AD NUMBER
AD301343
CLASSIFICATION CHANGES
TO:
unclassified
FROM:
confidential
LIMITATION CHANGES
TO:
Approved for public release, distribution
unlimited
FROM:
Distribution authorized to U.S. Gov't.
agencies and their contractors;
Administrative/Operational Use; MAY 1958.
Other requests shall be referred to Army
Ordnance Department, Research and
Development Division, Washington, DC
20310.
AUTHORITY
d/a ltr
28 jan 1981
D,'ECLA$SIFICAI 0bN
ANuEDULE
THIS DOCUMENT
is:
CLAU IFIS________
SiJ~t to Serd Iudn*Mk cgkhlt~ of
Ernth1rkIMN
1a
iyd ungered at
2 You Igmgs., HAWEI SI SECEMIEI 31
ftlfm howsit,'"~ Ciotti
ftolst too~ Aleicy
ImXI$~h
DISCLAIMER NOTICE
THIS DOCUMENT IS BEST QUALITY
PRACTICABLE. THE COPY FURNISHED
TO DTIC CONTAINED A SIGNIFICANT
NUMBER OF PAGES WHICH DO NOT
REPRODUCE LEGIBLY.
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CONFIDENTIAL
Final Report
ISAENERGY PROJECTILES
WARNING
fTSUrAL SM1
M TM WAX
NATO
AMUNOF TMB MOM&=*S 1AYS
Too
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SCTP W1 A M
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TW tVIIAU Or RD5 0
MONSO CMU
TO AN UUArlrt
TOM%, P ANT MOpMl
Mwii
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LAW.
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BATTELLE
MEMORIAL
CONFIDENTIAL
INSTITUTE
SLP
' 1958
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4

CONFIDENTIAL
FINAL REPORT
on
to
ORDNANCE DEPARTMENT
RESEARCH AND DEVFLOPMENT DIVISION
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
31 May 1958
by
J.
C.
Bell and L.
E. Hulbert
BATTELLE MEMORIAL N
;5 King Avc"iie
Columbtus 1, Ohio
ttUTIL
CONFIDENTIAL
CONFIDENTIAL
I
I
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Pa ge
SUMMARY..
BACKGROUND.....................
.. .
...........
...........
.
.....
..
5
5
5
7
10
13
.....
.
.... .
..
13
14
18
3
24.......
4
25
.
.........
APPENDIX
BIBLIOGRAPHY
...
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# I %
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CONFIDENTIAL
AN ANALYTICAL STUDY OF DATA ON A kMOR PENETRATION BY
TANKFIRED, KINETIC ENERGY PROJECTILES
by
J. C. Beli and L. E. Hulbert
SUMMARY
CONFIDENTIAL
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z
BACKGROUND
The conventlonal means tor defeating tank armor has long been projectiles w'hich
penetrate the armor by virtue of their kinetic energy at the instant of impact. Many
studies, mostly empirical but some theoretical, have been made to find how fast a given
projectile must be traveling in order to penetrate a given piece of armor. The theoretical work is difficult, so simplifications must be introduced, and these generally prevent
the results irom having broad applicability. On the other hand, experiments with regular projectiles are expensive, so many ei.rly experiments were conducted with relatively limited test conditions.
One way to get fairly broad empirical results economically is to restrict attention
to small caliber projectiles. A widely quoted formula from the National Physical
Laboratory* was based on experiments with projectiles from 0. Z96 in. to 1. 565 in. in
diameter against plates 5 to 80 mm thick, having Brinell hardness 250 to 4S0 kg/mm 2 .
Later work permitted the formula to be amended to include the influence of obliquity of
the line of fire with respect to the target. As the formula was proposed it predicted
velocities required for intact projectiles to achieve penetrations complete in the Navy
sense, that is, with at least half the weight of the projectile passing completely through
the plate. In order to broader. the usefulness of the formula, means were developed in
Project Thor** for adapting the formula to broken projectiles, and for predicting penetrations complete in the Army sense, tiat is, where light shows through the hole when
the projectile is removed. Still this work referred to small projectiles, ranging in
diameter from 0.30 in. to 37 rmm, and most of the target plates hzd thicknesse. of an
inch or less. Data for the Project Thor correlation were drawn largely from a single
Aberdeen Proving Ground Report***.
The NPL iormula, as quoted in the Project Thor Report, is:
mV&.
L
43.4/
d3
e
3t!
sec+9Z9
ll,400
6
54.000
where
VL
t . ...
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B = Brinell Hardness Number in kg/mm 2 units
e = thickness of the armor in inches
Bo = 500  160 log 1 0 (d
Although the studies mentioned were iimited to small caliber projectiles, there
are many data referring to fullscale tests with the kinds of projectiles used by tanks,
that is, from 37 to 120 mm, and some even larger. The Aberdeen Proviag Ground has
conducted many experimental programs with such projectiles for various (though often
limited) motives. Thus, a moderate amount of firing was done in testing early designs
of new projectiles. One substantial program (Project AX 23) tested various steels for
a single projectile, the 90 mm AP, T33E7. A long series of related tests (Project
2864) was designed to show the effect of hardness of the plate in withstanding the shot,
and since plate obliquity was known to be important, variations were introduced in that
too. Fairly recently, a large, more fully organized program (Projects TB4150M and
TB410A) was performed for testing the effects of plate hardness, obliquity, and type
(whether cast or rolled*), using more modern projectiles. In addition, many other experiments were performed for a variety of special reasons.
Since the voluminous results of these fullscale tests were quite scattered, the
Ballistic Research Laboratories undertook to assemble the results into a more concise
form. Two reports were published on this subject. The first** was simply a collection of ballistic limits as reported in the many firing records. The second report*P*
provided an empirical correlation of these limits. The number of ballistic limits considered in the correlation process was 2364, with 1475 for rolled and 889 for cast
armor. The projectiles included I I varieties of AP shot, 9 of APC, and II of HVAP.
There were, of course, many obhoquit_,s and plate thicknesses, chosen to make 4ultable
targets for the projectile; being tested. The results consisted first f a series of
graphs showing how the rntas, red ballistic limits varied with the tid ratio (armor
thlckness/core diameter) for given projectiles, obliquity, and armor type. Second.
a set of predictive curves was fitted in the formn is
aa
^al
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4
Ballistic Limit = K 0 (t/d)n,
where n = 0.85 for AP projectiles, 0.78 for APC, and 0.65 for HVAP; and K., was tabulated for each combination of armor type (rolled or cast), projectile type (AP, APC, or
HVAP) and obliquity. Generally speaking, the correlations were fairly good, but some
substantial discrepancies between predicted and measured values remained.
Brief inspection of the ballistic limits tabulated in the BRL collection shows the
difficulty of choosing a representative ballistic limit for any test condition, because the
tabulated limits for many conditions scatter badly. This is not surprising since the
bulk of the limits were found as average velocitiei of only one complete and one partial
penetration, even though more extensive tests usually produce both complete and partial penetrations over a wide range of velocities. The question arises whether there
might not be some advantage in combining the penetration data from all similar tests in
order to compute an overall ballistic limit. The resulting limit %houldbe less equivocal, and it may be possible to get confidence limits for it. It should be remembered
that this overall limit can be based on result4 from many more rounds than contributed
to the limits in the BRL collection, since the rounds discarded in getting individual
lirits
can be retained in getting the overall limit. In addition, results from other
kinds of tests, such as shot or plate acceptance, may be considered for use, even
though they were never part of a ballistic limit test.
I
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CONFIDENTIAL
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CONFIDENTIAL
5
ASSEMBLING THE DATA
It was known that firing records showing individual rounds were available at several military librar'es, but the most promising pLace to find records for tankfired
projectiles was the Technical Information Branch at the Aberdeen Proving Ground. A
total of about 6 manweeks were spent searching the firing records stored there, selecting those which seemed to contain relevant tests. After the pertinent records were
found, the TIB prepared duplicates and sent them to Battelle Memorial Institute. This
large work of reproduction (totalling about 14,000 sheets) proved to be of great assistance later in sorting and editing the data. The volume of records found at the TIB
seemed to be about as many as could be handled in the present program, so little further searching was done except through the Armed Services Technical Information
Agency at Dayton, Ohio, where a few more records were found.
During the search, certain limitations were placed on the kinds of records to be
considered. First, they needed to refer to kineticenergy projectiles, as ofposec' to
HEAT or HEP or other explosive shots designed for the penetration of armor. This
retained only the AP, APC, HVAP, and discarding sabot varieties of shot. The caliber
of the weapon was required to be between 37 mm and 155 mm. The plate neec'ed to be
homogeneous, so face hardened, spaced, and siliceous cored armors were orritted.
Finally, no armor was accepted unless at least I inch thick.
The medium to be used for assembling the data ultimately was to be IBM punched
cards which could store 80 numerical or alphabetic characters. It seemed most dedirable that each test round should be represented by its individual punche!d card, and
that all working information about the round should be on that card. Since firing rec ords come in a great variety of formats, containing various spectra of information,
considerable planning was required to decide Nhat data should be recorded on the cards.
In order to know the origin of each shot card, some notation of reference was
needed. Since the basic record is the Firing Recordp its number was recorded together with the page and round number of the shot. (The AD or other project eports
almost always show the raw data by appending several Firing Records.) In order to
show associations of the test, a record was made of the AD report number (if any), or
else of the library book number (if any), These reference data made it possible to
check or amend the data by returning to the original firing records. They also helped
reveal accidental duplication of records. (Many firing records occurred in two or
more places in the library,) In addition, a coded notation was added #Ao show the kind
of test involved, whether acceptance or experzmental, whether testi ig shot or plate.
*ATtLL9
MIOA
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CON FI DENTIAL
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*
CONFIDENTIAL
6
The firing records may list many bits of information about the armor plate, sach
as nominal thickness, actual thickness, type (rolled, cast, wrought), physical properties including surface or crosssectional hardness, impact tests, chemical composition, heat treatments, manufacturer, heat number, and so forth. Out of all these
attributes it was decided that only the plate type, average Brinell hardness of the surface, and nominal thickness were indispensible. The actual thickness was tc be recorded and used in the analysis if it were available, but the nominal thickness could be
substituted for it. The Charpy or Izod impact test result also was to be recorded as
an alternative or supplement to the hardness in case some need or means were found
for so using it. Chemical composition and heat treatment were thought to be so complicated of description and so intertwined in their significance that it was unprofitable
to include them directly. Along with other data, they could be had by returning to the
original records via the reference punches, if this were ever needed.
Description of the shot in most firing records is implied in the model number.
Therefore it was decided to describe the shot by assigning each model a threedigit
code number. The codes were assigned fairly systematically, so that a person conversant with the system could recognize the shots fairly readily. In records about experimental shots, where many minor variations of shot might be made without changing
the model number, double punching with "x" or "y" was added to distinguish between
available, on the punched cards, planning to compensate for obliquity roundoff by performing a velocity adjustment, but this was not done, at least partly because of scarcity
of precedent. One other test condition which is reported in connection with climatic
tests is the temperature. This was eliminated in the present study by omitting the cold
weather tests.
Atiother test specification commonly recorded is the weapon used in firing the
shot. Since the rifling of the weapon has been a matter of occasional interest in plate
penetration, presumably because of the effect of yaw, it was decided to keep a record
of the weapon. To this end, each model of weapon was assigned a twodiglt cod., %t
preference was liven to the tube model number in case that differed from the weapii
model number.
*For exampe, *he APVO mm M7 was awigrnd Code Sli. Tr code sit ueast the "in
computing machines teognize the ldotel c
as llof AiII, depend
a, .I: .14l.
A t I LL a
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10
3
m
I
be distinguished or
In addition, since a
the Rockwell C hardother data about the
Certain test conditions, too, were indispensable for any analysis, namely the
obliquity and the striking velocity. Striking velocities almost always are reported to
the nearest foot per second, so they were taken in that form for the present analysis.
It was intended to adjust those velocities by an appropriate factor (the square root of
the ratio of nominal and actual plate thicknesses) in order to compansate for irregularities in the plate thickness. In this way, the tests could be divided efficiently into only
a few platethickness groups. The obliquities, too, needed to be divided into a few
groups, but this w.s accomplished merely by rounding the obliquity to the nearest multiple of 5 degrees. In most of the firing records, the obliquities were already rounded
in this form.
#X wmht a w*uiItel,
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CONFIDENTIAL
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CONFIDENTIAL
7
Editing the Test Results
record. For penThe result of a given test is, of course, a vital part of the test
the penetration is
etration tests, the result is usually described by saying whether
been used. This ampartial or complete, but several definitions of completeness have
attempted, such as in the
biguity is most unfortunate when a synthesis of data is being
present project.
of penetration
In order of severity, the criteria commonly used for completeness
projectile
the
of
weight
are (a) the Navy criterion which demands that at least half the
requires that some
shall pass through the plate; (b) the protective criterion which
behind the target plate
fragment shall perforate a weak screen placed a short distance
the Army criterion
(the screen material and thickness seem to vary somewhat); (c)
plate when the shot is
the
in
hole
the
which requires only that light shall show through
remnoved.
I
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3
3
I
5
3
On the basis of experience in reading the records, some rules were developed for
deducing an Army penetration rating. Except when there was clearly some unusual
or
spalling, CP(P)* was taken to imply CP(A). If the only rating shown was PP(N)
2P(P), then the question was referred to the deuct,,tive matter. Any measurable hole
on the rear implied CP(A). Also, when there was mention of a large bulge un the plate
this
with punching started or with a substantial crack (longer than the plate thickness),
was taken to imply CP(A), unless it appeared that the Author was unduly lavish in his
On the other hand, the rating was set at PP(A) if a cracked bulge was
descriptions
only medium or small, or if the crack was very short. This method of assigning Army
ratings by noting bulges and cracks v is checked oftcn when Amy ratngs were given in
the firing records, and the method appcared modciAtely dependable. Occasionally,
they
when protective ratings were given alone without any other descriptive matter,
not
was
expedient
were assumed to coincide with Army ratintr, but fo rtunately this
needed often. Rarely, in view of persistent doubt about it, no rating was assigned.
*That is,
A L
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CONFIDENTIAL
i
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8
One other relevant test result appeared to be the rupture of the projectile. For
example, several test programs have distinguished between ballistic limits for shattered as opposed to unshattered projectiles, and the Project Thor analysis distinguished
between broken and intact projectiles. Therefore, in the present project, a brief recFive classes were recognizedord of projectile rupture was included for each tea.
intact, broken but not shattered, nose shattered, other shatter, and no comment. The
firing record cescriptions varied, so the classification was sometimes difficult, but
plausible guesses could be made.
In order to prepare the data for keypunching onto cards, workheets were prepared on which an editor could assemble whatever information he could gather from any
firing record. The worksheets were arranged in the order that was to be used on the
punched cards. Vertical columns were allowed for the following kinds of information:
Class of Information
Card Columns
Reference Data
I
I
I
Library Number
Book Number or AD Number
18
912
13
Firing Record
Record Number
1423
Page Number
24,Z5
Round Number
26,27
1
1
!
Active Identification
3133
Test Obliquity
34, 35
36
Plate Type
3740
1
1
3
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9
Class of Information
Card Columns
Active Data
Actual Piate Thickness (to 0.01 in.)
4144
5254
Striking Velocity
6265
+ or  in 68,
69, or 70
71
Weapon Code
7Z,73
74,75
7678
The worksheets served not only as a place to store data but also as a reminder of
the data that were bting sought. This latter function was really important since the information was often scattered throughout a report, and at times had to be se rched out
of more than one report. Since several people did the work of editing, and they could
not afford individual decisions on the problems which kept arising, the problems too
were jotted onto the worksheets until they could be settled.
Considerable pains were taken to get all the really necessary information about as
nany valid test rounds as possible. Information regarded as necessary was that listed
under Active Identification and Active Data. If entries under those headings could not be
completed, the test was rejected, except for a few that were admitted withuut the
Brinell rating. Another reason often used for rejecting a test was that it was really not
a penetration test. This objection applied to most projectilethroughplate tests, and
tests involving proof projectiles. Still other tests were rejected because they were isolated tests with poorly rated experimental projectiles.
When the firing records reported ballistic limits computed on the rounds reported therein, those limits too were jotted on the margin of the worksheets.
While the editing was performed bf several people, _t was checked in the end by
one person who attempted to insure uniformity as well as accuracy of the work. Then
the worksheets were sent to keypunch operators who punched the data on cards and then
verified the punching. In this way, reasonable accuracy seens to have been achieved
in the punched data, despite its scattered origins. Some mistkes were fomnd subsequently in the punched data, but they have beer, relatively few.
CONFIDENTIAL
8 A Tr Ir f L L. 9
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CONFIDENTIAL
10
The precise number of reports edited does not mean much, because the number
of rounds per report varied from 2 for many acceptance tests up to about 640 for one
armor report (AD 679). Nevertheless, it may give some idea of the editing task to
state that the following approximate number of records were edited:
Approximate Number
Kind of Record
AD Reports
45
Project Reports
10
80
With Projectiles
80
1850
750
2800
Total
The purpose of this project was to combine the data from the .nmny reports that
were edited, and to examine them for pattern and consistency. To gage this undertaking, it is helpful to know how many kinds of tests were found reported in the reference records. A risumi of the kinds of tests is given in Table I. It can be seen there
that about 50 principal models of shot were encountered, but that if one counts all the
variations of these shot, there were over three times that many kinds of shot. (The
precise nutmber of distinct shot varieties is hard to know, because some minor variations were merged in the editing process, and other variations probably were not mentioned explicitly in the firing records.) When one counts how many tests were made
with each of these shot varieties, separating the tests into groups according to armor
type (rolled or cast), plate thickness (roundec, to one of the standard values), and
ribliquity (rounded to a multiple of 5 degrees), he finds that over 1000 different kinds of
tests were reported.*
The great diversity of tests can be reduced by observing that not all varieties of
shot need to be analyzed separately. Thus, it appears reasonable to merge results
from firings of the same shot with and without windshield, since it has been observed
often that the windshield does not much affect the shot's ability for plate penetration at
a given striking velocity, Again# shot designers have decided often that there was little
~JIttac.a
we'MAg
in hie
N' vh 114o
"all put I The ffterial wavtmd tv tAlMW I femed aetwd V"Ike r". Tim elo lit~
A kwf list t , f the weu"dWfd i' epl it ift imp*4
4 *0.
JIM&
l
'it watb a n
5 il l' r 'eas dlertled ofst'td
Malcol That w *diveJ
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l. '1 ti with the ke,' l1wld I ,
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CONFIDENTIAL
CONFIDENTIAL
11
difference between one or more closely related shot varieties, and usually there are
too few data altogether to dispute that viewpoint. Since large groups of data are to be
preferred for the present analysis, several of these closely related shots were lumped
together when they were employed ir, otherwise equivalent tests. Whenever a serious
analysis of any particular test was planned, then considerable care was exercised to
keep the lumped shots as compatible as possible. However, in some cases (notably the
HVAP, 76 mm "specials") where no close analysis seemed feasible, even dissimilar
of the data. These
shots were lumped together in order to provide a brief rofsumr
processes of lumping shots account for the fact that the number of analyses shown in
Table 1 is substantially less than the number of kinds of tests.
Broadly speaking, each of the various kinds of tests was subjected to one of three
kinds of analysis, chosen according to the quantity and quality of the data. Each of
these analyses was intended to estimate the striking velocity at which half of the rounds
could be expected to penetrate completely. Groups with enough tests (perhaps 25
rounds or more), fairly well distributed with respect to plate hardness, were treated
with a probit analysis, specially planned to account for variations with plate hardness.
Good smaller groups, especially ones involving small ranges of plate hardness, were
treated with an ordinary probit analysis. Groups with only a few tests (less than about
12), or with very irregular patterns, were treated with simple analyses of familiar
A
form, such as taking average velocities of a few partial and complete penetrations.
I.
in
Table
bhown
is
cases
varioui.
to
the
applied
of
analyses
kinds
of
the
breakdown
Details regarding method are given in the next section.
Table I also shows how many rounds of each main variety of shot were accepted
for analysis. Numerous others were not acceptz d for analysis in the end, usually because they were from shot acceptance tests where the rounds were fired deliberately at
velocities considerably above the ballistic limit.
FA MIALk
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tft
CON FIDENTIAL
CONFIDENTIAL
Claso
Prokctlo
Cal,
m
37
AP
57/40
S7
7S
76
90
AVC
10S
I20
ISS
6 in.
37
57
75
76
90
104
VAV
320
is
76
Model
M74
mSo
Taper(s)
M70
MUz
T43
T148
T149
M79
TIZ6E6
(M339)
TI"
M?7
T33
T33E7
T43
TS4EI
TIZ
T116
MIlt
Mk XXVII
MS1
M46
M61
T42
M41
M8
TZ5
T16
TI7
T39
T50
T%EI
T13
TSIZI
T14
TO2?
M9
T4
spe aml
TO2
T644I
umI,ns
"104
shot
Kinds
III%
2Z49
0
67
Z13
1S94
16
134
9
213
261
7
2
7
14
1
1
4
4
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
6
1
1
22
33
32
53
2
32
7
44
14
3
40
is
17
2
43
S9
1
1
70
676
9"
734
23
617
s
412
122
11
1792
IS03
72
6
1011
1240
7
I
13
2
a
3
1
1
32
16
37
a
4
35
4
9
20
44
7
I
is
16
7
310
101
614
20
73
270
1s
119
It9
117
34
AS
sitZ
632
1
I
I
14
1
1
II
121
149
14
so
lilt
1
1
4
Is
1
1
6
A
Tht
Mo pejts"
its0
13
TOW*
AIt
omitted
Z6
1
10
43
3Z
4
32
12
22
7
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1024
73
39z$
2761
14
5
14
3
937
4
4
57S
26
77
6
It
4
is
3
1
Z34
30
26
1s
16
1409
23S
9
I
11
0
10
7
3
I
1i
4
1
1176*
"1
11i
2
1
13
11
12
I2
1
12
IZ
14
23
22
20
12
49
2
14
a
43
10
2
15
16
14
a
a1
36
1
1
1
S
1
23
4
2
a
as
4
4
1?
4
beeo
0 " a p
w O
Z6
0
IS
40
30
z
1a
I
zz
Z?
I
31
Z4
S3
3!
2
46
i
2
40
51
IS
2
42
51
1
1
1
9
36
4
4
14
4
7
l0
4
7
11
10
I
1
I
1is4
I!3
2
*
*
is
29
Is.0
Total No.
14
Niumber of Amalyse
Probits
Smplo
wjB94H
w~o 04
A aoio
Roumd
1
1
1
2
2
Z
9
3
1
Mill
T30
144
TS)
1112,06
Number of Test.
Test
Round*
Kinds
Used
1
111
Of
I A L
ff
sIf
CONFIDENTIAL
wIf
CONFIDENTIAL
13
If
I
y
certain number of partial and complete penetrations within some predetermined velocity
interval, i.nd then to average the velocities of those rounds. This method depends on
the notion that there is a fairly definite velocity below which the shot will not penetrate
the plate completely, and above which it will. However, it is well known that there is
really a zone of velocities in which mixed results can be expected. To put it differently,
the probability of getting a complete penetration is indeed a function of the striking
velocity, but it may be quite different from a step function jumping from 0 to 1.
The great majority of test situations have been the subject of so little firing that
the probability of success (i. e., complete penetration) has hardly begun to be measured
at any particular level of the strikiag velocity. However, among the test situations
where many rounds have bten fired, a common result is that the probability of success,
as a function of velocity, rises slowly at first, then rapidly, and then slowly approaches
unity, thus approximating a cuimulative normal distribution. The slope of the central
portion of the curve vari,s among test situations, and for some cases where shattering
of the shot intervenes, the curve may drop again to some low value before it rises
finally to unity. This matter of "shatter gaps" is one which will be treated separately
later (and then only briefly), since the subject is difficult enough without it. For the
present, attention will be restricted only to cases where the probability curve follows a
cumulative normal distribution fairly well.
To rationalire this shape for the probability curve, one may assume that whene ,r
a shut is fired there is some critical velocity above which the shot %il1 penetrate cun1pletely, below which it will not, and that these critical velocities are normally distributed for repeated rounds under nominally identical firing conditions. This distribt,,n
of critical velocities may be attributed to minor, unseen variftions in the physical
makeup of the shot and the portion of plate whisb it strikes. Then it V., . 0 are the
mein and standard dtviation of these crit,,d velocities, the probability ot suc.ss with
A
shut at v4locity v il:
V
Z/" wk.,
where, t
}!
(v  V1
"h,% i'. tht cknmultve nornal distribution. The quantity 7 is also the ve:lo. ity .t %hit h
h., ot the rounds would achieve complete penetrition. and is thus eus,ntAIlly iist a r, fn.ment of the trdintry concept of the ballistit limit
I
I
CO"NFIDENTIAL
CONFIDENTIAL
14
It has often been observed, too, that the ballistic limit varies with the hardness
of the plate, and the NPL formula quoted earlier gives an empirical law for that variation. However, that law was derived for small shot and thin plate, and it can hardly be
extrapolated to all cases of interest here since the denominators of two of its terms
(65& and BoB) can vanish in the p ,esent range of interest. Nevertheless, in order to
get an idea of the influence of plate hardness on the ballistic limit, that limit was plotted
as a function of hardness, asing the NPL formula and several combinations of the other
parameters. Most of the curves can hardly be distinguished from parabolas operning
downward, This suggests that a parabolic relation between V and the hardness h is a
reasonable form to use in striving for an empirical correlation of the armor penetration
data. This type of relation was tested further by comparing it with actual penetration
data, and it appeared to serve ;,s well as 4ny other acceptably simple relation. Therefore, it is here assumed further that:
+ bh'2
V= k ,h
Pln = p
i=l
q,
'iq,
1>
t
= lp,
In pi + (151) In q1 j
the plan for finding k. a. b, itnd ' is to chv.ose them s04 ,it to i..iet
1. fr,,im attnong
,ill the values it can have when the velocities v,I hardnesses h,, .tnd rating number%
ire the ones observed in the actual experiments.
I?tw MqW"T
AOwIS
Pis
flc, ttTWA hk
IA~il41
i t".
espet ia I I
*I~e~i
j. nq r~*
i' riAtilkI
Rrkfiti LAS.'40 It, T I
%MA
kAkl~
^A ? It i
LI
igAL
Ii
Vet
%7 A.
~4 *
1 ^ L
I'!
af
ftj
in 4,4,r~
L.
. 1114
(A&44*v
i,
it* jiv.,
16.,
fi,
t#
Ia
CONFIDENTIAL
4p
CONFIDENTIAL
15
,)L
AL
7k
oL
& 7b
a =
However, since these equations involve several transcendental lunctions of the unknowns, it is not possible to solve them directly. Therefore, it is expedient to begin
with an estimated solution (kl, al, bl, al) and to seek corrections for it. Expanding
the derivatives of L as power series around the estimated solution, there follows:
6L=6L
+ (kkl)t&2lN
+ (aa
) t "2a
+ (bb I ) t,
(1
I)(162LN
~\
and similar equations for the other derivatives. Ifthe estimated solution is not too far
from the required solution, then the series truncated at this length are valid there, so
that:
(k* k 1)k
+ (a*a,)!(7a)l
+ b
'bl\k~bl
+ka)
( 'T)kJ
+\k~/
(b*bl)
or
)l
a 1b\
and there are three other similar equations. These equations are linear in the corrections k*kl, a*al, b bl, and a' a. Solving for these, and adding them to the first
estimates yields improved estimates of the desired solution. The correction process
can be repeated until the corrections become negligible, and the last estimates are then
the desired solution (k*, a*, b*,
*).
In order to find the corrections k *kl, and so forth, one needs the second derivatives of L. To get these, note first that if 61 and :2 are any two of the parameters k, a,
b, or a, then:
L.Pi
.2
i
P(1 P1 )
Pi + '1(I2p 1)
Px oPi
'
" Piz"
(1pi)Z
(v
met/Z,
k
Then,
Pi
)tj
Atl
tl
and
d1L
"i
'4,t
A,'P ,h
CN
A t t 9 L L 9
_'tj
I tt
0O0
# A L
+ ', f ,p,)
TP IAL
1 00 6t T I
1U t
CONFIDENTIAL
aK
CONFIDENTIAL
161
Now let
u.i=i
Nofe
+
w
= u i ti  u i .
i= itl
6Ati
21
,
ae 2
Thus the second derivatives of L with respect to the various parameters are:
Lkk
1jwi
Lka= a21wihi,
Lkb = a
wi h
2
Lka =
(wi t,
Laa = a"
ui)'
w i hi
Lab
a?Iwi h t ,i
Lbb
a_
a"4
'w
hi
Lba = a"
(w i ti
Loa = C
(W t
u) h
Zu
t.).
1I
(Lkk)l 5k + (Lka)lIa
6)
(1ka) Ixr#t +(Laa)
I1
(Lkb)I
+ (Lkb), 5b + (Lk) 1 6o
(Lb)xb I
a + (Lab)i
+ (aO)l
(Li 1 I5.j 
(La 
A t
5 + (Lba) I 6b + (Lao), 6c
LI
lM I M 0 ItI !A IL
It I ILi
ut)I
 (Iju
u1I hi
 0u 1
h"),
I E N T"l0A# L
T VNF I
I
Iu
I
CONFIDENTIAL
17
Solving these equations by hand calculations would be possible but laborious, so a
program was prepared to do the work with an IBM Type 650 Magnetic Drum Data ProcThe plan of the program required first that an initial estimate should
essing Machine.
Then, as the card for each round was fed to the
be made for each of the parameters.
that round made to each of the sums apcontribution
the
compute
would
it
calculator,
pearing in the coefficients of the system of equations. * The only difficulty in this process was in finding the quantities, Zi/pi. For these, a table was stored in the machine
which enabled the machine to find Zi/pi correctly to one whole number and five decimal
The whole operation proved to be efficient since the calculations performed
places.
for each card took about as long as the minimum time to feed a card to the machine.
After the entire group of cards had been used, then an end program proceeded to solve
for the corrections 5k, etc.
In practice, solving for the parameters k, a, b, a proved to be a delicate art.
Unless the first estimated solution was quite good, the iteration procedure might never
converge. Therefore, all the penetration tests analyzed by this technique were first
graphed, using an autorratic plotter, and initial estimates of the parameters were made
from the graphs. Even with this good beginning, some cases failed to converge, presumably because either the normai distribution of critical velocities or the parabolic
variation with hardness was not a good assumption. For nonconvergent cases, the only
recourse was to divide the data into smaller groups, chosen as logically as possible,
and to analyze the subgroups separately. Another rare cause for failure appeared when
a parabola could be fitted to the data so as to separate entirely the complete and partial
penetrations.
This, of course, makes a indeterminate; so for these cases a parabola
was fitted using the fairly arbitrary value of 10 ft/sec for a.
One further refinement that was added stems from the fact that the parAmeters k
For the sake of clarity of meaning in the parameters.
and a are relatively meaningless.
it is more desirable to express V ab:
V
+b(hh
o)
a2
a
2b
4b
ti the
Since the values of k, a, b. and " which maximize L correspond by these relatumi
values of vo, ho, b, and 3 whzch maximize L, the latter values are 0Asi1V tuand trwyi thqformer. The reason for using the parameters k, a, b, : was merely that the v. Kdird
simpler expressions for the second derivatives of L However, when the pir.,nytr re
inaire expressed as v o . ho, b, and ', they become respectivoly the mnxlmumf.ir jtn,.
,ish.s:gballistic limit, the optimumfor prsoxmumr hardnres., a measuare nf srnaitj 1'.
in placr hardness, tnd the itandard aeviatior of critio Al vel(K Itier
4r
i1
,I
tf"'
"
"
1k Vt
'41,#*U
*Vq*I,*Jaw
4h
tf
A111
ka
V#'
tI~
Ik twi
i 1atith. *A1211wu,
0' LO
c.
ti i
s~it *iJ'
f~4 1
*t Ifti e"wI
,~ii # *"n
.~
*if.
rwr.oe 4
I'rIi, *i, 
M1wt
q Wt j#
~l
ft WrO9W Alt  1* .
CONFIDENTIAL
titOt
FlDET
Iftst
IA
$q
L9 It
4 1i
l~
1$4!
1
CONFIDENTIAL
18
U
I1E(
1,
II
whtre E(
) denotes an expected value, and ( i and Gj represent any two of the parameters being estimated. Restrictions on this proposition are that the number of tests n
is sufficiently large, and that to a good approximation*
1E
3L
L\11\
'2
Regarding sample size, Golub and Grubbs gave an illustration with n = 5, so the present
aim to keep n more than or almost Z5 is probably fairly conservative. The a':proxirnate
equality between expected values was deemed plausible by Golub and Grubbs, and seems
to be so here too.
Regardless of which set of parameters is used, the equation (a) for no1,I
is still
valid. In particular, we now regard it z.s applying to the case where 61 and e7 are any
of the parameters vo, ho, b, or a. Since only expected values of the second derivatives
are required now, and since E(6i)
) &1
6v o
ti
Zb(hiho)
2t i
(hiho)
1ti
tj
Is
pp
2110
ib
Piq,
Tus stae.ent of this ptfulption pg.als that 4 Colub md Gubb, OF. "'It., p. 40 Fut a Mm .wsp,.td,. boot
%tatnunt,#ee Kendall, &I.G., lhe Ad.anced Ihuotiy 4e t
golunn i1, iecti.om 17* 46 md 17.26, Garffm
Vhti,
Ltd,, Londtqi (1 4ti).
8 A T1
LL L
Mi
0@A
! L
#NhOI
t It
CONFIDENTIALI
de t
and I
mim
CONFIDENTIAL
19
it follows that the required Hessian matrix is:
u_
2
_ Z Ui(hih o )
Z Ui(hiho
~Ui(hiho)
ZUiti
)
i(hi h 0 )~4
jzUi(hiho)ti
ihihot
ZbV
Ui(hih
h o ) ti
,U~ih)t
U"
LT7
i (
U
>U(hih.)'
2b
U iti

jh.)
Zb

4bZV"
OZbjih~o

1zUi(hih
Ui(hiho)
Uiti?
4,
The elements of the inverse to this matrix are the variances and covariances of the
maximum likelihood estimators of the parameters vo, h., b, and a in that order.
The estimate of the ballistic limit V is,
of course,
V = v o + b(hho)
Since V s a function of parameters that have been estimated to within known variances
and covariances, it follows* that the variance of thi estimator for V can be found from:
Vo
CY
\io/i~
+(
v0 ,o
hho
ho
b 3 Vo abv
ho,b
4b(hho)
"4b(hho)3
h2
h,
This expression makes it possible to state a variance for the estimate of the ballistzc
over the range of plate hardnesses that appear
limit V as a function of hardness, at last
analyzed.
in the case being
As a conclusion to the computing for tests havri variable plate hardness, a suipplementary program was prepared to find the parameters v , ho, b, 0 and ther variances and covariances.
The results for all the cases analyzed in this way are shown in
Table Z. Values of OV for three levels of hardness covering the range of th# test data
If values %f O ore desired t other hardness levels,
are incorporated later in Tohle 3
(Jf.,
Witt,
L.nmeini
L LL
041
Jki
onh, p, 1ii,
ET A
johm Wiley
1" A i
CONFIDENTIAL
I a
"
CON FIDENTIAL
93
'1'
11111
all
a' NN
gs
1. fi
*~
I
0
A
CONFIENTIA
1jj
86
1 N2M 0
51
goE
nos
No
is~*t
at 1B 1
kI
1AL
IN5TfI
il
26111111
CONFIDENTIAL
zl
11J1
'
qm~ilreu,
1
IfsI
II
r~
SOII
~E~U!
a A
II
Io
inl nn.
It
!II
I
m3pm
muul*
$mta
itH
INltll!!
tii!
00
, ..
I ~Ih*!I.uu
l
IM I 0 RII
P11111 I
CON FIDENTIAL
0m5.
I ag!
I
I i
!I 3 3U
CONFIDENTIAL
i
22
, a, i!" of 9IN
Vai small asi of
="l
Ill
X1
A
MI
Ia
IlN af t
a
getl II II
Iu
lite
I i A
Il
8 9 a age 4
L 1
4?0 t
10I
A
*ou
S'
W *0
# It I I
CONFIDENTIAL
I t
CONFIDENTIAL
?_3
and covariances shown in Table 2. Three other
the y can be derived from the variances
a,) were computed, of course, but did not seem necessary
co'~variances ('
for inclusion in the table, since they would be used only for predicting standard errors
cent probability.
of ballistic limits at levels other than 50 per
In most cases, the values of ho shown. in Table 2 confirm the idea that the optimum
hardness of armor plate is in the vicinity of BHN 300, but there are many exceptions. A
common reason for these exceptions is that as the plate hardness increases the projectile tends to shatter more readily, and this raises the ballistic limit. This increase uf
data is not simply statistical chance, for
ballistic limits at the high hardness end of the
the values of ab show that b is generally significantly different from zero, whether b is
negative or positive.
The values a show that the scatterirng of critical velocities in most of the test
of them were above 60 ft/sec. Thus the
situations was substantial. Better than half
chances for a seemingly erratic result with any small number of tests is reasonably
gr eat.
five instance3 in which the parabola fitted
It may be observed too that there were
analysis did not lead to an evaluation of
probit
the
the data with so little overlapping that
a cr of the variances of the estimates of the parameters. One of the cases (with the
IIVAP 90 mm T44) was somewhat degenerate in that the data had only three hardnesses,
but the other cases involved f..ur to six hardnesses. For the latter cases, the parabola
offered a surprisingly convenient fit.
where
0 A
T1LL
w0#4 A
t#t,
UT t
CONFIDENTIAL
I
CONFIDENTIAL
24
Lv V
= a
Laa
a:
wt
(witi
IVI
ui )it
,t
while w i and u i are the same funtions of t i as before, but with t i = (v i  v)/0. The
variances and covariances in the solutions for V and a3after the iteration process is
completed are the elements of the inverse of the matrix
~I
where U i is as before except for the change in t i . All these results are equivalent to
formulas given by Golub and Grubbs, except for the small differences already noted in
Leo and Lj.
Very little additional programming was needed to adiipt these formulas to machine
calculation, because the only requirement was to drop some of the terms that appe~ired
formerly.
This method of analysis was applied to many cases where the accumulated data
included as many as 12 rounds, but with little varia4.on in the Brinell hardness number,
that is, less than about 50. However, in order to avoid getting unreasonable variances,
it was necescary to exclude several cases that were complicated by shatter gaps, or
systematic discrepancies from other sources, some unknown.
Results of the calculations ignoring variation of hardnesm are not tabulated here .t
a group, because the most significant results, V and cv, are included later in the comprehensive Table 3.
t he
..thods of probit analvsis require a sample reasonably good in both sir.e and
itn 'i urdrr to produce useful results. If the sample is too small the logic bei .. u ne probt inalysis is weak.
If there to no overlApping nf partial and complete pentr.tiuns, #ihefnthe soluition beconmes indeterminate. There were many cases of these
... th4e dtt .ssvn
,d f,
th;s pr~~'ect, plus oth.r cases having very Irregular
,
data i),ttt rrs. For thtr . viv,
otme an4lvsis, or at least some method of descrptim.
edv.
In .)rder not 1, ovtriix the dat,, simple instead of iphialtited
i4nvas
ill ,. du 4ir tible.
N,
l
I
S
I
I
3
3
1
0 A Tt
t 00l,.aqlllt
0 4 A
gLP0
t 0 t 'U t a
CONFIDENTIAL
CONFIDENTIAL
25
For cases where there were less than about 12 rounds, or where there was no
limit".
overlap, it was decided to use the old averaging technique to define a "ballistic
highest
three
the
and
CP's
lowest
three
This was based, preferably, on six rounds: the
in
velocities
test
only
PP's. If these lay within an interval of 150 ft/sec, and were the
by the
that interval, then their average velocity constituted a good ballistic limit
atudy.
present
the
for
limit
ordinary standards, and it was accepted as the ballistic
an
within
If this sixround average could not be had, then an average of four rounds
int,rval of 100 ft/sec was accepted, or even two rounds within an interval of 50 ft/sec.
Accepting these as ballistic limits in the present study does not mean that they have any
good or even known degree of accuracy. It means only that these were about as good
limits as could be obtained, considering the state of the data. So long as the origin of
Of
each limit is stated, the varying definitions of the limits should not cause trouble,
course, an extra bit of useful information about these simple ballistic limits is the
spread of test velocities included, so it was decided that that too should be mentioned
for each case.
A moderate number of test conditions have yielded test results that do not follow
the ideal scattering of partial and complete penetrations. Sometimes there is an
identifiable cause for this, such as shattering. In such a case, a split analysis is
sometimes useful, say one for intact or broken shot, and another for shattered shot.
It was decided to use a split analysis if that enabled one to give an instructive description of the test results.
In some cases, the partial and complete penetrations were mixed over a wide
range of velocities, sometimes over practically the whole of a wide range that was
tested. In order to describe this situation, it was decided that a simple statement
would be made describing the mixed zone. Such a statement does not pretend to define a ballistic limit, but it does picture the state of the test results.
For cases where the highest PP was considerably below the lowest CP, It wAs
decided merely to state those two velocities. Finally, if there were no CP's, then a
highest partial penetration (HPP) could be listed; or if there were no PP's, then the
lowest complete penetration (LCP) could be used.
It may be repeated that simple analyses of these sorts do not always give good
evaluations of ballistic limits. Oftentimes they may be poor indeed. Good examples of
this can be found in long sequences. of PP's at successively higher velocities, followed
at last by a lone CP. Such a sequence of tests may allow the computation of a simple
tworound ballistic linat, but it has littLe meaning beyond that of identifying A velocity
which lies in or near the mixed zone,
A comprehensive collection of the results of the analyses performed for the presincie the table preent project is Itive1 in Table 1, at the end of the text of this report.
sents a wide variety ot results, the user should try to keep in mind what toe foiAndati.nl
of the table are.
8A I tE9LkL
I It# 0
06f?ittI
*
CONFIDENTIAL
CONFIDENTIAL
Z6
First it may be said that the objective that was followed in preparing this table
was to describe the results of the penetration tests as instructively and concisely as
The results were to be in the form of ballistic limits, but even the definition
possible.
of ballistic limit needed to vary from case to case, depending on the quantity and quality
of the data, Methods were rLeeded both for selecting the type of limit and for describing
the results of the analysis.
The approximate order of preference for the methods of finding the ballistic
limit was:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
For each test condition, the analysis was begun by trying the highest seemingly feasible
method on this list. If that method failed (say, by lack of convergence of the probit calculation, or by unacceptable scattering of PP's and CP's for simple averaging), then a
lower method was applied. At times it was expedient to split a large group of data into
smaller subgroups in order to make them manageable.
The splitting was done as
plausibly as possible, on the basis of shattering, plate hardness, shot hardness, or even
distinction between references.
Separation according to references (applied twice, both
times to data for the APC .37 mm M51) implies that there were real, but unidentified
systematic differences between separate series of tests.
Except when parabolas were fitted with negligible overlapping of partial and complete penetrations, all the probit Analyses were completed to the point of finding the
standard error in the estimate of the ballistic limit. The probit analyses may be
identified in Table 4 by the fact that the standard error (SE) is stated. If three ballistic
limits, together with their standard errors, are shown by braces as havng been derived from the same set of rounds (that is, only one entry for the "number of rounds"),
then the analysis was one allowing for parabolic variation of hardness. The levels %,.,
plate hardness cited for these parabolic cases are roughly the extreme and middle hardnesses appearing in the reference data.
Limits obteined by averaging are identified by statements such as 6R(1Z4). which
Would imply that the average was based on six rounds spread over a velcily interval
of 124 ftisec. The remaining types of analyses are identified by self explanatory
statements such as "Mix 1041 to 3465", or "Z669 HPP".
The probit analyses wre perfc ned by the electronic calculator which, amnonog
other thirgs, adpisted the velut ity of ,ach round to an equivalent velocity against a plate
of staivdard or "nominal" thikness at ordinj to the formsnijl
* A t I &L L 9
M 9
0 4 1 A L
# of 6
tI T V Ita
CONFIDENTIAL
.
"
*a
CONFIDENTIAL
27
(nominal thickness1/
This formula is probably fairly accurate for the small corrections that were needed.
Since these corrections were performed round by round, no further corrections for
irregularities of plate thickness are needed in the results of the probit analyses. However, the simpler limits obtained by averaging or location of extreme velocities were
evaluated by hand, and the roundbyround thickness correction for them became too
burdensome.
Therefore, for these simpler analyses, a note is added showing the
average plate thickness of the rounds involved in the calculation, if that avcrage was
known to differ from the nominal plate thickness. These notes are written briefly in the
form like "t 3. 03", which would ir ply that the average plate thickness was 3. 03 in.
Since projectile breakup often influencc ; the probability of complete penetration,
an effort was made to dvscribe briefly the typical breakup in each case. This is contained in the notes by statements such as:
SI
SB ~ shot
SS
SI&S
Many of the rounds edited and keypunched were omitted finally from the analysis,
almost always because they were fired in acceptance tests at velocities intended to be
significantly above the ballist%c limit. However, the existence of the rounds is noted in
Table 3 by entries under the cases where they would have appeared had they been used
Thus, for the AP 37mm M74 against rolled armor, there appear two entries, "S4ARO'
listed is that of the nose, or of the bourrelet if the shot *ere truncAtted
Referentvs to the firing records in each test situation were not mt luta4d in
r able 1, %ince uth an inclusion threatched to obscure the results
roarever. .4 list ,4
referent r retxrtP used for this cellec ion of penetration tests ist inluded i the Appendix
CONFIDENTIAL
CFDAtf
l0
0 0A 6
ITItAt
CONFIDENTIAL
28
OBSERVATIONS CONCERNING THIS STUDY
When this pr( ct was begun, it could not be anticipated what all might result from
putting data from so many sources into one great lump. In order to forestall trouble,
as much information as possible was carried regarding each individual test. In consequence, the results are at least moderately consistent and precise. Because these results come from so many test programs, they are also as unbiased as seems possible
at pre sent.
In the process of performing the analyses, very many sets of data were studied by
persons who wanted to understand those data as much as possible. When the scattering
of the data was bad, reasons for this were sought. Only rarely were there cases where
different firing records gave noticeably different results without a plausible reason. In
only two cases was itthought profitable to split the data according only to the reference,
both times inv.)ving AD 1084, which seemed to refer to either some very good plate or
sonie very poor shot. The fact that separation accoiding to reference was invoked so
seldom seems to imply, on the whole, that combining raw data from many sources was
a reasonably successful venture.
Use of the parabolic form for the influence of plate hardness was also reasonably
successful. There were relatively few cases where the assumption of this form seemed
to deny convergence to the process of probit analysis. When the parabolic form proved
too inflexible, it was most often because a sharp increase in projectile shattering occurred as the plate hardness increased. Another occasional difficulty arose when the
plate hardnesses went above BHN 350, for then the ballistic limit curve sometimes
seemed to descend more rapidly than the parabola.
The assumption of the cumxulative normal distribution for probability of complete
penetration as a function of striking velocity was nioderatoly successful, but it wa3 often
troubled by the occurrence of projectile shattering. A bacA example occurred in the d.ata
for the APO 57 mm M8b fired against 3inch R H. plate at obliquity of 35 degrees. In
this case 105 rounds were recorded for Brinell hardnesses 295 to 335, having veluciti t
between Z450 and 2800 ft/sec. At no velocity did the probability of a CP seein to rise:
above 40 per cent, and it seemed to fall to zuo at both ends. The shot breikAgVe in this
case ranged from intact to shattered, but no record of the brea'age was available for
many of the rounds that were fired.
As a foundation for statistical analysis of the penetrat:on tests, the assumption of
the t wnulative normal distribution seems as good as any reasonably simple assumption
that ;an be made, but a highly detailed analysis of multitudinous data (more than ex,st
now) would probably use a more flexible form for this probability function
The standard t, rror%in the *allisti, lnits vary widely, but are typically from 15
to 50 ft/sec. A few are rtiiih larger, mi4 yet more would have been larger if the Analy.
set had not been split in the varioa wt  , tiready mentioned. Ths precision may prov.
di sappumnting to some people, blit it appelre tv h. what present data imply. Thr
8 A I 1L L K
M 9 M 0 IM A
IIf
t It ?
CONFIDENTIAL
CONFIDENTIAL
29 and 30
implications regarding the ballistic limits obtained by averaging are that those limits toc
are subject to substantial errors. This is particularly true for the many limits that
were based on only a few rounds, and for those not selected by an overunder method.
N&L1 tNT
IA
AL
I"It
It
CON FIDENTIAL
CONFIDENTIAL
31
TADBI
3.
Model
No.
37
M74
alistic
Plte
BHN.
Nom. t,
in.
kg/mm 2
Nom.
Obl..
deg
0
324385
265363
269337
r230
f300
1.00
1.12
1.25
1.50
L370
235286
235293
255
2.00
2.25
2.36
57/40
Tapered Bore
(Cf. 0P5829/1)
1314
SE W9
1685
1832
1880
2060
2091
94
42
3
S1, 84ARO
SI
60mm armor, t 2.31
27
S&S
5
14
7
5
7
6
6
SB&S, t 2.51
SI&S, t 3.03
SS, 842ARO
SI
SI&S
4
2
3
40
25
2
t 2.51
t 2.51
t 2.51
SB&S
SS
t 2.51
73ARO
3.00
1.50
2.00
1.50
1.50
1.50
2.50
2.50
2.50
1.00
1.25
2.50
251
269
251
341375
302
269
2346
2423
2620
2430
2720
2662
2R(51)
2R(44)
2R (48)
SE . 7
SE x 6
HPP
20
1.00

3.00
4.00
10.00
6.00
3.00
4.00
6.00
3.00
4.00
6.00
3.00
50
55
60
M80
SE w 22
SE v 13
SE z 7
SE a141
SE6
2346
2591
2815
1789
1842
1617
1808
2212
20
25
30
40
45
37
899
1087
1209
1256
1381
f310
347
255347
266
258
255
255
255
r230
270
10
30
45
55
*A
T?
I L L It
66
39
60
SI
SI
S1
545
$1

241
22'3
205
224
241
229
224
241
22)
224
241
18"#
2308
4047
2663
2332
2738
Mix 3041
31A4
3313
Mix 2920
4049
0 N I A L
2R(80)
2R(21)
HPP
HPP
2R(18)
6R(94)
to 3463
2R(36)
6R(88)
to 4022
HF?
4
C
2
I
5
8
12
5
11
10
3
II
CONFIDENTIAL
a1.
W
mo
Notes
(AbbreviaUons
explained on p 27)
Limit
Sigmfi.
cance
SE a 13
SE a 53
2R(31)
SE a 165
SE 81
SE w 102J
HPP
6R(179)
LCP
2R(29)
6R(179)
2R(28)
2R(36)
2.50
Number
of
Rounds
BL(A).
ft/sec
*W
0
#AI?
SI&S
SS
SB&S
SS
SB&S
SB&S
SS
SB&S
Sl&S, w/o PP at 3528
SS
SS
CONFIDENTIAL
32
SUMMARY OF BALLISTIC LIMITS
TALE 3.
Part 1.
Bet
Cal,
57
Model
Nom.
Ob.,
NO.
deg
M70
t,
in.
Iallistic Limit
IL(A).
Sigimfi
BHN.
kg/mm
Number
of
ft/sec
canoe
Rounds
Note
(Abbviaions
explained on p 27)
1.50
271330
999
SE u 14
46
SI
2.00
S. 25
235286
235293
220
280
1248
1403
1454
1549
SE a 9
SE a 11
SE 36
SE a 12
35
37
SI
St
68
SI. 1ARO
340
1470
SE s30
20
310
400
00
280
1664
1817
1524
1964
2384
SE 27
SE a 12
SE a 29
SE w48
SE a 18
350
2154
SE , 27
20
5.00
3.00
4.00
388
217259
226
262
2860
2867
2204
2992
25
4.00
357388
388
30
3.00
2.50
3.00
4.00
4. 00
35
3.00
40
2.00
2.50
SI
6R(124)
6R(113)
2R(52)
HPP
11
10
2
6
SS. t 4.02
SI, t 5.09, PP at 2418
SB. 3921ARO
SS, t 4.02
2911
2911
2R(24)
HPP
15
6
r280
340
2813
2580
400
388
2"0
(340
400
291300
220
230
2429
2325
3015
2690
2514
1,67
2116
2624
SE a 24
SE.w 171
SE  23
WP
SE 71
SEa 51}
SE a 35
SE a41
SE a 177
SE a 128
32
3.0
3.W
1.50
160
SS
3S
l
93
SS
21
SO1
i&S
is
5
13
SS
t 3. 12
SI&S
I L L a
400
262
330
2387
267)
2618
1734
2094
360
2303
M IM
I
I
SE()3
a 10 6
SEa41
SE
3.
SE,
Zt(31)
SEa17
10.1
CONFIDENTIAL
a A 1
SI
41
30
45
50
210
0 2I1 A L
11 6 1 1T V
CONFIDENTIAL
33
SUMMARY OF DALJSTIC UMITS
3.
TADBL
Cal.
mm
Model
NO.
Nom.
Obl.
deg
57
M0
55
Shot
Plate
Nom. t.
in.
60
70
75
M72
I4N.
kg/man
290291
327353
273352
331
289302
327
273341
2494
2941
2375
2412
2'785
2939
2907
SE a 38
SE = 60
SE a 67
6R(92)
SE a 17
HPP
SE a 41
14
20
35
10
21
6
35
SB
1.50
2.00
2.25
255
23 286
223293
737
924
1048
1120
1149
7
54
37
SI
Sl
Sl
55
SI
1241
1311
1367
1263
1536
2R(28)
SE a 13
SE w7
SE 26
SEu 14
SE  3s8
2R(24)
SE 1l
SE 14
SE 30
4R(84)
r200
1570
SE 33j
4.00
1260
20
1711
1655
SE
SE
5.00
3.00
4.00
2.00
1.50
217217
246262
300
255258
255
1995
1634
2582
972
790
3.00
298
4.00

1.50
1.50
1.50
2.25
2.50
3.00
2.00
2.00
1.50
2.00
2.50
290
2.75
S962
252
r220
3.00
3.50
25
30
35
40
46
50
IS
40
41
Notes
(Abbreviations
explained on p 27 )
Number
of
Rounds
2.00
2.50
1.25
1.50
2.00
2.50
1.25
r230
2u
Ballistic Limit
SisgufiIL(A).
cance
ft/sec
T K L L I
4310
L400
262289
SS
SI&B
t 1.49. SB&S
SB
SS
Si&B
t 2.73. 6ARO
3
79
S1
t 3.49
41
SI&S. 11ARO
6R(147)
LCP
2R(43)
2t(35)
2t(52)
7
11
3
10
6
S1
SI&B. 2744ARO
S. t 3.96
S1
SINS
20
2R(41)
2595
4R(42)
255
255
255
10s
1013
1210
Lcp
2R(36)
2R(36)
6
7
3
2
4
25
269
300
162
162
M65266
826300
092
2116
S35
2001
1916
1847
LOP
H
IP
2R(52)
21t(2)
H"
44(12)
S944
N 9 NtA
095
510
25
f t IL
SONS
ss
st
SI
3
5, t 2.51
58, t 3.ul
UI
4
2
1
11
17
IIt
CONFIDENTIAL
s1
ss
tIt
CON FIDENTIALI
34
TABE 3.
Ballistic Limit
Plats
Nom.
Shot
Nom. t.
in.
BHN.
kg/mm 2
BL(A).
ft/se
Sigw ficance
4R(56)
4R(85)
Number
Notes
of
Rounds
(Abbreviations
explained on p 27 )
Cal,
mm
model
No.
Obl.
deg
75
T43
20
55
5.00
3.38
226
253
2147
2920
2.00
30
45
3.00
2.00
277285
285
262298
233
293
269
269
262
265285
277400
262293
269
19
12
12
6
4
6
2
2
15
42
300308
300
308
300
300
302
302
302
300321
300
2641
2619
2590
2403
2369
2632
2306
2427
2582
2366
6R(132)
6R(102)
4R(144)
2R(34)
6R(58)
41(98)
LCP
IFP
4R(82)
6R(6)
16
10
6
3
9
9
321
291321
2180
2025
2R(33)
4R(118)
4
9
T148
75
(11 exp. lots ( a ))
55
60
2.50
2. 50
3.00
1.50
2.00
2.50
75
T 1 49 (b)
20
4.00
45
3.00
55
3.00
60
2.00
SD&S. t 5.02
SS
1148. 4 lots. SB
M72 mod, 3 lots. sB
T148, 3 lou, SI&B
T148. 1 lot, SI
M72 mod, 1 lot, SI&B
T148. 1 lot, Sl&B
T148, 2 lots, SI&B
T148, 1 lot, SI
T148. 3 lots, SI
T148. 8 lots, SI&B
M72 mod. 2 lots, SI&B
T148. 3 lots, SI&
7
7
ic6 1 ,
R61.
Rc55.
RC61
RC61,
w/tip
t 3.01, SS
t3.01. SS
w/tip
RC61
R",5, SS
10
Rc6l. w/tip
RC61. wyo Up
The great majority of these teus with the T148 dhot were performed under Project TAI1251. This project used three varieties of
M72 shot with its up cut off. and six vaieties of M72 shot which were (ist 1oftened, then had their Ups cut off, and were rehardened. Theme sx varietAcs, differisug in windshield and heattreatment, were designated T148. Since the reference report a)s no
variet) *Awed clear supertority, all are lumped together here. included also are two lots used in Project TAI1301. For more
details, see Report 2 on Project TAI1251.
(b) The teas with the T149 were part of Project TAI1254. Shot were used with iockwell C hatdess either 61 or 55. In addition,
thome here marked w/*.p were utuuicated, then had the nps reattached. Those marked w/o Up were trucated, but the taps were
not replaced.
(a)
I
I
I
*AII
LL 9
N MIkMONIAL
1I0 6 T I?
CONFIDENTIAL
CONFIDENTIAL
35
TABE 3. SUMMARY OF BALLISTIC UWITS
Part 1.
Shot
Cal,
mm
Model
No.
Nom.
Obl.,
deg
76
M79
223
229341
391
1089
2R(36)
SEW 15
3
17
SI, t 2.24
Sl
3.00
251363
1336
SE x 11
25
S1
18
Sl
SI
SS
1
5
11
8
5
SS,
SI,
S1.
SS,
SI,
10
20
3.00
2.25
3.00
30
2.25
r200
260
f320
212269
3.00
4.00
2.25
3.00
2.50
1578
SE=64
1640
SEW 0
1762
SE= 48J
Mix 1932 to 2234
311
2577
HPP
363
223
302
363
223
1424
102U
1782
1301
11936
HPP
2R(27)
2R(41)
4R(100)
2R(20)
r230
2.50
55
60
13i1
SE
51
16,14
SE.
40
32
Sl&S
390
302
363
207302
22,1233
331
379
17s5
2 65
1 27
2532
1852
2246
2012
SE.63
2R(24)
4R(93)
SE a 34
SE a 37
4R(74)
2R(24)
6
7
14
16
7
7
SS. t
SS, t
SO&S
Si&S
SS. t
SS. t
230
310
2004
2057
SE mall)
SE $Mau
21
331
2356
2.25
269293
3 0
379
3.00
2. uU
260
306
235
PP's or CP's.
6
SS, t3.05
2U32
4R(56)
SS. t 2.28
2369
4R('5)
SS, t3.05
2976
2178
2R(36)
4t(32)
3
6
SMS
s
2520
SE1.12
SE 10
26
Ss
2B38
2R(3)
so
CONFIDENTIAL
IIAL
O L L90
3.05
3.05
4R(92)
2o2626
2..
3.05
3.03
SE small
3.00
3.0o
t 3.03
t 2.24
t 3.05" 937AR
t 3.03
t 2.24
310
39163
50
Notes
(Abbreviations
explained on p 27)
2.25
2.50
5. 00
45
Number
of
Rounds
BHN.
kg/mm 2
4.00
40
DalListic Limit
BL(A).
Saigfift/sec
cance
Nom. t,
in.
O a#A
E
. TT 01k I
Ia
CONFIDENTIAL
36
TARXE 3.
76
Model
No.
T128E6
(M339)
Nom. t.
in.
3.00
Ballistc Limit
BL(A).
Significance
ft/sec
6R(43)
6R(133)
SE  34
2R(8)
to 256o
2R(39)
SE  43
SE  101
6R(113)
4R(J5)
4.00
5.00
4. OU
5. 00
2. UO
2.50
3.00
4.00
5.00
250
3179
HIP
75
2.00
2.50
3.00
4.90
3.00
2.00
2.50
3. U0
2.00
2.50
2.00
290
291
298
260
302
29021
291
298
2J 0
291
290
1J34
2266
2718
3206
2506
2481
2851
3138
2830
3112
3253
6R(151)
6R(81)
6R(127)
4R(61)
2R(55)
SE u 15
6R(135)
4R(67)
4R(64)
6R(155)
HP
8
3
7
8
5
15
9
7
9
6
4
30
4.00

2302

2653

2382
2640HPP,
2554
2441
255
255t;
.572
4R(73)
4R(77)
2R(69)
2d22LCP
4R(14)
4R(103)
2R(46)
8
9
8
4
7
I
3
4
6
45
55
60
65
.. UL
298
250
302
23v
261)
2,)8
Notes
(Abbeviauons
explained on p 21)
Number
of
Rounds
1517
1J87
2043
2221
Mix 2088
2443
1358
16J6
251
2832
30
T166(a)
BHN,
kg/mrnm2
298
238
260
26U
260
260
290
2)1
238
25u
20
76
Plate
Nom.
o,! .
deg
15
9
16
8
13
5
10
13
16
7
SI
SB&S
SI&B
SI, t 5.13
SB&S
SB&S. t 5.13
SI
SB&S
SB&S, t 2.93
SB, t 4. 07
2R(611
4R(66)
SB, t 2.04
SB&S. t 2.52
SB, t 2.93
SB. t 4.07
SB
SB&S
So, t 2.52
SB, t 2.93
SO&S, t 2.04
SB&S, t 2.52
SB, t 2.02
E2,
F2,
E2.
El,
E2,
E2,
E3,
E4,
Es,
SI&D
bl
(a) The tests with the T166 Are from Project TAI1301. The T166 shot is essentilall the T128%E (or M334) shot with its tip first
removed thei reattadied b cemenung or welding. The vairotis modificatiuons, El to E5. refer to Ahsht chances in the geometr)
of the igive and up. Modificati i E2. which was the prefened one, also was tested with or without the tip a#dWor windshield.
and at atrious Rockwell G hardneses at the bourrelet.
Pr,ubit araltsex Vpplied to all the T1"
data lot the fist five combinatons of obliquity And plate thickness $ive the following
rcuit',
,11divel.
, 273, SE & 'Ri L x 2661, SE a 533; B1a 1 l1, SE a 46, 9L . 2543, SE a 34; IL a 233, %sa 61.
Tic
reults illusittet the effrcts of girouping %Ihhd)diver,4cat data.
SA ? 1
LLI
M E M O# AA A LI
1 11 V
CONFIDENTIAL
Ia
CONFIDENTIAL
37
SUMMARY OF BALISTIC LIMITS
TABL 3.
Obl.,
deg
Nom. t,
in.
76
T166
60
2.00
90
M77
Ballistic Limit
Plate
Nom.
Shot
Cal.
mM
Notes
of
Rounds
(Abbreviations
explaineJ on p 27)
BL(A).
ft/sec
Significa ce
288
1714
LCP
El, SI
289
2027
2R(58)
21
289
306
306
190i
2048
2047
1040
6R(152)
2R(51)
LCP
2R(67)
9
4
5
6
E2.
E2,
E4,
ES,
2.50
306
2618
2R(1)
3.00
306
306
260
2514
257J
2977
2R(85)
4R(14)
HPP
7
6
4
E4. SI&B
ES. SB
E2. RC62, w/WS, SI&S
260
295
2)16
HPP
E4, SS
2R(31)
HPP
8
5
ES, S8
E2. w/o up or W$, S5
SI
70
2.00
291
2880
2,303
2. 50
252
1281
LCP
1550
1537
1643
1545
LCP
SE 461
SE. 24
3.50
4.00
26228?
r200
.f260
L320
Number
BHN.
kg/mm 2
SE
40J
37
SI. 4 shattered
5.00
217274
8.00
220
3204
HPP
44
2
sI&S
SI. t7.94
10
8.00
220
3430
HPIP
SS, t 7.94
20
2.50
255
1254
Lcp
SI
229AR
3.00
......
5.00
6.00
2. 50
4.00
5.00
220228
270275
229311
207269
220
35
6.00
2.50
45
2.50
4.00
5 O0
220
255
r230
2130
f350
2072864
220224
55
2,,0
252255
2031
60
3.
3.38
2.00
2
23024
2.4
200
242
2144
30
{,
2. 50
to 2886
HPP
SE . 18
Sf325
4R(119)
33
10
20
12
5
29)S
2R('!5)
SS, t 5. to
3220
1489
la3
1843
1775
2614
31,1
HFP
4R(63)
SE 24
SE 20
NE 29
6*(81)
4R(105)
S
I
4R(24)
it* 34
40(7%I)
3
I
SS
SIMI
38
SSs
10
13
1A
#
43
so
sS. t 4. 41f
NI I
M ID
23
23
s ff
IN
S, t 2.4I
o o verlap
by W~SWcr,
CONFIDENTIAL
I
S3&S
SS
S1
S6s
So, t 3.15
wnaU
223
tF,
Mix 1096
3146
1234
2334
2703
It V
CON F1 DENTIAL
38
SUMMARY OF BALLISTIC LIMITS
TABLE 3.
Part 1.
Nom.
Obl.
deg
Shot
Cal,
Model
No.
90
T33
(misc. models,
other than E7)
Nom. t.
in.
DHN,
k/mm2
Balistic Limit
BL(A).
Signiflft/sec
cane
.50
4.00
229364
210300
326
200311
265
220
220228
1495
1558
1307
1873
2150
3234
2008
LCP
61(119)
LCP
SE a 14
SE a 114
HPP
SE a 53
1939
2852
3244
1880
2000
3198
2370
2291
26P3
3004
2613
SE v 29
4R(51)
HPP
6R(57)
2R(20)
2R(97)
SE a 50
6R(148)
SE a 11
SF"38
SE a 17
Plate
5.00
6.00
20
30
60
3.38
4.00
3.00
220280
220225
220
290
262
225
2g0302
285
230263
282294
2'3311
259
256
4,3
308
241*311
34
29 !
192
2302
2418
2135
2371
3026
2733
2R(113)
2R(5)
2R(7)
SE a 41
SE a iO
4R(95)
SE a57
6
S
35
s
6
60
5.00
6.00
6.00
4.00
3.00
4.00
3.00
20
5.00
22
27
"
473
2093
LCP
11
0
20
30
55
91)
T33E7
(Proiect AX23s)
4R(8O)
PP12626 to 2749
";52
t.CP
(')
9
16
5
31
14
2
271
24
9
3
13
10
2
25
7
302
12
56
4.00
5.00
6.00
3.00
3.00
5.00
3.00
40
45
90
T33E7
(not part of Project AX23)
8.00
5.00
Number
of
Rounds
s
20
1
Notes
(Abbraviations
explained on p 27 )
SI
Sl
SI
SI
SI&B
SS
SI&S, acceptance test,
SI&S
SB&S, t 5.11
SS, t6 06
SB. t3.02
SS, one PP at 2073
SS. t 5.08
SB
w/boom mad tail
SS. acceptance tests
SB
SI, t 5.10
SI. t5.96
SI&3B t6.07
77ARO
Pr14c AX!i 'ha' a test of steel for the shot T31E. with various lots ddffering metallurgically. The Rockwell C hatdnrs of
tie different lots is shown here brielh. For exarmsle, R C62 rtns hadness 62. Other meatllurgical features can %ef.,'id
in Proiect AX23 repotts h notisg the lot numbers. Here LA and I" detot the reference lot. with and without windaicl4
LI to l10 dencte Lots FAPD1 to PAPD10; and LII d4enotes the lot made from PS4160 steel.
In P tect AX23,
eers at obliqmuit 20 and 2.N derees v"e ctwled to velocities well above the low ballbik limis, in an
W ballblc Umis.
0 At It It
L
iL M
0 01 1 A L
11
1 Iy Uira
CONFIDENTIAL
CONFIDENTIAL
39
TABE 3. SUMMARY OF BALLISTIC LIMITS
Nom.
Model
No.
90
r33E7
(Project AX23. continued)
Obl.
deg
20
G.00
BFIN.
kg/mm 2
25
55
s0
4.00
5.00
3.00
Notes
of
Rounds
(Abbreviations
explained on p 27 )
51
14
6
262280
16
Ll, R
276280
2530
l.
shatter PP's
4R(69)
13
2R(72)
to 3118
to 3389
HPP
7
9
27
18
6R(162)
3092
LCP
4R(82)
16
14
270280
3128
2R(9,,)
14
262276
3124
2R(73)
12
269276
269276
2519
 Mix 2934
Mix 2531
3158
269276
f2554
269275
12909
277
f2iut.;.00
2R(15)
277
249300
277
f .P 2311 to 3041
2891
LCP
Mix 1984 to 2584
2825
2R(78)
10
1
28
8
6 2
.
LR, Rc
2
LR. RC6 .
LR. Rce2,
LR', Rc2.
LR, RC62.
277
2855
2R(22)
277
2944
21(16)
2301
300
2507
2511
SEa15
6R(100)
29
2510
299
2457
299
2490
41(35)
299
259
61(119)
302
2489
4R('.7)
295
2515
6R(69
302
2512
2R(27)
299
29
299
2449
4R(19)
2518
6R(63)
2441
AS5
2.37
7
IN
10
13
0
L4, RC 5 2 .
S. t4.98
7
A
LI. RC60, ss
2428
294
2439
201
. 13
i"(P)
4R(69)
2,00
6R(47)
2"9
9 0l
SS. t4.98
4.00
3 10
SS&S, t4.)9
SB&S. t4.99
So, t4.99
SU&S, t3.98
2
11
60(iN)
CR(P2)
2R(34)
00(114)
()
I L L. a
Number
269280
270
22506
262270
30
Ballistic Limit
SigiufiBL(A).
ft/sec
cano:e
Plate
Nom. t,
in.
A LY
L10.
L3. RC;SS.
L4, A
M~ Rcsv,
L', RI 42.
12.
1 1 It
CONFIDENTIAL
Ic
SS
S
SS, t 2, 9
56
. SS
Ia'
#.C1
.0
)
,;
4 Ot, 2_
I "
t3.02
...
CONFIDENTIAL
40
SUMMARY OF BALLISTIC UMITS
TABLE 3.
Part 1.
Shot
Cal,
U=
90
90
Model
No.
T43
T54E1
Nom.
Obl.
deg
Nom. t.
in.
55
0
30
45
55
60
55.00
s
60
t It
Number
of
Round&
Notes
(Abbreviations
explained on p 27
302
210326
2398
2990
6R(22)
6R(116)
10
13
SS
7.60
4.00
5.00
6.00
7.60
4.00
5.00
6.00
4.00
2.00
258297
292
245347
249296
258
295
245337
297
297315
285
r260
320
'3205
2068
2982
3223
3180
2553
3205
3121
2847
2428
26f1
2691
HPP
6R(53)
SF w 61
HPP
HPP
SE a 38
SE  23
HFP
SE a 3
64(41)
SE a 31
SE w 18
7
10
33
19
4
15
31
5
26
10
SB&S. t 7.65
SI&S. t 4.01
SS&S
SS. t5.99
SS. f7.65
SS
SB&S
SS. t6.02
SS
S,. t2.03
41
SS
L390
2337
SE 20J
s0
340
3182
9w7
3064
SEa 42
41
SS
380
2995
SE
3.00
2.00
3.00
256306
296
307381
3034
2860
317.7
SE 52
4R(118)
SE a 27
20
9
25
SS
SS
SS
38
20
5l&E
4.00
20285
24830u
4.Ov
105
T182
(E2, E3. 4. ES)
Ballistc Limut
UL(A).
Sigmrfft/sec
camoe
3.00
4.00
3.00
65
70
INN.
kg/mm 2
It L
L I
0 9 M 0 N
AL
39J
It
I It U
CONFIDENTIAL
CONFIDENTIAL
41
TABLE 3. SUMMARY OF BALLISTIC LIMITS
Cal.
rnta
120
Nom.
Obl.
deg
T116
(hlodsE4, E5)
Ballistic Linit
BL(A).
Significance
ft/sec
10.00
239
3298
6R(103)
7.60
248
2464
2R(21)
8.00
240
3344
2R(70)
E5, SB
30
6.00
241
2302
6R(6s)
45
4.00
5.00
297
291
26 2X7
1978
2243
2615
2R(42)
6R(142)
SE = 27
7
10
17
7.60
260
3369
HPP
5.00
6.00
4.00
5.00
259
247
262
267287
2817
3127
2514
2942
R(105)
HPP
4R(55)
SE  72
9
2
7
16
2.00
3.00
4.00
283
285
297
1752
2353
2460
6R(87)
4R(79)
6R(105)
2.55
230
4R( 58)
6E5.
5.u
293
287n
4R(93)
6E4
2.UO
27 7
2070
LCP
3.uO
293
2564
6R(I11)
4.0(
294
3%t64
2R(57)
t;
255
3106
LCP
60
ii
E5. SB,
Er.
E4.
E.S,
E*;.
7.75
SS. t5.09
SB, tS.',W
SS. t3.96
SB
SB, t4.02
w/o WS, 'S
fES. SB, t2.02,
70
2.00
3.00
2S5
285
2282
2962
6R(84)
4R(76)
75
2.0
294
2641
2R(lp)
3.00
303
3.96
HPP
250"24
1414
2R(41)
1642
ICP
M12
0
1
.,:0
.'
30
4.(m)
13'.."
:_o
3;,07 11,4
1643
~
4,
Notes
(Abbieviations
explained on p 27
55
Number
of
Rounds
20
50
155
BHN,
kg/mm2
Plate
Nom. t.
in.
43
r
10
'
U,
A II L L a
.
0i
I :P
2493
0(OI)
0 aIA
k
3.01
I, t ,4
SI, t
"4,
a
1
&
TP
C
,.(Ii;
.,(,24
NA
4
11
2()
C(
5I,
SM
1 0. a
t v f a3
CONFIDENTIAL
1.,
CONFIDENTIAL
421
Part 2.
37
Model
Nom.
Obl.
Nom, t.
No.
deg
ir.
Shot
Cal.
M51
TALE 3.
Plate
1.00
IN,
kg/mm 2
Ballistic Limit
SignfiL(A).
Number
of
Notes
(Abbreviations
ca ce
Rounds
explained on p 27 )
ft/sec
240
320
400
240
199
1211
891
1189
SE a
SE a
SE
SEa
13
10
13
2
39
SI, 9ARO
1.12
310
1260
SE a,1
60
SI
1.2f
380
302
1148
1455
SE a 321
4R(93)
SI
1.50
230
300
1564
1630
SE  141
SE 7
687
L370
1641
SE w 13
1280
1949
2304
2226
2348
4R(61)
2R(42)
SE151
SEu9 p
340
2517
2604
1324
SE111
6R(155)
4R(83)
6
S
250
320
1260
1276
SE a14
SE a 12
f4oo
1062
1377
1501
1634
SE a20
GR(56)
4R(76)
S
6
12
4
1730
1774
1223
SEu12}
SE 16
41(38)
45
240
20
1409
1397
SE ai17
11
SI
1396
SE
1
SE 1
34
400
302326
241302
1563
1614
SE a 41
OR(122)
17
13
1
SL. tl.2
r220
1859
1.0
300
1902
BE
43
46
35
1.00
1.25
341375
302
Ism
1791
40
1.00
320^
17^
400
1779
BE a22)MJ
us
3880402
21HA
2110
23(31)
0(140)
429
2oo6
(22)
SAO
W
Is"
2.00
2.25
302306
282
r220
2.50
10
3.00
1.12
20
1.00
281288
302321
1.12
1.25
302321
302
r23 0
1.50
300
L370
25
1.00
30
1.00
1.12
1.25
1.12
OA
L L a
C::
324385
3:70
0ai
6
3
St 16}
$r 20J
S9
14
1 a 20
AL
SL, t 1. 13I
SI
Si&S
SI&S
Ljo
~e
4)cOM
so
6t
1 1 %1
CONFIDENTIAL
SI, 9ARO
HM 4 321.
Safore
t aS3
.3
*.#7
It
Si&s
SL. t1.13
41
20
3
0 17
8ARO
t 2.36
23
..
l
23
0of
403I 1
ftuu
from
AD 1004,
Mjsl
e wth AV' $8
CONFIDENTIAL
43
TABLE J. SUMMARY OF BALLISTIC LIMITS
Part 2.
Shot
Cal,
mm
37
Model
No.
M51
Nom.
Obl..
deg
Nor. t,
in.
WiN.
kg/mn i 2
allistic Limit
BL(A).
Sigmfift/sec
cance
40
1.25
241255
311
1853
2060
6R(133)
6R(124)
Plate
230
1.50
57
M86
45
1.50
50
1.00
2186
SE a 21
2311
2653
3033
2794
2457
2649
2875
SE a 19
SE a 21
HPP
2R(73)
SE a41
SEa31
SE a 73
r240
2183
SE a 56
320
L400
2242
2060
SE a 30
SE = 31
2139
2395
2433
2360
2498
SE u 65
SE a 40
SE a 80
4R( 144)
6R(72)
300
370
302364
375
240
1290
340
r.0
r240
1.12
.310
1.25
f310
(241
'55269
J
}*
SI&B
10
1"r
1.25
302
1(49
4R(79)
r240
1292
SE a22
SE a 23
56
L36,1
799
255
'230
1 290
TS(
2t0
1743
14,t4
1710
1702
2112
2R(46)
130
3
193
53 a
3.
210
2417
06
4.00
,
2440.
C9e
1.2.
301109
240
1.0
SE a13
SE a
SIE 23
SElI
21
132
1141
242104
[k L
aIN
211
Of # A L
SI
:0
fr
18 SSS
1.541
V a9 " p
4 t
HNv 4o
(u'l
%Ifor IHN'*
IF a Inf.
Ml&121
51
St a 1t
M a5
St * Is
W. SMA, 1,,
*i~al
13312l119
400
St
SI. t 1.,.19
r tNe I47
2W('4)
)..3
4v
300
S1
SE a 21
'41
0 A I
66
9
25
C.0
20
341
2R(61)
SE a 59
HPP
2.00
86
2812
2770
222
1227
40
11
229215
2663"
.390
Si. t 1.27
S1. tl. 23
6
9
1.,0
1.'0
Notes
(Abbreviations
explained on p 27 )
Number
of
Rounds
SI
. VMS%, a fY$Ytd
20
q smallhL
ftI
4,n
c~
'
F I T W It
CONFIDENTIAL
+q(
CONFIDENTIAL
44
TABLE 3.
Model
No.
Nom.
Ob1.,
deg
Nom. t.
In.
BIN.
kg/mm 2
Balhstic Limit
IL(A),
Significance
ft/sec
57
M86
20
4.00
25
3.00
4.00
1.25
220
357388
347
388
302
2503
2807
2397
2765
1264
6R(148)
HPP
2R(26)
HPP
2R(20)
1432
SE.
19
SE a 15
Shot
30
Plate
1.50
2.00
2.50
3.00
/400
4.00
22
388
r 261283
35
3.00
40
1.25
10
10
4
{240
300
f,360
58277
r220
2J0
360
r 260
330
2.8321
347360
1470
1359
1755
1826
2116
2153
SE a 50
2648
2613
SE a 27
SE a 43
255u
2757
HFP
HPP
2732
SE 111
14'77
SE
SE. 23
2S6
24)6
SE
20
2720
IPP
40o
214
2W(I2,)
2.0o,
2.5 o
85
360
303

St a 24
1.25
26230j2
IOZ4
6 (wsh)
360
41285
f 1.22U
2161
1',.Q
370
SI
15
SI
SI lor BHN k 311
SB&S kr BHN *341
167
J"[SS
SS. t 4.U2
52
l&l
Ni&S. probit dive:r ,
sS, lone CP at i743
10b
26
2128
3ui
31
24
1,5
2
4
2724
1465
1675
1646
1707
400408
277302
r 23j
SI
SD&S, t4.01
SI&B. t3.04
SS, t 4.02
SI
SE a 18
SE a 10
SE a 60
SEa31
SE a 36
2278
Notes
(Abbreviations
explained on p 27
Number
of
Rounds
32
7
S
I
25
s.
1 Paraboic cib~
17J
SI:
fNl
29AS
NJ&
10
1I
l
44S, t Z.4
SA
244
Sfor II
IRI
L41
aft
. SI
IVY
a A T T It L k I
0I 9 1 O 0 1 A L
11I
I5
I
CONFIDENTIAL
Nt
14
Ia
13
"
4
CONFIDENTIAL
*
45
TABL
U.
Model
NO.
Nom.
Obl.,
das
57
M86
Shot
Ballstc Limit
StgflBL(A).
Plate
Notes
(AbbvIauo
Rounds
explained on p 27)
DHN,
in.
kg/mm 2
ft/s .
55
1.50
2.00
2.60
269
285302
353
60
1.25
273352
2341
2R(48)
PP 2585 to 2712
2705
HPP
2179
SE 28
5
15
5
30
t 1.48
SI. lone CP at 2691
SB. t 2.51
SI
1.50
300
2634
SE 4'1
SE 33
53
SI
360
316352
277341
SE 48
2592
2504
SE u 24
PP 2573 to 2710
23
21
SI&B
S1, lone CP at 2664
287
282
232
273
282
262
267287
224
269
952
1175
1596
1755
1548
1971
958
3175
2097
1
8
3
3
5
3
17
3
1
265265
2047
262
400
2095
1782
HPP
2R(64)
2R(41)
2R(34)
2R(57)
2R(36)
SE4
HPP
HPP
2R(6)
HPP
LC
225
253
2324
2429
4R(50)
HPI
4
2
223293
24
51
26
SI
202468
75
Number
of
Nom. t,
65
70
1.25
1.25
1.50
2.25
4.00
M61
20
25
34)
45
60
2.25
3.00
1.50
5.00
2.50
1.50
k.00
75
T42
20
56
6.00
3.38
76
M62
2.25
2.0
cance
1348
SE0S
"ro
1420
SZ29
1 290
1375
S1.21
St a 26
340
47
[100
1603
st l,
3.00
350
400
4.00
204326
1330
1204
lol
SE143
sE.31
SK[a)3
3.0
302346
17 2t
4itl
147
14
21
2
1
SS
SS, t 3.44
26
11, 214AW
O21)
71(
Att$LL9
00 I 0
00
1 A@ISL
CI.P at 171
001*
t1
CONFIDENTIAL
t6
CON F1 DENTIAL
46
TABLE 3.
Sht
CaI.
26M
Model
No.
76
M62
Nor.
ob. ,
deg
30
Plate
Nom. t.
BN,
in.
k/mWrn 2
2.00
2.25
2.50
3.00
4.00
40
2.00
2.25
3.00
23.5277
2232J3
230
2J0
340
1472
150u
1627
16",2
1558
SE 3 16
SE  22
SE an43to
SE w 26
SE z 38
"220
15J4
SE
310
.410
202273
1 J5
2285
2333
SE 89
SE
25
6R(16))
244302
2674
6R(74)
235269
2232133
1861
1772
SE u 48
SE a 59
r220
2146
SE :77~
310
2437
2211
SE 43
SE. 51
1.50
(201438
300
1460
6E
SE
2.00
2.25
2.36
t~701408
235269
258
255
230
310
1789
2079
1983
2D14
2280
SE 23)
SE 19
6R(')3)
6R(98)
SE 1181
SE 76
2.50
50
55
60
3.00
2.00
2287
SE 122J
2.25
2. 25
2664
2R(78)
259
248
223293
258
24
2082
2309
S1
SI
23
SI
a 18
9
28
KPP
2R(61)
SE a 56
14
SI&S
13
Sl
14
13
27
36
SS
52
Sl
19
9
11
SI
47
SI&B
I
3
30
is
Si
SI
255
t 2.31
2w'
2592
SI
r=30
2114
SEa31
45
Sl
2062
2640
sita37J
0R(100)
11
sI, t 1."9
1fF
1.50
02200
t~7
=16V?7
246
2"9
11PP
SE a 67'I
H"
2.50
22*341
262
2.50
3.00
3.50
262
229
26220
1310
2R(i13)
Mix 1611 to 1764
4. 00
1.0
r~x174
$1 f 6;
2334
W 0 4
S.
7
7
2
bI
Sl
1071
S.
9w0
274
SA4 f r It L L It
1)90
#4
00
A L
to
t S.07
CONFIDENTIAL
a,
t 2.3]
2.50
00
M82
f.390
13
23
2.36
2.25
90
00
Notes
(Abbreviatons
explained on p 2'7)
Number
of
Rounds
Sigmficance
L4
45
Ballistic Limit
BL(A),
ft/sec
I1
CONFIDENTIAL
47
SUMMARY OF BALLISTIC LIMITS
TABLE 3.
Model
No.
Nor.
Obl.
deg
90
M82
10
BalUstic Limit
Sgpufh@L(A),
clnce
ft/sc
6.00
8.00
2.5a
3.00
236
209
255
229285
2592
3115
1418
1612
2R(45)
LCP
2R(36)
6R(95)
11
2
4
9
SI
SI. HPP(P) w3145, t7.94
Sl
t 3.01
4.00
5.00
204326
220232
2019
2442
1563
1487
SE a 37
SE a 15
SE small
SE small
28
42
SI
SI&B
L340
1220
1433
1818
280
1778
SE small '
SE a 15
SE w 1"
t340
1744
SE w17
(200
260
1316
2253
SE a 157
SE a 68
t320
2500
SE a 170
r230
30
Notes
(Abbreviations
explained on p 21)
BHN.
kg/am 2
Plaw
20
Number
of
Rounds
Nom. t,
in.
2.50
3.00
4.00
280
Sl.
17
Parabola fitted
with almost no over
52
Sl
.5
3
SI
SE, t 6.03
5.00
6.00
200300
220
2654
3041
SE a 48
2R(62)
35
2.50
255
1720
6R(127)
40
3.00
3.00
4.00
226Z4
235
223
1854
2050
2711
6R(83)
LCP
4R(142)
12
4
6
t 2. 38
SI&B
SI
45
2.36
255
220
1.0
1J.J
2R(63)
SE a 61
t 2.31
2. b0
290
2075
1936
SE a 35
SE w 45
41
SI&S
2186
SE * 35"
23 )3
SEa21
201
SI&S
3.00
t340
202204
2357
2617
244273
2820
HP1P
5.00
220224
311,4
405)
50
'..25
254
56
2.50
3. 30
2.36
264
226269
255
2386
25.2
2421
2.50
2452
2607
3.00
269
reS6
3.38
2.26
L60
43263
246
22t311
3231
2504
2180
",137)
La
4i(#4)
4.00
60
*A
LLIt
0 It 10 0 0I
1E
10
R(144)
A Li
SI
SI, t 3.37
4
S
7
SI&S, t 3.)
2R(27)
$SE
2R(dI)
4
l6b
3
ss, t 2. 1
S1026
I)
$I
S&S, t 6.02
t 2.31
2
11
3
11
lll lit
CONFIDENTIAL
v ti
WS.t1.46
CP(I4J at 2044
U&S. t L 3
CONFIDENTIAL
48
TABLE 3.
Part 2.
Cal.
mm
Model
NO.
Nor.
Ob.
des
Nor. t.
il.
90
T25
T26
T27
T28
20
20
20
20
90
T39
30
45
ftt
N,
k&/mm 2
Ballistic Limit
IL(A).
Sigrufsft/sec
cance
5.00
5.00
5.00
5.00
220
220
220
220
2314
2R(39)
Mix 2174 to 2322
2421
6R(88)
2366
4R(124)
60
3.00
3.00
5.00
3.00
3.38
2.00
220223
262
220223
290320
263270
285
Mix 2196
2253
3061
2735
TJ65
2373
55
Plate
90
TSO(a)
46
55
5.00
3.38
220224
243260
)0
T50E1
5.Ou
6.00
7.60
6.00
H, 00
25)
256
258297
248
240
2,31
230232
240
279
20
3.00
4. O
50
5.00
30
6.00
7.60
6.0o
4.00
40
46
5.00
f~340
29:
27
266
262
2,45
245
2'5337
247
290300
55
46
2176
2385
2845
2562
J280
1731
6R(90)
4R(90)
SE  21
2R(40)
HP4
6R(103)
8
3
21
1
SI. t 5.10
SI, t 5.J6
SI
SI&D, t 6.07
*154
SEWS
22
2308
530
SEw 1
S E 34
42
SEa S
5%
SS
3141
2W
"140
mt73
*(
w1
24
1
1I
4
s$
33)6
"PP
)o 30
t
It 0 0 0
t 6.02
t 1.47
3"01
311
S1&,
Si&,
s
SS. t 4.43
3114
It L L ak
IV
10
6
3
#
34
6
5N
26)6
"o
A t't
6R(124)
"PP
6R(,S)
6R(120)
6R(161)
4 (46)
HIPP
st 4
H"
20(21
*63)4
4.00
326)
Sl
A
F
to 3136
3.00
{441
12
I1
5
41
20
so
3.0
t 5.03
t 5.34
t 5.04
t 5.03
21190
SE a 1.4
Mix 2811 to 3251
56
3.00
2.00
to 2585
6R(74)
SE  74
SE a 68
SE a 166
4R(62)
SI&,
SI&S,
SB&S,
SI&S,
4.00
3.00
4.00
fs
70
7
8
8
7
Notes
(Abbreviations
explained on p 2q)
58
13
27
83
45
,t4
3214
31193
*.51
WS4
2 44
312
3114
21l7
MIx 3044
24731$
Number
of
Rounds
0IA L
411,30
#fastIli
I f utt
CONFIDENTIAL
S1. t 6.02
se
S&S. t 4.94
3.4
so. t
sIu.02
u.5
11
CONFIDENTIAL
49
SUMMARY OF BALLISTIC LIMITS
TABL 3.
mm
Model
No.
105
T13
(Mods El. E2. and E3)
Nom.
Obl.
deg
Plate
Nom.r.
in.
30
120
120
T32E1
T14
T14
(a)
4.00
5.00
6.00
3.00
220

llistic Limut
BL(A).
Signifft/se.c
cance
Number
of
Rounds
Notes
(Abbreviauons
explained on p 27)
*
2115
2187
2664
2612
LCP
6R(99)
LCP
2R(19)
1
14
2
3
El;
El.
El.
El;
55
7.00
5.00
6.00
4.00
210
221
243
225
2537
2620
2890
2975
SE a 18
SE a 18
6R( 102)
6R(155)
27
25
9
12
SI&B
SI&S
SI&S
SB&S. t 4. 01
20
30
3.00
8.00
209
208
2482
2719
4R(58)
SE u 2'2
11
23
SI. t 8.06
SI&B
45
6.00

2892
SE a 43
46
SB&S
0
20
30
8.00
8.00
6.00
7.60
8.00
4.00
6. 00
2482
2669
24310
2823
2678
3334
2427
3180
2R(41)
2R(40)
2R(36)
4R(77)
LCP
2R(137)
4R(70)
6R(38)
6
8
5
6
4
45
238
239
265
262
210
210
291
252263
55
105
iIN,
kg/mm 2
30
45
2866
2R(41)
3334
4R(132)
10
ElS,
2999
2151S
Mix 2806
.914
3091
6R(160)
4R(63)
to 3115
2R('26'
HPP
4R(37)
6
6
20
5
2
E3 w/cap; S8
[! w/cap se
3 w/cap; SD, t3.91
E3 w/o cap; So
Cl w/cap; so
256
269
225297
23)
5.00
0
2.00
ft.
300
I 1
f
2^00
L L 1
w/cap; SL t7.96
w/cap; SIAB. 17.96
w/cap; St. t 6.02
w/o cap; SI. t7.65
w/cap; SI, t8.12
w/u cap; SS. t 3. 12
w/cap; SB. t4.04
E3 w/c&p. SD
225
5.00
3.00
4. 0
At
E3
E3
E3
E3
El
E1
2231.1
55
60
"3
11
SB
E2. E3; SI&B
E2
SI&B
0E
M6 9@
A L
I Of 6 11 1 1 to I ft
CONFIDENTIAL
3bth wo0
t3 Wlcap; SS
ap
I
CONFIDENTIAL
(
50
TABLE 3.
Part 3.
Plate
Cal.
Model
No.
Nom.
Obl.
deg
75
T27
20
3.00
6.00

30
3.00

5.00

Shot
76
M93
0
30
76
T4
(various mods)
BHN.
kg/mm 2
Nom. t.
in.
6.00
8.00
4.00
6.00
Ballistic Limit
SlgrufiBL(A).
cance
ft/sec
Notes
(Abbreviauons
explained on p 27)
Number
of
Rounds
1888
2694
2303
2526
2R(47)
HPP
6
2
2R(40)
2R(46)
t 5.12
213225
220 et al.
220229
223245
2534
Z375
2265
2343
4R(94)
4R(25)
SE a 108
SE w 19
SI
SB
SB& S
SB
320
8
13
27
16
13
4
40
4.00
320
3276
2R(52)
r10
SE m686
4.00
t2 5u
2,J68
45
1301)
3065
3763
SE a3 8
SE 29
30
6.Ou
220
....
55
3.00
255
33,44
4R(114)
2
6
SB, HPP(P)
SS
0
2)
3.25
3.25
235
23
1564
1775
2R(l))
LCP
6
4
4. 00
22J
2162
2R($1)
T4
6.00
8.00
3.00
250
223
208
231
2124
2"719
3167
1472
2R(1)
LCP
2R(100)
2R(10)
3.25
2W5
2072
2R(46)
4.00
220240
.00
6.00
3.25
31.25
3.00
220240
220225
250
22U
23,5
235
265
SE 3L
a0
Mhx 2274 to 25t61
Mix 2066 to 2525
2825"P.
34(CP
30)9
2R(86)
24'u
4R(,4)
311,
k,3)
A3 '
HPP
33,
HPP
335wP,
364."P
30
40
s
55
2545
13
5
6
6
3403
T4. Sk&s
T4E17, %r%
T4, t 1.,33
T4
T4E17. Ss, t . 31
T4, s
4'4
T4E17. !S
T4E23, SI&S
T4. S
T4, SS, t 5_17
T417. Ss, tJ. 1
T4EP, S. t 3. 34
31
12
3
6
6
6
74. SS
T4E1 '
2
4
74E17.
I1
k, t a. it
I
I
k
o t w0
tA
lINSbY
?V
ftI
CON FIDENTIALI
CONFIDENTIAL
51
TAKl 3.
Pan 3.
Shot
Cal.
76
Model
No.
Special(a)
Nor.
Ohl.,
deo
55
226 et al.
285
220230
235
220
240277
8.00
30
6.00
45
55
4.00
3.00
220
223
32D
320
255
240
250
3612
2702
3733
3017
2671
3576
256
2R(38)
2R (28)
HPP
2R(28)
2R(38)
2R(15)
2R(56)
6
5
3
5
5
7
S
30
4.00
6. uO
28)
253
26.)
4u56
2R(36)
6R(107)
5
10
60
2.00
0
30
7.00
4.00
6.00
7.00
T29(b)
76
(vaJous models)
T66E3
k1331
76
(various models)
(HVAPDS)
8.00
4.00
3.00
45
6
2.00
3.00
so
4.%
(a) Tibe to
248
238283
248
248
248
248
u48
23
300
285307
20.5307
211
213
256
2938
2661
3198
3332
35)2
34 )J*
,4)3
3572
3811
3815
3704
3588
3500
3110
3"4ho
3 86
261244
3 O.i
34
4323

T29E2
T23E5
T2J
T2'3E2
T29E5
T2J
T2JE5
176ARO
......
246
48
5
59
13
7
45
8.00
4.00
6.00
4.00
6.00
3.00
0
30
Notes
(Abbreviauons
explained on p 27)
Number
of
Rounds
Ballistic Lirut
GigmfhBL(A).
cance
ft/sec
Plate
BHN.
Nom. t,
kg/rmm 2
in.
45
76
6R(144)
2R(54)
6R(7.)
SE w 41
2R(3)
6R(155)
6R(133)
6R (10 1)
6R(170)
6R(43)
6R(s
6)
SE a 43
SE a 16
8R(IJ3)
SE 24
6R(In)
11
24
I(
M331A2
M331AI
M331A2
.M331
MJ31A1
,%Wlrk)
Lot KNCE1(c)
Lot KNCE;.c)
Lx KNCE3r)
M331AI
M331A2
'513,1A1
I1331A."
NM331A*2
M331
M331AI
1t6
N133IA2
3.31A1
7
8
47
1
6C
6
8
b
8
10
61
iA
So?
HIp
P412035, al P43564.
dlbt SWW~AIly 1010Wi to**h T4, 60 with wvetaI nwel ebwse, n pjgrtmett
id matetiahs.
A br~t ewnnpaft 0( te
*atbt
fh ele, bat*e) ae desmttbl in th tefevente ?krd
FinalI eof p444 aU F444!'.
f m !
M te
IthIOU WW% Mttall*gc*Aly.
ft 0
1fuMPUsesed PS"W.
(C) t
mW me
A T It I LL I
W a
A I A*
I"
o?
CONFIDENTIAL
CONFIDENTIAL
52
TAKE 3.
Part 3.
Shot
Cal.
am
Model
No
90
M304
Nom.
Obl.,
deg
0
30
Plate
Nom. t.
in.
lHN.
kg/mm 2
7.60
4.00
5.00
258304
280
275
338
6.00
8.00
260
1.300
262
297
239
4.00
280
7.60
45
r223
l&llistc Limit
IL(A),
Signhflft/sc
cance
2523
2178
2298
2397
2468
2559
2882
2938
3208
3140
Notes
(Abbreviations
explained on p 27)
Number
of
Bounds
SE w 15
SE = 37
6R(59)
4R(53)
SE  59
21
21
10
10
SE=41
165
SEE 65J
4R(68)
6R(166)
2R(62)
SI&B
SB
SB
SS, t 4.97
SI&S. 392ARO
10
11
9
SB, t 7.65
SI&B. t 7.47
SI&S. t 7.96
rs3.
30
I
5.00
6.00
55
7.60
3.00
3527
3723
3548
3750
3011
SE = 9
HPP
HPP
HPP
4R(4")
34C3
SE
SE 18
SE 25
SE 46
HP?
6R(80)
6R(64)
2R(17)
6R(71)
df?
61
SS
257321
290368
391
257
363
391
319391
3607
3462
3285
3748
3556
3556
3640
3432
3846
34
14
13
10
10
11
7
SB&S
SS
SS. t 3.98
SS
SS. t 3.05
SS
S3&S
203
212
252
2822
1689ff,
3124
2R(56)
1951CP
HIPP
3
4
3
275320
249
297
275297
280
r200
4.00
60
3.00
4.00
65
3.00
70
3.00
94
M304(&)
(w/20 lb care)
0
30
45
14.00
6.00
6.00
90
30
6.00
. 00
251206
235
Mix 25
4100
s0
3100
302
3373
M332
22
10
8
9
5
to3 3"1
Hf
40
3
*(U)
So
SS
*IAl
()Tbese Noe vil&a U0lb coe aet described in firog aeco P41364.
,A ?2SLL I
t4.0S. Byprobit.
OLu2938.SE 201.
SS
S9, lone CP at 3700
SS. t 6.02
SB&S, t 7.54
SB. t 3.01
ASW@1016
,rut
CONFIDENTIAL
CONFIDENTIAL
53
Pat 3.
Cal.
mM
shot
Model
NO.
Nor.
Obl.
deg
90
T30
(various models)
20
30
i8.00
45
Nom. t,
in.
Plate
IN.
kg/mn.
allistic Limit
BL(A).
Signfift/sec
cance
8.00
10.00
12.00
6.00
8.00
208220
220
220
245
220
2481
2733PP.
3298 o
2151P ,
2765
6R(113)
2916CP
2R(53)
2291CP
2R(54)
12
5
4
5
5
T30E16.
T30E16.
T30E16.
T30E16.
T30E16,
10.00
4.00
6.00
205
220
244" 45
3110
1958
2407
2R(61)
2R(41)
SE = 106
5
2
37
T30El6, SB&S
T30EIS, SD&S. t 4.03
T30E16, SB&S. 110ARO
220
2799
2R(108)
4.00
220
2906
203284
J0
T44
T63
T0
I!
SE
3610
369 3
SE
34
SE39
21
55
6.00
3.38
044
235
3336
3376
.R(601,
2R(93)
5
3
8.00
1260
330
2605
2755
SE small
SE small
3
23
10
8.00
390
339390
260
2665
2954
2665
3185
3026
SE small)
4R(103)
4R(63)
SE  91
2R(37)
4
5
23
10
339
36"6
lll'r
8.00
8.00
L390
339
35
8.00
260
337q
GR(156)
40
8.00
26
3645
8.00
260
0
30
14.00
6.00
65
4.00
A 't t
i, k L 9
33
**
226
04 t
SI. t 8.OC
SI&S
SI&S. t 12.19
SB&S, t 6.06
SS
T30 E16. SS
34
260
f310
20
15
2R(74)
5.00
Notes
(Abbreviatons
explained on p 217)
Number
of
Rounds
T30E16, SI&S
T30Elo, S,. t C.06
T30Ed. t 3.31
SI&B. Parabola fitt d
wth
w. almost no overlap by PP's & CP'.
SI&S, t 8.06
sI&s. t 7.8
SI&S
SI&S, t 8.04
sl&S, t e of
IV
SI&S, t 8.64
2l (t)
Sl&S, to '.)4
3721
HPP
!US, t 8. 04
3426",
2212
317 CP
2k(.4)
4
4
s&l, t 14.25
SO, t 5.62
3531
4R(6,q)
HVAP*D..
6'1
0 00 1 A L
Hi'P
#"
'f I
2U
CONFIDENTIAL
ss, t 8.o6
Lrl
,Us
CONFIDENTIAL
54
SUMMARY OF BALLISTIC LIMITS
TABU 3.
Pan 3.
Sftt
Cal.
Model
No.
Nor.
Obl..
deg
Nom. t.
in.
90
T137(s)
10
7.00
(various models)
(HVAPDS)
Plate
30
4.00
6.00
7.00
8.00
45
55
4.00
4.00
DHN.
kg/mm 2
Ballistic Limit
31(A).
Slgusflft/lec
cance
279
2561
279
277
262
262
2A2254
242
235249
235
277
248294
Mix 2595
4"27
3831PP,
Mix 3728
3704PP,
4309PP.
Mix 3130
4637
2304
Mix 3608
3707
3966
269293
248300
5.00
60
3.CO
4. On
105
I"
T2994
T36
0
30
14.00
6.00
(w/6 a"
("Me
aw
9
8
I
5
13
16
2
26
3
8
15
270
3900
12R(110)
SE  61
2R(1)
285288
293
285
4317
4260
3624
HPP
HPP
2R(35)
8
1
5
248294
248308
270291
4115
6R(93)
Mix 3817 to 4151
4627
IPP
13
15
6
200
242
3562
231(N
2R(40)
2R(54)
30
45
6
El Mod 3(c)
E3 Mod 3(d)
E9 Mod 3(d)
El(e)
E3 Mod 1, E9 Mlod 2 (d)
El Mod 3(c)
E9 Mod 3(d)
El Mod 2(b)
El Mod 2 (d)
El Mod 3(c)
EO, El Mod 2. E2. 94(b)
El. El Mod 3 (c)
EO. ED Mods 1.2,3d)
E21( )
EO Z2. E4(b)
EP4
E7, I(c)
E0, E2. FA(b)
El M 3 ,odL7. t(c)
E,
ods I Maad
2(d)
4
6
SS
SS
10.00
197
3326
2R(S1)
SS
4.00
27.9
4.00
3474P",
LCP
3621CP
60
225
225
0
30
14.00
6.00
10.00
205
3305
222W.
262
HPP
234CP
41(47)
3
4
s
4.00

291
20(20)
14.00
2S2
'*2
=(4
30
4.04
2U3
267
~ 2 (7
Tiee ms".
"b
ufw
(4 Tfes muds aleap
(4 Thee msh
,ad e")
(40 Ms
lllillid
6R(152)
to 2800
LCP
4018CP
to 3948
3983CP
4424CP
to 4201
HPP
2R(67)
to 3763
Notes
(Abbreviations
explained on p 27)
45
44
IM lbSl
Number
of
Rounds
o
ra
4dA T
Lk a
! A
It
CONFIDENTIAL
Jraes~ift
2Rj62)
15, t 14.26
*1, t 4.,U
iSi, . 07
"51 tb.vA
*4
d 1am. S"
GTg
CONFIDENTIAL
55
TABLE 3.
Plate
Cat,
mae
Model
No.
Nor.
Ob.,
deg
Nom. t,
in.
37
M74
1.00
BiHN
kg/mm 2

r230
150
1.00
240
1525
SEa 26
60
1.00
320
2.6326
1622
240J
SE a 24)
SE w 17
2.00
r220
1132
SE  1:1
260
1187
SE =
'400
1133
SEn 14
124')
1384
1652
1u
15
SE a 64
SE U751
SE 14
SE u 34
2076
6R(11.,)
2.00
3.00
M70
2.25
3.00
248283
(1)
{260
L330
(217236
4.00
J 242277
301
1f323
20
30
3.00
4.00
272
323
r20
 70
2134
2.44
520
SI
20
32
1dJ
60
SI&B
1.56
SI&S
SI
76
20
SI
30:
St
12
SI
J1
lss.)
5h
6R(86)
IP
10
%
M&S, t 3. Iu
SS. t 4.16
217G
2645
SE.21
sEl
a
37
425
2.00
1l,
2R(25)
.'t6@
sita3o}
V310
26430t
I297
2522
244
234
5
2
s103
La !
No.
3M5
st
al a 0 O I I A
#0 It
s$, t 2.06
30
21
11
CONFIDENTIAL
f f Ot L L t
t 1.41
51
SS
st a
0a
SARO,
2727
2426
II
5,
4
11
,320
2.00
376
SE a 21
3.00
2.00
10
A3,AFo
2.1(4)
GR(84)
35
0
3.0q
Notes
(Abbreviauons
explained on p 27)
45
1.75
280
133o
252
230
270
310
199232
235270
288305
Nurnber
of
Rounds
1225
SE w22~
1289
SE7
1120
SE 26
1422
2R(45)
1559
SE.3
1672
SE6 b
1723
SE w 27
Mix 2049 to 2226
Mix 2004 to 2435
PP2252 to 2J46
E24"
,
1269
1.50
51
Ballistic Limit
BL(A).
Sgmfi
ft/sec
cance
I tL
sus
It
0
CONFIDENTIAL
56
SUMMARY OF BALLISTIC UMITS
TABLE 3.
model
No.
75
M72
Nor.
Obl..
deg
PlAte
onom.t.
in.
OHN.
kg/mm 2
Ballistic Limat
@L(A).
Sisruhcamce
ft/sec
SE  65
SE= 7 51
i J1156
, u1248
3.00
('310
1194
SE. 35
2414
1263
HPP
(i 60
14 6
230
SE 851
3.25
20
6. 0
4.01)
228
193
1602
1718
2058
1852
4.00
300
M79
30
3.00
25)
1959
2.(92)
76
T128E6
(M339)
20
30
55
4.00
2.00
4.00
2.00
4.00
4.00
251
255
251
255
251
251
2118
1210
2610
1768
2824
3212
6R(122)
2R(15)
6R(81)
2R(21)
2R(43)
6R(100)
3.00
190
240
290
190
24
1064
109.)
1135
1433
1452
254
183232
204
206
230
237
237261
1356
16,)1)
2007
3124
3112
20,1
1983
1845
SE a 66"
St =20
SE =0 0
SE: 65'
SE  21
SE 40
SE 44
at 25
HI"
HP
41(72)
L(P
21(44)
45
90
M77
4.00
T33
20
30
40
46
5.00
6.00
3.00
1.00
4.00
3.00
3.00
4.00
....
6.00
241245
2144
4.00
10.00
06
10?
3167
313
,L
00
W4
3130
$1
a048w
2 2?
3641
Ift
170.374
29"
9000
216
Hall
S1141
Sa 1
MIS
S11131
46
&to0
Me
.0
211
4.#)
LAI
k
9S 0
SI
1015
2
SE= 19
SE a 46
HPP
2R(67)
75
Notes
(Abbeviauons
explained on p 27)
Numbe
of
Rounds
190
2
4
SI
SB
SS, t 2.85
11
8
8
7
7
9
SB&S. t 4.02
SI&3. t 2.04
SS. t 4. 02
Si. t 2.04
58&S. t 4.02
SS, t 4.02
61
St. 346ARO
177
23
49
I
1
7
2
St
SI
55
Ss
SI, t 3.$4
r1, t 2. IS
s. t 2. 4
1A L
SI
1A
Hl
HI
1
2
26AKn
S(P)
K
a2102, 20(37)
ss
! I of
14
40
70
21
If
CONFIDENTIAL
1
*S
0
It I
I
I
CONF! DENITIAL
57
SUMMARY OF ALUISTIC UMITS
TADLE 3.
goet
Model
No.
90
T33E7
(Not part of
Project AX23)
Nom.
Obi..
deg
23
30
45
55
60
90
T54E1
0
30
45
55
Nom. t.
in.
lItN,
kg/m
70
AI 1)
Notes
(Abbeviatons
explained on p 21)
232
235
248
248
232
235
219
233
1701
1610PP.
2090
2136
1866
2761
2671
2746
4R(80)
1731CP
6R(131)
LCP
4R(65)
6R(115)
6R(149)
2R(62)
6
9
8
7
8
6
7
8
7.60
5.00
6.00
7.60
4.00
5.00
6.00
3.00
247
238258
254260
245260
243282
238273
246267
258266
326
220
288
2459
2553
2876
3289
2487
2732
3232
2410
2232
2810
6R(117)
SE a 15
SE a 31
HPP
SE  52
SE a 35
SE a 82
SE a 34
SE a 24
SE a 37
6R(41)
10
2v
2)
11
22
20
20
20
10
15
11
S&3. t 7.55
SB&S
SS
SD&S. t 1.&3
SS&S
so
Se
Sl&S
4R(82)
SE 39
I
30
So. t 2.08
SO&S
43
So&$
2616
2263
2675
SI. t 3.97
St. t 5.19. DL(P) a 1766
S1. t 6.01
Sl&S, t 5.99. BL(P) , 2196
S&l. t 3.97
SS. t 5.19
t 3.99
t 3.02
So&$
2.00
3.00
230300
4.00
260
3084
3
St 3
3.0O0
4.00
221300
2w
238
210 1
33"
3144
%IF
at 30
ff
2lt(l)
0
3
10
S
SS,
fA,
2.00
3.00
222
223
2929
3226
4R(49)
4R(31)
6
10
w, 1.91
ts. 3.0
tie
31"
GR(6)
224
22D
45
Number
of
Rounds
Balistic Limit
L(A).
Signifift/sec
canoe
4.00
5.00
6.00
6.00
4.00
5.00
4.00
3.00
4.00
60
Plate
fO
~ 2990
2M
Stag 
UtVIt
CONFIDENTIAL
4. 20
4.04, lone Cp
S$, t 3,06
CONFIDENTIAL
58
TALE 3.
Model
No.
120
T116
(Mods M. E5)
Nom.
Obi.
de s
30
6.00
1.60
4.00
5.00
6.00
45
7.60
5.00
6.00
2.00
3.00
55
60
4.00
5.00
65
70
4.00
2.00
3.00
4.00
155
M112
kg/mm 2
248
252
275
280
238244
249
252
233274
246
243244
275
325
2091
2779
2010
2239
2923
3130
3135
2693
3336
1593
36
2322
6R(95)
4R(34)
4R(5)
6R(148)
6R(132)
6R(89)
HPP
SE  40
HIP
LCP
6R(96)
6R(94)
9
8
5
7
10
8
3
64
7
9
8
9
249
2600
6R(103)
2297
6R(123)
7
9
280
239
284
246
244251
323
252274
2854
2993
3277
2008
2604
286
J24
2R(32)
6R(114)
HPF
2t(41)
21t(50)
6R(91)
3314
HPP
3138
2632
4R(78)
4R(60)
f285
253257
6.00
6.00
10.00
4.00
6.00
8.00
4.00
6.00
192230
206
197
212200
2W
18325
i6261
18506
1509
2R(18)
2462
LCP
282
1W
Mix I12 to 1466
1722
4R(97)
1771
SE 129
1172
2R(74)
2690
6R(141)
6.00
185195
1648
ILLa
M It
15
a At V
It
5
7
5
7
7
15
5
'7
8
2.00
45
& XXVI
WhN.
75
30
.
Number
of
Rounds
Ballistic Limit
Sigpift@L(A).
cauAc
ft/sec
Plate
Nom. t.
in.
21
4
3
16
46
5
I
6i(162)
A L
W11S061
# U
CONFIDENTIAL
Notes
(AbbreviaUons
explained on p 27)
E. SS. t4.18
E,5. SB. t3.90
4. SS.
4 w/o
ES, SS.
E.SO,
S,
54 w/o
E5. SS.
E5 SS.
E5, SS.
ES, s6,
t 4.96
WS. SS, t 5.21
t 4.17
2.07
WS. SS, t 3.12
t 3.12
t 4.17
4. 18
t 1.99
CONFIDENTIAL
59
SUMMARY OF IALLISTIC lIMITS
TANA 3.
Part 5.
bo
lallistic Umit
EL(A).
Siginifft/s
cance
260
Piace
Cal,
I=
Model
NO.
Nom.
Obi.,
deg
Nor. t.
in.
37
M51
1.00
1045
SE w141
f310
995
SE=
L360
948
SE
1684
1817
2032
2364
1167
1042
1368
1369
SE a 56
SE * 32
SE a 19
2R(21)
4R(62)
2R(33)
SE 55
SEw 28
2273
2436
2624
1903
SE a 57
SE 12
SE a31
LCP
20
1. 50
2. 00
2.25
.400
1.00
30
1.00
38
2.00
200
280
L300
40
1.00
262
248311
242302
262283
269
262332
364
260
310
2601875
MN
53
SI
11
111
138
70
5
17
3
29
297
Sl
S1
Sl
SI. t 2. 87
Si, t 1.08
t 1.01
St
Si&S
SE : 41
SE 24
48
SI&
SE 44
SEw3l
37
SM
13
11
17
4
51, t 2.
SIAS. t 4.16
1.00
310
55
1.00
360
262364
1968
1868
2326
3.00
4.00
1.50
4.00
2)272
323
235330
323
1649
2278
1224
2121
6R(106)
6R(57)
SE :HPP
1.80
302
1403
LCP
t 1. 55
t 1.41
45
57
Notes
(Abbrviations
explained on p 27)
Number
of
Rounds
30
35
330
1163
LCP
2.00
251
1783
"(M9)
2.50
254
201
27
230
2073
3491
1631
2M
"(11
Stu 4
Sa "11
29043
1"70
1727
51.35
47
1196
IM
:M
$45
(
6
3
3.00
45
1.50
50
3.00
2.00
1320
20
330
41
of
SAt
24M
H,5
2.00
Lee
?SLtkLS
3
a"46
8543
2f44o1
0 l 0
an
2736
fill
#t A0
cy
10(40
0("t
f
SS. t 4.16
sI&,
t 2.06
12
St. t 2.67
74
"as
42
:.1O
"
11
t1.01
4
1
0
S
IL L 44
5me. t 1.U
o
6 It I It w ta
CONFIDENTIAL
CONFIDENTIAL
60
TAUKE 3.
Part 5.
Bustic Limit
SignafDL(A).
cance
ft/sec
45
3.00
4.00
1.26
1.50
1.00
269
268
262
284
340
1418
1940
972
962
1991
2.00
4.00
3.75
4.00
2.00
3.00
4.00
241291
314
280
217
188207
243307
269
204245
273321
220
4.00
250
1092
912
2014
1871PP,
%ix 2047
1243
1720
2286
2699
2379
2339
2734
1790
Model
No.
Nom.
Obl.
deg
'5
M61
0
25
76
M62
Cal.
mm
Shot
20
30
36
plate
Nom. t.
in.
280
21
46
2.00
260
t310
2.25
2.50
259311
2596
r240263
6
2.oo
262285
1672
1590
1696
2291
2129
2150
M82
7
5
1
2
6
6R(87)
LCP
2R(44)
2033CP
to 2628
6R(84)
4R(100)
4R(82)
2R(8)
SE a 24"
SE w 36
SE a 25
SEm6'f''
16
4
3
8
20
17
5
10
7
t 2.08
t 2.08
t 3. 87
SI
Sl
46
SI&S
SE u44
SE v 59
6R(3)
SE w24
6R(126)
4(2)
20
30
237269
217200
218
6.00
15232
6.00
10.00
8.00
3.00
206
1"7
206
235303
2)
4.00
6.O
2043PF.
1687
2156
2341
3186
3167
3170
109
2115
202067110
2212CP
Sw 13
LCP
6R(146)
"IP
1W
LA;
St w 22
5E 41
1 0D
Sl
13
28
12
6
t 2.30
11
t 2.0J
6
44
4
28
2
2
2
47
t 2.95
'M
St, t 5. 12
,1
$8
St
S&l3
t 2.10)
t 1.94
fi
sit  08
1118
4 1! AN
He
l At
Probit
analysis
diverged
fSl f 111IN
CONFIDENTIAL
OI L L It
SI. t 2.82
SI. t 3.94
SI&S. t 3.94
S:tS
130=1
Mt
S. t 2.82
Sl
SI. t 1.19
SI
SS, t 1.02
132
(39)
3.00
4.00
o.00
Notes
(Abbreviations
explained on p 27)
2R(37)
2R(48)
HPP
HPP
4R(127)
f3072211
90
Number
of
Rounds
Lt
t i
SPI
20
X 321
CONFIDENTIAL
61
SUMMARY OF 5ALUSTIC UMITS
TAR& 3.
Cal.
mM
90
f8ot
model
NO.
M82
late
MOM.
Obl.,
dg
Mora. t.
in.
35
40
2.00
4.00
45
3.00
253
229301
900
1 280
66
3.25
4.00
3.00
s8
199280
264
IIN.
kg/mms
90
T39
TSOE1
2
5
228320
2139
SE 80
2189
2(50)
Mix 2583 to 3220
2593
HPP
212
SI. t2.03
S1. t3.91
SI&
3
82
1
S&S
sm a)
t3.02
2216
2328
3129
2744
SE a 14
SE a 15
HPF
6R(104)
61
SI
4
10
S. t4.04
SI. t3.02
2652
SE = 24
2280
SE a 13
2623
SEu63
2943
SE a 21
2479
6R(140)
2652
6R(171)
2928
SES 19
3259
fFP
2M
S1889
3136
4R(147)
2727
U(2)
2168
41(52)
2740
Sf w 21
3213CF, 3447FP
F
R
312
8(60)
Mix 279' to2388
2.
3350
IF
P
24
33
2.%
2.00
3.00
4.00
3.00
2.00
3.00
247269
238258
254260
245260
238
281
238241
254267
249280
245
288
225
279303
220304
262
22
240
Si
SI
iI
Sl
SI&3. t '1.13
S8. t Zo9
Si&
5&S, f'.2
,1
S, t 4.04
S, t3.95
S, t2.01
I'
,2 IP's , 31M
SS, t3.07
,5.t 2.07
30
7.40
246M
*41
St11
1"
45
6.00
SW37
344
515
7.60
.00
4.00
2"
28
W416.
314
i30
2Ml
PP
F
81(123)
*(131)
It
soF, t
Is
81(74)
&i , I 5,.11
.0
4.00
21
2"
3118
3814
(
IVP
:".M
t3,I
4'
30
5.00
260
55
60
4.00
3.00
1270
24
263
0
30
7.60
5.00
6.00
7.60
4.00
55
60
65
70
T140
2109
2R(49)
2R(4)
SE
0
SE 171
45
120
2346
2691
Notes
(Ablu, vistiom
explained on p 27)
Number
of
Rounds
228
r230
90
Balistic LUwt
SinIpfiIL(A).
cance
ft/sec
6.00
6.00
3.00
4.00
5.00
70
18i016
34
10
31
I
21
6
7
11
21
I
i
Wbdf
t~
CON~FI DENTIAL
41i 1
i~
.U
CONFIDENTIAL
62
TANAE 3.
Part 6.
Shot
Cal.
90
Model
eNo.
Nom.
Obi.
des
M304
Ballistic Limit
Plate
Nor. t.
in.
IHN.
kg/mm 2
IL(A).
ft/sec
Signiflcace
Number
of
Rounds
!
Notes
(Abbreviations
explained on p 27)
7.60
245269
2414
SE a 13
32
SI
30
5.00
236273
2220
SE a 15
22
Se
45
6.00
7.60
4.00
5.00
254260
245
243
282
236273
246267
247
243280
231280
243272
258266
301
239
2482
2782
2728
2862
3128
3673
3744
2759
3374
2991
3795
3686
3750
SE  24
6R(95)
6R(138)
2R(3)
SE w 57
SE a 41
HPP
SE  23
SE w 13
SE . 11
HPP
6R(101)
HPP
21
10
10
10
22
21
4
21
23
20
14
10
4
SB
S1
SS, t 3.94
SS. t 3.85
58 at 236. SS at 273
SS
Se
SO at 243. SS at 280
SB
S5 at 243. SS at 272
SB&S. t 4.05
SS, t 3.93
SB. t 5.16
70
3.00
245280
3853
HPP
55
60
5.00
6.00
7.60
3.00
4.00
3.00
4.00
90
T30E15
20
10.00
191
2693PP,
3065CP
90
T44
0
25
35
40
45
50
8.00
8.00
8.00
8.00
8.00
8.O0
223
223
223
223
223
223
2513
2816
3248
3445
3660
3672
4R(36)
6R(101)
6R(34)
6R(72)
21(25)
IHP
10
11
10
10
6
3
15Z
T35
30
4.00
201
1467
HPP
fA
f6LL6
hMLa
I A 61
# " 0
CONFIDENTIAL
t a
CON FIDENTIAL
APPENDIX
BIBLIOGRAPHY
CON FIDENTIAL
CONFIDENTIAL
AI
APPENDIX
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Following is a list of the principal references that were edited to get the penetration data that were analyzed.
Ar 16981
16983
16984
16985
16988
16994
17050
Ar 17094
17131
17146
17154
17158
17163
17221
Ar 17186
17390
17845
18060
18223
18494
19106
Project TT15
Ar 17826
17838
17910
18073
18073sup
18107
18489
Ar 18490
18513
18513sup
18553
18553sup
18658
18703
Project AXZ3
Ar 20318
Ar 20730
0.
P.
.!
li'~~
558
586
679
686
834
Ar 19447
1q476
205e6
Ar 20895
(Approximately 200 rounds)
Ar 214Z1
Ar 18752
19076
19182
19183
19187
19276
19366
Ar 19945k
Ar 18504
AD
AD
AD
AD
AD
Ai
I}
818
992
1007
1041
1042
Lr
Ir
Lf 9k
M I M 0
A12581
1258
1U580
1s85
1260b
1 A Lk
1 01 6 T'
A 12614
Ar 16231
T v
CONFIDENTIAL
r
It
Ar 20802
20Q4 9
21080
21203
21344
Ar 17784
17791
17792
17794
17796
17798
17804
.1
Ar 18065
180 6 5sup
18084
18084sup
19675
19843
20701
I'
CONFIDENTIAL
AZ
Miscellaneous Test Programs on R. H. Armor
AD 210
AD 369
AD 509
AD 54Z
AD 574
AD 652
AD 689
AD 830
AD 839
517
560
571
587
AD
AD
AD
AD
590
630
658
663
AD
AD
AD
AD
678
685
694
697
1Z7G
127GI
1Z7K105
127L
127MI
i27MZ
127M3
1Z7M4
I 7M7
127M0 1
AD 844
AD 1014
AD 1033
AD 1084
Ar 13801
836
990
999
101Z
AD
AD
Ar
Ar
1074
1076
15Z44
15Z56
BC 1141
lZ7Q
1Z7S
BG 114A
BC 1 14G
BG 114E
BG 163B
BG163G
BG174
BG4
G74A
BGZ1
BGZZ
tBGZ6
BG28
DAZ I
DA74
DA88
DA99
DA104
CIT
DA128
EB41
I
CONFIDENTIAL
127DI
127D
IZ17G
1Z7M7
127GI
127M1
127M2
I 7M4
127M5
127M6
IZ7Q
127S
A1Z8A
A103
AIZ8
AI Z8A
A136
AN
ANI
BC163
BC i 63A
FgC 163B
BC 163C
BG163D
BC 174
DA74
D.A 88
DA99
DA1Z8
07.
C7,4B
G95
C96
DA13
DAZ I
IFollowing
I.
!
a01tA L
cAT?
'
T I ItUI
~CONFI~DENTIAL
ip
CONFIDENTIAL
DISTRIBUTION LIST
:o. of
1'
Oranization
OrganizaTion
Chief of Ordnance
Department of the Army
Washington 25, D.C.
ATTN: ORDTB  Bat Sec
ORDTW
Commanding General
Rocket and Guided Missile Agency
Redstone Arsenal
Huntsville, Alabama
Commanding General
Picatinny Arsenal
Dover, New Jersey
ATTN: Samuel Feltman Ammo Labs.
Commanding General
Continental Army Command
Fort Monroe, Virginia
ATTN: Ass't Chief of Staff
for Development and Test
Commandant
Command and General Staff College
Fort Leavenworth, Kansas
President
U. S. Army Armor Board
Fort Knox, Kentucky
President
U. S. Army infantry Board
Fort Benning, Georgia
Commandant
The Armored School
Fort Knox, Kentucky
ATTN: Weapons Dept, Combat
Development Group
Commandant
The lr.fantry School
Fort Benning, Georgia
No. of
Director
Armed Services Tech Info Agency
Documents Service Center
Knott Building
Dayton 2, Ohio
ATTN: DSCSD
Director, Weapon Systems
EvaluAtioi Group
Office, Secretary of Defense
Washington 25, D.C.
CONFIDENTIAL
CONFIDENTIAL
DISTRIBUT,"N LIST
(Continued)
No. of
Copies
2,iuza1ion
Commanding Officer
Detroit Arsenal
Centerline, Michigan
Commanding Officer
Watertown Arsenal
Watertowr, Massachusetts
ATTN: OMRO
Commanding General
Frankford Arsenal
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
ATTN: Fire Control Director
Commandant
Army War College
Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania
Commanding General
Ordnance Weapons Command
Rock Island, Illinois
ATTN: OPDOWGEN
Mr. S. 0. Mulhollan
Commanding Officer
Watervliet Arsenal
Watervliet, New York
ATTN: R&D Division
Mr. Frank John
. r as Hopkins University
Operat:ons Research Office
U. S. Army
7100 Connecticut Avenue
Chevy Chase, Maryland
Washington 25, D.C.
Commanding Officer
Diamornd Ordnance Fuze Laboratories
Washington 25, D.C.
ATTN: ORDTL 06.33
Director
Ballistic Research Laboratories
Aberdeen Proving Ground
Maryland
CONFIDENTIAL