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Turkish literature

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Dede Korkut


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A page from the Dîvân-ı Fuzûlî, the collected poems of the 16th-century Azerbaijanipoet Fuzûlî.

the Oghuz Turks began to settle in Anatolia. genres.2 The Dawn of the Future movement o 4. such as the Book of Dede Korkut of the Oghuz Turks—the linguistic and cultural ancestors of the modern Turkish people—and the Manas epic of the Kyrgyz people. Beginning with the victory of the Seljuks at the Battle of Manzikert in the late 11th century. The Ottoman Turkish language. found in the Orhon River valley in central Mongolia and dating to the 7th century.1 Divan poetry o 3. between the 9th and 11th centuries.2 Early Ottoman prose o 3.3 The National Literature movement 5 Republican literature o 5.2 Folk poetry o 2.300 years.3 The 19th century and Western influence 4 Early 20th-century Turkish literature o 4.1 Prose o 5. which forms the basis of much of the written corpus. The history of the broader Turkic literature spans a period of nearly 1. the oral and written traditions would remain largely separate from one another. For the next 900 years. With the founding of the Republic of Turkey in 1923. and in addition to the earlier oral traditions there arose a written literary tradition issuing largely—in terms of themes.1 In English o 11. Subsequent to this period.1 The epic tradition o 2. The oldest extant records of written Turkic are the Orhon inscriptions. neither of which exercised much influence upon the other until the .2 Poetry 6 Book Trade 7 Important works of fiction: 1860–present 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 External links o 11. and styles— from Arabic and Persian literature.3 Folklore 3 Ottoman literature o 3. was influenced by Persian and Arabic and used the Ottoman Turkish alphabet. the two traditions came together for the first time. Contents [hide]            1 The two traditions of Turkish literature 2 Folk literature o 2. there arose among the nomadic Turkic peoples of Central Asia a tradition of oral epics. such as that spoken in the Republic of Turkey today. until shortly before the fall of the Ottoman Empire in 1922.1 The New Literature movement o 4.Turkish literature (Turkish: Türk edebiyatı or Türk yazını) comprises both oral compositions and written texts in the Turkish language.2 In Turkish The two traditions of Turkish literature[edit] Throughout most of its history. either in its Ottoman form or in less exclusively literary forms. Turkish literature has been rather sharply divided into two rather different traditions.

the salient difference between the folk and the written traditions has been the variety of language employed.e. this can be seen as far back as the Seljuk period in the late 11th to early 14th centuries. Folk literature[edit] Main article: Turkish Folk Literature . The standard poetic forms—for poetry was as much the dominant genre in the written tradition as in the folk tradition—were derived either directly from the Persian literary tradition (the gazel eht . Turkish folk poetry has always had an intimate connection with song—most of the poetry was.19th century. being quantitative (i. syllabic) verse. In folk poetry—which is by far the tradition's dominant genre—this basic fact led to two major consequences in terms of poetic style:   the poetic meters employed in the folk poetic tradition were different.)‫م س نوى‬ from the Arabic (the kasîde smrof citeop eseht tpoda ot noisiced eht . To some extent. as Turkish words rarely worked well within the system of Persian poetic meter. in fact.revewoH . and where a court poet such as Dehhanî—who served under the 13th century sultan Ala ad-Din Kay Qubadh I—wrote in a language highly inflected with Persian. dîvân )‫ )ناويد‬being the Ottoman Turkish word referring to the collected works of a poet. The first of these two traditions is Turkish folk literature. as opposed to the qualitative verse employed in the written poetic tradition. and consequently of those literatures' respective languages. For most of the history of Turkish literature. Just as Turkish folk poetry was intimately bound up with Turkish folk music. the Ottoman Turkish language—which was always highly distinct from standard Turkish—was effectively born. Out of this confluence of choices. In contrast to the tradition of Turkish folk literature. was oral and remained free of the influence of Persian and Arabic literature.. where official business was conducted in the Persian language. with the poems of the Divan poets often being taken up to serve as song lyrics. Furthermore. so did Ottoman Divan poetry develop a strong connection with Turkish classical music. When the Ottoman Empire arose early in the 14th century. Persian.and Arabic-based words were brought into the Turkish language in great numbers. and the second is Turkish written literature. by and large.)‫ق ص يده‬ wholesale led to two important further consequences: [1]   the poetic meters (Turkish: aruz) of Persian poetry were adopted. it continued this tradition. Turkish written literature—prior to the founding of the Republic of Turkey in 1923—tended to embrace the influence of Persian and Arabic literature. expressly composed so as to be sung—and so became to a great extent inseparable from the tradition of Turkish folk music. The folk tradition. the basic structural unit of folk poetry became the quatrain (Turkish: dörtlük) rather than the couplets (Turkish: beyit) more commonly employed in written poetry. rather than in Turkish. This style of writing under Persian and Arabic influence came to be known as "Divan literature" (Turkish: divan edebiyatı).‫ غزل‬mesnevî naisreP hguorht yltceridni ro . in northwestern Anatolia.

Part of a series on Islamic culture Architecture          Arabic Azerbaijani Indo-Islamic Moorish Moroccan Mughal Ottoman  Pakistani Tatar   Persian Somali Sudano-Sahelian Art   Calligraphy  Miniature Rugs Dress           Abaya Agal Boubou Burqa Chador Jellabiya Niqāb Salwar kameez  Songkok (Peci) Taqiya Keffiyeh (Kufiya)   Thawb Jilbab .

 Hijab Holidays    Ashura Arba'een al-Ghadeer  Chaand Raat        al-Fitr al-Adha Imamat Day al-Kadhim New Year Isra and Mi'raj  al-Qadr    Mawlid Ramadan Mugam Mid-Sha'ban Literature   Arabic Azerbaijani        Bengali Indonesian Javanese Kashmiri Kurdish  Malay Pashto     Persian Punjabi Sindhi Somali South Asian  Turkish  Urdu Music    Dastgah Ghazal Madih nabawi     Maqam Mugam Nasheed Qawwali Theatre   Bangsawan  Jem Karagöz and Hacivat .

probably in the Karamanid state in south-central Anatolia. It is. in its themes. or ozans. on the other hand. which is itself a blending of Shi'a and Sufi concepts. and dealing with the problems caused by his neighbors. The Shi'a influence. which can be seen as something of a homegrown Turkish variety of Shi'a Islam. "lover") is in fact the term used for first-level members of the Bektashi order. such a neat division into Sufi and Shi'a is scarcely possible: for instance. The religion henceforth came to exercise an enormous influence on Turkish society and literature. from an 18th-century Western engraving Nasreddin also reflects another significant change that had occurred between the days when the Turkish people were nomadic and the days when they had largely become settled in Anatolia. helping his mother to keep the family house intact. while the entire Turkish aşık/ozan tradition is permeated with the thought of the Bektashi Sufi order. Nasreddin is a Muslim imam. namely. a towering figure in Turkish literature and a poet who lived at the end of the 13th and beginning of the 14th century. The word aşık (literally. written by Yusuf Has Hajib. However. An aşık performing in Anatolia. for instance. The Turkic peoples had first become an Islamic people sometime around the 9th or 10th century. Another example is the rather mysterious figure of Nasreddin. as is evidenced from the clear Islamic influence on the 11th century Karakhanid work the Kutadgu Bilig ("Wisdom of Royal Glory"). [2] . who are roughly akin to medieval European minstrels and who traditionally have had a strong connection with the Alevi faith. The Sufi influence. in its form. in Central Asian nomadic traditions. particularly the heavily mystically oriented Sufi and Shi'a varieties of Islam.   Sama Ta'zieh Islam portal  V  T  E Turkish folk literature is an oral tradition deeply rooted. can be seen clearly not only in the tales concerning Nasreddin but also in the works of Yunus Emre. important to note that in Turkish culture. a young boy beset with the difficulties of finding a wife. Turkish folk literature reflects the problems peculiar to a settling (or settled) people who have abandoned the nomadic lifestyle. on his neighbors. can be seen extensively in the tradition of the aşıks. of a sort. a trickster who often plays jokes. One example of this is the series of folktales surrounding the figure of Keloğlan. however. Yunus Emre is considered by some to have been an Alevi.

The Book of Dede Korkut endured in the oral tradition of the Oghuz Turks after settling in Anatolia. dating from around the dawn of the 11th century. Sultan Veled. Karamanoğlu Mehmet Bey declared Turkish the official state language of Anatolia's powerful Karamanid state. which concerns the adventures of Rüşen Ali )"Köroğlu". The epic tradition[edit] The Turkish epic has its roots in the Central Asian epic tradition that gave rise to the Book of Dede Korkut. [5] . can be considered modern prose epics. such as the 1955 novel Memed. and folklore. seems to indicate that the story is nearly as old as that of the Book of Dede Korkut. yet draws upon the same independent-minded traditions of the Anatolian people as depicted in the Epic of Köroğlu. This long poem — which concerns an Anatolian shaykh's rebellion against the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed I — is a modern epic. The origins of this epic are somewhat more mysterious than those of the Book of Dede Korkut: many believe it to have arisen in Anatolia sometime between the 15th and 17th centuries. [citation needed] [3] The Book of Dede Korkut was the primary element of the Azerbaijani-Turkish epic tradition in the Caucasus and Anatolia for several centuries . The development of folk poetry in Turkish—which began to emerge in the 13th century with such important writers as Yunus Emre. on 13 May 1277. Complicating matters somewhat is the fact that Köroğlu is also the name of a poet of the aşık/ozantradition. subsequently.and recognizably similar to modern Turkish . Furthermore. . translated into English and available online. as indicated above. folk poetry.the form developed from the oral traditions of the Oghuz Turks (a branch of the Turkic peoples which migrated towards western Asia and eastern Europethrough Transoxiana. and Şeyyâd Hamza—was given a great boost when. was strongly influenced by the Islamic Sufi and Shi'a traditions. though. Many of the works of the 20th-century novelist Yaşar Kemal (1923– ). Concurrent to the Book of Dede Korkut was the so-called Epic of Köroğlu. more reliable testimony. My Hawk (İnce Memed). published in 1936 by the poet Nâzım Hikmet Ran (1901–1963). beginning in the 9th century). The folk poetry tradition in Turkish literature. written in Azeri .Because the Turkish folk literature tradition extends in a more or less unbroken line from about the 10th or 11th century to today. or "son of the blind man") as he exacted revenge for the blinding of his father. it is perhaps best to consider the tradition from the perspective of genre. Folk poetry[edit] Yunus Emre (1240-1321) has exercised immense influence on Turkish literature. many of the tradition's greatest poets would continue to emerge from this region. as partly evidenced by the prevalence of the still existent aşık/ozan tradition. the dominant element in Turkish folk poetry has always been song. from his own day until the present. Alpamysh is an earlier epic. There are three basic genres in the tradition: epic. [when?] [4] The epic tradition in modern Turkish literature may be seen in the Epic of Shaykh Bedreddin (Şeyh Bedreddin Destanı).

Dadaloğlu )1785?–1868?). and many others. who was one of the last of the great aşıks before the tradition began to dwindle somewhat in the late 19th century. who may be the best-known of the pre-19th century aşıks. and several others. broadly speaking. however. however. There are. and Pir Sultan Abdal (?–1560). Kaygusuz Abdal The explicitly religious folk tradition of tekke literature shared a similar basis with the aşık/ozan tradition in that the poems were generally intended to be sung. Much of the poetry and song of the aşık/ozan tradition. which—although much influenced by religion. as mentioned above—was for the most part a secular tradition. as opposed to the milieu of the aşık/ozantradition. which emerged from the gathering places (tekkes) of the Sufi religious orders and Shi'a groups. a few well-known aşıks from before that time whose names have survived together with their works: the aforementioned Köroğlu (16th century). who wrote a highly popular long poem called Vesîletü'n-Necât )‫" ةاجنلا ةليسو‬The Means of Salvation". Despite the decline of the aşık/ozan tradition in the 19th century. Kaygusuz Abdal (1397–?). two traditions of Turkish folk poetry:   the aşık/ozan tradition. . Aşık Mahzuni Şerif (1938–2002). remains anonymous. whom many consider to be the pinnacle of that literature. Süleyman Çelebi (?–1422). Neşet Ertaş (1938–2012). who is widely considered the founder of Alevi/Bektashi literature. but more commonly known as the Mevlid). the explicitly religious tradition. a mandolin-like instrument whose paired strings are considered to have a symbolic religious significance in Alevi/Bektashi culture. being almost exclusively oral until the 19th century. who is one of the most important figures in all of Turkish literature. making them somewhat akin to Western hymns (Turkish ilahi). The aşıks were essentially minstrels who travelled through Anatolia performing their songs on the bağlama. where the majority could not read or write. is that—from the very beginning—the poems of thetekke tradition were written down. generally in religious gatherings. concerning the birth of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.There are. The major figures in the tradition of tekke literature are: Yunus Emre (1240?–1320?). Karacaoğlan )1606?–1689?). it experienced a significant revival in the 20th century thanks to such outstanding figures as Aşık Veysel Şatıroğlu (1894–1973). One major difference from the aşık/ozan tradition. This was because they were produced by revered religious figures in the literate environment of the tekke.

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