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RFC1855NetiquetteGuidelines

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INFORMATIONAL

NetworkWorkingGroupS.Hambridge
RequestForComments:1855IntelCorp.
FYI:28October1995
Category:Informational
NetiquetteGuidelines
StatusofThisMemo
ThismemoprovidesinformationfortheInternetcommunity.Thismemo
doesnotspecifyanInternetstandardofanykind.Distributionof
thismemoisunlimited.
Abstract
ThisdocumentprovidesaminimumsetofguidelinesforNetwork
Etiquette(Netiquette)whichorganizationsmaytakeandadaptfor
theirownuse.Assuch,itisdeliberatelywritteninabulleted
formattomakeadaptationeasierandtomakeanyparticularitemeasy
(oreasier)tofind.Italsofunctionsasaminimumsetof
guidelinesforindividuals,bothusersandadministrators.Thismemo
istheproductoftheResponsibleUseoftheNetwork(RUN)Working
GroupoftheIETF.
TableofContents
1.0Introduction1
2.0OnetoOneCommunication2
3.0OnetoManyCommunication7
4.0InformationServices14
5.0SelectedBibliography18
6.0SecurityConsiderations21
7.0Author'sAddress21
1.0Introduction
Inthepast,thepopulationofpeopleusingtheInternethad"grown
up"withtheInternet,weretechnicallyminded,andunderstoodthe
natureofthetransportandtheprotocols.Today,thecommunityof
Internetusersincludespeoplewhoarenewtotheenvironment.These
"Newbies"areunfamiliarwiththecultureanddon'tneedtoknow
abouttransportandprotocols.Inordertobringthesenewusersinto
theInternetculturequickly,thisGuideoffersaminimumsetof
behaviorswhichorganizationsandindividualsmaytakeandadaptfor
theirownuse.Individualsshouldbeawarethatnomatterwho
suppliestheirInternetaccess,beitanInternetServiceProvider
throughaprivateaccount,orastudentaccountataUniversity,or

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anaccountthroughacorporation,thatthoseorganizationshave
regulationsaboutownershipofmailandfiles,aboutwhatisproper
topostorsend,andhowtopresentyourself.Besuretocheckwith
thelocalauthorityforspecificguidelines.
We'veorganizedthismaterialintothreesections:Onetoone
communication,whichincludesmailandtalk;Onetomany
communications,whichincludesmailinglistsandNetNews;and
InformationServices,whichincludesftp,WWW,Wais,Gopher,MUDsand
MOOs.Finally,wehaveaSelectedBibliography,whichmaybeused
forreference.
2.0OnetoOneCommunication(electronicmail,talk)
Wedefineonetoonecommunicationsasthoseinwhichapersonis
communicatingwithanotherpersonasiffacetoface:adialog.In
general,rulesofcommoncourtesyforinteractionwithpeopleshould
beinforceforanysituationandontheInternetit'sdoubly
importantwhere,forexample,bodylanguageandtoneofvoicemustbe
inferred.FormoreinformationonNetiquetteforcommunicatingvia
electronicmailandtalk,checkreferences[1,23,25,27]inthe
SelectedBibliography.
2.1UserGuidelines
2.1.1Formail:
UnlessyouhaveyourownInternetaccessthroughanInternet
provider,besuretocheckwithyouremployeraboutownership
ofelectronicmail.Lawsabouttheownershipofelectronicmail
varyfromplacetoplace.
Unlessyouareusinganencryptiondevice(hardwareorsoftware),
youshouldassumethatmailontheInternetisnotsecure.Never
putinamailmessageanythingyouwouldnotputonapostcard.
Respectthecopyrightonmaterialthatyoureproduce.Almost
everycountryhascopyrightlaws.
Ifyouareforwardingorrepostingamessageyou'vereceived,do
notchangethewording.Ifthemessagewasapersonalmessageto
youandyouarerepostingtoagroup,youshouldaskpermission
first.Youmayshortenthemessageandquoteonlyrelevantparts,
butbesureyougiveproperattribution.
Neversendchainlettersviaelectronicmail.Chainletters
areforbiddenontheInternet.Yournetworkprivileges
willberevoked.Notifyyourlocalsystemadministrator

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ifyoureverreceiveone.
Agoodruleofthumb:Beconservativeinwhatyousendand
liberalinwhatyoureceive.Youshouldnotsendheatedmessages
(wecallthese"flames")evenifyouareprovoked.Ontheother
hand,youshouldn'tbesurprisedifyougetflamedandit's
prudentnottorespondtoflames.
Ingeneral,it'sagoodideatoatleastcheckallyourmail
subjectsbeforerespondingtoamessage.Sometimesapersonwho
asksyouforhelp(orclarification)willsendanothermessage
whicheffectivelysays"NeverMind".Alsomakesurethatany
messageyourespondtowasdirectedtoyou.Youmightbecc:ed
ratherthantheprimaryrecipient.
Makethingseasyfortherecipient.Manymailersstripheader
informationwhichincludesyourreturnaddress.Inorderto
ensurethatpeopleknowwhoyouare,besuretoincludealine
ortwoattheendofyourmessagewithcontactinformation.You
cancreatethisfileaheadoftimeandaddittotheendofyour
messages.(Somemailersdothisautomatically.)InInternet
parlance,thisisknownasa".sig"or"signature"file.Your
.sigfiletakestheplaceofyourbusinesscard.(Andyoucan
havemorethanonetoapplyindifferentcircumstances.)
Becarefulwhenaddressingmail.Thereareaddresseswhich
maygotoagroupbuttheaddresslookslikeitisjustone
person.Knowtowhomyouaresending.
Watchcc'swhenreplying.Don'tcontinuetoinclude
peopleifthemessageshavebecomea2wayconversation.
Ingeneral,mostpeoplewhousetheInternetdon'thavetime
toanswergeneralquestionsabouttheInternetanditsworkings.
Don'tsendunsolicitedmailaskingforinformationtopeople
whosenamesyoumighthaveseeninRFCsoronmailinglists.
Rememberthatpeoplewithwhomyoucommunicatearelocatedacross
theglobe.Ifyousendamessagetowhichyouwantanimmediate
response,thepersonreceivingitmightbeathomeasleepwhenit
arrives.Givethemachancetowakeup,cometowork,andlogin
beforeassumingthemaildidn'tarriveorthattheydon'tcare.
Verifyalladdressesbeforeinitiatinglongorpersonaldiscourse.
It'salsoagoodpracticetoincludetheword"Long"inthe
subjectheadersotherecipientknowsthemessagewilltaketime
toreadandrespondto.Over100linesisconsidered"long".

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Knowwhomtocontactforhelp.Usuallyyouwillhaveresources
closeathand.Checklocallyforpeoplewhocanhelpyouwith
softwareandsystemproblems.Also,knowwhomtogotoifyou
receiveanythingquestionableorillegal.Mostsitesalso
have"Postmaster"aliasedtoaknowledgeableuser,soyou
cansendmailtothisaddresstogethelpwithmail.
Rememberthattherecipientisahumanbeingwhoseculture,
language,andhumorhavedifferentpointsofreferencefromyour
own.Rememberthatdateformats,measurements,andidiomsmay
nottravelwell.Beespeciallycarefulwithsarcasm.
Usemixedcase.UPPERCASELOOKSASIFYOU'RESHOUTING.
Usesymbolsforemphasis.That*is*whatImeant.Use
underscoresforunderlining._WarandPeace_ismyfavorite
book.
Usesmileystoindicatetoneofvoice,butusethemsparingly.
:)isanexampleofasmiley(Looksideways).Don'tassume
thattheinclusionofasmileywillmaketherecipienthappy
withwhatyousayorwipeoutanotherwiseinsultingcomment.
Waitovernighttosendemotionalresponsestomessages.Ifyou
havereallystrongfeelingsaboutasubject,indicateitvia
FLAMEON/OFFenclosures.Forexample:
FLAMEON:Thistypeofargumentisnotworththebandwidth
ittakestosendit.It'sillogicalandpoorly
reasoned.Therestoftheworldagreeswithme.
FLAMEOFF
DonotincludecontrolcharactersornonASCIIattachmentsin
messagesunlesstheyareMIMEattachmentsorunlessyourmailer
encodesthese.Ifyousendencodedmessagesmakesurethe
recipientcandecodethem.
Bebriefwithoutbeingoverlyterse.Whenreplyingtoamessage,
includeenoughoriginalmaterialtobeunderstoodbutnomore.It
isextremelybadformtosimplyreplytoamessagebyincluding
allthepreviousmessage:editoutalltheirrelevantmaterial.
Limitlinelengthtofewerthan65charactersandendaline
withacarriagereturn.
Mailshouldhaveasubjectheadingwhichreflects
thecontentofthemessage.

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Ifyouincludeasignaturekeepitshort.Ruleofthumb
isnolongerthan4lines.Rememberthatmanypeoplepayfor
connectivitybytheminute,andthelongeryourmessageis,
themoretheypay.
Justasmail(today)maynotbeprivate,mail(andnews)are
(today)subjecttoforgeryandspoofingofvariousdegreesof
detectability.Applycommonsense"realitychecks"before
assumingamessageisvalid.
Ifyouthinktheimportanceofamessagejustifiesit,immediately
replybrieflytoanemailmessagetoletthesenderknowyougot
it,evenifyouwillsendalongerreplylater.
"Reasonable"expectationsforconductviaemaildependonyour
relationshiptoapersonandthecontextofthecommunication.
Normslearnedinaparticularemailenvironmentmaynotapplyin
generaltoyouremailcommunicationwithpeopleacrossthe
Internet.Becarefulwithslangorlocalacronyms.
Thecostofdeliveringanemailmessageis,ontheaverage,paid
aboutequallybythesenderandtherecipient(ortheir
organizations).Thisisunlikeothermediasuchasphysicalmail,
telephone,TV,orradio.Sendingsomeonemailmayalsocostthem
inotherspecificwayslikenetworkbandwidth,diskspaceorCPU
usage.Thisisafundamentaleconomicreasonwhyunsolicited
emailadvertisingisunwelcome(andisforbiddeninmanycontexts).
Knowhowlargeamessageyouaresending.Includinglargefiles
suchasPostscriptfilesorprogramsmaymakeyourmessageso
largethatitcannotbedeliveredoratleastconsumesexcessive
resources.Agoodruleofthumbwouldbenottosendafile
largerthan50Kilobytes.Considerfiletransferasan
alternative,orcuttingthefileintosmallerchunksandsending
eachasaseparatemessage.
Don'tsendlargeamountsofunsolicitedinformationtopeople.
Ifyourmailsystemallowsyoutoforwardmail,bewarethedreaded
forwardingloop.Besureyouhaven'tsetupforwardingonseveral
hostssothatamessagesenttoyougetsintoanendlessloopfrom
onecomputertothenexttothenext.

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2.1.2Fortalk:
Talkisasetofprotocolswhichallowtwopeopletohavean
interactivedialogueviacomputer.
Usemixedcaseandproperpunctuation,asthoughyouweretyping
aletterorsendingmail.
Don'trunofftheendofalineandsimplylettheterminalwrap;
useaCarriageReturn(CR)attheendoftheline.Also,don't
assumeyourscreensizeisthesameaseveryoneelse's.Agood
ruleofthumbistowriteoutnomorethan70characters,andno
morethan12lines(sinceyou'reusingasplitscreen).
Leavesomemargin;don'twritetotheedgeofthescreen.
UsetwoCRstoindicatethatyouaredoneandtheotherpersonmay
starttyping.(blankline).
Alwayssaygoodbye,orsomeotherfarewell,andwaittoseea
farewellfromtheotherpersonbeforekillingthesession.This
isespeciallyimportantwhenyouarecommunicatingwithsomeone
alongwayaway.Rememberthatyourcommunicationreliesonboth
bandwidth(thesizeofthepipe)andlatency(thespeedoflight).
Rememberthattalkisaninterruptiontotheotherperson.Only
useasappropriate.Andnevertalktostrangers.
Thereasonsfornotgettingareplyaremany.Don'tassume
thateverythingisworkingcorrectly.Notallversionsof
talkarecompatible.
Ifleftonitsown,talkreringstherecipient.Letitring
oneortwotimes,thenkillit.
Ifapersondoesn'trespondyoumighttryanothertty.Usefinger
todeterminewhichareopen.Ifthepersonstilldoesn'trespond,
donotcontinuetosend.
Talkshowsyourtypingability.Ifyoutypeslowlyandmake
mistakeswhentypingitisoftennotworththetimeoftryingto
correct,astheotherpersoncanusuallyseewhatyoumeant.
Becarefulifyouhavemorethanonetalksessiongoing!

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2.2AdministratorIssues
Besureyouhaveestablishedwrittenguidelinesfordealing
withsituationsespeciallyillegal,improper,orforged
traffic.
Handlerequestsinatimelyfashionbythenextbusinessday.
Respondpromptlytopeoplewhohaveconcernsaboutreceiving
improperorillegalmessages.Requestsconcerningchain
lettersshouldbehandledimmediately.
Explainanysystemrules,suchasdiskquotas,toyourusers.
Makesuretheyunderstandimplicationsofrequestingfilesby
mailsuchas:Fillingupdisks;runningupphonebills,delaying
mail,etc.
Makesureyouhave"Postmaster"aliased.Makesureyouhave
"Root"aliased.Makesuresomeonereadsthatmail.
Investigatecomplaintsaboutyouruserswithanopenmind.
Rememberthataddressesmaybeforgedandspoofed.
3.0OnetoManyCommunication(MailingLists,NetNews)
AnytimeyouengageinOnetoManycommunications,alltherulesfor
mailshouldalsoapply.Afterall,communicatingwithmanypeople
viaonemailmessageorpostisquiteanalogoustocommunicatingwith
onepersonwiththeexceptionofpossiblyoffendingagreatmanymore
peoplethaninonetoonecommunication.Therefore,it'squite
importanttoknowasmuchasyoucanabouttheaudienceofyour
message.
3.1UserGuidelines
3.1.1GeneralGuidelinesformailinglistsandNetNews
Readbothmailinglistsandnewsgroupsforonetotwomonthsbefore
youpostanything.Thishelpsyoutogetanunderstandingof
thecultureofthegroup.
Donotblamethesystemadministratorforthebehaviorofthe
systemusers.
Considerthatalargeaudiencewillseeyourposts.
Thatmayincludeyourpresentoryournextboss.Take
careinwhatyouwrite.Remembertoo,thatmailinglistsand
Newsgroupsarefrequentlyarchived,andthatyourwordsmaybe

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storedforaverylongtimeinaplacetowhichmanypeoplehave
access.
Assumethatindividualsspeakforthemselves,andwhatthey
saydoesnotrepresenttheirorganization(unlessstated
explicitly).
Rememberthatbothmailandnewstakesystemresources.Pay
attentiontoanyspecificrulescoveringtheirusesyour
organizationmayhave.
Messagesandarticlesshouldbebriefandtothepoint.Don't
wanderofftopic,don'trambleanddon'tsendmailorpost
messagessolelytopointoutotherpeople'serrorsintyping
orspelling.These,morethananyotherbehavior,markyou
asanimmaturebeginner.
Subjectlinesshouldfollowtheconventionsofthegroup.
Forgeriesandspoofingarenotapprovedbehavior.
AdvertisingiswelcomedonsomelistsandNewsgroups,andabhorred
onothers!Thisisanotherexampleofknowingyouraudience
beforeyoupost.Unsolicitedadvertisingwhichiscompletely
offtopicwillmostcertainlyguaranteethatyougetalotof
hatemail.
Ifyouaresendingareplytoamessageorapostingbesureyou
summarizetheoriginalatthetopofthemessage,orincludejust
enoughtextoftheoriginaltogiveacontext.Thiswillmake
surereadersunderstandwhentheystarttoreadyourresponse.
SinceNetNews,especially,isproliferatedbydistributingthe
postingsfromonehosttoanother,itispossibletoseea
responsetoamessagebeforeseeingtheoriginal.Givingcontext
helpseveryone.Butdonotincludetheentireoriginal!
Again,besuretohaveasignaturewhichyouattachtoyour
message.Thiswillguaranteethatanypeculiaritiesofmailersor
newsreaderswhichstripheaderinformationwillnotdeletethe
onlyreferenceinthemessageofhowpeoplemayreachyou.
Becarefulwhenyoureplytomessagesorpostings.Frequently
repliesaresentbacktotheaddresswhichoriginatedthepost
whichinmanycasesistheaddressofalistorgroup!Youmay
accidentallysendapersonalresponsetoagreatmanypeople,
embarrassingallinvolved.It'sbesttotypeintheaddress
insteadofrelyingon"reply."

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Deliveryreceipts,nondeliverynotices,andvacationprograms
areneithertotallystandardizednortotallyreliableacrossthe
rangeofsystemsconnectedtoInternetmail.Theyareinvasive
whensenttomailinglists,andsomepeopleconsiderdelivery
receiptsaninvasionofprivacy.Inshort,donotusethem.
Ifyoufindapersonalmessagehasgonetoalistorgroup,send
anapologytothepersonandtothegroup.
Ifyoushouldfindyourselfinadisagreementwithoneperson,
makeyourresponsestoeachotherviamailratherthancontinueto
sendmessagestothelistorthegroup.Ifyouaredebatinga
pointonwhichthegroupmighthavesomeinterest,youmay
summarizeforthemlater.
Don'tgetinvolvedinflamewars.Neitherpostnorrespond
toincendiarymaterial.
Avoidsendingmessagesorpostingarticleswhicharenomorethan
gratuitousrepliestoreplies.
Becarefulwithmonospacingfontsanddiagrams.Thesewill
displaydifferentlyondifferentsystems,andwithdifferent
mailersonthesamesystem.
ThereareNewsgroupsandMailingListswhichdiscusstopics
ofwidevarietiesofinterests.Theserepresentadiversityof
lifestyles,religions,andcultures.Postingarticlesorsending
messagestoagroupwhosepointofviewisoffensivetoyou
simplytotellthemtheyareoffensiveisnotacceptable.
Sexuallyandraciallyharassingmessagesmayalsohavelegal
implications.Thereissoftwareavailabletofilteritems
youmightfindobjectionable.
3.1.2MailingListGuidelines
Thereareseveralwaystofindinformationaboutwhatmailinglists
existontheInternetandhowtojointhem.Makesureyouunderstand
yourorganization'spolicyaboutjoiningtheselistsandpostingto
them.Ingeneralitisalwaysbettertochecklocalresourcesfirst
beforetryingtofindinformationviatheInternet.Nevertheless,
thereareasetoffilespostedperiodicallytonews.answerswhich
listtheInternetmailinglistsandhowtosubscribetothem.This
isaninvaluableresourceforfindinglistsonanytopic.Seealso
references[9,13,15]intheSelectedBibliography.
Sendsubscribeandunsubscribemessagestotheappropriate
address.Althoughsomemailinglistsoftwareissmartenough

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tocatchthese,notallcanferrettheseout.Itisyour
responsibilitytolearnhowthelistswork,andtosendthe
correctmailtothecorrectplace.Althoughmanymanymailing
listsadheretotheconventionofhavinga"request"aliasfor
sendingsubscribeandunsubscribemessages,notalldo.Besure
youknowtheconventionsusedbytheliststowhichyousubscribe.
Savethesubscriptionmessagesforanylistsyoujoin.These
usuallytellyouhowtounsubscribeaswell.
Ingeneral,it'snotpossibletoretrievemessagesonceyouhave
sentthem.Evenyoursystemadministratorwillnotbeabletoget
amessagebackonceyouhavesentit.Thismeansyoumustmake
sureyoureallywantthemessagetogoasyouhavewrittenit.
Theautoreplyfeatureofmanymailersisusefulforinhouse
communication,butquiteannoyingwhensenttoentiremailing
lists.Examine"ReplyTo"addresseswhenreplyingtomessages
fromlists.Mostautoreplyswillgotoallmembersofthe
list.
Don'tsendlargefilestomailinglistswhenUniform
ResourceLocators(URLs)orpointerstoftpableversions
willdo.Ifyouwanttosenditasmultiplefiles,be
suretofollowthecultureofthegroup.Ifyoudon't
knowwhatthatis,ask.
Considerunsubscribingorsettinga"nomail"option(whenit's
available)whenyoucannotcheckyourmailforanextended
period.
Whensendingamessagetomorethanonemailinglist,especially
ifthelistsarecloselyrelated,apologizeforcrossposting.
Ifyouaskaquestion,besuretopostasummary.Whendoingso,
trulysummarizeratherthansendacumulationofthemessagesyou
receive.
Somemailinglistsareprivate.Donotsendmailtotheselists
uninvited.Donotreportmailfromtheseliststoawider
audience.
Ifyouarecaughtinanargument,keepthediscussionfocusedon
issuesratherthanthepersonalitiesinvolved.

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3.1.3NetNewsGuidelines
NetNewsisagloballydistributedsystemwhichallowspeopleto
communicateontopicsofspecificinterest.Itisdividedinto
hierarchies,withthemajordivisionsbeing:scisciencerelated
discussions;compcomputerrelateddiscussions;newsfor
discussionswhichcenteraroundNetNewsitself;recrecreational
activities;socsocialissues;talklongwindedneverending
discussions;bizbusinessrelatedpostings;andaltthealternate
hierarchy.Altissonamedbecausecreatinganaltgroupdoesnotgo
throughthesameprocessascreatingagroupintheotherpartsof
thehierarchy.Therearealsoregionalhierarchies,hierarchies
whicharewidelydistributedsuchasBionet,andyourplaceof
businessmayhaveitsowngroupsaswell.Recently,a"humanities"
hierarchywasadded,andastimegoesonitslikelymorewillbe
added.ForlongerdiscussionsonNewsseereferences[2,8,22,23]in
theSelectedBibliography.
InNetNewsparlance,"Posting"referstopostinganewarticle
toagroup,orrespondingtoapostsomeoneelsehasposted.
"CrossPosting"referstopostingamessagetomorethanone
group.IfyouintroduceCrossPostingtoagroup,orifyou
direct"FollowupTo:"intheheaderofyourposting,warn
readers!Readerswillusuallyassumethatthemessagewas
postedtoaspecificgroupandthatfollowupswillgoto
thatgroup.Headerschangethisbehavior.
Readallofadiscussioninprogress(wecallthisathread)
beforepostingreplies.Avoidposting"MeToo"messages,
wherecontentislimitedtoagreementwithpreviousposts.
Contentofafollowuppostshouldexceedquotedcontent.
Sendmailwhenananswertoaquestionisforonepersononly.
RememberthatNewshasglobaldistributionandthewholeworld
probablyisNOTinterestedinapersonalresponse.However,don't
hesitatetopostwhensomethingwillbeofgeneralinteresttothe
Newsgroupparticipants.
Checkthe"Distribution"sectionoftheheader,butdon't
dependonit.DuetothecomplexmethodbywhichNewsis
delivered,Distributionheadersareunreliable.But,ifyou
arepostingsomethingwhichwillbeofinteresttoalimited
numberorreaders,useadistributionlinethatattemptsto
limitthedistributionofyourarticletothosepeople.For
example,settheDistributiontobe"nj"ifyouareposting
anarticlethatwillbeofinterestonlytoNewJerseyreaders.

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Ifyoufeelanarticlewillbeofinteresttomorethanone
Newsgroup,besuretoCROSSPOSTthearticleratherthanindividually
postittothosegroups.Ingeneral,probablyonlyfivetosix
groupswillhavesimilarenoughintereststowarrantthis.
ConsiderusingReferencesources(ComputerManuals,Newspapers,
helpfiles)beforepostingaquestion.AskingaNewsgroupwhere
answersarereadilyavailableelsewheregeneratesgrumpy"RTFM"
(readthefinemanualalthoughamorevulgarmeaningofthe
wordbeginningwith"f"isusuallyimplied)messages.
AlthoughthereareNewsgroupswhichwelcomeadvertising,
ingeneralitisconsiderednothinglessthancriminal
toadvertiseofftopicproducts.Sendinganadvertisement
toeachandeverygroupwillprettymuchguaranteeyourlossof
connectivity.
Ifyoudiscoveranerrorinyourpost,cancelitassoonas
possible.
DONOTattempttocancelanyarticlesbutyourown.Contact
youradministratorifyoudon'tknowhowtocancelyourpost,
orifsomeotherpost,suchasachainletter,needscanceling.
Ifyou'vepostedsomethinganddon'tseeitimmediately,
don'tassumeit'sfailedandrepostit.
Somegroupspermit(andsomewelcome)postswhichinother
circumstanceswouldbeconsideredtobeinquestionabletaste.
Still,thereisnoguaranteethatallpeoplereadingthegroup
willappreciatethematerialasmuchasyoudo.UsetheRotate
utility(whichrotatesallthecharactersinyourpostby13
positionsinthealphabet)toavoidgivingoffense.The
Rot13utilityforUnixisanexample.
Ingroupswhichdiscussmoviesorbooksitisconsideredessential
tomarkpostswhichdisclosesignificantcontentas"Spoilers".
PutthiswordinyourSubject:line.Youmayaddblanklinesto
thebeginningofyourposttokeepcontentoutofsight,oryou
mayRotateit.
Forgingofnewsarticlesisgenerallycensured.Youcanprotect
yourselffromforgeriesbyusingsoftwarewhichgeneratesa
manipulationdetection"fingerprint",suchasPGP(intheUS).
PostingsviaanonymousserversareacceptedinsomeNewsgroups
anddislikedinothers.Materialwhichisinappropriatewhen
postedunderone'sownnameisstillinappropriatewhenposted

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anonymously.
Expectaslightdelayinseeingyourpostwhenpostingtoa
moderatedgroup.Themoderatormaychangeyoursubject
linetohaveyourpostconformtoaparticularthread.
Don'tgetinvolvedinflamewars.Neitherpostnorrespond
toincendiarymaterial.
3.2AdministratorGuidelines
3.2.1GeneralIssues
Clarifyanypoliciesyoursitehasregardingitssubscription
toNetNewsgroupsandaboutsubscribingtomailinglists.
ClarifyanypoliciesyoursitehasaboutpostingtoNetNews
groupsortomailinglists,includinguseofdisclaimersin.sigs.
Clarifyandpublicizearchivepolicy.(Howlongarearticles
kept?)
Investigateaccusationsaboutyouruserspromptlyandwithan
openmind.
Besuretomonitorthehealthofyoursystem.
Considerhowlongtoarchivesystemlogs,andpublicizeyour
policyonlogging.
3.2.2MailingLists
Keepmailinglistsuptodatetoavoidthe"bouncingmail"problem.
Helplistownerswhenproblemsarise.
Informlistownersofanymaintenancewindowsorplanneddowntime.
Besuretohave"request"aliasesforlistsubscriptionand
administration.
Makesureallmailgatewaysoperatesmoothly.
3.2.3.NetNews
Publicizethenatureofthefeedyoureceive.Ifyoudonotget
afullfeed,peoplemaywanttoknowwhynot.

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BeawarethatthemultiplicityofNewsReaderclientsmaycause
theNewsServerbeingblamedforproblemsintheclients.
Honorrequestsfromusersimmediatelyiftheyrequestcancellation
oftheirownpostsorinvalidposts,suchaschainletters.
Have"Usenet","Netnews"and"News"aliasedandmakesuresomeone
readsthemail.
3.3ModeratorGuidelines
3.3.1GeneralGuidelines
MakesureyourFrequestlyAskedQuestions(FAQ)ispostedat
regularintervals.Includeyourguidelinesforarticles/messages.
IfyouarenottheFAQmaintainer,makesuretheydoso.
Makesureyoumaintainagoodwelcomemessage,whichcontains
subscribeandunsubscribeinformation.
Newsgroupsshouldhavetheircharter/guidelinesposted
regularly.
KeepmailinglistsandNewsgroupsuptodate.Post
messagesinatimelyfashion.Designateasubstitute
whenyougoonvacationoroutoftown.
4.0InformationServices(Gopher,Wais,WWW,ftp,telnet)
InrecentInternethistory,the'Nethasexplodedwithnewandvaried
Informationservices.Gopher,Wais,WorldWideWeb(WWW),MultiUser
Dimensions(MUDs)MultiUserDimensionswhichareObjectOriented
(MOOs)areafewofthesenewareas.Althoughtheabilitytofind
informationisexploding,"CaveatEmptor"remainsconstant.Formore
informationontheseservices,checkreferences[14,28]inthe
SelectedBibliography.
4.1UserGuidelines
4.1.1.Generalguidelines
Rememberthatalltheseservicesbelongtosomeoneelse.The
peoplewhopaythebillsgettomaketherulesgoverningusage.
Informationmaybefreeoritmaynotbe!Besureyoucheck.
Ifyouhaveproblemswithanyformofinformationservice,start
problemsolvingbycheckinglocally:Checkfileconfigurations,
softwaresetup,networkconnections,etc.Dothisbeforeassuming

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theproblemisattheprovider'sendand/oristheprovider's
fault.
Althoughtherearenamingconventionsforfiletypesused,don't
dependonthesefilenamingconventionstobeenforced.For
example,a".doc"fileisnotalwaysaWordfile.
Informationservicesalsouseconventions,suchaswww.xyz.com.
Whileitisusefultoknowtheseconventions,again,don't
necessarilyrelyonthem.
Knowhowfilenamesworkonyourownsystem.
Beawareofconventionsusedforprovidinginformationduring
sessions.FTPsitesusuallyhavefilesnamedREADMEinatop
leveldirectorywhichhaveinformationaboutthefilesavailable.
But,don'tassumethatthesefilesarenecessarilyuptodate
and/oraccurate.
DoNOTassumethatANYinformationyoufindisuptodateand/or
accurate.Rememberthatnewtechnologiesallowjustaboutanyone
tobeapublisher,butnotallpeoplehavediscoveredthe
responsibilitieswhichaccompanypublishing.
Rememberthatunlessyouaresurethatsecurityandauthentication
technologyisinuse,thatanyinformationyousubmittoasystem
isbeingtransmittedovertheInternet"intheclear",withno
protectionfrom"sniffers"orforgers.
SincetheInternetspanstheglobe,rememberthatInformation
Servicesmightreflectcultureandlifestylemarkedlydifferent
fromyourowncommunity.Materialsyoufindoffensivemay
originateinageographywhichfindsthemacceptable.Keepanopen
mind.
Whenwantinginformationfromapopularserver,besuretouse
amirrorserverthat'scloseifalistisprovided.
Donotusesomeoneelse'sFTPsitetodepositmaterialsyou
wishotherpeopletopickup.Thisiscalled"dumping"and
isnotgenerallyacceptablebehavior.
Whenyouhavetroublewithasiteandaskforhelp,besureto
provideasmuchinformationaspossibleinordertohelp
debugtheproblem.

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Whenbringingupyourowninformationservice,suchasahomepage,
besuretocheckwithyourlocalsystemadministratortofindwhat
thelocalguidelinesareinaffect.
Considerspreadingoutthesystemloadonpopularsitesby
avoiding"rushhour"andlogginginduringoffpeaktimes.
4.1.2RealTimeInteractiveServicesGuidelines(MUDsMOOsIRC)
Asinotherenvironments,itiswiseto"listen"firstto
gettoknowthecultureofthegroup.
It'snotnecessarytogreeteveryoneonachannelorroom
personally.Usuallyone"Hello"ortheequivalentisenough.
Usingtheautomationfeaturesofyourclienttogreetpeopleis
notacceptablebehavior.
Warntheparticipantsifyouintendtoshiplargequantities
ofinformation.Ifallconsenttoreceivingit,youmaysend,
butsendingunwantedinformationwithoutawarningisconsidered
badformjustasitisinmail.
Don'tassumethatpeoplewhoyoudon'tknowwillwanttotalkto
you.Ifyoufeelcompelledtosendprivatemessagestopeopleyou
don'tknow,thenbewillingtoacceptgracefullythefactthatthey
mightbebusyorsimplynotwanttochatwithyou.
Respecttheguidelinesofthegroup.Lookforintroductory
materialsforthegroup.Thesemaybeonarelatedftpsite.
Don'tbadgerotherusersforpersonalinformationsuchassex,age,
orlocation.Afteryouhavebuiltanacquaintancewithanotheruser,
thesequestionsmaybemoreappropriate,butmanypeople
hesitatetogivethisinformationtopeoplewithwhomtheyare
notfamiliar.
Ifauserisusinganicknamealiasorpseudonym,respectthat
user'sdesireforanonymity.Evenifyouandthatpersonare
closefriends,itismorecourteoustousehisnickname.Do
notusethatperson'srealnameonlinewithoutpermission.

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4.2AdministratorGuidelines
4.2.1GeneralGuidelines
Makeclearwhat'savailableforcopyingandwhatisnot.
Describewhat'savailableonyoursite,andyourorganization.
Besureanygeneralpoliciesareclear.
Keepinformation,especiallyREADMEs,uptodate.ProvideREADMEs
inplainasciitext.
Presentalistofmirrorsofyoursiteifyouknowthem.Make
sureyouincludeastatementofcopyrightapplicabletoyour
mirrors.Listtheirupdatescheduleifpossible.
Makesurethatpopular(andmassive)informationhasthebandwidth
tosupportit.
Useconventionsforfileextensions.txtforasciitext;.html
or.htmforHTML;.psforPostscript;.pdfforPortableDocument
Format;.sgmlor.sgmforSGML;.exefornonUnixexecutables,etc.
Forfilesbeingtransferred,trytomakefilenamesuniqueinthe
firsteightcharacters.
Whenprovidinginformation,makesureyoursitehassomething
uniquetooffer.Avoidbringingupaninformationservicewhich
simplypointstootherservicesontheInternet.
Don'tpointtoothersiteswithoutaskingfirst.
Rememberthatsettingupaninformationserviceismorethanjust
designandimplementation.It'salsomaintenance.
Makesureyourpostedmaterialsareappropriateforthesupporting
organization.
Testapplicationswithavarietyoftools.Don'tassumeeverything
worksifyou'vetestedwithonlyoneclient.Also,assumethelow
endoftechnologyforclientsanddon'tcreateapplicationswhich
canonlybeusedbyGraphicalUserInterfaces.
Haveaconsistentviewofyourinformation.Makesurethelook
andfeelstaysthesamethroughoutyourapplications.

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Besensitivetothelongevityofyourinformation.Besureto
datetimesensitivematerials,andbevigilantaboutkeeping
thisinformationwellmaintained.
Exportrestrictionsvaryfromcountrytocountry.Besureyou
understandtheimplicationsofexportrestrictionswhenyoupost.
Telluserswhatyouplantodowithanyinformationyoucollect,
suchasWWWfeedback.Youneedtowarnpeopleifyouplanto
publishanyoftheirstatements,evenpassivelybyjustmakingit
availabletootherusers.
Makesureyourpolicyonuserinformationservices,suchas
homepages,iswellknown.
5.0SelectedBibliography
Thisbibliographywasusedtogathermostoftheinformationinthe
sectionsaboveaswellasforgeneralreference.Itemsnot
specificallyfoundintheseworksweregatheredfromtheIETFRUN
WorkingGroup'sexperience.
[1]Angell,D.,andB.Heslop,"TheElementsofEmailStyle",
NewYork:AddisonWesley,1994.
[2]"AnswerstoFrequentlyAskedQuestionsaboutUsenet"
Originalauthor:jerry@eagle.UUCP(JerrySchwarz)
Maintainedby:netannounce@deshaw.com(MarkMoraes)
Archivename:usenetfaq/part1
[3]Cerf,V.,"GuidelinesforConductonandUseof
Internet",at:<URL://http://www.isoc.org/proceedings/
conduct/cerfAugdraft.html>
[4]Dern,D.,"TheInternetGuideforNewUsers",NewYork:
McGrawHill,1994.
[5]"EmilyPostnewsAnswersYourQuestionsonNetiquette"
Originalauthor:brad@looking.on.ca(BradTempleton)
Maintainedby:netannounce@deshaw.com(MarkMoraes)
Archivename:emilypostnews/part1
[6]Gaffin,A.,"Everybody'sGuidetotheInternet",Cambridge,
Mass.,MITPress,1994.

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[7]"GuidelinesforResponsibleUseoftheInternet"
fromtheUShouseofRepresentativesgopher,at:
<URL:gopher://gopher.house.gov:70/OF1%3a208%3aInternet
%20Etiquette>
[8]Howtofindtherightplacetopost(FAQ)
bybuglady@bronze.lcs.mit.edu(AlizaR.Panitz)
Archivename:findinggroups/general
[9]Hambridge,S.,andJ.Sedayao,"HorsesandBarnDoors:
EvolutionofCorporateGuidelinesforInternetUsage",
LISAVII,Usenix,November15,1993,pp.916.
<URL:ftp://ftp.intel.com/pub/papers/horses.psor
horses.ascii>
[10]Heslop,B.,andD.Angell,"TheInstantInternetguide:
HandsonGlobalNetworking",Reading,Mass.,AddisonWesley,
1994.
[11]Horwitz,S.,"InternetEtiquetteTips",
<ftp://ftp.temple.edu/pub/info/helpnet/netiquette.infohn>
[12]InternetActivitiesBoard,"EthicsandtheInternet",RFC1087,
IAB,January1989.<URL:ftp://ds.internic.net/rfc/rfc1087.txt>
[13]Kehoe,B.,"ZenandtheArtoftheInternet:ABeginner's
Guide",Netiquetteinformationisspreadthroughthechapters
ofthiswork.3rded.EnglewoodCliffs,NJ.,PrenticeHall,
1994.
[14]Kochmer,J.,"InternetPassport:NorthWestNet'sGuide
toourWorldOnline",4thed.Bellevue,Wash.,
NorthWestNet,NorthwestAcademicComputingConsortium,1993.
[15]Krol,Ed,"TheWholeInternet:User'sGuideand
Catalog",Sebastopol,CA,O'Reilly&Associates,
1992.
[16]Lane,E.andC.Summerhill,"InternetPrimerfor
InformationProfessionals:abasicguidetoInternetnetworking
technology",Westport,CT,Meckler,1993.
[17]LaQuey,T.,andJ.Ryer,"TheInternetCompanion",
Chapter3"CommunicatingwithPeople",pp4174.Reading,
MA,AddisonWesley,1993.

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[18]Mandel,T.,"SurfingtheWildInternet",SRIInternational
BusinessIntelligenceProgram,ScanNo.2109.March,1993.
<URL:gopher://gopher.well.sf.ca.us:70/00/Communications/
surfwild>
[19]Martin,J.,"There'sGoldinthemtharNetworks!orSearchingfor
TreasureinalltheWrongPlaces",FYI10,RFC1402,
January1993.<URL:ftp://ds.internic.net/rfc/rfc1402.txt>
[20]Pioch,N.,"AShortIRCPrimer",Textconversion
byOweRasmussen.Edition1.1b,February28,1993.
<URL:http://www.kei.com/irc/IRCprimer1.1.txt>
[21]Polly,J.,"SurfingtheInternet:anIntroduction",
Version2.0.3.RevisedMay15,1993.
<URL:gopher://nysernet.org:70/00/ftp%20archives/
pub/resources/guides/surfing.2.0.3.txt>
<URL:ftp://ftp.nysernet.org/pub/resources/guides/
surfing.2.0.3.txt>
[22]"APrimeronHowtoWorkWiththeUsenetCommunity"
Originalauthor:chuq@apple.com(ChuqVonRospach)
Maintainedby:netannounce@deshaw.com(MarkMoraes)
Archivename:usenetprimer/part1
[23]Rinaldi,A.,"TheNet:UserGuidelinesandNetiquette",
September3,1992.
<URL:http://www.fau.edu/rinaldi/net/index.htm>
[24]"RulesforpostingtoUsenet"
Originalauthor:spaf@cs.purdue.edu(GeneSpafford)
Maintainedby:netannounce@deshaw.com(MarkMoraes)
Archivename:postingrules/part1
[25]Shea,V.,"Netiquette",SanFrancisco:AlbionBooks,
1994?.
[26]Strangelove,M.,withA.Bosley,"HowtoAdvertise
ontheInternet",ISSN12010758.
[27]Tenant,R.,"InternetBasics",ERICClearinghouseofInformation
Resources,EDOIR927.September,1992.
<URL:gopher://nic.merit.edu:7043/00/introducing.
the.internet/internet.basics.ericdigest>
<URL:gopher://vega.lib.ncsu.edu:70/00/library/
reference/guides/tennet>

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[28]Wiggins,R.,"TheInternetforeveryone:aguidefor
usersandproviders",NewYork,McGrawHill,1995.
6.0SecurityConsiderations
Securityissuesarenotdiscussedinthismemo.
7.0Author'sAddress
SallyHambridge
IntelCorporation
2880NorthwesternParkway
SC315
SantaClara,CA95052
Phone:4087652931
Fax:4087653679
EMail:sallyh@ludwig.sc.intel.com

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