Highlander. This." fight. At length Charles showed himself so determined on the subject.

to -which. which was related by Malcolm Macleod " " to Bishop Forbes. Malcolm releated to the Prince many of the frightful barbarities committed by the Duke of Cumberland after the battle of Culloden. As an instance in point." says the " Bishop. Happening. well satisfied that Charles had nothing to fear at their hands. He appeared to be deeply affected by the narrative. we may mention the all. Charles and his companion arrived in the morning at Ellagol. During their walk. and burst into tears. both as to sustenance and sleep Malcolm said he believed he took four score off him. following anecdote. who had been engaged in the insurrection. " all neral could be so barbarous. serves to show that he was reduced to the very lowest ebb of misery and distress ." 1 After travelling all night. may well have been affected by the wretched appearance of Charles. saw him troubled with vermin. however. This. to see the Prince uneasy and fidgety. flected ." he said. [l746. 476 . in Mackinnon's country. and by reason of the coarse odd way he behoved to live in. The first persons whom they encountered were two of the Mackinnon clan. and then parted from them. Malcolm was much concerned at his circumstance. that they lifted up their hands in astonishment. These men. for want of clean linen. whose personal discomforts at this period no description could exaggerate. he took him to the back of a knowe. he would only give partial credit. unless it should have been unfortunately trodden to pieces by the cattle. but having first cautioned them that any display of their grief might prove fatal to the Prince. . after the custom of the Highlanders." he said. the fatigues and distresses he underwent signified nothing at because he was only a single person but when he reon the many brave fellows who suffered in his cause. and sink very deep into him. and is a certain indication of : 1 Jacobite Memoirs. adding that he would not believe any ge" For himself.322 THE PBETEWDEES AFD THEIE ADHEBENTS. p. These persons immediately recognised their beloved Prince in spite of his disguise and so affected were they at the wretched appearance which he now presented. and opening his breast. so different from the gay and gallant Prince whom they had more than once beheld at the head of a victorious and devoted army. he swore them to secrecy on his naked dirk. near Kilmaree. to find it. indeed. it did indeed strike him to the heart.

Charles being presented to her as one Lewie Caw. for he has as much need as I have. but the were kindly welcomed by Malcolm's sister. "I pity him. Mrs Mackinnon seems to have been much struck with the Prince's appearance. while their hostess kept watch on the top of a neighbouring hill. at the same time my heart warms to a man of " his appearance. the son of a surgeon in Crieff. and who was now known to be skulking among his relations in Skye." she said. and bear up. on rising. adding. with a cheerfulness not to be equalled in history.] PBINCE CHAELES EDWAHD. in the oriental mode of speech. Malcolm." "Poor man. "Who . why should I wash his father's son's feet?" At last Malcolm. with so much unwillingness. so common in the Highlands "Though I wash your father's son's feet. induced her to perform the kindly office. After the meal was over. which could rise above all misfortunes. I Charles. She soon provided them with a plentiful Highland breakfast." To this. The travellers now laid themselves down to rest. who had served like himself as a captain in the insurgent army. by sitting at a respectful distance from Malcolm. hope you will wash his feet too it will be a great charity. Charles. as was then the fashion of the Highlands.1746. who for a moment forgot his assumed character. Expressing some surprise at the circumstance. Malcolm pointed to "You see that poor sick man there. under all the scenes of woe that could happen. with his bonnet off. entered the room with some hot water to wash Malcolm's feet. 323 that greatness of soul. an old woman. who was probably foot-sore. that Charles. was more than once compelled to request Malcolm to intercede for him durtravellers : ing the ceremony." Instead of conducting the Prince at once to the house of the chieftain. The master of the house was not at home. the old woman decidedly objected. observing. who had served in the Highland army. which she did. brought him to the house of his own brother-in-law. however. observing that she saw something "very uncommon about him. As soon as she had washed and dried them. was surprised to see the Prince dandling and singing to Mrs Mackinnon's infant. however. and consequently with so much roughness. John Mackinnon. with an old woman looking on. at the wish of Charles. Macleod slept for some time longer than the Prince. observed. and. during which Charles continued to play the part of a servant. with some difficulty.

pointing to some ships which were hover" what if the Prince should be on board ing along the coast. and he would be safe enough. Glancing with contempt at the pretended " You mean." informing his friends of his departure from Skye." answered Mackinnon. adding. which was written on the sea-shore. the secret of Charles being in the neighbourhood was confided to the old chief of Mackinnon. than he burst into tears. do you think. Supposing." he said. Now is vour time to behave well. together with his lady. The epistle. . . In the course of the day. 168. lows. but this little fellow ! " Malcolm desired him to compose himself. and in this state was hurried by Malcolm from the apartment. and his brother Murdoch.324- THE PKETENDER3 AND THEIB ADHERENTS. to his astonishment. may be a captain in my service yet?" This speech appears to have given no slight offence to the old woman. " for we should take care of him. and do nothing that can discover him. Notwithstanding his advanced age." she said. under the guidance of John Mackinnon. the old chieftain insisted on accompanying them. where a boat was in waiting for them. It was decided that Charles should repair to the mainland. and in the evening partook of an entertainment with him of cold meat and wine. sub" scribed James Thompson. that the Prince was acIn the transport of his joy. John. Charles wrote a short letter. and accordingly." rejoined Macleod. " John." l Immediately afterwards. " that you may possibly be servant. immediately have rushed into the Prince's presence. which he requested might be conveyed as soon as possible to young Eaasay. an old sergeant in his company." Mackinnon faithfully promised to keep his emotions within due bounds but no sooner was he admitted to the presence of Charles. and beheld the miserable condition to which his beloved Prince was reduced. hastened to pay their respects to the Prince. and he hurried out to meet him. p. of one of those vessels ? " " God forbid " was the welcome " " reply." Malcolm then informed him. in a cave near the shore. was as fol. who. Macleod was informed that his brother-in-law was approaching the house. 1 Ascanius. the whole party proceeded to the sea-shore. he would tually in his house. Before sailing. about eight o'clock at night.After their first greeting was over. that he should be " here . knows but [l746. that he would be safe ? " I would he were.

" said the Prince. will have great need of money. Charles presented Malcolm with a silver stock-buckle." he then said. that the military would probably pursue him on suspicion. would probably be the case. indeed. 1746. which." He had been so long absent. of which notice has already been made. from whom he parted with the greatest reluctance. he said. 109. they sat down together Charles smoking his usual stump of blackened pipe. who twice warmly embraced him. would only consent to their separation at the earnest entreaty of Malcolm himself. Remember to all friends. . the generous Highlander positively refused to accept the gold but Charles so pertinaciously insisted on " his taking it. Before parting. and. Knowing how small a stock of money the Prince had reserved for his own use. This curious relic afterwards fell into the hands of a Dr Burton. " For myself. . that he was at last You compelled to obey. . the Prince might also fall into their hands. and also placed ten guineas in his hands. He then proceeded in the direction of his own . I have no care but for you I am much afraid.] " 325 SIR. having obtained a light from the flint of Malcolm's musket. July 4th." "Ellighuil. he should be enabled to throw the Prince's enemies on a wrong scent. till it became lost in the distance. Sir. Having taken an affectionate farewell of the Prince. " and I shall obtain enough when I get to the mainland. your humble servant. inasmuch as there would be no one to confront with him. " let us smoke a pipe together before we part. " me I HATE parted (thank Grod) as intended.PRIXCE CIIAELES EDWARD. who is said to have preserved it with religious care. and in that case." Accordingly. 1746. anxiously watching the small boat which contained Charles and his fortunes." This letter Charles delivered to Malcolm Macleod. " I am. p." "Malcolm." observed the devoted " Highlander. and thank them for the trouble they have been at. or contradict the tale which he might tell. he remained on the side of a bill. ' Chambers's History of the Rebellion. 1 The subsequent history of the faithful Malcolm may be told in a few words. he added. Should he be taken prisoner on his return. which of course was of the utmost importance. of York. JAMES THOMPSON.

John Mackiunon. accompanied by the old chief of Mackinnon.THE PRETENDERS AND THEIR ADHERENTS. observes. He soon discovered that his situation was changed but little for the better by his removal to the mainland. after exchanging a few words. country. . The militia were quartered in the immediate neighbourhood in considerable numbers. and. At the same time Flora Macdonald also obtained her discharge. in the wild and mountainous district where Charles had first set foot in the Highlands. she paid Malcolm the compliment of selecting him to be her " I companion. in the true sense of the word. . as they would otherwise have been . with a gold thread button. with a manly countenance." he used to say with great glee. who post-chaise with Miss Flora Macdonald. . after a tempestuous voyage of thirty miles." twenty-seven years afterwards was introduced to Malcolm. where he was kept in custody till July. tanned by the weather. He was now sixty-two years of age. 326 [l746. they met a boat filled with armed militia. and consequently he had no choice but to remain near the spot where he first landed. and being desired to name some person whom she would wish to accompany her on her return to Scotland. His eye was quick and lively. He wore a pair of brogues tartan hose which came up near to his knees a purple camlet a black waistcoat a short green cloth coat." On the night of the 5th of July. 1747. and where he was compelled to pass three wretched days in the open air. . when. hale and well-proportioned. yet having a ruddiness in his cheeks. During the voyage. "And so. bound with kilt gold cord a yellowish bushy wig and a large blue bonnet. " at Eaasay. and by his kinsman. as he himself had anticipated. on the south side of Loch Nevis. After being detained a prisoner for some time on board ship. he was conveyed to London. yet his look was not fierce but he appeared at once firm and good-humoured. but fortunately the weather was too rough to admit of their being boarded and examined. over a great part of which his rough beard extended. I wished much to have a picture of him just as he was. . . and returned Boswell. I never saw a figure which gave a more perfect representation of a Highland gentleman. the two vessels parted company. London be in went up to to a braw hanged. About four o'clock in the morning. Charles. as has been already mentioned. I found him frank and polite. . where he had returned only a short time. the whole party landed near a place called Little Mallack. quitted Skye. he was taken into custody. .

For a short time the chase was one of intense interest. desired his men to keep their muskets close by them. standing upon the shore. mark them well. with John Mackinnon and the three remaining boatmen. for Charles at the moment was lying at the bottom of the boat. desired that no blood discharge of his deliberate aim The Prince. and at the same time they perceived five men. They had no sooner reached the shore. accompanied by one of the boatmen. on turning a point." They were then ordered to come on shore. from the summit of which he could perceive . The probability of such an accident occurring seems to have been foreseen by the fugitives." he said. they reached a part of the lake which was so thickly wooded to the water's edge as completely to conceal them from their enemies. fruitless pursuit.from whence they came? The answer was. non acceded.] 327 It was on the fourth day that Charles had a very narrow escape from falling into the hands of his pursuers.in order to be subjected to the usual examination but instead of obeying the summons. but his pursuers returning sulkily from their Having congratulated Charles on his escape. probably with the same object in view. than the Prince sprang out of the boat. They had proceeded some distance. they plied their oars vigorously. had wandered forth in search of a cave. Mackinnon made . which might at least shelter the unfortunate Prince from the inclemency of the weather. not a man should escape. entered the boat and began coasting along the shores of Loch Nevis. and there is no fear. on which the militiamen jumped into their boat and gave them chase. after a short chase. Charles had made a sudden effort to extricate himself from his hiding-place and spring on shore. when. "From Sleat. both to the pursuers and the pursued. their oars suddenly struck against a boat which was fastened to a rock. with his head between John Mackinnon' s knees. and ran nimbly up a hill. whom they knew to be militia by the red crosses affixed to their bonnets. own ." only overhearing these orders. 1746. Fortunately.PRINCE CHARLES EDWARD. when Charles. " Be sure. but was forcibly kept down by John Mackinnon. The old chief. but not to fire them till they should hear the . " to take a piece. should be shed without absolute necessity to which Mackinat the same time added briefly. Mackinnon. and with the plaid of the latter spread over him so as entirely to conceal his person. that if necessity did require it. The first question of the militia was. prepared for the worst.

who was so affected at witnessing the wretched condition to which her beloved Prince was reduced.THE PRETENDERS AND THEIR ADHERENTS. escape. who he learned was in the neighbourhood. listened to him " Well. 111. It was now decided that Morar should set out in search of young Clanranald. crossed the lake to a small island near the family seat of Macdonald of Scothouse. Morar received him with great kindness. however. Mackinnon. 490. who it was expected would be both able and willing to aid in the Prince's Why. as to render it evident that had become he had consulted with others in the mean time. apud Chambers. my father. 328 [l746. Charles descended the hill. On this Mackinnon quitted him. to whom he related the result of his unsuccessful mission. however. Charles. there ing with his usual cheerfulness. From this place he despatched John Mackinnon to old Clanranald." ' Having slept for about three hours. Charles returned by water to Little Mallack. p. soliciting his aid and advice in the present miserable condition to which he was reduced. and respectfully asked him what object he had in making the attempt. we are " without any emotion . a sister of the celebrated Lochiel." than be taken prisoner." merely remarktold." 2 do best help Satisfied that it would be useless to press Clanranald further. and returned in great indignation to the Prince. 489. who was himself a proscribed man. 1 * . situated on the lake of that name. Jacobite Memoirs. who had succeeded in John Mackinnon's Narrative. after a walk of about eleven miles. and having reembarked. Accordingly he departed cheerfully on his mission. The chieftain. or the Duke. that she burst into tears. pp. Rod will never so far . my brother. is no for it we must the we can for ourselves. Belated by John Mackinnon to Bishop Forbes. as did also his lady." he added. seems to have considered that he had already suffered sufficiently in the Prince's cause by the ruin which he had brought on his family. but on his return the following day. and thence proceeded to the house of Macdonald of Morar. as to permit me to fall alive into the hands of my enemies. an apology to him for having prevented his jumping on shore when they first encountered the militia. where they arrived at an early hour in the morning. " I woiild rather fight for my life " that I hope. where he was rejoined by the old chief of Mackinnon. afflict the King. his manner BO cold and altered. " said the Prince. and positively refused to incur any further risk.

Clanranald. this is very hard: you were very kind yesternight. I found some people ready enough to serve me but now. and contributed greatly to my preservation. Mackinnon. Charles (who knew not what step to take next) gave vent to the bitterness of his feelings in the following passionate language: "Almighty God. and I have no pay to give. Some of those who joined me at first. 329 dissuading him from mixing himself up further in the Prince s He had been unable. are now among my best friends. deprecatingly. for I am in a most melancholy situation. I heartily your thank you for your readiness to take care of me. and ." He then added plaint"I hope. go with you wherever you order me. " will leave your Royal Highness in the day of danger. When fortune smiled on me and I had money to give. and " Oh no. leave me in the lurch.] PRINCE CHAHLES EDWAKD. At length. that I was addressing myself." he said. but will. when fortune frowns on me. Morar. it being evident that neither taunts nor entreaties were of the least avail. now turn their backs upon me in my greatest need while some of those again who refused to join me. but what I will travel to also you can eat or drink nothing. under God. and openly accused him of having allowed himself to be worked upon by others. affected by his change of manner. and said you would find out a hiding-place proof against all the search of the enemy's forces. have been most faithful to me in my distress. for it is remarkable that those of Sir Alexander Macdonald's following. It was to your friend John here. " I never." : ." he exclaimed. you will not desert me too. and observed. Mackinnon was extremely incensed at Morar's conduct.17-46. to meet with young affairs. do all I can for you. "Why. and appeared to be fast friends. but I will take a share of them with you and be well content. and I am well satisfied of your zeal for me and my cause but one of your age cannot well hold out with the fatigues and dangers I must undergo. he said. and ively." " this is too much for one of advanced years." said Charles. they forsake me in my necessity." "Well then." The old chief. nor did he know of any person to whose care he Charles was much could recommend his Royal Highness. stood at a distance." . . imagining that these words were addressed to him. "look down upon my circumstances and pity me. was so affected as to shed tears. You can travel to no place. a stout young man. and now you say you can do nothing at all for me.

1762. He now also bade farewell to the faithful John. at the age of fortyThe death of the old chieftain was thus noticed in the journals of the " eight. pp. p. who. BY Angus Macdonald Charles was received with the greatHe is said to have shown some hesitation on est kindness. being satisfied that the Prince was in the best hands. Finding it impossible to extract any information from Mackinnon or the rowers. Their Hospitality to the Prince. where he had passed the night on his first landing in the Highlands. said John. the residence of Angus Macdonald. had scarcely reached his home. in the Isle of Skye. 492 Chambers. Ferguson caused one of the latter to be stripped and tied to a tree. in the se- John Mackinnon . i. He even threatened Mackinnon with similar treatment. aladale by Cameron of Glenpean. when he was seized by the militia with two of his rowers. CHAPTER V. remained only to drink some warm He milk. where they remained in custody till 3 July. to 494. e. and with a son of Morar 's for their guide. [l746. but nothing could extort a confession from these faithful men. 1756. either by promises or threats. who was captured the very next day in Morar 's house. and carried before a Captain Ferguson. whose detestable barbarities have rendered his name still infamous in the Highlands." l Accompanied by John Mackinnon. " The Seven Men of GlenPrince's Purse the saving of his Person. entering the small hut in which Macdonald was 1 * * now residing. the old Laird of Mackinnon. John Mackinnon died on the llth of May. time. and then proceeded to his own country in Skye. May 7. Joined by Macdonald of GlenCharles's Reception by Angus Macdonald." Charles's Escape. 2 Both John Mackinnon and the old chief were sent on board ship and carried prisoners to London. "with the help of God I will go through the wide world with your Royal Highness. John Mackinnon's Narrative. Jacobite Memoirs. Died at his house of Kilmaine. Charles proceeded towards Borrodaile.330 THE PRETENDERS AND THEIR ADHERENTS. of that ilk. Charles and his Party pass between Halt at Corriscorridale. Incident that forwards moriston. Loss of the the Watch-fires of their Enemies. 1747. where he was lashed till the blood gushed from both his sides. At Morar he took leave of the old chief of Mackinnon. 112.

He used to say. when for his king and country. Never. indeed. note. . 497. Macdonald of Grlenaladale. This place consisted of another small hut. the tears are said to have stood in his eyes as he encountered the bereaved mother. Advancing towards her. and with the execution thereof in theory. had the situation of the unfortunate Prince been more critical than at this moment. to another hiding-place on the coast. Accompanied by this person. he set off in the direction of Glen Morar. Charles. Angus had gone before in search of intelligence. . Chambers. which had been ingeniously constructed between two rocks. he brought tidings with him which might well have struck them with dismay. and Margaret. had prepared in Morar. When Charles entered the hut." Charles remained for three days in a small hut in a neighbouring wood but this place being considered insecure.PHIKCE CHARLES EDWABD. had 1 fallen in your Royal Highness's service. he was conducted on the fourth day. His enemies had traced him from Skye. p. 112. but he had also lost a beloved son at the battle of Culloden. In the mean time. and there he would have en- tertained himself with laying down a plan for the restoration. the feeling was a natural one for not only had the home of the gallant Highlander been burnt to the ground on account of his adopting the Prince's cause. 1746. and then came home extremely well pleased." was the noble reply. and by John Macdonald. Lactilan. Here it was hoped that the wanderer might remain in safety for some time but. p. he hoped God would not take him off the earth but on the field of battle. informing him that it was more than whispered that the Prince was concealed at Borrodaile. after a few days. a younger son of his host. Angus Mackechan. Angus Macdonald received a letter from his son-in-law. and he himself and his lady. by Angus Mackechan. and at the same time offering a more secure asylum which he . and when he rejoined them on their route the following day. about four miles to the eastward. "even though all my sons . he asked her if she could endure the sight of one who had been the cause of so much misery to her and to her family? "Yes. Charles had been joined by a faithful adherent. the roof being covered with green turf so as to give the appearance of a natural sward. all born after the seventy-first year of his age." l Jacobite Memoirs.] 331 and. leaving issue two sons and a daughter. and were now surroundventy-fifth year of his age. by Angus Macdonald and his sou Ranald. indeed. He frequently retired to fighting the cave in which the Prince. dined just before the Prince's leaving Skye in his skulking.

doled out in small and John Macdonald to conceal themsehes sible. Charles now took leave of Angus Macdonald and Angus . in order to ascertain whether he were friend or foe. and a large body of troops with the latter of which he had formed a complete cordon round the neighbouring district. accompanied only by Glenaladale. that a large body of the Argyllshire were approaching the very hill on which they were then stationed. Desiring the Prince militia as much as posGlenaladale advanced to encounter the stranger. it was hoped. to pass without undergoing a previous examination and at night large fires were lighted near the post of each sentry. who. In the evening. Loch Nevis. was calculated to be an invaluable guide. and the Prince was half dead with hunger).THE PRETENDERS AND THEIR ADHERENTS. would lend his aid to the royal wanderer in this his utmost need. . and descending the hill. He had been desired to bring as see. till he reached the summit of a hill called Fruighvain. This wretched fare. it proved to be the person he most wished to Cameron of Glenpean. . Sentinels were placed within a short distance of each other. with the evident intention of addressing them. with several vessels of war. who allowed no person. they were surprised by seeing a man descending one of the hills above them. while anxiously awaiting the arrival of Glenpean. Mackechan. as they were passing through a deep ravine. and. proceeded cautiously in the direction of Loch Arkaig. large bodies of challenged. From this spot he despatched a messenger to Donald Cameron of G-lenpean. and with instructions to search every corner which might possibly aiford a hiding-place to the unfortunate Prince. so as to render it almost impossible for a person to pass unIn addition to these measures. The little party immediately broke up their quarters. the fugitives were suddenly startled by the stealthily alarming intelligence. however. General Campbell had anchored near ing him on all sides. About eleven o'clock at night. To the great delight of Charles. troops were despatched in all directions for the purpose of scouring the country. but all that he had been able to obtain was a small quantity of oatmeal and butter. 332 [l7iG. from his intimate acquaintance with the wild features of the surrounding district. proceeded through the rugged and mountainous district of Arisaig. and who. much provisions with him as he could carry (for the fugitives had found the greatest difficulty in procuring even the smallest supply of food.

It was not till eight o'clock in the evening that they felt themselves sufficiently secure to emerge from their uncomfortable hiding-place. and if hitherto he had been sanguine enough to expect to elude the vigilance of his enemies. From the eminence on which he now stood he could perceive the enemy's camp. p. within a mile of one of the military staCharles was lying concealed in this place when two tions. on the morning the summit of a hill in the braes of Loch Arkaig. emanating from the numerous watch-fires which blazed along the line.] 333 the only food tasted by the Prince quantities. and. Charles series of rugged ravines. PHIlfCE 1746. ' during Under the guidance of Cameron of Glenpean. came to Corinangaul. a brother of Grlenaladale) descended the hill of Mamnan-Callum. returned with the intelligence that a party of soldiers was approaching from the opposite side of the hill. 113. of the party. while the soldiers conducted a strict search in every direction around them. companions (for he had recently been joined by John Macdonald. showed him that he had as little to expect from the night as from the day.CHARLES EDWA1ZD. about two o'clock in the morning of the 25th. Hazardous. the sight which now met his eye could scarcely have failed to convert hope into despair. as any attempt appeared to pass the military cordon unobserved. it must be remembered. comprised the four next days of his miserable wanderings. A short consultation was then held. He was still. on the confines of Knoidart and Loch Arkaig. who had sallied forth in search of food. . within the military cordon. . Charles and his three was conducted through a . . and indeed almost desperate. which was scarcely a mile distant he could see distinctly the whole of the organised plan which had been contrived to prevent his escape and at night he could even hear the challenge of the sentries while the glare of light. As soon as the darkness had set in. and as it was clear that their only hope of avoiding discovery lay in concealing themselves as closely as posthe whole party remained huddled together. 1 Chambers. called Hamnan-Callum. that they ran scarcely less risk by resible. on the brow of a hill at the head of Lochnaig. of the 24th of July. he found himself on till. and through almost inaccessible passes choked up with rocks and trees. it was nevertheless evident. From hence they proceeded to a convenient hiding-place known to Glenpean.

they pushed forward to Corriscorridale. with Glenpean at their head. the feelings of the rest of the party may be more easily imagined than described. and was only saved from being dashed to pieces by Glenpean promptly seizing hold of him by one of his arms. and I shall be all the better fitted to conduct. and seizing a moment when the backs of the sentinels were turned towards them. offered an argument : scarcely less imperative to induce them at least to make the attempt. Charles. and Glenaladale by the other. in consequence of his foot slipping. In order to place as great a distance as possible between themselves and their adversaries. to their great a spot which completely concealed them from the observation of their enemies. The morning was now breaking. till they found themselves. one another. On reaching the summit of the hill." During the time that he was absent on his hazardous enterprise. they lost no time in putting it into execution. " and also return safe. to their great delight. Their route lay over a high hill called Drumachosi. they could perceive Glenpean stealthily effecting his return and as the of accomplishing their purpose was now placed practicability beyond a doubt. at . creeping stealthily along the ground. presenting a sight which made the attempt appear even more desperate than it had seemed before. the long line of sentries and watch-fires lay extended before them.334 TUB PRETENDERS AND THEIR ADHERENTS." he said. Accordingly. Still no proposal appears to have been made to turn back and they advanced. Having come to the determination therefore of advancing at all hazards. ing light of day. then you may venture with greater security. and the brightness of the watch-fires was in some degree dimmed by the increas. that they could overhear them conversing with . in ascending which. till they had come within so short a distance of the sentinels. [l746. Glenpean generously volunteered to make the attempt singly " in the first instance. and on all fours. advanced in deep silence. it was decided that they should depart on their perilous enterprise the same night. If I get safe through. At length. they crawled up a deep and narrow ravine which intersected two of the fires. the impossibility which they found of procuring provisions. Anxious that the Prince should run no unnecessary risk. very nearly fell headlong down a steep precipice. maining where they were moreover. on the Glenelg side of the head of Loch ioy.

John Macdonald. This person was conducted by Glenaladale to the Prince. and without gold they could not expect to obtain even the commonest necessaries of life. to them. that the only French vessel which had been seen there . and who was himself flying from his own country. where he hoped to find a French vessel to convey him to the Continent but information reaching him in the course of the day. arrived at Glenshiel. it was deemed necessary to turn their steps in another direction. The loss was indeed a serious one. as soon as night had set in.PEINCE CHABLES EDWABD. and Glenaladale's brother. while making inquiries respecting a guide to Pollew. commenced his journey with Glenaladale. where they partook of a scanty meal. consisting of a small quantity of oatmeal and water. 1746. in a tone of great distress. with the intention of proceeding to the braes of Glenmoriston. that he had lost the Prince's purse. having taken leave of the faithful Donald Cameron of Glenpean. and under his guidance it was decided to advance towards the south. It had been his object to obtain a guide to Pollew.] 335 Hourn. was unmolested by soldiers). They had advanced a few miles. Fortunately. at three o'clock in the morning of the 27th of July. At Corriscorridale they passed the whole day unmolested but their amazement may be readily imagined. who had hitherto succeeded in eluding the vigilance of the Government. in breaking up their quarters at eight o'clock in the evening. with the hope of forming a junction with Lochiel and some other chiefs. about forty guineas. Advancing in the direction of the Mackenzie's country (which. Charles. and that a large party of soldiers was even still nearer . Glenaladale had encountered a Glengarry man. in order to avoid a similar fate. they found that they had been for many hours within cannon-shot of two of the enemy's posts. when Glenaladale suddenly exclaimed. and part of a cheese. Glenaladale proposed that he should retrace his steps in killed . which Glenpean and Glenaladale's brother had fortunately been able to obtain on the preceding day. Charles. had long since taken its departure. a wild and secluded valley in the estate of the Earl of Seaforth. whose father had been by the soldiers on the preceding day. from the inhabitants being well disposed towards the Government. when. for the purse contained their whole stock of money. Accordingly. who could no longer be of service to him.

where he might remain concealed till Glenaladale's return. to which Charles at first objected with great earnestness. As usual. At night he found himself on the summit of a lofty hill between the braes of Glenmoriston and Strathglass." he said. as almost to rob him even of the luxury of sleep. when both united in hearty thanks to God. The miseries of this day could never have been forgotten by Charles. We now arrive at the most remarkable period in the history of Charles's wanderings. that I could be Providence. when they were startled by the sound of several shots. The rain descended in torrents and without cessation. and not a mouthful of food passed his lips during the whole day. where. where he remained with his companions in a convenient They then hiding-place till three o'clock in the afternoon. by which Charles was saved from falling into the hands of his enemies. it. but had advanced little more than a mile. when he perceived a party of soldiers defiling along the very path by which he must necessarily have proceeded but for the loss he had sustained. Shortly afterwards he was rejoined by Glenaladale with the missing treasure. he placed himself behind a piece of rising ground. in fact. subsequently proved search of the means. and wet to the skin. The loss of the purse. [l746. though existing by a life of rapine and ." Having travelled all night. the limits of which were so narrow. The enthusiastic devotion of these wild mountaineers. his only shelter was a small cave. or. that what they had regarded as their greatest misfortune was. under Providence. who.333 THE PRETENDERS AND THE1E ADHERENTS. Charles. the means of their preservation. and the rocky floor so rugged. proceeded on their painful march. but having at last yielded to the entreaties of those about him. on the morning of the 28th. Charles took advantage of the circumstance to express his conviction that he was under the special guidance and care of " " I scarcely believe. He had remained concealed only a short time. without food or fire. found himself on the side of a hill above Strathcluanie. the Seven Men of Glenmoriston. which was naturally looked upon as a very annoying circumstance. his connection with the seven robbers. which they discovered to proceed from the brutal soldiery who were chasing the unfortunate countrypeople who had fled to the hill with their cattle. even though I wished it. as they were commonly styled. taken.

.PBIKCE CHAHLES EDWABD. At the period when Charles pro. whose head they cut off. Donald. must be looked upon less as common plunderers. Their lurking-places were in secret caves. brothers and Grigor Macgregor. To these an eighth. disdained to benefit . Their names were Patrick Grant. the predatory habits which formerly distinguished the Highland character. Some time since. who were conveying wine and provisions from Fort Augustus to Grlenelg. the same fate awaited themselves should they fall into the hands of the Government. and rendered desperate by knowing that Campbell . Entering into an association to seize every opportunity of avenging themselves on the Duke of Cumberland and his soldiers. The Seven Men of Glenmomston had all been actively engaged in the recent insurrection. and placed it on a tree near the high-road. they were bound by a solemn oath to stand by each other in every emergency. tale of the Chevalier's escape. their kindred slain. than by an ardent longing to retaliate on their deadly foes. their acts of prowess and daring were the terror of the military. they had seen their homes laid desolate. Proscribed by the Government on account of their having been in arms in the cause of the Stuarts. and had shot two of them dead. than as following. Alexander Macdonnell Alexander. where it long remained . . was afterwards added. 1746. and never to yield up their arms except with life itself. they seem to have been actuated. Infuriated by these circumstances. On another occasion they had shot an informer. posed to trust his life in their hands. less by the paltry desire of acquisition. situated among the rugged fastnesses of the wild district in which they had been bred. and their fellowclansmen sent as slaves to the Plantations. and Hugh Chisholm. and formed the theme of every tongue. and though commonly designated as robbers. alias plunder. from which they sallied forth to attack the detached military parties which were employed in the neighbourhood pouring down on them when least expected. four of the Grlenmoriston men had attacked a party of seven soldiers. Hugh Macmillan.] 337 by the splendid bribe which the Prince who conshared have betraying by might they forms a very curious episode in the romantic fided in them. in the marauding life which they led. a farmer. partly from necessity. commonly called Black Peter of Craskie John Macdonnell. and rarely failing to carry off their cattle and other spoil.

woman. Such were the habits and character of the wild freebooters. and cheese. Accordingly Charles and his companions proceeded to a wild spot called Coiraghoth. with the additional luxury of some whisky. [1746. " That their backs might be to God. and to one or two other gentlemen." This oath they kept with such religious exactness. who had been absent on a foraging party. man. the men instantly recognised their Prince. of his ragged attire. leaving the cattle which they were escorting to their quarters in the hands of their opponents. Glenaladale. The four other men. . as was then customary in the Highlands. when he found himself a welcome guest in the robbers' stronghold. . returned the following day. who were represented to them as sufferers in the Jacobite cause. est dangers. in the braes of Glenmoriston. Under these circumstances. to whom Charles was formally introduced as young Clanranald. at the request of Charles. In spite. butter. and these also recognised the Prince. headed by three officers running fire in a narrow ravine. conducted him in triumph to their cave. till at length the military fled in confusion. that the Prince was in their keeping.338 THE PRETENDERS AND THEIR ADHERENTS. and after greeting him with every demonstration of respect and delight. they invoked on themselves. in the awful terms of which. and who it was stated would accompany him. . and his satisfaction therefore may be readily imagined. and if they should discover to any person. they had performed the daring act of attacking a large body of solon whom they kept up a diers. that all the curses the Scriptures did pronounce might come upon them and all their posif they did not stand firm to the Prince in the greatterity. Charles had now fasted no less than forty-eight hours. among whom Charles was about A to find himself a cherished negotiation had already been opened with them through the medium of the Glengarry man who had guided the fugitives from the valley of Glenshiel. till once his person should be out of danger. a warning to similiar offenders and more recently. of which the result had been that they consented to give shelter to Glenaladale. and their faces to the Devil . however. that not one of them mentioned that the Prince had been their guest until a guest. where they were met by three out of the seven freebooters. enjoying a hearty meal of mutton. or child. and the miserable condition to which he was reduced. administered an oath to the whole of them.

turned to a laudable purpose. z 2 . Distressed at the coarseness and tattered condition of the Prince's dress. and. in the singleness of his heart. Charles was exactly the person to win the devotion of these rude but warm-hearted mountaineers.1746. and a clouted handkerchief about his neck. having killed one of them. tied with thongs. devotion. a wretched yellow wig. and attention." History of the Rebellion. The three next weeks were passed by Charles in different caves and hiding-places known to the OHenmoriston men. their food upon their knees Charles occa- improvements in their simple cookery. whither he had proceeded in disguise in search of intelligence. in the hope of finding a foreign vessel to convey him to France. a Stirling tartan waistcoat much worn. so much worn that they would scarcely stick upon his feet.] PKINCE CHAHLES EDWABD. "was interpreter between the Prince and us and it was agreed upon that we should sionally suggesting . Nothing could exceed the kindness. His shirt (and he had not another) was of the colour of saffron. and at meals they all sat down together in a circle. and by his powers of enduring fatigue and their love by identifying himself with their interests. The influence which he obtained over them was. and presented its acceptable contents to Charles. although their care and attachment for him were sometimes exhibited in rather a singular manner. Their respect he obtained by his superiority in all manly exercises. tartan hose. had a bonnet on his head. " G-lenaladale. 330 after he had effected his escape to the Continent. he believed would prove a dainty of the first order. and sometimes even assisting in the preparation of their homely repast. On another occasion. He compelled them to wear their bonnets in his company. and the winning ease with which twelvemonth had elapsed 1 . dark-coloured cloth. a pretty good belted plaid." said Patrick Grant. 1 The and Highland brogues. He had a coat of coarse. he presented the Prince with a "pennyworth of gingerbread. with the single exception of an expedition which he made in the direction of the sea-coast. on the return of one of the Grlenmoriston men from Fort Augustus." which. which Charles received from the wild children of the mountain and the mist. seized a portmanteau. two of the party on one occasion waylaid some servants who were traveling to Fort Augustus with their master's baggage. which they carried in triumph to their cave. " He Prince's costume at this period is thus described by Home. he associated with them. at least on one occasion.

there occurred a remarkable instance of enthusiastic devotion in the Prince's cause. to Men of Glennio- . slight effect in aiding his escape. his hiding-place was discovered by the military. the head was in such a putrid state." himself every morning and evening. Mr Morrison. for the purpose of performing his devotions in private. his valet-de-chambre. days after his arrival in London and when he began to recover. where he continued a prisoner for fifteen . which had no l One Roderick Mackenzie. used to withdraw swearing quite up. exclaiming in " his last agony. and carried it in triumph to Fort Augustus. he dropped his sword. He defended himself as long as he could with great gallantry. cut off his head. and bring him to London. 1 Information given by Patrick Grant. remained in bed in the messenger's house. Chambers. and a party was despatched to seize his person. "who affirmed that this was the head of Prince Charles. depositions of several persons. By this means the Prince discovered that we were much addicted to common swearing in our conversation. from whence it was forwarded to London as " The that of the Prince. and was thought to bear a strong resemblance to Charles. riston. we are told. say nothing but what the Prince should be made to understand. both in features and in person. had the good effect of rendering the English less vigilant.THE PEETENDEBS AND THEIE ADHEEENTS. by his repeated dale to reprove us reproofs. ! . believing that they had obtained the great prize for which they had so long panted. to declare upon oath whether this really was the head of Prince Charles but Mr Morrison having been attacked on the road with a violent fever. the son of a goldsmith of Edinburgh. Charles. condemned to death and the Grovernment despatched a messenger to suspend the execution of the sentence. Villains you have killed your Prince. prevailed on us so far that we gave that custom of . one of the Seven Bishop Forbes. 340 [l74G. accompanied with delirium." His design completely succeeded. that it was judged . but at length receiving a fatal thrust. . and that the Prince should say nothing but what we likewise should be made to understand. About this period. for which he caused Grlenalaand at last the Prince. happened to be lurking in the braes of Glenmoriston he had served as an officer in the Prince's Life Guards. The soldiers." says the Chevalier de Johnstone. p. 117. and less active in their pursuits. was then in the prison of Carlisle. Unfortunately.

and Arrest. "We can speak no language but our own we can . gentlemen hut which had been constructed for him in a wood between Johnstone's Memoirs. were we to injure a hair of your head.PRINCE CHARLES EDWARD. p. Charles. For an interesting account of the Seven Men of Glenmoriston. to Avignon." few days longer and on taking his departure was presented by Charles with twenty -four guineas. to have been an eye-witness at the Coronation of George III. 2 . Meeting between Termination of his "Wanderings. for he can go to a distant country. who accompanied him some distance on his way to a wood at the foot of Loch Arkaig. " the mountains of gold which the government have set upon your head may induce some gentleman to betray you. as it was no longer possible to distinguish any of the features. the very mountains would fall down to crush us to Patrick Grant alone remained with the Prince a death. Takes up his Residence at Visits London in 1750. of Clunes. CHAPTEE VI. Arrival and Reception by the King and Ordered to quit Paris. 119. 1743. he took up his abode in a small these with and self. board L'Heureux for France. where. see a note to Mr Chambers's valuable History of the Rebellion of 1745. but to us there exists no such temptation. where Liege as Baron de CHARLES had recently been joined by Macdonald of Lochwho were fugitives like himgarry and Cameron of Clunes. and live on the price of his dishonour . Abjures the Catholic Religion and becomes a Protestant." Being desirous of forming a junction with Lochiel and Cluny Mac Pherson. 1 2 . Supposed Montgomerie. Embarks on Charles and Lochiel. to be divided between himself and his companions. live nowhere but in this country. Transported he is set at Liberty. Queen. on the 21st of August." they said . took an affectionate leave of the Seven Men of Glenmorisfon.] 341 unnecessary to examine him. p. Charles joined by the Fugitives Macdonald of Lochgarry and Cameron Secreted in the "Wood of Auchnacarry. His Refusal. who were believed to be lurking in the wilds of Badenoch. It was only with the greatest difficulty ' that these faithful and affectionate men would permit their beloved Prince to leave them. " Stay with us. 155.

when. at the circumstance. Lochiel had despatched his two brothers. in my opinion. Prince was at this time bare-footed. and the servants were roasting some of it with epits. Dr Archibald Cameron and the Rev. had an old black kilt coat on. and. with a son of Clunes. From this place he sent a messenger to his beloved Lochiel. which had recently been laid in ruins by the soldiery. The Prince knew their names. He was advised to fly instantly to the mountains but he rejected the proposition." we are told. in different directions. a dirty shirt. Atthe moment when they were approaching the hut. and a pistol and dirk by his side. and a long red beard. a gun in his hand. and. Charles was fast asleep. he would join him as soon as possible in his retreat. rested their guns along the stones. Prom hence they proceeded along Loch Arkaig in a boat. apparently militia. The delight of Charles was greatly increased. to trust to Providence for the rest. however. they suddenly recognised Clunes at the head of the advancing party. After wandering about for some time. if circumstances permitted.312 THE PEETENDEES AND THEIR ADIIEEENTS. He expressed "uncommon joy. spoke in a familiar way . Accordingly Charles and Patrick Grant. in the course of their voyage. and "thrice returned God thanks. to their great joy. fatter than when he was at Inverness. John Cameron. adding. that it were far better to take the enemy by surprise. when the two brothers of Lochiel were presented to him. philabeg and waistcoat. He was very cheerful and in good health. and subsequently the chieftain himself. and were on the point of . had the good fortune to encounter some of Clunes's retainers. expressing a strong wish that. in order to obtain intelligence respecting him. having learned that the Prince had effected his escape from Skye to the mainland. " The safety of his friend. who forthwith conducted them to the presence of Charles. who was in the hut at the time. and he learned from them that the chief was in good health and rapidly recovering from his wounds. In the mean time. and his consternation may be easily imagined when he was suddenly roused by Patrick Grant with the startling information that a body of men. They had killed a cow the day before. In the words of John Cameron." for the firing. were close upon him. the two brothers again fell in with each other at Auchnacarry. and after taking a steady aim at them from their ambuscade. [l746 Auchnasual and the end of Loch Arkaig. the ancient seat of their family.

were constantly torn by the stumps of trees and jutting rocks with which they came in contact. and no man could sleep sounder in the night than he. 343 to them. They had found .1746. got up. his gun. As they had hitherto received no intelligence of any military detachment having marched from Fort Augustus. residing sometimes in one hut. under the cover of the wood. but in the event of finding their retreat cut off. and some Erse. as well as his companions. and that they were surrounded on all sides. they were enabled to reach the top of a neighbouring hill without being perceived. for that a body of the enemy was in He. I awoke him. notwithstanding his imminent peril. and sometimes in another. suddenly returned. betrayed neither perturbation nor " alarm. quick. at a particular spot which he named in the mountains. He ate very heartily of the roasted beef and some bread we had from Fort Augustus. and can make pretty sure of my aim." On the following day. The ground which they had to traverse was perhaps as craggy and rugged as any in the Highlands. The Prince." says John Cameron. who had been absent in search of intelligence.] PRINCE CHAULES EDWABD. and from thence commenced a toilsome march to the summit of another hill. the 26th of August. seems to have been fully impressed with the . John Cameron. were doing duty as sentries about the wood. sent for Captain Macraw and Sandy. with the utmost composure. and awoke the Prince with the information that a large body of soldiers were advancing in their immediate neighbourhood. as well as their clothes. can charge ing cheerfully. Clunes's son. " and desired him not to be surprised. was the first to give way from exhaustion. expressed their determination to die like men of honour. Here Charles received a message from Chines. The Prince." Fortunately. with a servant. called Mullantagart. however. and to sell their lives as dearly as possible. which now consisted of eight persons. and. add" I have been bred a good shooter. their flesh. about eight o'clock. that at night he would meet him with provisions." There still remained the hope of escape. who. as they toiled in the dark up one difficult mountain-path after another. Charles carefully examined all their guns. Charles. the whole party. when one morning. on this particular occasion. called for sight. conviction that treachery was at work. Charles removed to a wood near LochiePs ruined seat of Auchnacarry He had remained in this wood about four days.

impossible to procure a mouthful of food during the whole and they had still some distance to proceed. of Breakachie. and recommending that Charles should join them there without delay." Lochiel then conducted the Prince to the interior of his hovel. The Prince's next move was to a hiding-place in the wood of Auchnacarry. they will conclude that I am here. Macpherson of Cluny. . yet they had continued to reside in this retired spot for more than four months without suspicion not only well provided with proit day. " you don't know who may be looking from the tops of yonder trees if any be there. the chieftain went forth to meet him. who had succeeded in killing a cow. Nothing could be more grateful to him than this proposition. It is remarkable. of the Highlanders. as three servants. Without waiting for the arrival of Macpherson of Cluny. . and if they see such motions. and at night found himself at a place called Corineuir. stating that he and his kinsman. By the assistance. " My dear Lochiel. and were engaged in cooking a part of it for supper. when Charles expressed his inability to advance any further. and he was at length cheered by the sight of Clunes and his son. by but also comfortably tended by as The meeting between Charles and Lochiel was one of evident joy and satisfaction on both sides. he was able to totter through the rest of the journey." he said. visions many their friends. Here Charles took up his quarters for a day or two. 3il [l716. which may prove of bad consequence. where. were safely concealed in Badeuoch. The next day he arrived at Mellaneuir. Macpherson of Cluny. that though their residence in this district was known to a number of persons. he received a message from Lochiel. who. till the removal of some of the troops from the passes enabled him to advance nearer to Lochiel. and Macpherson the younger. to his great delight. who supported him by his arms on each side. " upon . however. and would have paid his respects on his knees had he not been checked by Charles. who was on his way to conduct him to Badenoch. and although there was a large military post at Sherowmore. where Lochiel was residing in a small hut with his two companions in adversity. within the distance of a few miles. On being informed that the Prince was approaching his place of concealment. also situated on Benalder.THE PBETENDEBS AND THEIR ADHERENTS. at the foot of the great mountain Benalder. he set out immediately.

which he pretty often called for thereafter to drink his friends' healths. together with other luxuries. taking Cluny in his arms. his entry. accordingly. kissed him affectionately. L'Heureux and La Princesse de Conti." says Donald for the purpose of concealment. it was deemed advisable for some reason to shift their quarters. a son of Sir Thomas. that you Shortly afterwards he said. and arrived in Lochnanuagh on the 6th of September. had been fitted out by a Colonel "Warren. These vessels sailed from St Maloes at the end of August. who. expressed himself highly delighted with his fare. and " Now. looking on one baking and another firing bread and cooking. which. . .PRINCE CHAELES EDWABD. also on Benalder. took a hearty dram. like Lochiel. . Two vessels. Prom hence they removed to a "very romantic and comical habitation. who had taken his station on the coast for the purpose of communicating to Charles the arrival of any friendly vessel. and. He was in an excellent humour. to which he had recently been little accustomed. " he live like a I exclaimed. had the character of being superlatively bad and smoky. to pay his duty to his young master on his knees but the ceremony was interdicted by Charles. a lieutenant in the French service. prince." The day after Cluny's return. On entering the hut." Charles now sat down to an excellent dinner of minced collops. The channel of communication between the Prince and Glenaladale was Cameron of Clunes. and a Mr O'Beirne. 1746. and your regiment were not at Culloden I did not hear till lately that you were so near us that day. who had been promised a baronetcy by the old Chevalier in the event of his succeeding in carrying off the Prince. which had recently beenconstructedby Cluny " The Cage. " I am sorry. the whole party removed to another hut in the wild recesses of Benalder. but in consequence of an alarm which he had received at the . . he attempted. we are told. " was Macpherson. among whom were Captain Sheridan. There landed from them four gentlemen. J 345 " we are informed." The next day Cluny returned from his unsuccessful expedition in search of the Prince. who were received by Macdonald of Grlenaladale." The story of the Prince's wanderings and escapes is now fast drawing to a close. Cluny." ." gentlemen. four of which nurniber were frequently employed in playing at cards one idle. only large enough to contain six or seven persons." called the Cage.

to avail themselves of the opportunity of effecting their escape. embarked with him on board the two vessels. and through him to the Prince. Clunes had been compelled to quit his old quarters. The following day he arrived at a pkce called Grlencamger. when Clunes immediately despatched a faithful messenger to convey the important intelligence to Macpherson of Cluny. lost no time in availing himself of so favourable an opportunity for escape. "Whether we reflect on the extraordinary fact of his landing in Scotland an almost friendless adventurer. or resources of any kind.34G THE PRETENDERS AND THEIR ADHERENTS. and Dr Cameron. September the 20th. as well as commons. twenty-three gentlemen and one hundred and seven common men the former including young Clanranald. for the purpose of allowing any of his suffering followers. Charles. and on the 16th slept at Lochiel's seat at Auchnacarry." The and melancholy story of the expedition of to Scotland. John Roy Stuart. Glenaladale. Charles took his last leave of the Highlands. and before daybreak found himself in his old quarters in the smoky hut on Benalder. it was some time before his present place of concealment could be At length. accompanied by Lochiel. He generously remained upwards of a day on the coast. Lochgarry." we are told. who might be lurking in the neighdiscovered. approach of the military. Charles took an affectionate . however. who preferred remaining his own people. Before going on board. to purchasing safety as an exile in a foreign land'. money. has now been brought to a close. were seen to soon back with an irreboasted of weep. Glenaladale found means to communicate with him. though they being leave among : sistible force. and. and his two brothers. bouring districts. He set out the same night (September the 13th). On Saturday. of Macpherson of Cluny. Macdonald of Dalely. and proceeded on board L'Heureux. without arms. it is needless to remark. [1746. to the annoyance of Glenaladale. He arrived at Corvoy on the 14th. There were in all. and on the 19th was cheered with the sight of the vessels which were to bear him from the power and persecutions of his enemies. where he rested a short time. and his having subsequently led a vieCharles striking Edward . The same deeply -implanted love of country and kindred affected more or less every individual on board "the " gentlemen. and of his romantic escapes and adventures.

his indomitable fortitude. Charles left behind tears. we must admit that it forms one of the most remarkable and England . The state and magnificence with which Charles proceeded to Fontainebleau must have formed a striking contrast to the ragged and dirty ap- . who. and inviting his return. On turning his back on the Highlands. and who seem to have loved him the more enthusiastically for the sufferings him the which they endured in his cause. preferred rather to work out his deliverance. and his cheerfulness under the severest trials or whether we pause to pay our tribute to those generous and devoted individuals. from whence he proceeded to Paris. headed by his brother Henry. Louis declined to receive him openly as Prince of Wales.PKINCE CHAELES EDWAED. Charles landed at Roscoff. of all human feelings " yields to the passionate devotion to PRINCE CHAELIE. but not with him departed his remembrance from the Highlanders. at the imminent in whatever point of hazard of their lives and fortunes view we regard the story of Charles Edward up to this period. in France. his hair-breadth escapes. after a prosperous voyage. the Prince paid a visit to the French King and Queen at Fontainebleau. nal fondness the strongest. . than he flung his arms round his neck and kissed him with the greatest ' affection. in these strains. scorning the splendid reward which they might have obtained by betraying him. the prayers. interesting episodes in the annals of any country. " He went. but at the same time added. who no sooner recognised him. and best wishes of the generous people who had so long befriended him. A few days after his arrival. . do they declare themselves ready to risk life and fortune for his cause and even mater: ." says Lord " Mahon. perhaps.] torious army within a few days' 347 march of the metropolis of whether we identify ourselves with the romantic tale of his imminent dangers. Again. that it would give him the greatest pleasure to embrace him as a friend. Unwilling to give more offence than necessary to the Court of St James's.' On the 29th of September. near Morlaix. On approaching the French capital. For years and years did his name continue enshrined in their hearts and familiar to their tongues their plaintive ditties resounding with his exploits. he was met by a gallant band of the young nobility. where the Government had ordered the Chateau St Antoine to be fitted up as his residence. 1746.

and three of the gentlemen of his bedchamber. les grandes qualites des neros et des pJiilosophes se trouvent reunies en vous . qui me donne le plaisir extreme de vous voir arrive en bonne Vous avezfait voir sante. but that I would never ask anything for myself for I came only into this country to do what I could for my poor country. he writes " I suppose O'Brien has already given an account to you of what pains I am at. on horseback. with a band of gentlemen. brought up the rear. I told the Marquis d'Argenson the other day. walking on each side of it. the French government had distributed already thirty -four thousand livres. et fespere qu"un de ces jours vous After recevrez la recompense d'un mtrite si extraordinaire. Lords Elcho and Ogilvie. that he would never ask anything for himself. dressed in the livery of the Prince of Wales. "Man tres cher Prince" said Louis. how sensible I was of the King's goodness for what he has done for them. The journey was performed with a large suite in several carCharles himself. Charles was conducted to the apartments of the Queen. riages . the elder Lochiel." his interview with the King. and both on this and on other occasions. After warmly embracing him. and not for myself. pearance which he had presented scarcely a fortnight before. in a splendid equipage . It was greatly to the credit of Charles. ." Among the Scottish officers who had served in the Prince's army. after his return to France. 1746. ten footmen.TUB PRETENDERS 34:8 AtfD THEIR ADHERENTS. who also received him with great kindness. In the evening he supped with the Royal Family. dated the 19th of December. and who were now in France. apres tanl de fatigues et de dangers. [l746. followed in the other carriages while the younger Lochiel. D'Argenson. and subsequently gue ioutes . and what has been done concerning the poor Scotch. Charles was received with great cordiality by the French King. but that he was ready to go down on his knees to obtain any favour for his brother exiles. proceeding with his master of the horse. that. his secretary Kelly. their Majesties are said to have listened with the deepest interest to the particulars of his adventures and escapes. he exerted himself in every possible manner to alleviate the distresses of his faithful followers. after his arrival in Paris. "je rends grace au del. and to repair the losses which they had sustained by embracing his He told the French minister. who was magnificently dressed. shortly cause. In a letter also to his father.

who was. a last blow was given hopes . by one of the articles of which it was stipulated that Charles should be banished from the French territories. and. with which he hoped to rekindle the war in the Highlands.] the additional sum 340 of twenty-nine thousand livres was di- vided. and to recover the throne of his ancestors. proved even more obdurate than the Spanish Monarch. andArdshiel. . the Prince's distress and indignation exceeded all bounds. Whether it was his .PBINCE CHAELES EDWABD. From the period when he returned to the French capital. according to their rank. in consequence of the treaty of peace which was signed between the Courts of St James's and Versailles. He imagined also that Spain might be induced to assist him in his views and accordingly.now bent on obtaining a peace with England. however. were met only with unmeaning promises and evasive replies. have spared the French King the disagreeable alternative of resorting to forcible measures to insure his removal. we find him paying a secret visit to Madrid. and commenced besieging the French Government with fresh memorials and appeals but Louis. 1747-8. finding all his arguments and entreaties of no avail. Charles never ceased to importune the government for that aid. among those officers who had learn also from Charles's own landed with the Prince. by quietly withdrawing to some other country. In the course of the following year. His repeated applications. The temper of Charles was already sufficiently irpedition. to the hour when all hope deserted him. it was formally announced to him that his brother Henry was about to become an ecclesiastic. with the entire approbation of their thus tacitly admitting that his family abandoned all father. but also to many individuals of inferior rank. till at length. banking account. three months afterwards. he returned to Paris in the month of March. While the treaty was in progress. 1747. in the month of January. such as Lord Nairn. hopes of regaining the throne of Great Britain. Clanranald. that he was in the habit of constantly trans- We mitting large sums out of his own purse not only to persons who had private claims on him. it had been anticipated that Charles would have made a merit of necessity. in hopes of persuading Ferdinand the Sixth to furnish him with the means of fitting out a second ex. ritated by these repeated disappointments of his darling but when. to the Prince's hopes.

however. to embarrass the French Court. Alarmed on the part of the Prince. "Ah. however. Governor of Paris. certain it is that he adopted a line of policy very diiferent from what had been expected. in addition to using every argument and entreaty to induce him to listen to reason. pauvre Prince ! said " Louis as he was signing the order for his arrest. Louis was unwilling to proceed to extremities without making another effort and accordingly. in order to avoid the fate which awaited him. who. nor the dictates of reason or interest not even the urgent entreaties of the Pope's nuncio. In consequence of this communication. The treaty had now been signed for some time. which he hired on the Quai Th6atin. he wrote to the old Chevalier. or whatever may have been his motive. and the English Government began naturally to exhibit some impatience at one of the most important of its conditions not having been fulfilled. but even this final measure proved of no avail. Louis sent the Cardinal de Tencin to him in the first instance. at which it was determined to arrest the Prince the same night. [1748. consequences. as a last resource. Charles alone appeared calm and indifferent. pour un roi d'etre un veritable ami ! was three o'clock when the order was signed. of whose injustice towards him he bitterly complained. turning to one . where it excited the most extraordinary sensation. he not difficile It only treated the advice with contempt. now summoned a Council of State. nor an autograph letter addressed to him by the King himself. entreating him to exercise his influence and authority over his son.350 THE PBETENDEES AND THEIR ADHEBENTS. and carry him by force " out of the French dominions. Still. In order to prove to the world how little intention he had of quitting Paris of his own accord. object. and before night the news had spread all over Paris. in consideration of his Neither the dread of yielding to the wishes of the King. laid before him a carte blanche. commanding him to quit Paris without delay . qu'il est " a at this conduct . under a flying seal. had the least effect on the mind of the exasperated-Prince. but. and when urged to quit Paris immediately. the Chevalier addressed a strong letter to his son. to induce him to take the required step. and The King Charles appeared quite as obstinate as before. he commenced furnishing new house. and subsequently the Due de Gesores. which he was told he was at liberty to fill up with any sum he might be pleased to demand as a pension.

At the time. armed with cuirasses and helmets. from his carriage." he said." This conduct " is said to have rendered him more than ever the observed of all observers . and who was the hero of so many romantic adventures and escapes he at once became an object of general interest and paramount attraction. while Charles alone appeared apathetic and unmoved." the company followed him whenever he appeared on the public promenades. moreover. " we will not make them wait for so. attended alighted by three his household. and with as much parade as was As many as twelve hundred of the Royal Guards. possible. who carried him . it was the opposition which he had shown to the absolute power of the French Monarch. It was probably therefore with the view of displaying the strength of the Government. were posted in the passage of the Opera House the City Guard lined the different streets in the vicinity while large bodies of troops patrolled the road leading to the state-prison of Vincennes. he ordered him to procure a box for him at Charles had long been the idol the Opera the same night. with cuirasses under their coats. and his "brave answers to the King's orders to him to quit the French dominions. . 1748. whither it was intended that the Prince should be conducted. he was in the act of entering the when he was suddenly " "Well. who had twice vanquished the royal forces of England on the field of battle.] 351 of his retinue. . were drawn up in the court of the PalaisRoyal a great number of sergeants and grenadiers. that it was determined on arresting the Prince in as public a place. Being told of the formidable . by the fact of the whole audience having risen to applaud him when he entered the theatre.PRINCE CHAELES EDWABD. seized by eight sergeants dressed as tradesmen. preparations which were made for his arrest. indeed. rather than from any apprehension of a rescue. could have added to this feeling of enthusiasm. of the French people. us. and recently the French Government had been much alarmed and irritated. But when he returned to them after his memorable campaign when they beheld the young and graceful Prince. . under the Duke de Biron. If any circumstance." be it Having gentlemen of Opera House. when he had quitted Paris to proceed on his Scottish expedition. The excitement which pervaded Paris was intense. his person was scarcely known to the Parisians neither do they appear to have taken any particular interest in his history or his fate.

where. but directly afterwards he remarked cheerfully. It was during his residence at Liege. and at night he was entertained with a magnificent supper and ball in the Archiepiscopal palace After a residence of only a few months at Avignon. alluding to the vernor as an old friend. that he put into practice a favourite but dangerous . The carriages of the nobility followed behind. His person soldiers kept off the was then searched. and a pair of pocket-pistols." Collected and even cheerful as Charles had been in the presence of the French officers. he was bound hand and foot with a silken rope. " I have seen worse in Scotland. they no sooner quitted him than his manner is said to have undergone a complete change. preceded by a troop of the Pope's horseguards. puisque je ne puis pas vow embrasser" He was then unbound and conducted to a small upper room. According to the account of this person. exclaimed. Charles conversed cheerfully with the three officers who guarded him in the coach. consisting of a sword. Charles on the 15th of December. who has been so often mentioned as the Prince's guide during his wanderings with Mora Macdonald. His sole companion in captivity was the faithful Niel Mackechan. happening to recognise the Go" Mon ami" he said. Charles. which immediately drove off surrounded by a strong guard. about ten feet square. lighted in the roof. was removed under a strong guard to the Papal city of Avignon. and his arms. while the crowd with their bayonets. He made a by a small window ! ! public entry into that town on the 2nd of January. where he once more found himself at liberty. and on reaching the prison. force into the court-yard of the Palais Royal. on being rid of his jailors. in a coach and six.352 by THE PRETENDERS AND THEIR ADHERENTS. venez done m'embrasser. threw himself into a chair. "Ah. 1748. almost secretly. my faithful mountaineers! you would not have treated me thus would I were still with you " Havingbeen detained in prison five days. and hurried into a coach drawn by six horses. repaired to Liege. [1748-9. under the name of the Baron de Montgomerie. bursting into tears. His eye glanced displeased for a moment round this uncomfortable-looking apartment. 1749. Charles quitted that place. and. a small dagger. he lived in comparative privacy for several years. During the journey to Vincennes. having been taken away from him. and with Colonel G-oring only for his companion. " cords which bound him.

Charles the First. perhaps. I was still more astonished when he acquainted me with the motives which had induced him to hazard a journey to England at this juncture. That this unfortunate man. He was soon convinced that he had been deceived. pp." adds Dr King. 196. 199 and note. he was met by one who knew his ever seen Prince Charles?' . in " his Memoirs.' said I. owing. yet no preparation had been made. and presented me to the Prince. of his friends abroad but he was determined. He came one evening to my lodgings and drank tea with me. whoever he may be. are more like him than any of his pictures which I have yet seen.] 353 a visit to London in disguise. sir. . Dr King's Anecdotes of his Own 2 A Time. you ' but this gentleman. which about this time were commonly sold in London. said to me. and therefore. After being a few days at a lady's house in Essex Street in the Strand. after he was gone." 1 The name adopted by Charles. but stoops a little. The partiproject of paying "In culars of this curious fact are thus related by Dr King: " September. these busts were taken in plaster of Paris from his face. to woo the Infanta of Spain.' ' ' Why. she led me into her dressing-room. he returned to the place from whence he came. " he is tall and well-made. 1760-54. to see the capital of that kingdom over which he thought himself born to reign.' replied the fellow. was in London about the year 1754. after a stay in London of five days only. who desired to see me immediately. I received a note from my Lady Primrose. 1750.PBINCE CHABLES EDWABD. As to his person. to the great fatigue which he underwent in his northern expedition. I think his busts. had been as feasible as they had represented it to him." says Thicknesse. that he thought but although it ' my new visitor very like Prince Charles. "With the exception of a short visit to Stockholm. He has a handsome face and good eyes." he says. he said. we have little record of the Prince's movements till we find him paying another hazardous secret visit to London about the years " 1753-4. nor was anything ready to carry it into execution. The impatience of his friends who were in exile had formed a scheme which was impracticable . My servant. If I was surprised to find him there. I can He came hither contrary to the opinions positively assert. during his visit to England. had assumed during his romantic journey to Madrid in 1623. have 'No. As soon as I waited on her. was Smith. the same name which his great-grandfather. exactly resembles the busts of Prince Charles.' The truth is.

and unable to refrain from the bottle. as he returned from the play. he had acquired by his experson. and he returned instantly to France. that such an attempt was not impracticable for what could not a hundred or two desperate villains effect. He also told me that they had more than fifteen hundred chairmen. though under the protection of an English major. or that class of people. late secretary to the Due de Noailles. It is certain that the late King often returned from the theatres in so private a manner. the only benefit. [l754. and an Irish officer that they had laid a plan of seizing the person of the King (George the Second). and had much conversation on the subject but observed. Massac dined with him. Hyde Park. that he was rather a weak man. should any other Pretender start up for I have the best authority to say such a thing is practicable. at eleven o'clock at night. in him. told me he was sent to treat with the Prince relative to a subsequent attempt to invade England. . assured me that he had been with the Prince in England between the years 1745 and 1756. Monsieur Massac. the lady was far out of their reach. Southampton who remember that transaction. M. There are many people now living at too. it is true. at Paris. he said. : . and create a confusion while a party carried the King to the water-side. . and hurried him away to France. pedition among his countrymen in Scotland. by a body of Irish chairmen. for the truth of this story but it may be right to relate it. in any of the public streets of London ? Ten minutes' start would do it and they could not have failed of a much greater length of time. extinguish the lights. and who made an attempt to kneel to This circumstance so alarmed the lady at whose house he resided. who were to assemble opposite the Duke of Newcastle's house in Lincoln's Inn Fields the instant they heard any I cannot vouch particular news relative to the Pretender. . 1 Memoirs of Philip Thicknesse. who was taken off. and in the middle of a large city. It was not a but king. nor was it a man before the surprise of the major and his female party was 1 over. to prevent such an attempt. . who were to knock the servants from behind his coach.354) TI1E PBETESDERS AND THEIE ADHERENTS. . formerly well known at the Cafe de Conde. that a boat was procured the same night. This visit of the Prince to England appears to be the same . by an individual. bigoted to his religion. and seven old French women and that. with only one arm. Mr Segrave. and that a person was taken off in broad daylight.

because I had it from Lord Marechal. the historian. where she had a pretty large company with her. The King perceived his embarrassment. who said it consisted with his certain knowledge. think from the authority of the same lady). and how long he intended to . and extricated him from it by adding. that I supposed this piece of intelligence had at the time escaped his Lordship. who was Secretary of State in the year 1753 and I added. that he went abroad openly in daylight in his own dress.' I think this story. though my lord refused to name her. 'My lord. dated the 10th of the visit February. He was announced by the servant under another name she thought the cards would have dropped from her hands on seeing him but she had presence enough of mind to call him by the name he assumed. only laying aside his blue ribbon and star . walked once through St James's. Two or three days after his Lordship gave me this information. "About five years ago. . he will go abroad again. the stay there. I know with the greatest certainty. I shall just do nothing at all and when he is tired of England. which hung on the chimney-piece lord added (I in the very room in which he entered. 1773. they might savour of indifference to the Royal Family." adds Hume. ought to be more . to ask him when he came to England.1753. and took a turn in the My Mall. and entered the room. 'By no means. It will be seen. servants remarked howwonderfully like the strange gentleman was to the Prince's picture. 'And what do you think.' said he. But. that he used so little precaution. generally known. my lord. who subjoined. present Pretender was in London in the year 1753. in the following extract of a letter to Sir John Pringle. ' puzzled how to reply . for. After he and all the company went away. Lord 2 A 2 .] PRINCE CHARLES EDWABD. what will surprise you more. if he declared his real sentiments. I should do with him ? Lord Holdernesse owned that he was . for the honour of the late King. "I told this story to Lord Holdernesse. and was herself playing at cards. 355 that is alluded to by Hume. he told me. that Hume places " That the at a somewhat earlier period than Thicknesse. that the evening before he had learned several curious particulars from a lady (who I imagined to be Lady Primrose). 'and who do you think first told it me?' It was the King himself. The Pretender came to her house in the evening without giving her any preparatory information.

where he lived privately for several years. and whispered in his ears these words 'Your Royal Highness is the last of all mortals whom I should expect to see here. told me that he believed the young Pretender was at that time in London. he was certainly Nichols's Literary Anecdotes of the 18th Century. as to wear a great face of probability. and that this is the reason of the bad treatment he met with at the Court of Rome. vol. I asked my lord the reason for this strange fact ? Why. 401. In that year he removed to Bouillon. in the New Church in the Strand. added he. 356 [1753-62. p. or at least had been so very lately. under his own name of Charles Stuart. in the Duchy of Luxemburg. 141. was known to all the Jacobites and some of them have assured me. it is now certain that Charles embraced the Protestant religion. Chambers. a gentleman told me so that saw him there. that I am in perfect 1762. p. and that he even spoke to him. I own that I am a sceptic with rel gard to the last particulars. although the exact period is not known. his time seems to have been principally occupied in hunting bears and wolves. which I have embraced." . and had actually seen it. says he. ' ! : gauntlet ? " I find that the Pretender's visit in England. and other places. According to 1 Dr " free from King. health. Venice. Charles continued to reside chiefly at Liege till 1757. that he took the opportunity of formally renouncing the Roman Catholic religion. They may be assured that I shall live and die in the 2 religion of the Church of England. all ." With the exception of some short visits which he occasionally paid to Germany. Query What if the . that the person who is the object of all this pomp and magnificence is the man I You see this story is so nearly traced from envy the least the fountain-head. Mardchal. "Assure my friends in Britain.Pretender had taken up Dymock's ' ' ' . Notwithstanding the doubts which Hume throws on the subject. in the wild and vast forest of Ardennes. To his partisans in Scotland he writes on the 12th of August. 1 Bishop Forbes's MSS. and had come over to see the show of the Coronation.' 'It was curiosity that led me. a few days after the coronation of the present King (George the Third). in the year 1753. During his residence at Bouillon. ii.THE PEETENDEBS AND THEIE ADHEEENTS.' said the other but I assure you.

The Prince takes up Reasons for abandoning it. same name which. title of King of England.] PE1NCE CHAELES EDWAED. he had adopted during his residence at Gravelines on the eve of his 1 He shortly afterwards assumed the Highland expedition. on the reverse. the words Lcetamini Gives. and with the Protestants he was says." he lished religion of Great Britain. land contemplated. FROM the period of the Prince's visit to England in 1760. "that the loss of Culloden gave him more real concern than any loss when i See ante. there is every reason to believe that he witnessed the coronation of George the Third. even the Pope declined to acknowledge his pretensions." It seems to have been at an early period that he was in the habit of carrying an English Common Prayer Book in his pocket. and it is known that he caused his first illegitimate child by Miss Walkenshaw to be christened by a Protestant clergyman. 357 to conform to the estabbigotry and superstition. medal. " he was a Catholic. with the head of Charles on one side. as mentioned by Hume. when he hastened from Bouillon the to Borne. but to his bitter disapointment he failed in obtaining a recognition of his claims from the Kings of France and Spain. Another Invasion of Engnition of his Claims by France and Spain. His Habits at this Period his abode at Florence as Count d' Albany. the latter circumstance seems to have irritated him beyond measure. 1752." and ready " With the Catholics. of Life. and. a Protestant. Prince Charles fails in obtaining a RecogDeath of the old Pretender.1760-66. James the Second. A CHAPTER VII. "He told the Pope's nuncio. Notwithstanding the equanimity with which he usually bore his misfortunes. p. is by some supposed to have reference to his having declared himself a Protestant in that year. 107. in his days of youth and romance. . notwithstanding his grandfather. had lost three kingdoms in upholding the religion of the Church of Rome." we are informed. under the name of the Chevalier Douglas. there is little of importance in his history till the death of the old Chevalier in 1766. bearing date the 23rd of September. His Marriage.

" "This. had conducted him safe through so many dangers. He still. in 1767. kept up a constant correspondence with his Jacobite friends in Great Britain. no new disappointment. when he and the Marshal de Broglio would be ready to receive the Pretender. Indeed. to which Paris. " who was ' present. [l770. note. At length. in 1770. no fresh unkindness of fortune. "from high authority. and that it destined him for some great end. and the unpopularity of Greorge the Third at this period.his late father at Albano.THE PRETENDERS 358 JLXD THEIR ADHERENTS. Having announced it to Choiseul. it is said. he could suffer by any orders from his Holiness. p. in order to accomplish this object. After the death of the old Chevalier. chiefly. where he continued to reside in comparative seclusion." says Wraxall. "I know. that as late as the year 1770. respecting the possession of the Falkland Islands. he said. the Due de Choiseul. and that whatever titles he would take. he despatched a private emissary to Rome. Charles took up his residence at the seat of. Providence." " I had from a gentleman says Mr Farquharson of Ardlerg. could eradicate from his mind the sanguine conviction that he was still destined to ascend the throne of his ancestors. meditated to undertake a third effort for restoring the House of Stuart. that he was certain he was under the peculiar care of Heaven. then First Minister of France (not deterred by the ill success of the at- tempts made in 1715 and in 1745). at twelve o'clock. who signified to Charles Edward the Duke's desire of seeing him immediately at complied. The Hdtel de Choiseul was named for the interview. He 1 Bishop Forbes's MSS. and arrived in that city with the utmost privacy. Chambers. added to the tumults fomented by Wiikes. and induced them seriously to contemplate a second invasion. His enterprising spirit led him to profit by the dispute which arose between the English and Spanish Crowns. As the first step necessary towards it. and to lay before them their plan for an invasion of England. the commercial difficulties under which England was labouring. 141. Cardinal York. revived once more the drooping spirits of the Jacobites. on a pension which he received from his brother. the Minister fixed the same night. neither Pope nor conclave could have nor had any right to take from him. however. .

] 359 place he was enjoined to repair in a hackney-coacn. as if he meant to say our ancestors were better acquainted. who. Under this impression they were to prevent his arrival. His Grace does not affect to shun the avenue in which we happen to be and as often as we pass them. Charles retired in disgust to Florence. who. in 1770. the author of "Zeluco. whilst walking with the Duke of Gloucester through the streets of Genoa. the Count fixes his eyes in a most expressive manner upon the Duke. as well as indignant. under the title of Count d' Albany. drawn up for his conduct on the expedition. after waiting a full hour. and without any attendant. and pulled off" our hats." Of the Duke's ancestors. "We have seen them almost every evening since. in one of the Hamilton. "We yielded the : We The gentleman along with walk. Dr Moore. 1770." who was at Florence with the young Duke of " Soon after our arrival. preparing to separate. where. Disgusted. disguised. looked very earnestly at the Duke of Hamilton. He whispered the Count. . were ready but. followed by four servants in livery one of the four wore the insignia of the Garter. In consequence of the repeated refusals of the Pope to acknowledge him as King of England. the Duke and the Marshal. Choiseul without hesitation sent him next morning a peremptory order to WraxaU informs us that he quit the French dominions. they concluded that some unforeseen accident must have intervened ." learned these particulars from a nobleman.PEIXCE CHAULES EDWABD. one had . them was the Envoy from the King of Prussia to the Court of Turin. expecting his appearance every instant. either at the Opera or on the public walk. and a few moments afterwards the Pretender entered the room in a state of such intoxication as to be utterly incapable even of ordinary conversation. and that the lady next to him was the Countess. when the clock struck one. and well convinced that no expedition undertaken for the restoration of a man so lost to every sense of decency or selfinterest could be crowned with success. at this disgraceful conduct. returning the salutation. were told this was the Count Albany. when the noise of wheels was heard in the courtyard. met the Chevalier. furnished with the requisite papers and instructions. then on his way back to Italy from a visit which he had been paying to France. he resided for several years. At the appointed time. observes avenues we observed two men and two ladies.

and who had alike borne prosperity with moderation. a taste for the bottle. and the most afflicting distresses with almost unexampled equanimity. cation. was the selfish voluptuary. It is a painful but well-known fact. whose forefathers had been so closely connected by their allegiance and misfortunes with his own unhappy race ? Unfortunately. . that the taste was imbibed at this period. energy. for his attachment to Charles the First another perished of the wounds which he received at the battle of Worcester. died on the scaffold. for Under maintaining his allegiance to James the Second. this perni- by him cious habit and years is commented upon in a contemporary letter . In perusing the irritated by constant dis- tale of his wanderings in the Highlands. rendered the temptation almost irresistible. to be the more charitable as well as reasonable supposition. It seems. whose courage. seems gradually to have gained it it led to many force. in the cause of Charles the Second. and the almost unparalleled hardships and privations to which he was exposed. the leader of a race of pristine valour. 1 " that Charles " It is generally acknowledged. . the frequent occasions on which he sought solace from ardent spirits can scarcely have failed to strike the reader. and the handsome. and a third had twice suffered imprisonment in the Tower. from the highspirited youth who had nearly won for himself the crown of Great Britain who had rendered himself the darling hero of the gallant Highlanders. the latter days of Charles Edward present a strong and melancholy contrast to the brilliancy of his early career. As early as the year 1747. Edward. Widely different. that Charles had contracted. the gallant. while yet young. as he is painted in his closing years. and did great injury to his cause. the adventurous. and after he had become enfeebled by years and appointments. which increased fatally as he advanced in life. therefore. and perseverance had made him the theme of every tongue .THE PRETENDERS AND THEIR ADHERENTS. 360 [1770. when the general example of those about him. indeed. can we wonder that Charles should have glanced with a deep and mournful interest on the young Duke of Hamilton." says Sir Walter Scott. these circumstances. whose romantic qualities may be said to have died 1 . till in his latter of those disgraceful scenes of intoxi- which lowered him in the estimation of all about In 1709 we find him.

To Charles also it is due to observe. but to all their neighbours. King's Anecdotes of his Own Times. regardless of the It is a fact concharacter which he was himself no longer able to protect. no esteem for his northern mistress. will perhaps be inclined to regard him with blame rather than with pity. by men of a lower description." . sistent with the author's knowledge. 1770. not only to their own family. scarce noted. that he seems to have oc1 casionally struggled successfully against the pernicious habit which he had contracted. in alluding to the Prince's mistress. with some honourable exceptions. we should not place implicit confidence in the prejudiced statements of party writers. and again Dr King observes. She had no elegance of and as they had both contracted an odious habit of drinking. drunken scenes which probably occasioned a report of his manners . scarce remembered and Introduction to the Red Gauntlet. Under such circumstances. Shortly after the dismissal of his Scottish servants he is described by a person who had recently visited the Chevalier's court as " enjoying more ease and quiet than formerly. had in his latter days yielded to those humiliating habits of intoxication. in moments unfit for presentation of any kind. however. Charity. never having been seen concerned in the least with liquor since that event. Miss Walken" I believe he spoke truth. pp. and that he was not always represented by those who approached him as the confirmed debauchee he is painted by his enemies." and. 207. although she had been his companion for so many years. whose melancholy " motto was De vivre et pas vivre. They It was one of these often quarreled. and was surrounded. note. which along with him.] him. dismissing and supplying their places with Italians 3G1 Scottish attendants* all his . Amid these clouds was at length extinguished the torch which once shook itself over Britain with such terrific glare. in which the meanest mortals seek to drown the recollection of their disappointments and miseries. so they exposed themselves very frequently. 208. the unhappy Prince lost the friendship even of those faithful followers who had most devoted themselves to his misfortunes. demands that we should make some allowance for an unfortunate Prince. and sometimes fought. 1 Dr and at last sunk in its own ashes.PBINCE CHAKLE8 EDWABD. when he declared he had shaw. madness. in a drunnen fit. est beaucoup plus que de mourir. and consequently have never been tempted in the same degree. moreover." Those who have never been exposed to the same series of misfortunes and disappointments as Charles. that persons totally unentitled to and unfitted for such a distinction were presented to the unfortunate Prince.

" to Bishop Forbes. though not to excess. they seemed to have some ground for their suspicion. When he was in Scotland he had a mistress. and although Mr refused to comply with this demand . where the Prince then was. Chambers. of which the following appears to be the most de" There is one part of his character which serving of credit I must particularly insist on. Not a blot." writes a Jacobite drunkard. The residence of Frederick Prince of Wales. that she was acquainted with all his schemes. all those persons of distinction who were attached to him were they imagined that this wench had been greatly alarmed Dr King. and by some concurring accidents totally blasted all his hopes and pretensions. not so much as a pimple. 1 . though maliciously given out by some as if it were all over blotted but he is jolly and plump. drinks tea at four. and is in his bedchamber by nine. are very different from those of a confirmed " He is a great economist. as they are described at a rather later period. . who soon acquired such a dominion over him. He a month gets up in the morning about four o'clock. and is still. dines at twelve on the plainest dishes. housekeeper at Leicester House. and fit for undergoing toil. was happily attended with one good effect to make him think more seriously upon what had happened and no man could be of a firmer and more determined resolution than he was known to be. 2 Some years after he was released from his prison. 142. his habits of life. and whose sister was at that time. sups betwixt seven and eight. presome grave charges against Charles of ingratitude and obstinacy. considering her sister's situation. As soon as this was known in England. Again. p. fers : : placed in his family by the English Ministers and. or before it. . being still agile. whose name is Walkenshaw. Bishop Forbes's MSS. in Leicester Square. since it occasioned the defection of the most powerful of his friends and adherents in England. and trusted with his most secret correspondence." . wherefore they despatched a gentleman to Paris. takes breakfast about seven. 362 [l770. he sent for this girl.THE PRETENDERS AND THEIE ADHERENTS. and conducted out of France. who had instructions to insist that Miss "Walkenshaw should be removed But her gallant absolutely to a convent for a certain term. was in his face. and pays all accounts once gentleman at farthest." 1 in his curious Anecdotes of his own Times.

in short. but because the writer is evidently. that in the written remonstrance made to Charles. or indeed any particular regard. and even proceeded so far as to assure him. the latter declared. and all Mr M'Namara's entreaties and remonstrances were ineffectual. and who has a natural eloquence and an excellent understanding." As it is certain that about this period a remonstrance was . 1770. thus to draw down the vengeance of Heaven on every branch of it through so many . 204208. would be the infallible consequences of his refusal. finding him obstinately persevere in his first answer. not only as being a mere ex-parte statement. we must receive the whole of Dr King's violent tirade with great caution. that it was not a violent passion. it is natural that Charles should have felt highly indignant at being dictated to by persons whom he regarded as his own subjects and. pp. there is no mention of Miss Walkenshaw. of whom he had formerly been the most zealous adherent.PEINCE CHARLES EDWAED. moreover. the gentleman who was sent to him. also. ' ' It is worthy of remark. It must be mentioned. yet he continued inflexible.] 303 M'JSTa-mara. saying as he passed out What has your family done. urged the most cogent reasons and used all the arts of persuasion to induce him to part with his mistress. Still. powerful friends in England that the ruin of his interest. in which he was represented to . there is probably a good deal of truth in Dr King's statement. The remonstrance seems to have originated the chiefly in the report of an English Jacobite abroad to Prince's friends in Britain. that in all the conferences ages ? which M'Namara had with the Prince on this occasion. which was now daily increasing. M'JS"amara staid in Paris some days beyond the time prescribed him. highly prejudiced against the unfortunate Prince. be leading a dissolute life. endeavouring to reason the Prince into a better temper but. he took his leave with concern and indignation. sir. l made to Charles by his friends in England in regard to his general conduct and the life he was leading. according to his instrucimmediate interruption of all correspondence tions. to be ungrateful and violent in Dr King's Anecdotes of his Own Time. for some reason. which attached him to Miss Walkenshaw. and that he could see her removed from him without any concern but he would not receive directions in respect to his private conduct from any man alive. 1 . that an with his most and.

he was induced to marry the Princess Louisa of Stolberg-G-ffidern. very possibly to serve some mean purpose of their own. and believed the advances which to your knowledge I have already made were as great as could be reasonably expected on my part. I had always determined to await events in silence or patience. . it is now difficult to ascertain it is certain. [l772. whose story will form the subject of a Charles was at this period in his fiftyseparate memoir. and accordingly. the lady of the house seized that oppor: . that the line of the Stuarts should be continued. Conscious of my conduct. and that he sought more than ever for solace from his miserable reflections in the adventitious excitement afforded by the . has made me put pen to paper in vindication of my character. surprising manner. and too prone to take the advice of evil counof justice there may have been in these charges. however. I understand by them. and I hope always shall. which. we occasionally find some interesting particulars of him in his later years. delivered in a still more Reason may." thus describes an interview which she had with " him at Rome about the year 1775 "We were seated on a sofa. that they were treated by Charles with great scorn and " " I some time ago Gentlemen. the authoress of a work entitled "Letters from Italy.THE PRETENDERS 364 A. of whose sincerity I am satisfied. received a very surprising message. . 1772. when one of the gentlemen in waiting announced the King.ND THEIR ADHERENTS. they were nevertheless desirous. I despise their low malice and I consider it to be below my dignity to treat them in the terms they merit. in April. Tet the influence of well-wishers. Among others. and from this period it is to be feared that the conduct and habits of Charles changed considerably for the worse. a Mrs Miller. From the pages of different writers. some unworthy people have had the insolence to attack. indignation." Although the French and Spanish monarchs had refused to acknowledge the Prince's title of King of England. prevail but my heart deceives me if threats or promises ever can. his conduct. As there were many rooms to pass before this personage could appear." he writes. second year. . and the Princess more than thirty years his Their union was in every respect an unhappy one junior. bottle. from political motives. who visited Italy in the life-time of the unfortunate Prince. What degree sellors.

It struck me that mon Prince would not come well from me. and hear him speak. should he speak to me. with which I refused to comply. I had but a moment for reflection. avoid it. that no gentlemen of the British empire make themselves known to him. 'Speak English. I think I was right my reasons were these I knew before. She still insisted upon my not answering. having previously made me a particular bow. for all on a sudden he said. refrain from answering him. as I would do any other foreigner or native. and their party adding more of the like sort but I concluded with saying. except such as declare themselves disaffected to the present royal family at least. which I returned with a low curtsey. madam. and bowing very politely to the company.] 3G5 tunity to desire ine upon no account to speak to or take the least notice of him. I had also heard. Added to these considerations. as such a caution would bear the appearance of passing myself for being of political consequence. and called him mon Seigneur. and myself. but. At last he addressed me in particular. how long I should stay. particularly English. on the contrary. He endeavoured to enter into conversation with me.' Before I could reply. . Highness was equally improper. advanced to the individual sofa on which I was placed with the Duchess of Bracciano. so I hit upon what I thought a middle course. :