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You are on page 1of 10

1987

0020-7403187

$3.00+ .W

TURBULENCE

CHARACTERISTICS

OF WALL JETS ALONG

STRONG CONVEX SURFACES

N. FUJISAWA*

and R. KOBAYASHI~

*Department of Mechanical Engineering, Gunma University, Faculty of Engineering, Kiryu, Japan and

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tohoku University, Faculty of Engineering, Sendai, Japan

(Received 10 April 1986; and in revised form 17 October 1986)

Abstract-Mean

flow and turbulence characteristics of two-dimensional wall jets along strong

convex surfaces are investigated in an experimental manner. Distributions of mean velocities,

Reynolds normal and shear stresses and dissipation across the wall jets are measured, then the

balances of advection, production and dissipation in the Reynolds stress equations are examined. The

jet spreading and the levels of the Reynolds stresses of the strong convex wall jets increase significantly

as the wall jets develop along the surfaces. These trends are well correlated with a curvature parameter

represented by the ratio of half-width to surface curvature. The magnitudes of the terms in the

Reynolds stress equations for the strong convex wall jet are increased significantly compared with

those of the plane wall jet. In particular, these appear to be strong centrifugal effects on the production

of the turbulent fluctuation normal to the surface. This production, coupled with the production of

the shear stress and the advection of streamwise turbulent fluctuation, increase the interactions of

mean flow and turbulence.

NOTATION

half width of wall jet, where V = Urn/2 in jet region

slot width at nozzle exit

radius of surface curvature

mean velocity components in x and y directions

VO mean velocity at nozzle exit

VIn maximum velocity across wall jet

Ii, u,w fluctuating components in x, y and z directions

X? Y, 2 co-ordinates (see Fig. 1)

position of maximum velocity

Ym

dissipation

angular position along convex surface

f

Y

kinematic viscosity

density of fluid

P

time averaging

b

d

R

v, v

subscript

max

_

maximum

1. INTRODUCTION

Turbulent wall jets have been applied to the boundary layer and thermal control of solid

surfaces as well as for many other engineering purposes. Therefore, the flow characteristics of

the turbulent wall jets along convexly curved surfaces have been studied in relationship to the

Coanda effect [l-7]. The most obvious convex flow configuration considered is that of a twodimensional jet flowing over the convex surface of constant radius. The mean flow

characteristics (mean velocity profile and growth rate of the jet) of the convex wall jets have

been studied extensively by many researchers [l-5], the results of which are in the form of

review papers [6--91. Thereafter, turbulence characteristics of this flow field have been

investigated by Alcaraz et al. [lo] and Kobayashi and Fujisawa [l l] for mild convex

curvature (where the half-width of mean flow is much smaller than the surface radius). Their

results indicate apparent increases of Reynolds stresses by the mild convex curvature, which

are well correlated with the curvature parameter represented by the ratio of half-width to the

radius of convex surface. However, for strong convex curvature (where the half-width is of

the same order as the surface radius), turbulence measurements are rather few and have been

311

N. FUJISAWAand R. KO~AYASHI

312

reported only by Wilson and Goldstein [12] for a constant radius surface. The result shows a

significant increase of Reynolds stresses much larger than for the wall jet with mild convex

curvature.

The purpose of this paper is to experimentally

study the effectsof strong convex curvature

on the mean flow and turbulence characteristics

of two-dimensional

wall jets in fine detail

with three constant radius surfaces for a wide range of strong convex curvature. Further, the

balance of advection, production and dissipation in the equations of Reynolds normal and

shear stresses are examined.

2. EXPERIMENTAL

APPARATUS

AND

PROCEDURES

A schematic diagram of the test section is shown in Fig. 1. Air is supplied by a centrifugal

blower and flows through nozzle A to form a fully developed two-dimensional

wall jet on the

plane surface B. The length 1 of surface B was selected as 250 mm (= 50 d) in the present

experiment, because the flow characteristics of the wall jet were seen to be self-preserving at

the beginning of the convex surfaces. Surface B is smoothly connected to the circular cylinder

C having a constant radius R of surface curvature. The radii R of the test surfaces are 83, 134

and 250 mm as shown in Table 1. To maintain

two-dimensionality

of the wall jet. a

rectangular nozzle is used [ 131 with slot height d = .5.0+ 0.05 mm and width 588 mm, thus

giving a width to height aspect ratio of approximately

120: 1. (Wilson aand Goldstein [ 121

used a convex surface

of R = 101.6 mm, which is directly connected

to the nozzle of

d = 6.15 mm with aspect ratio 83: 1.) Two end plates of sufficiently large size are attached to

both sides of the test section. The flow characteristics

of the convex wall jets obtained are

insensitive to velocity U0 at the slot in the range 32-48 m s- , so that the experimental results

shown in this paper are for CJO= 40 m s- r. The streamwise co-ordinate x is defined along the

convex surface of radius R starting from the inlet of the curved surface, and co-ordinates y

and z are both normal to x, with y perpendicular

to the surface (as shown in Fig. 1).

Mean and fluctuating

velocities were measured using a DISA constant temperature

anemometer system and single and X-wire probes with tungsten wires having a diameter of

5 pm. The output signals were processed by the usual small disturbance analysis method,

since the turbulence intensity processed by this method agrees with that by the square wave

analysis method within 5 yOfor turbulence intensities as high as 40% [12]. The errors in

FIG.

1. Schematic diagram of test section: A, contraction nozzle; B, plane surface; C, test convex

surface; y = 0 - y,, wall region; y > y, jet region.

Test

surface

Radius R

(mm)

Inlet curvature

b/R at 0 = 0

No. 1

No. 2

No. 3

250

134

83

0.08

0.15

0.24

Turbulence

characteristics

along strong

313

convex surfaces

u

*,

f

8

y0

for

measurement

are estimated as k 2 y0 for mean velocity U, + 2 y0 for J=

J- U

and + lO%forp

w an d uu, involving calibration uncertainty and time-averaging

errors

[14]. The time derivative of u is obtained by using a differentiating

circuit, which has a flat

frequency response up to about 10 kHz.

Two-dimensionality

of the flow field can be judged from the conformity of the present

experimental development

of the wall jets with the two-dimensional

momentum equations.

For this purpose, eliminating

the pressure from the momentum

equations for the x and J

directions and integrating

them in the y direction from y = 0 to xj, the following nondimensional momentum flux expression is derived, on the assumption that u, II, wand Vare

much smaller than V and frictional losses are negligible [8]:

M = {i

Udy-[;

[;

Uz,(R+y)dy.dy},(U;d).

(1)

mean flow state. The total loss due to the neglected

terms is estimated to be about 10 % of the initial momentum flux at the farthest station from

the nozzle of the present experiment. Thus, we considered the range of two-dimensional

mean flow state as M > 0.8. Figure 2 shows the non-dimensional

momentum

flux M

calculated from the present experiment and that of Wilson and Goldstein [12]. It is clear that

M is around 1.0 for small 8, but M decreases suddenly for large 8 (loo-1407, which indicates

the effect of three-dimensional

vortex motions produced around the end plates [13]. Thus, it

is considered that the upper value of 8 for two-dimensional

mean flow state is 8 = loo-140

and becomes slightly larger as the radius of convex surfaces increase.

3. EXPERIMENTAL

RESULTS

Figure 3 shows mean velocity profiles for convex surface No. 2 (R = 134 mm) for

8 = O-l 12.5, which are compared with those for the plane wall jet of the present experiment

(x = - lOd, which corresponds

to a distance of 40d from the nozzle) and previous ones

FIG. 2. Non-dimensional

momentum

45

90

8 (deg.) 35

Goldstein 1121.

--I

Plane[12,15

1 ,

/

1.0

1.5

ylb

20

FIG. 3. Distributions

of mean velocity for convex wall jet (No. 2). D plane surface (x/d = - 10);

convex surface, W 0 = 22.5, 0 0 = 45, A fI = 77.5, a b, = 90, 0 0 = 112.5.

N. FUJISAWA

and R. KOBAYASHI

314

[12, 151. Velocity U and distance y from the surface are made dimensionless by the local

maximum velocity U,and half-width b, respectively. The velocity profiles for the convex wall

jets are similar in the jet region and agree with those of the plane wall jet. In the wall region.

however, the mean velocities increase slightly. This trend agrees approximately with the

previous experiment for strong convex wall jet [12].

Figure 4 shows the streamwise variations of half-width b/d for all convex wall jets in

comparison with the plane one [15]. It is clear that the spreading rate db/dx becomes larger

as the radius R of the convex surface becomes smaller. Significant increases are observed for

large values of x/d. The corresponding variations of maximum velocity U, are shown in

Fig. 5 in comparison with that of the plane wall jet. Remarkable decreases in Urnare found for

the strong convex wall jet with large x/d. which are well correlated with the increases in the

half-width b in Fig. 4.

Figure 6 shows the relation of growth rate db/dx with curvature b/R for the present convex

wall jets, which are compared with the previous result [12]. It follows that the present result

for the convex surface No. 1 of smallest inlet curvature at 8 = 0 agrees with the previous

result satisfactory, but the agreement deteriorates as the radii of convex surfaces increase and

the inlet curvature becomes large (Nos 2 and 3). The values of inlet curvature at Q = 0 is

shown in Table 1. The influence of inlet curvature seems to weaken as the wall jet develops

downstream and db/dx shows a better correlation with bJR.

100

50

FIG. 4. Streamwise

of half-width

OO"-----FIG. 5. Streamwise

variations

x/d

50

variations

100

of maximum

150

b

..A

x/d

150

velocity

U,

l.Oy

9

g

.i

0.51

Convex [121

/CA

.

_< ;:I r

_,a--*-

FIG. 6. Growth

!L

0

rate db/dx

-A--

0.2

0.4

-yyd

0.6

Turbulence

characteristics

along strong

315

convex surfaces

Figures 7(at(c) and 8 show the distributions of Reynolds normal stresses in three

Cartesian directions (p/U,,,,

fl/U,,

g/U,)

and Reynolds shear stress uv/Ui

across the wall jet of convex surface No. 2 for tI = O-112.5, which are compared with those

of previous strong convex result [ 123. It is noted that the measurements for the plane wall jets

agree with each other within the experimental uncertainty. As the wall jet flows into the

convex surface, the stress levels increase significantly for small 8, but the rate of increase

becomes small as 0 increases, and seems to be saturated for much larger 19.By examining the

,2

7

shape of the distributions, it is found that the Reynolds normal stresses u and w increase

strongly close to the surface, but -;z

u is roughly the same as in the plane wall jet due to the

strong wall damping effect. The stresses measured in [12] at 8 = 90 are slightly smaller than

the present ones (which might be caused by the difference of the inlet curvatures) but the

shapes of the distributions are similar to the present results. In Fig. 8, the position where the

Reynolds stress becomes zero, is closer to the surface when it is compared with the position

for the plane wall jet. This might indicate an enhancement of turbulent diffusion from the jet

region to wall region in the convex wall jet.

15

FIG. 7. Distributions

(b) @JU,

of Reynolds

(c) JSIU,,,.

normal

stresses

across

convex

ylb

21)

0 = 77.5, A0 = go, 0 0 = 112.5.

316

N. FUJISAWAand R. KOBAYASHI

Figures 9(a)-(c) and 10 represent the maximum values of Reynolds normal stresses and

shear stress across the wall jets, plotted against the curvature parameter b/R. There are

apparent influence of the inlet curvature on the Reynolds normal and shear stresses, as was

observed for the growth rate db/dx in Fig. 6. As the wall jets develop on the convex surfaces,

the influence of inlet curvature on the Reynolds stresses seems to weaken and the

characteristics become well correlated with the curvature parameter b/R downstream. The

experimental results by Wilson and Goldstein [12] agree with the present results for convex

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

y/b

FIG. 8. Distributions of Reynolds shear stress uu/Uk(No. 2). (For caption see Fig. 7.)

0.3

.

1 -

a

?

0.

0.2c

??

1

-1

*I

4

.

.

Cc)

I

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

blR

OB

FIG. 9. Maximum values of Reynolds normal stresses across convex wall jet and curvature b/R.

(4 ~axl~mxl

04 flAx/u,,,,

(C)&<Ju,.

ct21.

e-

0.01

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

b/R

317

OB

FIG. 10. Maximum values of Reynolds shear stress and curvature b/R. (For caption see Fig. 9.)

surface No. 1 (the smallest inlet curvature in the present experiment), as the influence of inlet

curvature seems to be much smaller in their experiment. It is noted that the increasing rates of

is

the maximum values of fi,

p w and )u v are reduced for large b/R, but that of fl

increased.

3.3. Balance of Reynolds stresses equations

The Reynolds stresses equations for turbulent wall jet along strong convex surfaces are as

follows [ 161:

(2)

DF

DS

DF

_

2P

wv) 2

--+j&=o

aY

DS

awl2

+hVuax

ad2

add

x+hVA

aUfWf2

+x+-(hVW2)

ay ,

Au

(31

ay

-2h-

IV-

DF

add

ay ,,

pad

paz

R

+L=o

3

(4)

DS

(5)

318

where h = 1 + y/R and p denotes pressure fluctuation and E the dissipation of turbulence

energy. It is assumed that the dissipation is locally isotropic. The terms in these equations

have been labelled in the following way: A = advection, P = production,

DF = diffusion,

R = redistribution,

DS = dissipation and PS = pressure-strain

correlation.

In the present experiment, advection, production and dissipation are estimated from the

measurement

of mean velocity, Reynolds stresses and dissipation.

The dissipation

was

obtained from the following equation [17]:

E = 15 v(aU/C3x)z.

(6)

In equation (6), the space derivative of u is obtained from the time derivative of u, by

adopting the modified Taylors hypothesis by Heskestad [17]. The dissipation obtained by

this method agrees with the result obtained by other method with the inertial subrange

spectrum [ 181.

Figures 1 l(ak(c) and 12 show the measured distributions

of the terms in equations (2).(5)

for the strong convex surface No. 2 at (1 = 112.5, which are compared with the plane wall jet

of the present experiment. In these figures, gains in equations (2t_(5) are shown as positive. All

DF. R

-0.1

..__/

3-002

.c

I

3

-o.lc

A-O.02

FIG. 11. Balances of Reynolds normal stresses equations. (a) u*, (b) r, (c) w*. ~~??

-strong

surface (No. 2, 0 = 112.5), --O- plane surface (x/d = - 10).

convex

Turbulence

characteristics

along strong

convex surfaces

Convex

Plane

0

FIG. 12. Balances

319

0.5

of Reynolds

1.0

shear stress equation.

1.5

y/b

(For caption

2.0

see Fig. 11.)

by the maximum velocity U,and the half-width b of the

wall jet. The sums of diffusion, redistribution

and pressure-strain

correlation are obtained as

the residue of equations, because they include the pressure fluctuation p, which is technically

difficult to measure. As the uncertainty

of dissipation

is estimated to +40x

[19], the

dissipation was corrected in a constant ratio as the integral of the diffusion of turbulence

energy equation across the wall jet to be zero [20], because the redistribution

are cancelled in

the turbulence energy equation obtained as a sum of equations (2t(4). In these figures it

should be noted that the scales of the ordinates for the strong convex wall jet are 5 times larger

than for the plane one. Thus, it appears that all the terms in the balances of Reynolds normal

and shear stresses are significantly increased by the strong convex curvature.

Examining the shape of the distributions,

it is found that the advection and dissipation for

the strong convex wall jets are approximately

similar to the plane ones, but the distributions

of the production

deviate from the plane one due to the strong convex curvature. The

production of u (which gives the largest gain in the Reynolds stresses balances for plane wall

jet) decreases in the jet region and becomes negative in the outer part of the jet region. This is

mainly caused by the first and third terms of production

in equation (2), in which the

magnitude of atJ/ax and U/R in strong convex wall jet increase to the same order as that of

aU/ay and these terms act against the second term in the jet region. This is largely responsible

for the large growth rate of the jet due to curvature. All the terms of production

of ,2

u

contribute

larger than the production

except for the near wall region. Thus, the increases of u12 in the

strong convex wall jet is closely responsible for the increase of this advection. On the other

hand, significant increases in production

of v12 occur mainly due to the third term of

production

in equation (3). This term represents a centrifugal force effect on the interaction

of mean flow U and Reynolds

Production

Therefore,

the dissipation

term of equation (4). From Fig. 12, production of uc

for strong convex surfaces increases close to the surface contributed from the increase of the

in equation (5)].

normal stress difference of uf2 and c, [the third term of production

However, this term becomes small as y/b increases and the second term of production

in

equation (5) becomes dominent as is the case in the plane wall jet. This term represents the

interaction of mean velocity gradient aU/dy and turbulence fluctuation v. Thus, it appears

that the increase

production

of the

of 3 and ur, which are coupled with each other in the Reynolds stress

-_

equations. These differences of Reynolds stress balances in u, vt2 and uv cause the different

growths of their maximums with b/R, as was shown in Figs 9 and 10. It appears that the large

320

N. FUJISAWA

and R. KOBAYASHI

growth rate of the strong convex wall jet results from the strong interaction of mean flow and

turbulence through the advection of ti2 and production of u12and uu.

4. CONCLUSIONS

Effects of strong convex curvature on the mean flow and turbulence characteristics of twodimensional wall jets have been investigated in an experimental manner with three constant

radius convex surfaces. As the wall jets develop on the convex surfaces, the jet spreading and

the levels of the Reynolds normal and shear stresses increase significantly, compared with

those of the plane wall jet. It follows that these flow characterfstics are well correlated by the

parameter b/R (ratio of half width to the surface radius) except for the initial region of the

convex surfaces.

From the evaluation of the advection, production and dissipation terms in the Reynolds

stresses equations, it was found that all the terms are increased by strong convex curvature.

The production for strong convex wall

- jet deviates much from the plane one, which appears

in the decrease in the production of u12in the jet region, substantial increase in the production

of p and increase in the production of uu. It appears that the large increases of the

advection of uf2 and in the production of v, coupled with the production of Reynolds shear

stress, strengthen the interaction of mean flow and turbulence and cause the large growth of

the jet width in the strongly convex wall jet.

Acknowledgements-The authors wish to express their gratitude to Professor H. Shirai of Gunma University and to

the referees of this Journal for many helpful suggestions.

REFERENCES

1. B. G. NEWMAN,The deflexion of plane jets by adjacent boundaries-Coanda

effect. In Boundary Layer und Flow

Control (Edited by G. V. LACHMAN),

pp. 232-264. Pergamon, London (1961).

2. H. NAKAGUCHI,Jet along a curved wall. Research Memo No. 4, University of Tokyo (1961).

3. G. K. KORBACHER,

The Coanda-effect at deflexion surfaces detached from the jet nozzle. Can. aeronaut. Space J.

8, 1-6 (1962).

4. G. I. FEKETE,Coanda flow of a two-dimensional wall jet on the outside of a circular cylinder. Mechanical

Engineering Department Report 63-11, McGill University (1963).

5. R. A. SAWYER,

Two-dimensional reattaching jet flows including the effects of curvature on entrainment. J. fi-laid

Mech. 17, 481498 (1963).

6. R. WILLEand H. FERMHOLZ,Report on the First European Mechanics Colloquium, on the Coanda effect.

J. Fluid Mech. 23, 801-819 (1965).

7. B. G. NEWMAN,The prediction of turbulent jets and wall jets. Can. aeronaut. Space J. 15, 288-305 (1969).

8. B. E. LAUNDERand W. RODI, The turbulent wall jet. Prog. Aerospace Sci. 19, 81-128 (1981).

9. B. E. LAUNDERand W. RODI, The turbulent wall jet-measurements

and modeling. A. Ren. l&d Mech. 15.

429459 (1983).

10. E. ALCARAZ,

G. CHARNAY

and J. MATHIEU,Measurements in a wall jet over a convex surfaces. Physics Fluids 20.

203-210 (1977).

11. R. KOBAYASHI

and N. FUJISAWA,

Curvature effects on two-dimensional turbulent wall jets. Inginieur Archic;. 53.

409-417 (1983).

12. D. J. WILSONand R. J. GOLDSTEIN,

Turbulent wall jets with cylindrical streamwise surface curvature. J. Fluid

Engng 98, 55G-557 (1976).

13. D. E. GUITTON~~~B. G. NEWMAN,Self-preserving turbulent wall jets over convex surfaces. J. Flurd Mech. 81.

155-185 (1977).

14. S. YAVUZKURT,

A guide to uncertainty analysis of hot-wire data. J. FluidEngng 106,pp. 181-186 (1984).

15. R. KOBAYASHI

and N. FUJISAWA,Turbulence characteristics of plane wall jets. Rep. Inst. high Speed Mech..

Tohoku Univ. 45, 95-114 (1982).

16. P. BRADSHAW,

Effects of streamline curvature on turbulent flow. AGARDograph No. 169 (1973).

17. G. HESKESTAD,

Hot-wire measurements in a plane turbulent jet. J. appl. Mech. 32, 721-734 (1965).

18. E. ALCARAZ,Contribution a lttude dun jet plan turbulent evolouant le long dune paroi convexe a faible

19. J. C. WYNGAARD,

Spatial resolution of the vorticity meter and other hot-wire arrays. J. scient. Instrum. 2,

983-987 (1969).

20. J. C. ROTTA,Turbulente Str&nungen, p. 215. B. G. Teubner

Stuttgart,

Stuttgart

(1972).

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