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6. Process or Product Monitoring and Control
6.2. Test Product for Acceptability: Lot Acceptance Sampling
6.2.3. How do you Choose a Single Sampling Plan?

Sample
OC
curve

We start by looking at a typical OC curve. The OC curve for a (52 ,3)
sampling plan is shown below.

Number of
defectives is
approximately
binomial

It is instructive to show how the points on this curve are
obtained, once we have a sampling plan (n,c) - later we will
demonstrate how a sampling plan (n,c) is obtained.
We assume that the lot size N is very large, as compared to
the sample size n, so that removing the sample doesn't
significantly change the remainder of the lot, no matter how
many defects are in the sample. Then the distribution of the
number of defectives, d, in a random sample of n items is
approximately binomial with parameters n and p, where p is
the fraction of defectives per lot.
The probability of observing exactly d defectives is given
by

05 . Let us design a sampling plan such that the probability of acceptance is 1for lots with fraction defective p1 and the probability of acceptance is for lots with fraction defective p2..394 . respectively.12 Solving for (n.06 .04 .07 .01.930 .. This means that Sample table for Pa.c) Equations for calculating a sampling plan with a given OC curve In order to design a sampling plan with a specified OC curve one needs two designated points.10 . and the acceptance number c are the solution to . is less than or equal to c.09 .845 . the number of defectives.01 . .2 of 6 The binomial distribution The probability of acceptance is the probability that d.08 . then the sample size n. are the Producer's Risk (Type I error) and Consumer's Risk (Type II error).. p2 is the LTPD and .02.300 .02 .739 . Pd using the binomial distribution Using this formula with n = 52 and c=3 and p = .. Typical choices for these points are: p1 is the AQL. the accept number. If we are willing to assume that binomial sampling is valid.11 .162 . .12 we find Pa Pd .115 .223 .502 .998 .620 .03 .980 .

= 0.0338 .02 .02775.0369 p . . we can generate the following table AOQ . accepted lots have fraction defectivep0. Therefore. c = 3.04 . . There are however a number of iterative techniques available that give approximate solutions so that composition of a computer program poses few problems.930 and AOQ = (. the outgoing lots from the inspection stations are a mixture of lots with fractions defective p0 and 0.05 .03.12. Now at p = 0. and p. . we glean from the OC curve table that pa = 0.03.3 of 6 These two simultaneous equations are nonlinear so there is no simple. the quality of incoming lots. provided rejected lots are 100% inspected and defectives are replaced with good parts. let N = 10000. Sample table of AOQ versus p Setting p = .0196 .0010 .. Assume all lots come in with exactly a p0 proportion of defectives. After screening a rejected lot.0278 . Assuming the lot size is N.02. we have..930)(. the final fraction defectives will be zero for that lot. However. direct solution.03)(10000-52) / 10000 = 0.c) sampling plan.. n = 52.03 . Average Outgoing Quality (AOQ) Calculating AOQ's We can also calculate the AOQ for a (n. For example.01.01 .

The "duds" are eliminated or replaced by good ones. then the outgoing quality is also very good (very small fraction of defectives going out). most of the lots are rejected and then inspected. the AOQ rises. It is called the average outgoing quality limit. One final remark: if N >> n. then the AOQ ~ pa p .08 .12 Sample plot of AOQ versus p A plot of the AOQ versus p is given below. reaches a maximum.07 .4 of 6 .0138 .0351 .0223 .06 . When the incoming lot quality is very bad.0315 . The maximum ordinate on the AOQ curve represents the worst possible quality that results from the rectifying inspection program.09 . so that the quality of the outgoing lots. becomes very good.0372 .0270 . and then drops. . In between these extremes. (AOQL ).06 for the above example. From the table we see that the AOQL = 0.0372 at p = . the AOQ.0178 . Interpretation of AOQ plot From examining this curve we observe that when the incoming quality is very good (very small fraction of defectives coming in).10 .11 .

14 ..07 6083 .5 of 6 The Average Total Inspection (ATI) Calculating the Average Total Inspection What is the total amount of inspection when rejected lots are screened? If all lots contain zero defectives. no lot will be rejected.01. Finally.10 8388 .930) (10000 .930 was rounded to three decimal places. 753 was obtained using more decimal places. (Note that while 0.03 1584 . then the ATI per lot is ATI = n + (1 .13 9453 .14 generates the following table ATI P 70 .05 3836 . and p = .52) = 753. c = 3. If all items are defective. the average amount of inspection per lot will vary between the sample size n.12 9201 .06 5007 .08 7012 .02 753 .n) For example.01 253 .09 7779 . and the lot size N. Let the quality of the lot be p and the probability of lot acceptance be pa. n = 52. all lots will be inspected.04 2655 ...02. if the lot quality is 0 < p < 1.pa) (N .11 8854 . and the amount to be inspected is N. Then ATI = 52 + (1-.930. . let N = 10000.03 We know from the OC table that pa = 0.) Sample table of ATI versus p Setting p= . .

the Incoming Lot Quality (ILQ) is given below.6 of 6 Plot of ATI versus p A plot of ATI versus p. .