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THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART

GREEK ATHLETICS

NEW YORK
1933

COPYRICHT, 1 9 3 3 , BY
THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART

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From a kantharos, Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, No. 354

GREEK ATHLETICS 1
Athletics held a place in the life and education of the Greek
people from the earliest times, and played an important part in
their history. The great athletic festivals served to draw
together the little city states, too often at variance with one
another; while the love of outdoor life created a military strength
without which the Greek cities might soon have lost their independence. The vitality of their athletic spirit is shown by the
presence of Greek games on track and field today.
We are fortunately able to understand quite clearly the
different athletic events, for Greek artists found much of their
inspiration in scenes of the gymnasium and palaestra. Vases,
our most important record, reflect this phase of life in great
detail, while bronze and marble sculptures, gems and coins also
add to our knowledge. In the following pages the events of the
Greek pentathlonrunning, jumping, throwing the diskos and
the javelin, and wrestlingas well as the other common events,
such as boxing and horse-racing, are illustrated by scenes taken
from objects in The Metropolitan Museum of Art and other
collections.2
CHRISTINE ALEXANDER.
1
The standard handbook in English on Greek athletics is E. N. Gardiner, Greek Athletic
Sports and Festivals (London, 1910). Other useful works are J. H. Krause, Die Gymnastik und
Agonistik der Hellenen (Leipzig. 1841); J. Juthner, Uber antike Turngerathe (Vienna, 1896) and
Korperkulturim Altertum: Jenaer medizin-historische Beitrage, no. 12 (jena, 1928); B. Schroder,
Der. Sport im Altertum (Berlin, 1927); E. N. Gardiner, Athletics of the Ancient World (Oxford,
1930).
2
Sources of illustrations: Antike Denkmaler, II (1908), for p. 17 (3) and p. 21 (;); Archaologische Zeitung, 1883 and 1885, for p. 2) (2) and p. 26 (3); Brunn-Bruckmann, Denkmaler griechischer und romischer Skulptur, for p. 14 (1), p. 19 (2), and p. 21 (4); Furtwangler and Reichhold,
Griechische Vasenmalerei, for p. 5 (2, 3), p. 14 (4), p. 18 (3), p. 24 (1), p. 27 (1), and p. 29 (2);
Gerhard, Auserlesene griechische Vasenhilder, for p. 4 (1), p. 6 (1), p. 9 (1), p. 18 (2), p. 22(1).
and p. 29 (1); drawings by Lindsley F. Hall, for p. 10 (4), p. 15(1), and p. 31 (2); Hartwig, Griechische Meisterschalen des strengen rothfigurigen Slils, for p. 21 (2) and p. 25 (3); lnghirami,
Pitturi di vasi fittili etruschi, for p. 26 (2); Journal of Hellenic Studies, XXI11 (1903) and XXVII
(1907), for p. 7 (1) and p. 19 (1); (redrawn from) Juthner, (jber antike Turngerathe, for p. 17
(2); Nicole, Catalogue des vases peints du Musee Nationale d'Athenes, Supplement, for p. 1;
(5); Pfuhl, Malerei und Zeichnungder Griechen, for p. 20 (1); (redrawn from) Pottier, Catalogue
des vases antiques du Louvre, for p. 16 (3); (redrawn from) De Kidder, Catalogue des vases peints
de la Bibliotheque Nationale, for p. 3 (1). The rest of the illustrations are from photographs of the
objects or of casts of them.

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PALAESTRA AND GYMNASIUM


Properly speaking, the palaestra was a place for wrestling; the
gymnasium, for general activities. But as a palaestra was usually
attached to the gymnasium the two words were almost interchangeable. The place consisted of a walled enclosure lined
with the necessary buildings, which gave on an open court.
Around this court there might be a covered colonnade for use as
a track in bad weather. The exercises took place in the court,
which was sometimes large enough to serve as a riding school,
or in a grove outside the enclosure. 11 was in these gymnasia that
boys received their instruction and older men spent much of
their leisure.

Athletes in the palaestra. The columns surmounted by slabs indicate a roofed enclosure. On the walls hang the usual paraphernalia: oil-flasks, strigils, sponges, a
diskos in its sling, and an empty sling. The poles stuck in the ground were used as
javelins and measuring rods.
From a kylix, Thorwaldsen Museum, Copenhagen, No. 112

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PALAESTRA AND GYMNASIUM

Athletes in the palaestra. One youth has taken off his himation and laid it carefully on a stool, and is preparing to rub his body with oil from a flask which hangs
from his wrist; another is folding his himation; a third is balancing himself while an
attendant draws a thorn from his foot.
From a krater, Altes Museum, Berlin, No. 2180

Athletes in the palaestra. Youths are practising with diskos and javelin; a sponge and
an oil-flask hang on the wall. The picks are used like the rakes in a modern athletic
meet for loosening the ground of the jumping pit.
From an amphora, Museum fur antike Kleinkunst, Munich, No. 2344

Wrestlers with their trainer in the palaestra. The trainer smells a flower as he
oversees the exercise.
From an amphora, Altes Museum, Berlin, No. 2159

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GREEK

ATHLETICS

Athletes using strigils.


From a kylix, British Museum, No. E83

Oil-flask (aryballos). Athletes


oiled their bodies before exercise. Each athlete carried his
own oil with him, in a little flask
hung on his wrist.
Aryballos, Metropolitan Museum of Art, No. 17.194.193

A strigil was used for removing


the oil and dust from the body
after exercise.
Bronze strigil,
Metropolitan
Museum of Art, No. 11.107

Flute player. Greek athletes practised, wherever possible, to the music of the flute,
which served to time the action and give precision of movement. The flute player in
his long figured chiton often appears in athletic scenes.
From a lekythos, Metropolitan Museum of Art, No. 08.258.30
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T H E PENTATHLON
The Greek pentathlon (five contests), consisting of the foot-race,
broad jump, diskos and javelin throw, and wrestling match,
was characteristic of the whole of Greek physical training, and
the winner of the pentathlon was held to be the typical athlete.
I.

T H E FOOT-RACE

The length of the foot-race varied from the 200-yard dash (a


single length of the stadium) to the long-distance run of nearly
six miles (48 stades). Races in armor differed in length, equipment, and rules.

Runner with helmet, greaves, and shield, awaiting the signal to start,
armor appealed to the Greeks as a practical military exercise.
From an amphora, The Louvre, No. G214

Races in

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GREEK

ATHLETICS

Runner at the start. The runner, bending forward, stands with one foot in advance of
the other and one arm outstretched.
From a kylix, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, No. 28.48

Sprinters. Short-distance runners


swing their arms violently. Here
the position of the arms is reversed, i. e., the right arm is represented as swung forward at the
same time as the right leg.
From an amphora, Metropolitan
Museum of Art, No. 14.130.12

Long-distance runners.
The arms are
held close to the sides, the chest out and
the head erect.
From an amphora, British Museum, No.
B609

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THE

PENTATHLONTHE

FOOT-RACE

Contestants in a race in armor. They wear helmet and greaves, and carry round
shields.
From a kylix, Altes Museum, Berlin, No. 2307

Armed runner (hoplitodromos) practising starts. He wears a helmet, and his arm
is crooked to hold a shield now missing.
A bronze statuette, Universitatsmuseum, Tubingen

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GREEK

ATHLETICS

II. THE BROAD JUMP


The only form of jumping that had a place in Greek athletic competitions was the broad jump. There is no evidence that the
high jump and the pole vault were in common practice, though
we may suppose that they were not unknown to the Greeks (see
p. 26). The athlete took off from a standing position, or after a
few short preliminary steps.

Jumping weights (halteres). A stone or metal weight, shaped so as to afford a grip,


was held in each hand to give impetus to the swing of the arms, thus increasing the
length of the jump.
Halteres, British and Berlin Museums

Athlete preparing to jump He swings the halteres.


From a psykter, Metropolitan Museum of Art, No. 10.210.18
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THE PENTATHLONTHE BROAD JUMP

Atnlcte about to jump. He measures his distance with his eye, so as not to overstep
the mark. The take-off is perhaps indicated by the two javelins stuck in the ground.
From a skyphos, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, No. 10.176

Athlete about to take off for the jump. He swings the weights vigorously downward
and backward, the actual jump taking place on the return swing.
From a fragment of a kylix, Metropolitan Museum of Art, No. 06.1133

Jumper in mid-air. He has jumped high, and his arms and legs are extended to the
front. From a kylix, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, No. 01.8020

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GREEK

ATHLETICS

Jumper in mid-air. Just before alighting he forces his arms backward, and probably releases the halteres.
From a lekythos, Metropolitan Museum of Art, No. 08.258.30

Athlete finishing a jump (?).


The athlete finished his jump standing.
lost his balance on alighting, the jump was not counted.
A bronze statuette, Metropolitan Museum of Art, No. 08.258.11

If he-

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THE PENTATHLON

III.

THE DISKOS THROW

T H E DISKOS THROW

In throwing the diskos the styles of individuals varied, so that


all the attitudes represented in art cannot be understood as
stages in a single series of movements. The principle of the throw,
however, can be seen in Myron's diskobolos. The right foot
is the pivot round which the whole body swings, the force of
the throw coming not only from the arm, but from the swing
of the whole body round a fixed point.

Characteristic positions showing the evolution of the diskos throw. The athlete
swings the diskos forward and backward, either striding forward as he swings or shifting the left foot without changing the position of the right. He turns his head and
body as he swings, but does not make a complete turn as in the modem style. He
then throws the diskos as he pivots on his right leg, striding forward with his left on
the follow through.

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Marble diskoi. These weighed when whole about i6and 16.4 lbs. (7.28 and 7.45 kg.) and
are i\}4 and i\}4 in. (28.4 and 28.9 cm.) in diameter. One is inscribed "From the
prizes"; the inscription on the other has been read "Telesarchos' (diskos), from the
barrow" (i.e., from the tomb of the hero in whose honor the games were held). Portions
of the rim have been restored.
Lent to the Metropolitan Museum of Art by Albert Gallatin.
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GREEK

ATHLETICS

A preliminary stance. The diskos


thrower gauges his distance so as not to
overstep the mark. Lines were drawn
at the front and perhaps at the sides,
but not at the back, so that the athlete
might take as many preliminary steps
as he chose.
A statue, Vatican Museum, Rome

The next stage of the throw. The athlete swings the diskos forward with both
hands.
From a kylix, Metropolitan Museum of
Art, No. 09.221.47

A preliminary stance. A different style


is represented, in which the athlete
takes his place with the diskos raised
in his left hand.
A bronze statuette, Metropolitan Museum of Art, No. 07.286.87

The next stage. The athlete then


swings the diskos above his head in
both hands. He can pass from this position to that of Myron's diskobolos and
throw without taking preliminary steps.
From an amphora, Museum fur antike
Kleinkunst, Munich, No. 2308
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THE

A preliminary forward swing. The right


hand grasps the diskos, while the left
supports it.
From a psykter, Metropolitan Museum of

PENTATHLON

THE DISKOS THROW

The backward swing. The


athlete raises his left hand
above his head to balance
himself.
From a kylix, Museum of
Fine Arts, Boston, No.

The final swing.


From a lekythos, National Museum, Athens,
No. 966

o i .8020

Art, N o . 10.210.18

The top of the swing.


Composite cast after Myron: head
in the Lancelotti Palace, Rome;
torso in the Vatican

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GREEK

ATHLETICS

The forward swing as seen from in front.


From a gem, lent to the Metropolitan
Museum of Art by W. Gedney Bcatty

The top of the swing as seen from in


front. The artist has avoided foreshortening by bending the body to the side.
A coin of Kos, Metropolitan Museum
of Art, No. 702

J
Diskobolos marking the take-off with a peg.
From a kylix, The Louvre, No. G 73

IV. THE JAVELIN THROW


The javelin of athletics was a light weapon with blunt end, often
with a ferrule to give it weight, and was generally used for
distance-throwing. More rarely it was thrown at a target, in
which case it had a pointed head.
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THE P E N T A T H L O N T H E JAVELIN

THROW

The javelin was thrown with the aid of a thong


(amentum) bound round the shaft near the center
of gravity, which imparted a whirling motion. The
thong was of leather, a foot or eighteen inches in
length, and detachable.

Athlete adjusting his amentum. Having made fast the


ends of the thong by lapping them round the javelin, he
holds down the loop with his foot and wraps it firmly by
rotating the shaft.
From a kylix, Antikencabinet, Wurzburg, No. 432

Javelin throwers testing the bindings of their thongs under the eyes of their trainers.
From a psykter, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, No. 01.8019
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GREEK

ATHLETICS

Athlete throwing a javelin with the aid


of a thong.
From a lekythos, Metropolitan Museum
of Art, No. 06.1021.60

Athlete launching a javelin with all his


force.
From a kylix, Altes Museum, Berlin,
No. 2262

Javelin throwers mounting. The javelin was also thrown from horseback. One
athlete holds blunt javelins for distance-throwing, the other has pointed javelins for
throwing at a target.
From a kylix, Museum fur Kunst und Gewerbe, Hamburg

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THE P E N T A T H L O N T H E

IAVELIN

THROW

Mounted athletes throwing javelins at a target as they gallop past.


From an amphora, British Museum, No. 1903.217. i

V.

WRESTLING

In the wrestling match of the pentathlon the struggle was not


continued on the ground after one or both of the contestants had
fallen. A fall on the back, shoulders, or hip counted as a fair
throw. "Ground wrestling," where the contestants struggle on
the ground after a fall has been obtained, was confined to the
pankration.

Wrestlers engaging. Each advances bent forward from the waist so as not to offer any
opening, while his outstretched hands are ready for whatever opportunity his opponent may offer.
A pair of bronze statues, National Museum, Naples
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GREEK

ATHLETICS

Wrestler trying to force an opponent to his knees by bending his neck forward.
From a psykter, University Collection, Turin

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Wrestler gripping an opponent's arm in order to throw him by means of the "flying
mare." The other guards by pressing a hand against his shoulder to keep him from
turning round for the throw.
A statue base, National Museum, Athens

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THE

PENTATHLONWRESTLING

The "flying mare." The wrestler seizes


his opponent's arm in both hands, and
stooping suddenly and turning his back,
hurls the other over his shoulder.
From a kylix, British Museum, No. E94

Wrestler thrown by means of the ''living


mare."
From a kylix, Bibliotheque Nationale,
Paris, No. 523

"The heave." The wrestler obtained


the hold for this throw by passing one
hand across and around the opponent's
back and the other underneath him.
From a psvkter, Museum of Fine Arts,
Boston, No. 01. 8019

"The heave."
Having
hold, the wrestler is here
his opponent over in the
paring to drop him on the
From a metope of the
Athens

Wrestlers engaging.
A coin, Metropolitan Museum of Art, No. 731
21

obtained his
seen turning
air and preground.
"Theseion,"

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BOXING
The Greek boxer aimed his attack at his opponent's head, body
blows being almost unknown; for this reason in boxing scenes the
contestants invariably have their heads well guarded, while their
bodies are left exposed. Boxers wrapped their fists with thongs
(himantes) ten or twelve feet in length, to form a sort of glove.

Boxer wrapping his fists with


thongs.
From a kylix, Altes Museum,
Berlin, No. 2262

Boxer at rest. He wears the


heavy gloves which came into
use in the Hellenistic period.
A statue, Terme Museum,
Rome

Boxers sparring.
From an amphora, Metropolitan Museum of Art, No. 06.1021.51
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BOXING

Boxers sparring with open hands.


From a kratcr, Metropolitan Museum of Art, No. 06.1021.173

Boxers. One has felled the other, and the fallen athlete holds up his forefinger as a
sign of defeat.
From a kylix, Altes Museum, Berlin, No. 2284

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THE PANKRATION
The pankration, a combination of wrestling and boxing, was a
development of the primitive hand-to-hand struggle without
weapons. It was, however, controlled by rules and was a contest no less of skill than of strength.

The pankration. Ground wrestling.


From a krater, The Louvre, No. G103

Contestants in the pankration struggling on the ground.


A marble group, L'ffizi Gallery, Florence
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THE

PANKRATION

Pankratiast about to plant a blow on


the chin of his opponent, who has been
thrown to the ground.
From a skyphos, Metropolitan Museum
of Art, No. 06.1021.49

The pankration. An athlete upsetting


his opponent by seizing his leg and tilting him over backwards.
From an amphora, Metropolitan Museum of Art, No. 16.71

Trainer beating with his stick a youth who is gouging his opponent's eye.
From a kylix, British Museum, No. E78

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T H E HORSE-RACE
The Greeks rode without saddle or stirrups. Young men could
mount by vaulting from the ground, sometimes with the aid of a
javelin. Children and old men mounted with the help of another
person. Races took place in the hippodrome, which consisted of
an open plain flanked by a slope where spectators could sit. A
pillar at either end marked the turning. The circuit of the course
at Olympia was nearly a mile.

Rider vaulting from his horse. He holds


his whip in his right hand, the reins in
his left.
A coin, Metropolitan Museum of Art,
No. 735

Child mounting with the help of a man.


From an amphora, National Museum,
Naples

Athlete about to vault on the back of a trotting horse with the aid of his javelin.
From a kylix, Museum fur antike Kleinkunst, Munich, No. 515

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THE

HORSE-RACE

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Boys' horse-race. One rider has been thrown from his horse and is being dragged
along clinging to the rein.
From a krater, Museum fur antike Kleinkunst, Munich, No. 805

Horse-race. Riders passing the turning-post.


From an amphora, Metropolitan Museum of Art, No. 07.286.80

The victor in a horse-race. The victor rides in procession, followed by a youth carrying the garland and tripod which he has received as prizes. A herald walks in front
announcing the victory: " Dyneikctos's horse is the winner."
From an amphora, British Museum, No. B144
2

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T H E CHARIOT RACE
The four-horse chariot race was twelve laps of the hippodrome,
nearly nine miles at Olympia, a distance which made for a slow
pace and comparative safety. The course was marked by a column
at each end, the danger point of the race.

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Racing chariot with four horses. This is the


usual type of chariot, with two wheels and a
low-swung car open at the back; the driver
stands, holding the reins in his left hand,
a goad in his right.
A coin, Metropolitan Museum of Art, No. 291

Racing chariot with two mules. The chariot consists of two wheels and a high seat
on which the driver perches.
A coin, Metropolitan Museum of Art, No.
206

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THE CHARIOT RACE

Racing chariot. The driver wears a long white chiton, the regulation dress of the
Greek charioteer.
From an oinochoe, Altes Museum, Berlin, No. 1732

Chariot race at the finish. The chariots at full speed pass the goal, near which the
judges are seated. The tripods are to serve as prizes for the winners.
From a krater, Altes Museum, Berlin, No. 1655

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BALL GAMES
Games played with balls were popular with the Greeks from the
earliest times, but were not accorded a place among the regular
activities of the gymnasium.

"Hockey" game. Two players stand as if read}' to "bully off"; but their sticks are
held in a reversed position, while those in the field are not on the alert to receive the
ball.
A statue base, National Museum, Athens

Ball game. Two teams of three confront each other; one of the players is about to
throw the ball with all his force high in the air, while a member of the opposing team
appears ready to catch it.
A statue base, National Museum, Athens

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HOPLOMACHY
Youths were taught to fence in heavy armor, to the music of the
flute, a practical military exercise.

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H o p l o m a c h y or P y r r h i c D a n c e .
From a hydria, Metropolitan M u s e u m of Art, N o . 21.88.2

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PRIZES
The victor in the games received a crown of wild olive.

Victorious a t h l e t e receiving a crown. H e holds in his h a n d s some of t h e branches


which were showered on t h e victor by t h e spectators.
From a psykter, Metropolitan M u s e u m of Art, N o . 10.210.18

PRINTED DECEMBER,

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