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# HOMEWORK 1

Problem 1:
a) What are the energies in electron volts (eV) of light at wavelengths 850, 1310,
1490, and 1550 nm?
b) Consider a 1-ns pulse with a 100-nW amplitude at each of these wavelengths.
How many photons are in such a pulse at each wavelength?
Problem 2:
A WDM optical transmission system is designed so that each channel has a spectral
width of 0.8 nm. How many wavelength channels can be used in the C-band?
Problem 3:
What is the duration of a bit for each of the following three signals which have bit
rates of 64 kb/s, 5 Mb/s, and 10 Gb/s?
Problem 4:
a) Convert the following absolute power levels to dBm values: 1 pW, 1 nW, 1 mW,
10 mW, and 50 mW
b) Convert the following dBm values to power levels in units of mW: -13 dBm, -6
dBm, 6 dBm, and 17 dBm.
Problem 5:
A signal travels from point A to point B:
a) If the signal power is 1 mW at point A and 0.125 mW at point B, what is the
attenuation in dB?
b) What is the signal power at point B if attenuation is 15 dB?
Problem 6:
A 50-km long optical fiber has a total attenuation of 24 dB. If 500 µW of optical
power get launched into the fiber, what is the output optical power level in dBm and µW?
Problem 7:

Scilab. Let r0 and r1 denote the events of receiving 0 and 1.10 mW of optical power enters a fiber. (1) Find P(r0) and P(r1) (2) If a 0 is received. P(r1|m0) = p = 0. that a 1 was sent? (4) Calculate the prob. a 0 or 1 is transmitted. of error Pe (5) Calculate the prob. what is the prob.5. 1310 nm and 1550 nm? b) What is the frequency spacing between optical wavelengths 1510 nm and 1520 nm? Problem 9: In a binary communication system (as in the figure). what is the prob. Problem 8: a) What are the frequencies of the optical wavelengths 800 nm. Let m0 and m1 denote the events of transmitting 0 and 1. Matlab. Let P(m0) = 0. Use linear. C. Because of channel noise. respectively. and P(r0|m1) = q = 0.1. that the transmitted signal is correctly read as the receiver . that a 0 was sent? (3) If a 1 was received. log scale for the vertical axis. Compute (in a table) and plot (using any programming language. a 0 can be received as 1 and vice versa. Mathematica or even excel is OK) the output power (in mW) as a function of fiber loss for losses in the range from 0-50 dB. respectively.2.

What are the overhead for T1 and T3? Problem 11: An observation shows that a number of customers visiting a telephone cabin within every hour is a Poisson random variable with λ=10.. Find the prob.v.Problem 10: Digital transmission hierarchy used in the North American telephone network. b are constants. Problem 13: Let Y=aX + b. at each multiplexing level some overhead bits are added for synchronization purposes. Prove that a) E(Y) = E (aX + b) = aE(X) + b b) Var (Y) = Var (aX + b) = a2 Var (X) . where a. that a) There are exactly 4 customers visiting that cabin in one hours b) There are more than 12 customers visiting that cabin in one hours Problem 12: X and Y are independent Poisson radom variable (r. Prove that Z=X+Y is also a Poisson r. Find lamda_Z. As can be seen the Fig.v).