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Endurance motor racing

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Contents
Articles
Introduction
Endurance motor racing

World endurance championships


World Sportscar Championship

1
1
6
6

Intercontinental Le Mans Cup

12

FIA World Endurance Championship

14

Endurance FIM World Championship

16

24 Hours of Le Mans

21

24 Hours of Le Mans

21

List of 24 Hours of Le Mans winners

36

1955 Le Mans disaster

45

Major endurance races

49

24 Hours of Daytona

49

24 Hours of Le Mans Moto

60

24 Hours of Nrburgring

63

24 Hours of Spa

74

12 Hours of Sebring

80

8 Hours of Suzuka

88

6 Hours of Watkins Glen

92

1000 km Nrburgring

99

1000 km Spa

104

1000 km Silverstone

109

Bathurst 1000

113

Bol d'Or

125

Carrera Panamericana

129

Mille Miglia

136

Petit Le Mans

143

Targa Florio

150

Notable endurance racing venues


Daytona

162
162

La Sarthe

172

Mount Panorama

178

Nrburgring

186

Paul Ricard

196

Sebring

198

Silverstone

202

Spa-Francorchamps

221

Suzuka

230

Watkins Glen

234

Notable endurance car drivers

243

Derek Bell

243

Frank Biela

248

Rinaldo Capello

252

Yannick Dalmas

255

Jacky Ickx

258

Tom Kristensen

268

Allan McNish

274

Henri Pescarolo

282

Emanuele Pirro

286

Scott Pruett

292

Brian Redman

298

Pedro Rodrguez

301

Rolf Stommelen

312

Hans-Joachim Stuck

315

Notable endurance motorcycle riders

321

Sbastien Gimbert

321

Keiichi Kitagawa

322

Terry Rymer

323

Dominique Sarron

325

Notable endurance racing cars

327

Alfa Romeo 8C

327

Audi R10 TDI

336

Ferrari P

343

Ferrari TR

349

Ford GT40

350

Jaguar C-Type

359

Jaguar D-Type

361

Porsche 917

365

Porsche 935

373

Porsche 936

380

Porsche 956

381

Porsche 962

383

References
Article Sources and Contributors

389

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors

394

Article Licenses
License

401

Introduction
Endurance motor racing
Endurance racing is a form of motorsport racing which is meant to
test the durability of equipment and endurance of participants. Teams
of multiple drivers attempt to cover a large distance in a single event,
with participants given a break with the ability to change during the
race. Endurance races can be run either to cover a set distance in laps
as quickly as possible, or to cover as much distance as possible over a
preset amount of time.
One of the more common lengths of endurance races has been running
for 1,000 kilometres (620mi), or roughly six hours. Longer races can
Rolling start of the 2008 Le Mans 24 Hours
run for 1,000 miles (1,600km), 12 hours, or even 24 hours. Teams can
consist of anywhere from two to four drivers per event, which is dependent on the driver's endurance abilities, length
of the race, or even the rules for each event.
At club level racing, a race taking either 30 minutes or 1 hour could be considered as an endurance race.

Origins of endurance racing


Coppa Florio was an Italian car race started in 1900, and renamed in 1905 when Vincenzo Florio offered the initial
50 000 Lira and a cup designed by Polak of Paris. The Brescia race visited the route
Brescia-Cremona-Mantova-Brescia. In 1908, the race used the Circuito di Bologna: Bologna-Castelfranco
Emilia-Sant'Agata Bolognese-San Giovanni in Persiceto-Bologna. Since 1914 most of the Coppa Florio was
co-organized with the Targa Florio near Palermo, Sicilia, running four or five laps, 108 km each.
The Targa Florio was an open road endurance automobile race founded in 1906- the track length of the last decades
was limited to the 72 kilometres of the Circuito Piccolo delle Madonie, which was lapped 11 times.
The Mille Miglia was an open-road endurance race which took place in Italy 24 times from 1927 to 1957.
The first 24 hour race to take place on a closed course was at Brooklands, eleven days after its opening in 1907. This
incurred the wrath of local residents and would lead to the Double Twelve race. This format meant the race took
place for 12 hours each between 8am to 8pm and between it, the cars were locked up overnight to prevent
maintenance work from being performed on them.[1]
The 2001 Dakar Rally saw competitors cover a distance of 10,739 km with a winning time of 70 hours over 20 days,
with three classes, cars, motorbikes and trucks.[2]

Endurance motor racing

Automobile endurance racing


In the beginning of formalised endurance racing, the races tended to be
for sports cars while the Grand Prix cars of the era began to evolve into
the open wheel racing cars of today and ran over shorter distances.
Over time sports cars began to evolve away from their roots as a
production based alternative to pure-bred racing machines of Grand
Prix cars, which led to the creation of GT and touring car racing
classes, and these classes continued to embrace the endurance format.
Multiple drivers per car was an early adaptation as the rigors of
endurance racing quickly overcome the abilities of most racing drivers
to compete solo, although solo attempts on 24 hour races like Le Mans
would continue into the 1950s.

The inaugural Willhire 24 Hour, Snetterton, 1980

The various endurance formats were appealing to manufacturers, not


only as alternatives to the expense of Grand Prix racing, but also
because of its increased relevance to road going models.

Triple Crown
In automobile endurance racing, three events have come to form a
Driving under safety car in 2007 Mil Milhas
Triple Crown. They are considered three of the most challenging
Brasil
endurance races over the decades: the 24 Hours of Daytona, 12 Hours
of Sebring, and 24 Hours of Le Mans.[3] Hans Herrmann was the first
in 1970 to win the three races, and Timo Bernhard the most recent (2010). No driver has won the three events in the
same year, although Hurley Haywood and Al Holbert have won the three races at least twice each.
Bold on year indicate at which race the driver achieved his Triple Crown.
Driver

Total
Wins

Year
Completed

24 Hours of Daytona

12 Hours of
Sebring

24 Hours of Le Mans

Phil Hill

1964

1964A

1958, 1961

1958, 1961, 1962

Dan Gurney

1967

1962B

1959

1967

Hans Herrmann

1970

1968

1960, 1968

1970

Jackie Oliver

1971

1971

1969

1969

Jacky Ickx

1972

1972C

1969, 1972

1969, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1981,


1982

10

1977

1973, 1975, 1977, 1979,


1991

1973, 1981

1977, 1983, 1994

A. J. Foyt

1985

1983, 1985

1985

1967

Al Holbert

1986

1986, 1987

1976, 1981

1983, 1986, 1987

Andy Wallace

1992

1990, 1997, 1999

1992, 1993

1988

Mauro Baldi

1998

1998, 2002

1998

1994

Marco Werner

2005

1995

2003, 2005, 2007

2005, 2006, 2007

Timo Bernhard

2010

2003

2008

2010

Hurley
Haywood

Endurance motor racing

Endurance racing championships


Strong spectator figures, media interest and television coverage of endurance racing's Triple Crown events (24 Hours
of Daytona, 12 Hours of Sebring, and 24 Hours of Le Mans) has led to the establishment of several endurance racing
series - thereby giving teams the opportunity of running their cars in Championship events throughout the year.
The FIA World Endurance Championship is an international sports car racing series organized by both the
Automobile Club de l'Ouest (ACO) and the Fdration Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA). It supersedes the
Intercontinental Le Mans Cup run in 2010 and 2011, and uses similar rules to the ALMS and ELMS below. The
series features both Le Mans Prototypes and GT cars. 24 Hours of Le Mans is included as a feature race. The other
races are 6 hours long and take place in countries all over the world such as Japan, Bahrain and Brazil. The WEC is
considered a revival of the defunct World Sportscar Championship which ended in 1992.
The Rolex Sports Car Series, organised by the Grand American Road Racing Association is a championship for
Daytona Prototype and GT cars. The season begins with the 24 Hours of Daytona, traditionally held in the last
weekend of January or the first weekend of February. There then follows a further 11 races, typically of 250 miles
distance. This formula has led to the Rolex Sports Car Series having a large number of competitors at most events,
mostly due to the ease of use and low cost of the cars in either class - while the Grand American Road Racing
Association has been able to keep the competition equalized. The series will be replaced by United Sports Car
Racing in 2014.
The American Le Mans Series (ALMS) is a sports car racing series based in the United States and Canada that has
been running with Automobile Club de l'Ouest (ACO) backing since 1999, but is run by IMSA. It consists of a series
of endurance and sprint races, and was created in the spirit of the 24 Hours of Le Mans. Teams compete in one of
five classes: P1, P2, and PC for Le Mans Prototypes, and GT and GTC for Grand Tourer-style cars. Race lengths
vary from 2 hours, to 12 hours. The 12 Hours of Sebring in March opens the season and the Petit Le Mans in
October closes it. The series often runs double-header events with IndyCar, most notably at the street races. The
series will be replaced by United Sports Car Racing in 2014.
The European Le Mans Series (ELMS) is a European sports car racing endurance series run by the Automobile Club
de l'Ouest (ACO). It is similar to the American Le Mans Series (ALMS). The ELMS is seen as a rebirth of the old
European Le Mans Series which was created by IMSA and the ACO, but only ran in 2001. LMS champions and
runners-up in all four categories receive an automatic entry to the following year's Le Mans 24 Hour Race. All races
used to be 3 hours long, but the format was changed to 3 hours in 2013. With the debut of the World Endurance
Championship in 2012, the series has dropped LMP1 and now features LMP2 as its premier category, in addition to
LMPC and GT categories.
The Japan Le Mans Challenge was an endurance sportscar series based in Japan, which ran from 2006 to 2007, and
featured the Fuji 1000 km, which was eventually replaced by the Asian Le Mans Series which started with the 2009
1000 km of Okayama. The series no longer operates but it will be replaced in 2013 by the re-launched AsLMS.
A further series was the Super Taikyu ST1 class, which has featured a 24-hour race at the Tokachi International
Speedway since 1996. Toyota took the win for the first time in a hybrid car in 2007.[4]
The Blancpain Endurance Series (BES) is a European sports car racing endurance series run by the Stphane Ratel
Organisation. It is similar to the ELMS, but it uses performance valanced GT3 cars instead of GTE cars or
prototypes and holds 3-hour races instead of 6-hour races. The series is centered around the 24 Hours of Spa. One of
the key emphases of the series is being friendly for amateur and gentlemen drivers, and there are numerous non-pro
classes in addition to the premier GT3 Pro class. The series began in 2011 and saw increased involvement in 2012.

Endurance motor racing

In popular culture
Endurance motor racing has proven a popular subject for depiction in videogames, and on film. The Lee H. Katzin
film Le Mans, starring Steve McQueen, used real race footage, and enjoys cult status. The 1986 arcade game WEC
Le Mans was the first to portray endurance racing in a videogame, while Gran Turismo 4 extended this to a real-time
simulation of 24 hour events.

Motorcycle endurance racing


In the early days of endurance racing cars and motorcycles raced side by side, but the two were soon separated.
The most famous motorcycle endurance race, the Bol d'Or, was first run on the circuit of Vaujours, near Paris in
1922. Only one rider was permitted per bike and there was no stopping other than for refuelling.
Motorcycle endurance racing began to expand after the second World War as new races began to emerge, among
them the 24 Hour Race in Warsage, Belgium in 1951, the 24 Hours of Montjuc in Barcelona in 1957, 24 hours in
Monza, Italy in 1959, and the Thruxton 500 mile endurance race at Thruxton in 1960.
1960 also saw the inaugural FIM Endurance Cup. Initially made up of four races, the Thruxton 500, Montjuich,
Warsage and the Bol d'Or.
The popularity of motorcycle endurance racing increased in the 1970s with the arrival of four-cylinder machines
from Japan. In 1976 the FIM Endurance Cup became the European Championship and in 1980 a World
Championship.

Notable motorcycle endurance races


Motorcycle endurance classics:

24 Hours of Le Mans
24 Hours of Lige
Thruxton 500
Suzuka 8 Hours
Bol d'Or
Albacete 8 Hours

Motorboat endurance racing


Notable motorboat endurance races
Six Hours of Paris (defunct)
24 Heures Motonautiques de Rouen
Note: both of these take place on the Seine River

Other forms
In addition to the annual car and motorcycle race, the Circuit de la Sarthe also holds 24 hour races in cycling,
karting, trucks and road skating.[5]
An eccentric[6] event involving an endurance race between lawnmowers takes place in the United Kingdom,
called the "BLMRA 12 Hour Race".

Endurance motor racing

Notes
^A Was known as the Daytona 3 Hour Continental, upto 1964.
^B Was known as the Daytona 2000, up until 1965 before becoming a 24 hour race following that year.
^C The race was shortened to 6 hours, partly over concerns that the 3 liter formula one engined prototypes
were not reliable enough for the entire 24 hours.[7]

References
[7] http:/ / www. sportscardigest. com/ 1972-daytona-6-hour-peter-revson-alfa-romeo/

World endurance championships


World Sportscar Championship
The World Sportscar Championship was the world series run for sports car racing by the FIA from 1953 to 1992.
The championship evolved from a small collection of the most important sportscar, endurance and road racing events
in Europe and North America with dozens of gentleman drivers at the grid, to a professional racing series where the
world's largest automakers spent millions of dollars per year. The official name of the series changed throughout the
years, however it was generally been known as the World Sportscar Championship from its inception in 1953. The
World Sportscar Championship was, with the Formula One World Championship, one of the two major world
championships in circuit motor racing.

Races
Among others, the following races counted towards the championships in certain years:

Mille Miglia 1953-1957


Carrera Panamericana 1953-1954
Targa Florio 1955-1973
24 Hours of Le Mans 195324 Hours of Daytona 1966-1981
12 Hours of Sebring 1953RAC Tourist Trophy 1953-1964
1000 km Nrburgring 19531000 km Monza 19631000 km Spa 19631000 km Buenos Aires 1954-1972
1000 km Fuji 1983-1988
1000 km Zeltweg 1966-1968
Norisring 200 Miles 1984-1988

History
1953 to 1961
In the early years, now legendary races such as the Mille Miglia, Carrera Panamericana and Targa Florio were part
of the calendar, alongside the 24 Hours of Le Mans and the 12 Hours of Sebring. Manufacturers such as Ferrari,
Maserati, Mercedes-Benz, Porsche, and Aston Martin fielded entries, often featuring professional racing drivers with
experience in Formula One, but the majority of the fields were made up of gentleman drivers (privateers) in the likes
of Nardis and Bandinis. Cars were split into Sports Car and GT (production car) categories and were further divided
into engine displacement classes. The Ferrari and Maserati works teams were fierce competitors throughout much of
the decade, but although Maserati cars won many races the make never managed to clinch the World title.[1] The
Mercedes-Benz work team pulled out of the championship after 1955 due to their crash at Le Mans, while the small
Aston Martin factory team struggled to find success in 1957 and 1958 until it managed to win the championship in
1959. Notably absent from the overall results were the Jaguar works team, who did not enter any events other than
Le Mans, despite the potential of the C- and D-Types.

World Sportscar Championship

1962 to 1965
In 1962, the calendar was expanded to include smaller races, while the FIA shifted the focus to production based GT
cars. The World Sportscar Championship title was discontinued, being replaced by the International
Championship for GT Manufacturers which was awarded in three engine capacity classes.

1966 to 1981
Starting from 1966, the S (5 L sports cars ) and P (prototypes) classes were the most competitive, and cars such as
the Ferrari 512S, Ferrari Prototypes, Ford GT40, Lola T70, Chaparral, Alfa Romeo 33, Porsche 906, Porsche 908,
Porsche 917 and Shelby Cobra battled for supremacy on classic circuits such as Sebring, Nrburgring,
Spa-Francorchamps, Monza, Targa Florio and Le Mans, in what is now considered the Golden Age of sports car
racing.
In 1972 the Group 6 Prototype and Group 5 Sports Car classes were both replaced by a new Group 5 Sports Car
class. These cars were limited to 3.0L engines by the FIA (a move that some cynics believed was made to benefit
the French Matra team), and manufacturers gradually lost interest. The new Group 5 Sports Cars, together with
Group 4 Grand Touring Cars, would contest the FIA's newly renamed World Championship for Makes from 1972
to 1975. From 1976 to 1981 the World Championship for Makes was open to Group 5 Special Production Cars and
other production based categories including Group 4 Grand Touring cars and it was during this period that the
nearly-invincible Porsche 935 dominated the championship. Prototypes returned in 1976 as Group 6 cars with their
own series, the World Championship for Sports Cars, but this was to last only for two seasons. In 1981, the FIA
instituted a drivers championship.

1982 to 1992
In 1982, the FIA attempted to counter a worrying climb in engine output of the Group 5 Special Production Cars by
introducing Group C, a new category for closed sports-prototypes (purpose built racing cars) that limited fuel
consumption (the theory being that, by limiting fuel consumption, engine regulations could be more relaxed). While
this change was unwelcome amongst some of the private teams, manufacturer support for the new regulations was
immense. Several of the 'old guard' manufacturers returned to the WSC within the next two years, with each marque
adding to the diversity of the series. Under the new rules, it was theoretically possible for normally aspirated engines
to compete with the (expensive to maintain) forced induction engines that had dominated the series in the 70's and
early 80's. In addition, most races ran for either 500 or 1000km, usually going over three and six hours, respectively,
so it was possible to emphasize the "endurance" aspect of the competition as well. Group B cars, which was a GT
class, were also allowed to race, but entries in this class were sparse, and Group B cars disappeared from the series,
with sports-prototypes dominating the championship.
Porsche was the first constructor to join the series, with the 956, but soon several other makes joined the series,
including Jaguar Cars, Mercedes-Benz, Nissan, Toyota, Mazda and Aston Martin. As costs increased, a C2 class
(originally named C Junior) was created for privateer teams and small manufacturers, with more limits to fuel
consumption. In this lower class, most cars used either the BMW M1 engine or the new Cosworth DFL, but, like in
the main class, a variety of solutions were employed by each individual manufacturer. Alba, Tiga, Spice and Ecurie
Ecosse were among the most competitive in this class. While the Group C formula had brought manufacturers back
to the sport, it was again Porsche - with its 956 & 962 Group C line - that continued their domination of the sport.
For 1986, the World Endurance Championship became the World Sports-Prototype Championship.
Although the Group C formula was a success, with regular crowds of 50,000 to 70,000 at WSC events (a modern
Grand Prix in Europe will have similar crowds), and upwards of 350,000 at the marquis 24 hours of Le Mans,[citation
needed]
the FIA introduced new rules for 1991 at the behest of FIA vice president Bernie Ecclestone;[citation needed]
750kg machines with contemporary normally aspirated engines, which were purpose-built 3500cc racing units. The
new classification, known as Group C Category 1, was designed to mandate Formula One engines. Although power

World Sportscar Championship


was generally less than existing Group C cars (around 650Bhp compared to around 750Bhp upwards) the new cars
are considered to be the among the quickest sportscars ever. However, the take up of these new regulations was slow
and only a handful of Category 1 cars were ready for the 1991 season. Consequently the FIA also allowed cars
complying with pre-1991 Group C rules to contest the championship (as Group C Category 2 cars) during the one
transitional year. They were however seriously handicapped in terms of weight, fuel allocation and grid positions.
For 1991 the championship took on yet another new name, the FIA Sportscar World Championship and the new
3.5 litre rules took full effect for the 1992 championship with the old Group C cars no longer included.

1993 demise
The new generation of WSC racing engines, with the stated intent of cost reduction and improved competition,
quickly proved highly suspect. Costs rose massively as works teams developed cars capable of qualifying around
half way up a Formula 1 grid, despite weighing some 200kg more. Manufacturers again abandoned the sportscar
series, realising they now had an engine suitable for F1. In particular, Mercedes and Peugeot elected to either
concentrate on or move solely to F1. The more exotic engines were unaffordable for teams like Spice and ADA, thus
after the manufacturers left the top class of sportscar racing, the series essentially collapsed. A lack of entries meant
the 1993 season was cancelled before the first race.
In 1994, the World Sportscar title would return, this time in the hands of the International Motor Sports Association
in North America for use in the IMSA GT series. The name would be used for the series' top class of prototypes until
1998 when the series ended.
In addition, 1994 also signaled the return of an international GT series after an absence of over a decade with the
introduction of the BPR Global GT Series. The success of the series lead to a friendly takeover by the FIA in 1997,
becoming the FIA GT Championship. Prototypes were mainly absent from European tracks (Le Mans being the sole
notable exception) until 1997, which saw with the creation of the International Sports Racing Series which evolved
into the short-lived FIA Sportscar Championship in 2001 until 2003. Sports prototypes then came exclusively under
the control of the Automobile Club de l'Ouest (ACO) and their sanctioned series, the American Le Mans Series in
North America and the Le Mans Series in Europe. The FIA's championship for GTs was eventually promoted to
world championship status in 2010, while the ACO launched their own international championship, the
Intercontinental Le Mans Cup, the same year.

2012 return
Following the success of the ACO's Intercontinental Le Mans Cup (ILMC), the FIA reached an agreement with the
ACO to create a new FIA World Endurance Championship for 2012. The series will share many elements of the
ILMC, including the use of the 24 Hours of Le Mans as part of the series schedule. The series will continue to utilize
the ACO's two primary classes, Le Mans Prototypes and GT Endurance. Championship titles will be awarded for
constructors and drivers in prototypes, while a constructors cup will be awarded in the GTE categories.[][]

Championship winners

World Sportscar Championship

Year

Title

Winning Manufacturer
(1953 - 1984)

Winning Team
(1985 - 1992)

Winning Driver(s)
(1981 - 1992)

1953 World Championship for Sports Cars

Ferrari

1954 World Championship for Sports Cars

Ferrari

1955 World Championship for Sports Cars

Mercedes-Benz

1956 World Championship for Sports Cars

Ferrari

1957 World Championship for Sports Cars

Ferrari

1958 World Championship for Sports Cars

Ferrari

1959 World Championship for Sports Cars

Aston Martin

1960 World Championship for Sports Cars

Ferrari

1961 World Championship for Sports Cars

Ferrari

1962 International Championship for GT


Manufacturers

Ferrari (+2.0)
Porsche (2.0)
Fiat-Abarth (1.0)

1963 International Championship for GT


Manufacturers

Ferrari (+2.0)
Porsche (2.0)
Fiat-Abarth (1.0)

1963 International GT Prototypes Trophy

Ferrari

1964 International Championship for GT


Manufacturers

Ferrari (+2.0)
Porsche (2.0)
Abarth-Simca (1.0)

1964 International GT Prototypes Trophy

Porsche

1965 International Championship for GT


Manufacturers

Shelby (+2.0)
Porsche (2.0)
Abarth-Simca (1.3)

1965 International GT Prototypes Trophy

Ferrari

1966 International Championship for


Sports-Prototypes

Ford (+2.0)
Porsche (2.0)

1966 International Championship for Sports Cars

Ford (+2.0)
Porsche (2.0)
Abarth (1.3)

1967 International Championship for


Sports-Prototypes

Ferrari (+2.0)
Porsche (2.0)

1967 International Championship for Sports Cars

Ford (+2.0)
Porsche (2.0)
Abarth (1.3)

1968 International Championship for Makes


International Cup for GT Cars

Ford
Porsche

1969 International Championship for Makes


International Cup for GT Cars

Porsche
Porsche

1970 International Championship for Makes


International Cup for GT Cars

Porsche
Porsche

1971 International Championship for Makes


International Cup for GT Cars

Porsche
Porsche

1972 World Championship for Makes


International Cup for GT Cars

Ferrari
Porsche

World Sportscar Championship

10

1973 World Championship for Makes


International Cup for GT Cars

Matra
Porsche

1974 World Championship for Makes


International Cup for GT Cars

Matra
Porsche

1975 World Championship for Makes


International Cup for GT Cars

Alfa Romeo
Porsche

1976 World Championship for Makes

Porsche

1976 World Championship for Sports Cars

Porsche

1977 World Championship for Makes

Porsche

1977 World Championship for Sports Cars

Alfa Romeo

1978 World Championship for Makes

Porsche

1979 World Championship for Makes

Porsche (+2.0)
Lancia (2.0)

1980 World Championship for Makes

Porsche (+2.0)
Lancia (2.0)

1981 World Endurance Championship

Porsche (+2.0)
Lancia (2.0)

Bob Garretson

1982 World Endurance Championship

Porsche

Jacky Ickx

1983 World Endurance Championship

Porsche (C)
Alba-Giannini (C

Jacky Ickx

Stefan Bellof

Jnr)
Porsche (B)
1984 World Endurance Championship

Porsche (C)
Alba-Giannini (C
Jnr)
BMW (B)

1985 World Endurance Championship

1986 World Sports Prototype Championship

1987 World Sports Prototype Championship

Silk Cut Jaguar (C)


Spice Engineering (C2)

Raul Boesel (C)


Gordon Spice (C2)
Fermin Velez (C2)

1988 World Sports Prototype Championship

Silk Cut Jaguar (C)


Spice Engineering (C2)

Martin Brundle (C)


Gordon Spice (C2)
Ray Bellm (C2)

1989 World Sports Prototype Championship

Team Sauber Mercedes (C)


Chamberlain Engineering

Jean-Louis Schlesser (C)


Nick Adams (C2)
Fermin Velez

Rothmans Porsche (C)


Spice Engineering (C2)

Brun Motorsport (C)


Ecurie Ecosse (C2)

(C2)

Derek Bell (C)


Hans-Joachim Stuck (C)
Gordon Spice (C2)
Ray Bellm (C2)
Derek Bell (C)
Gordon Spice (C2)
Ray Bellm (C2)

1990 World Sports Prototype Championship

Team Sauber Mercedes

Jean-Louis Schlesser
Mauro Baldi

1991 World Sports Car Championship

Silk Cut Jaguar

Teo Fabi

World Sportscar Championship

11

1992 World Sports Car Championship

Peugeot Talbot Sport (C1)


Chamberlain Engineering
(Cup)

Derek Warwick (C1)


Yannick Dalmas (C1)
Ferdinand de Lesseps
(Cup)

References
Wimpffen, Janos (1999). Time and Two Seats. David Bull publishing. ISBN0-9672252-0-5.
Ludvigsen, Karl (2008). Red Hot Rivals: Epic Clashes for Supremacy. Haynes Publishing.

External links
WSC Results (http://wsrp.ic.cz/wsc.html)
World Sportscar Championship stats (http://www.racingpedia.net/
en_world-sportscar-championship_0_intro_0.html)
World Sportscar Championship seasons
1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962
1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972
1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982
1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992
"Group 6" World Championship seasons
1976 1977

Intercontinental Le Mans Cup

12

Intercontinental Le Mans Cup


Intercontinental Le Mans Cup
2011 Intercontinental Le Mans Cup
Category

Sports car racing

Country or region

International

Inaugural season

2010

Folded

2011

Prototype Classes

LMP1, LMP2

GT Classes

LM GTE Pro, LM GTE Am

Last Teams' champion LMP1: Peugeot Sport Total


LMP2: Signatech Nissan
GTE Pro: AF Corse
GTE Am: Larbre Comptition
Last Makes' champion LMP1: Peugeot
GTE: Ferrari
Official website

intercontinental-le-mans-cup.com

[1]

The Intercontinental Le Mans Cup (shortened ILMC) was an endurance sports car racing tournament organised
by the Automobile Club de l'Ouest (ACO) started in 2010.[2] The plans were first announced in June 2009[3][4] and
confirmed in December of the same year.[2]
Both sports prototypes and grand tourers are eligible to compete for the ILMC: the LMP1 and GTE classes each
have a manufacturers cup, whereas all ACO classes have teams cups as long as there are at least four entries.[5] In
2010 also the GT1 class was eglible for the final time.
For 2012, the ACO and the FIA have announced the creation of a new FIA World Endurance Championship. This
championship will use similar rules to and will replace the Intercontinental Le Mans Cup. [6]

History
The 2010 calendar comprised the 1000 km Silverstone (Silverstone, United Kingdom, September 12), the Petit Le
Mans (Road Atlanta, United States, October 2) and the 1000km Zhuhai (Zhuhai, China, November 7).[7]
Meanwhile, the 2011 calendar expanded to seven events. Along with the Silverstone (six hour race) and Petit Le
Mans races on similar dates, the championship started with the 12 Hours of Sebring (Sebring, United States, March)
before moving into Europe to contest a six hour race at Spa-Francorchamps in Belgium on May, the 24 Hours of Le
Mans (Le Mans, France, June 1112), and another six hour race at the Imola circuit in Italy on July. The season
finale will be held in China on Zhuhai circuit.[8]

Champions

Intercontinental Le Mans Cup

Season

LMP1 Team

13

LMP2 Team

GT1 Team

LMP1 Manufacturer
2010

Peugeot Sport Total

Peugeot Sport Total

GTE Am Team

GT2/GTE Manufacturer
OAK Racing

Larbre Comptition

Peugeot
2011

GT2/GTE Pro Team

Team Felbermayr-Proton none


Ferrari

Signatech Nissan none

Peugeot

AF Corse

Larbre Comptition

Ferrari

References
[1] http:/ / www. intercontinental-le-mans-cup. com/
[2] ACO links Le Mans series' with Intercontinental Cup (http:/ / www. motorsport. com/ news/ article. asp?ID=353489) - Motorsport.com,
December 8, 2009
[3] ACO adds trophies, expands driving school (http:/ / www. motorsport. com/ news/ article. asp?ID=331892& FS=ALMS-LEMANS) Motorsport.com, June 11, 2009
[4] LMP1 teams urged into more series (http:/ / www. autosport. com/ news/ report. php/ id/ 76012) - Autosport, June 11, 2009
[5] Le Mans Intercontinental Cup GT2 added! (http:/ / www. planetlemans. com/ 2010/ 03/ 19/ le-mans-intercontinental-cup-gt2-added/ ) Planet Le Mans, March 19, 2010
[6] http:/ / www. planetlemans. com/ 2011/ 06/ 03/ fia-announces-world-endurance-championship/
[7] The ACO press conference a look at the future! (http:/ / www. planetlemans. com/ 2010/ 06/ 10/
the-aco-press-conference-a-look-at-the-future/ ) - Planet Le Mans, June 10, 2010
[8] ILMC: Petit Le Mans Confirmed For 2011 (http:/ / auto-racing. speedtv. com/ article/ ilmc-road-atlanta-confirmed-on-2011-schedule/ ) SPEED TV, November 29, 2010

External links
Official website (http://www.intercontinental-le-mans-cup.com/)

FIA World Endurance Championship

14

FIA World Endurance Championship


For the FIA World Endurance Championship contested from 1981 to 1985, see World Sportscar
Championship.

FIA World Endurance Championship


Category

Le Mans Prototypes,
Grand tourers

Country

International

Inaugural season

2012

Classes

LMP1, LMP2 LMGTE Pro, LMGTE Am

Teams

25

Tyre suppliers

Michelin, Dunlop, Pirelli

Drivers' champion

Makes' champion
Official Website

Andr Lotterer
Marcel Fssler
Benot Trluyer
Audi
http:/ / www. fiawec. com

Current season

The FIA World Endurance Championship is an auto racing world championship organised by the Automobile
Club de l'Ouest (ACO) and sanctioned by the Fdration Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA). The series usurps the
ACO's former Intercontinental Le Mans Cup which began in 2010, and is the first endurance series of world
championship status since the demise of the World Sportscar Championship at the end of 1992. The World
Endurance Championship name was previously used by the FIA from 1981 to 1985.
The series will feature multiple classes of cars competing in endurance races, with sports prototypes competing in
the Le Mans Prototype categories, and production-based grand tourers competing in the GT Endurance categories.
World champion titles will be awarded to the top scoring manufacturers and drivers over the season,[][] while other
cups and trophies will be awarded for drivers and private teams.[]

Format
The World Endurance Championship will follow much of the format of the Intercontinental Le Mans Cup and
feature seven endurance races across the world, including the 24 Hours of Le Mans, with all races being at least six
hours in duration.[] The calendar will include two races each in Europe, North America, and Asia,[] with a possible
future expansion to eight or nine races.[] The four current categories utilized in ACO events will continue to be used
in the World Endurance Championship through 2013: LMP1 and LMP2 prototypes and the GTE category, divided
into GTE Pro for teams with professional driver line-ups, and GTE Am for teams featuring a mixture of amateur
drivers.
Six titles will be awarded each season based on total point tally, with two being deemed world championships:
Manufacturers' World Endurance Champion and Drivers' World Champion. The GTE Pro class champion will be
awarded a World Cup, while the leaders in LMP2 and GTE Am will be awarded a Trophy. The final Trophy will be
awarded to the best privateer team amongst all four classes.[] The points system will be similar to that that used in the
FIA's other world championships, awarding points to the top ten finishers on a sliding point margin scale from first

FIA World Endurance Championship


to tenth. Cars finishing the race but classified eleventh or further will be awarded a half point. Double points will be
awarded for the 24 Hours of Le Mans.[]

References
External links
FIA World Endurance Championship (http://www.fiawec.com)
Automobile Club de l'Ouest (http://www.lemans.org)
Fdration Internationale de l'Automobile (http://www.fia.com)

15

Endurance FIM World Championship

16

Endurance FIM World Championship


FIM Endurance World Championship
The official Endurance World Championship logo
Sport

Motorcycle sport

Founded

1975

Country(ies)

International

Most recent champion(s)

Suzuki Endurance Racing Team 1


(Team)
Anthony Delhalle (Rider)
Suzuki (Manufacturer)

Endurance World Championship is the premier worldwide endurance motorcycle racing championship. The
championship season consists of a series of races held on permanent racing facilities. The results of each race are
combined to determine two annual World Championships, one for teams and one for manufacturers.
The championship was founded in 1980 as the FIM Endurance Cup. Initially it was made up of four races, Thruxton,
Montjuich, Warsage and the Bol d'Or.
In 1976 the FIM Endurance Cup became the European Championship and in 1980 a World Championship. During
the 1980s the Endurance World Championship calendar numbered up to ten events. The championship's popularity
gradually declined and the calendar was gradually reduced to just the four races. in 1989 and 1990 the Championship
went back to a World Cup status, as the number of events required by the FIM Sporting Code was not reached.
The four races are referred as "the classics" and they are, the 24 Hours of Le Mans, 24 Hours of Lige (held in
Spa-Francorchamps), 8 Hours Of Suzuka, and the Bol d'Or (held on Paul Ricard until 1999, and Magny-Cours since
then).
Up until 2000 the championship was awarded to the individual rider with the most points, in 2001, the rule changed
and the championship is awarded to teams.

World Champions
Year

Rider

Manufacturer

1980

Marc Fontan
Herv Moineau

Honda

1981

Jean Lafond
Raymond Roche

Kawasaki

1982

Jean-Claude Chemarin
Jacques Cornu

Kawasaki

1983

Richard Hubin
Herv Moineau

Suzuki

1984

Gerard Coudray
Patrick Igoa

Honda

1985

Gerard Coudray
Patrick Igoa

Honda

1986

Patrick Igoa

Honda

Endurance FIM World Championship

17
1987

Herv Moineau
Bruno Le Bihan

Suzuki

1988

Herv Moineau
Thierry Crine

Suzuki

1989

Alex Vieira

Honda

1990

Alex Vieira

Honda

1991

Alex Vieira

Kawasaki

1992

Terry Rymer
Carl Fogarty

Kawasaki

1993

Doug Toland

Kawasaki

1994

Adrien Morillas

Kawasaki

1995

Stphane Mertens
Jean-Michel Mattioli

Honda

1996

Brian Morrison

Kawasaki

1997

Peter Goddard
Doug Polen

Suzuki

1998

Doug Polen
Christian Lavieille

Honda

1999

Terry Rymer
Jhan d'Orgeix

Suzuki

2000

Peter Lindn
Warwick Nowland

Suzuki

Year

Team

Manufacturer

2001

Wim Motors Racing

Honda

2002

Zongshen 2

Suzuki

2003

Suzuki GB - Phase One

Suzuki

2004

Yamaha GMT 94

Yamaha

2005

Suzuki Castrol Team

Suzuki

2006

Suzuki Castrol Team

Suzuki

2007

Suzuki Endurance Racing Team 1 Suzuki

2008

Suzuki Endurance Racing Team 1 Suzuki

2009

Yamaha Austria Racing Team

2010

Suzuki Endurance Racing Team 1 Suzuki

2011

Suzuki Endurance Racing Team

Yamaha

Suzuki

Endurance FIM World Championship

18

1980-1988 World Championship


1989-1990 World Cup
1991-2008 World Championship

Points system
For registered races of 6 hours or for registered races of 1000km:[1]
Position 1
Points

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

25 20 16 13 11 10 9 8 7 6

For registered races more than 6 hours to 12 hours, or for registered races of more than 1000km to 1800km:
Position 1
Points

9 10 11 12 13 14 15

30 24 19 16 13 12 11 10 8 7

For registered races of more than 12 hours or for registered races of more than 1800km:
Position 1
Points

10 11 12 13 14 15

35 28 22 18 15 14 13 11 10 8

For teams, the points will be those gained in each race.


For Constructors, only the highest placed motorcycle of a Constructor will gain points, according to the position
in the race.

2008-2010 calendar
2008-2010 Calendar
No

Date

[2]

Round

Circuit

Race

Winner

1/08 19-04-08

France

Le Mans

24 Hours Du Mans

SERT #2: William Costes, Barry Veneman,


Guillaume Dietrich]]

2/08 10-05-08

Spain

Albacete

6 Hours of Albacete

SERT #1: Vincent Philippe, Matthieu Lagrive, Julien


DaCosta]]

3/08 27-07-08

Japan

Suzuka

8 Hours Of Suzuka

Dream Honda Racing Team #11: R. Kiyonari, Carlos


Checa

4/08 09-08-08

Germany Oschersleben 8 Hours of

Oschersleben

Kawasaki France #11: Julien Mazuecos, Ivan Silva,


Erwan Nigon

5/08 13-09-08

France

Magny-Cours 24 Hours Bol d'Or

SERT #1: Vincent Philippe, Matthieu Lagrive, Julien


DaCosta

6/08 08-11-08

Qatar

Losail

8 Hours of Doha

YART #7: Igor Jerman, Steve Martin, Steve Plater

1/09 18-04-09

France

Le Mans

24 Hours Du Mans

YART #7: Igor Jerman, Steve Martin, Gwen


Giabbani

2/09 31-0-09

Germany Oschersleben 8 Hours of

Oschersleben
3/09 04-07-09

Spain

Albacete

8 Hours of Albacete

YART #7: Igor Jerman, Steve Martin, Gwen


Giabbani
YART #7: Igor Jerman, Steve Martin, Gwen
Giabbani

Endurance FIM World Championship

19

4/09 26-07-09

Japan

Suzuka

8 Hours Of Suzuka

Yoshimura Suzuki #12: D.Sakai, K. Tokudome, N.


Aoki

5/09 13-09-09

France

Magny-Cours 24 Hours Bol d'Or

SERT #1: Vincent Philippe, Olivier Four, Freddy


Foray

6/09 14-11-09

Qatar

Losail

8 Hours of Doha

YART #7: Igor Jerman, Steve Martin, Gwen


Giabbani

1/10 18-04-10

France

Le Mans

24 Hours Du Mans

2/10 22-05-10

Spain

Albacete

8 Hours of Albacete

3/10 25-07-10

Japan

Suzuka

8 Hours Of Suzuka

4/10 12-09-10

France

Magny-Cours 24 Hours Bol d'Or

5/10 13-11-10

Qatar

Losail

8 Hours of Doha

2008 Classes and Specifications


motorcycles must be based on road going models with a valid FIM homologation[3]

Formula EWC
Displacement
4 cylinders Over 600cc up to 1000cc 4-stroke
3 cylinders Over 750cc up to 1000cc 4-stroke
2 cylinders Over 850cc up to 1200cc 4-stroke
The displacement capacities must remain at the homologated size. Modifying the bore and stroke to reach class
limits is not allowed.
Minimum Weights
For Three and Four cylinders up to 1000cc:
165kg: for races not taking place partly at night.
170kg: for races taking place partly at night.
For Two cylinders up to 1200cc:
170kg: for races not taking place partly at the night.
175kg: for races taking place partly at night.

Superstock
Displacement
4 cylinders Over 600cc up to 1000cc 4-stroke
3 cylinders Over 750cc up to 1000cc 4-stroke
2 cylinders Over 850cc up to 1200cc 4-stroke
The displacement capacities must remain at the homologated size. Modifying the bore and stroke to reach class
limits is not allowed.
Minimum Weights
The FIM decides the minimum weight value for a homologated model as sold to the public by determining its dry
weight. The dry weight of a homologated motorcycle is defined as the total weight of the empty motorcycle as
produced by the manufacturer (after removal of fuel, vehicle number plate, tools and main stand when fitted). To
confirm the dry weight a minimum of three (3) motorcycles are weighed and compared. The result is rounded off to
the nearest digit.

Endurance FIM World Championship


The minimum weight for motorcycles will be:
Dry weight minus 12kg for races not taking place partly at night.
Dry weight minus 9kg for races taking place partly at night.

References
External links
fimendurance.com (http://www.fimendurance.com/) Official website, not updated since the end of 2008
Race24.com (http://www.race24.com) Unofficial website, covering the championship since 1999. Archive of
official site between 2005 and 2006
Race Corporation (http://www.racecorporation.co.uk/) Unofficial website, covering the Championship since
2000

20

21

24 Hours of Le Mans
24 Hours of Le Mans
24 Hours of Le Mans

FIA World Endurance Championship


Venue

Circuit de la Sarthe

First race

1923

Duration

24 hours

Most wins (driver)

Tom Kristensen (8)

Most wins (team)

Joest Racing (12)

Most wins (manufacturer) Porsche (16)

The 24 Hours of Le Mans (French: 24 Heures du Mans) is


the world's oldest active sports car race in endurance
racing,[1] held annually since 1923 near the town of Le
Mans, France. Commonly known as the Grand Prix of
Endurance and Efficiency, race teams have to balance speed
against the cars' ability to run for 24 hours without
sustaining mechanical damage to the car and manage the
cars' consumables, primarily fuel, tyres and braking
materials. The endurance of the drivers is likewise tested as
drivers frequently spend stints of over two hours behind the
wheel before stopping in the pits and allowing a relief
The pits at dawn
driver to take over the driving duties. Drivers then grab
what food and rest they can before returning to drive
another stint. Today it is mandated that three drivers share each competing vehicle.
The race is organised by the Automobile Club de l'Ouest (ACO) and runs on the Circuit de la Sarthe, a circuit
containing a mix of closed public roads and specialist motor racing circuit that are meant not only to test a car and
driver's ability to be quick, but also to last over a 24-hour period. The competing teams will race in groups called

24 Hours of Le Mans
classes for cars of similar specification while at the same time competing for outright placing amongst all of the
classes. Originally, the race was held for cars as they were sold to the general public which were then called Sports
Cars compared to the specialist racing cars used in Grands Prix. Over time, the competing vehicles evolved away
from their publicly available road car roots and today, the race is made of two classes specialised enclosed-bodywork
two-seat Prototype sports cars and two classes of Grand Touring cars which bear much closer resemblance to high
performance sports cars as sold to the public.[2]
Competing teams have had a wide variety of organisation, ranging from competition departments of road car
manufacturers who are eager to prove the supremacy of their products, to professional motor racing teams who
represent their commercial backers, some of which are also road car manufacturers attempting to win without the
expense of setting up their own teams, to amateur race teams, racing as much to compete in the famous race as to
claim victory for their commercial partners.
The race is held near the height of the European summer in June, leading at times to very hot weather conditions for
the drivers, particularly in closed roof vehicles whose cabins can heat up to uncomfortably hot temperatures with
generally poor ventilation; rain, however, is not uncommon. The race begins in mid-afternoon, racing through the
night and following morning before finishing at the same time the race started, the following day.[3] Over the
24-hour period modern competitors will complete race distances well over 5,000km (3,110mi). The present record
is 5,410km (3,360mi), recorded in the 2010 race.[4] It is a distance over six times longer than the Indianapolis 500,
or approximately 18 times longer than a Formula One Grand Prix.
The race has over the years inspired imitating races all over the globe, popularising the 24-hour format at places like
Daytona, Nrburgring, Spa-Francorchamps, Sebring and Mount Panorama. Presently, the American Le Mans Series
and the European based Le Mans Series of multi-event sports car championships have been spun off from 24 Hours
of Le Mans regulations. Other races include the Le Mans Classic, a race for historic Le Mans race cars of years past
held on the Circuit de la Sarthe, a motorcycle version of the race which is held on the shortened Bugatti version of
the same circuit, a kart race (24 Heures Karting) and a truck race (24 Heures Camions).
The race has also spent long periods as a round of the World Sportscar Championship, although Le Mans has always
had a stronger reputation than the World Championship, and is presently a round of the FIA World Endurance
Championship. The race is also known as a leg of the informal Triple Crown of Motorsport which links Formula
One, IndyCars and sports car racing to represent a career achievement for drivers. Additionally, it is seen as a leg of
the Triple Crown of endurance racing, which links the three largest sports car races together, with 12 Hours of
Sebring and 24 Hours of Daytona forming the other legs.

Purpose
At a time when Grand Prix racing was the dominant form of motorsport throughout Europe, Le Mans was designed
to present a different test. Instead of focusing on the ability of a car company to build the fastest machines, the 24
Hours of Le Mans would instead concentrate on the ability of manufacturers to build sporty yet reliable cars. This
encouraged innovation in producing reliable and fuel-efficient vehicles, because the nature of endurance racing
requires cars that last the distance and spend as little time in the pits as possible.
At the same time, due to the layout of the Le Mans track, a need was created for cars to have better aerodynamics
and stability at high speeds. While this was shared with Grand Prix racing, few tracks in Europe had straights of a
length comparable to the Mulsanne. The fact that the road is public and therefore not maintained to the same quality
as some permanent racing circuits also put more of a strain on parts, putting greater emphasis on reliability.
The demand for fuel economy created by the oil crisis in the early 1970s led the race organisers to adopt a fuel
economy formula known as Group C, in which the amount of fuel each car was allowed to use during the race was
limited. Although Group C was abandoned when teams were able to master the fuel formulae, fuel economy was still
important to some teams as alternative fuel sources appeared in the early 21st century, attempting to overcome time
spent during pit stops.

22

24 Hours of Le Mans

23

These technological innovations have had a trickle-down effect, with technology used at Le Mans finding its way
into production cars several years later. This has also led to faster and more exotic supercars due to manufacturers
wishing to develop faster road cars for the purposes of developing them into even faster GT cars.

The race
Cars
The total entry has usually consisted of approximately 50 competitors. Each car is required to have at least two seats,
although in recent years only the ability to place a second seat in the cockpit has been required; the seat itself has not.
No more than two doors are allowed; open cockpit cars do not require doors. Beginning in 2014, open cockpit cars
will be prohibited for safety reasons.[citation needed]
Although all cars compete at the same time, there are separate classes.
A prize is awarded to the winner of each class, and to the overall
winner.
The number of classes has varied over the years, but currently there are
four. Custom-built Le Mans Prototypes (LMP) are the top two classes,
LMP1 and LMP2, divided by speed, weight, and power output. From
2011, the next two classes are production-based grand tourer (GT)
classes, GT Endurance Pro and GT Endurance AM. Both of these
classes utilise the FIA GT2 class. Although the top class is the most
likely to provide the winner of the race, lower classes have won on
occasion due to better reliability.

An Aston Martin DBR9, entrant in the former


LMGT1 class

Drivers
Originally, there were no rules on the number of drivers of a car, or how long they could drive. Although almost all
teams used two drivers in the early decades, some Le Mans drivers such as Pierre Levegh and Eddie Hall attempted
to run the race solo, hoping to save time by not having to change drivers. This practice was later banned. Until the
1980s, there were teams in which only two drivers competed, but by the end of the decade, the rules were changed to
stipulate that at least three drivers must drive each car.
By the 1990s, due to the speeds of the cars and the strain it put on drivers, further rules were added to improve driver
safety. Drivers could not drive more than four hours consecutively, and no one driver could run for more than
fourteen hours in total. This reduced driver fatigue during the races.

Unique rules and traditions


Although the 24 Hours of Le Mans was part of the World Sportscar Championship for most of its existence, it has
regularly had rules which differed from those used in other series, partly due to the length of the event. Some rules
are for safety reasons, while others are for the purposes of competition.
For many decades, cars were required to run at least an hour into the race before they were allowed to refill fluids for
the car, such as oil or coolant, with the exception of fuel. This was an attempt by the ACO to help increase efficiency
and reliability. Cars which could not last the first hour without having to replace lost fluids were disqualified.
Another rule that is unique to Le Mans is a requirement for cars to be shut off while they are being refueled in the
pits. Based not only on the notion that it is safer and less of a fire hazard to do so, this also allows for another test of
reliability, because cars have to test their ability to restart many times under race conditions. Another element of this
rule is that mechanics are not allowed to work on the car or its tyres while it is being refueled, which has led teams to
adapt innovative ways in which to decrease the time of these lengthy pit stops. As an exception to this rule, drivers

24 Hours of Le Mans
are allowed to get out of the car and be replaced by another driver during refueling.
At Le Mans, there are various traditions. One of the longest lasting is the waving of the French tricolor to start the
race. This is usually followed by a fly-over featuring jets trailing blue, white and red smoke. A similar flag tradition
is the waving of safety flags during the final lap of the race by track marshals, congratulating the winners and other
finishers.
The 24 Hours of Le Mans was the venue for the first known instance at a major race of a winning driver celebrating
by spraying champagne instead of drinking it.[5] When Dan Gurney won the 1967 race with co-driver A.J. Foyt, the
two drivers mounted the victory stand and Gurney was handed a magnum of champagne. Looking down, he saw
Ford CEO Henry Ford II, team owner Carroll Shelby and their wives, as well as several journalists who had
predicted disaster for the high-profile duo. Gurney shook the bottle and sprayed everyone nearby, establishing a
tradition re-enacted in victory celebrations the world over for the next 40+ years. Gurney autographed and gave the
bottle of champagne to a Life photographer, Flip Schulke, who used it as a lamp for many years. He later returned
the bottle to Gurney, who keeps it at his home in California.
Schedule
The first race was held on 26 and 27 May 1923 and has since been run annually in June with exceptions occurring in
1956, when the race was held in July, and 1968, when it was held in September due to nationwide political turmoil
earlier that year (see May 1968). The race has been cancelled ten times: once in 1936 (labour strike during the Great
Depression) and each year from 1940 to 1948 (World War II and its aftermath).
The race weekend also usually takes place on the second weekend of June, with qualifying and practice taking place
on the Wednesday and Thursday before the race, following an administrative scrutinizing of the cars on Monday and
Tuesday. Currently, these sessions are held in the evening, with two separate two-hour sessions held each night. A
day of rest is scheduled on Friday, and includes a parade of all the drivers through the centre of the town of Le Mans.
A test day was also usually held prior to the event, traditionally at the end of April or beginning of May. These test
days served as a pre-qualification for the event, with the slowest cars not being allowed to appear again at the proper
qualifying. However, with the cost necessary to transport cars to Le Mans and then back to their respective series in
between the test and race weeks, the test day was moved to the first weekend of June for 2005. The notion of
pre-qualifying was also eliminated in 2000, when all competitors invited to the test would be allowed into the race.
The Le Mans Legend races have also been part of the schedule since 2001, usually running exhibition races during
qualifying days, a few hours prior to the sessions for the Le Mans entrants.
Traditionally until 2008, the race started at 16:00 on the Saturday, although in 1968, the race started at 14:00 due to
the lateness of the race on the calendar. In both 1984 and 2007, the start time was moved ahead to 15:00 due to the
conflicting French General Election. In 2006, the ACO scheduled a 17:00 start time on Saturday, 17 June in order to
maximize television coverage in between the FIFA World Cup games. Since 2009, when the race took place over
1314 June that year, it starts at 15:00 local time (13:00 GMT).

24

24 Hours of Le Mans

25

Classification
Originally, the race results were determined by distance.
The car which covered the greatest distance was declared
the winner. This is known to have caught out the Ford team
in 1966. With a dominant 12 lead, the two cars slowed to
allow for a photo opportunity at the finish line, with Ken
Miles slightly ahead of Bruce McLaren. However, since
McLaren's car had actually started much farther back on the
grid than Miles's, McLaren's car had actually covered the
greatest distance over the 24 hours. With the margin of
victory determined to be eight metres, McLaren and his
Rolling start of the 2008 race
co-driver, Chris Amon, were declared the winners. The
decision cost Miles and Hulme a victory. Miles had already
won the other two endurance races at Sebring and Daytona. With a win at Le Mans, he would have become the first
man to win all three, not to mention in the same year. Miles was one of the oldest racers on the circuit. He was killed
in a crash later that year. The greatest distance rule was later changed when a rolling start was introduced, and
instead, the winner is now the car that has completed the greatest number of laps.
To be classified in the race results, a car is required to cross the finish line after 24 hours. This has led to dramatic
scenes where damaged cars waited in the pits or on the edge of the track close to the finish line for hours, then
restarted their engines and crawled across the line to be listed amongst the finishers.[citation needed] However, this
practice of waiting in the pits was banned in recent years with a requirement that a team complete a set distance
within the last hour to be classified as a finisher.
Another rule instituted by the ACO was the requirement that cars complete 70% of the distance covered by the
overall winner. A car failing to complete this number of laps, even if it finished the race, was not deemed worthy of
classification because of poor reliability or speed.
Le Mans start
The race traditionally began with what became known as the Le
Mans start, in which cars were lined up in echelon along the
length of the pits. Up to and including 1962, cars were lined up in
order of engine capacity, but from 1963, qualifying times
determined the line up. The starting drivers stood on the opposite
side of the front stretch. When the French flag dropped to signify
the start, the drivers ran across the track, entered and started their
cars without assistance, and drove away. This became a safety
issue in the late 1960s when some drivers ignored their safety
harnesses, which were then a recent invention. This led to drivers
running the first few laps either improperly harnessed due to
attempting to do it while driving or sometimes not even harnessed
at all, leading to several deaths when cars were involved in
accidents due to the bunched field at the start.

The permanent pits and pit straight for both the Circuit
de la Sarthe and Bugatti Circuit

This starting method inspired Porsche to locate the ignition key switch to the left of the steering wheel. In a left-hand
drive car, this allowed the driver to use his left hand to start the engine, and his right hand to put the transmission
into gear, which in turn shaves off a few tenths of a second.

24 Hours of Le Mans
Another method for speeding up the start was developed by Stirling Moss. His car was waiting with first gear
already engaged. When he jumped in, he switched the starter on without depressing the clutch. The car was
immediately jerked forward by the starter motor, but the engine did not start due to low RPM. After a few seconds of
motion, he then pushed the clutch down, allowing the engine to speed up and start while the car was moving.
Feeling this type of start was unsafe, in the 1969 race, Jacky Ickx opposed it by walking across the track while his
competitors ran. Although he was nearly hit by a faster competitor's car while walking, Ickx took the time to fasten
his safety belts before pulling away. Privateer John Woolfe died in an accident on the first lap of that race. Ickx went
on to win.
The traditional Le Mans start was changed for 1970. Cars were still lined up along the pit wall, but the drivers were
already inside and strapped in. At the dropping of the French tricolor, the drivers started their engines and drove
away. Since 1971,[] when the previous method was done away with, a rolling start (sometimes known as an
Indianapolis start) begins the race.

The circuit
The circuit on which the 24 Hours of Le Mans is run is named the Circuit de
la Sarthe (Circuit of the Sarthe), after the department that Le Mans is within.
It consists of both permanent track and public roads that are temporarily
closed for the race. Since 1923, the track has been extensively modified,
mostly for safety reasons, and currently is 13.629km in length. Although it
initially entered the town of Le Mans, the track was cut short in order to better
protect spectators. This led to the creation of the Dunlop Curve and Tertre
The Circuit de la Sarthe with the Bugatti
Rouge corners before rejoining the old circuit on the Mulsanne. Another
Circuit in grey
major change was on the Mulsanne itself in 1990, when the FIA decreed that
it would no longer sanction any circuit that had a straight longer than 2km.
This led to the addition of two chicanes, reducing the time that the cars spent travelling at very high speeds on the
old 6km long straight.
The public sections of the track differ from the permanent circuit, especially in comparison with the Bugatti Circuit
which is inside the Circuit de la Sarthe. Due to heavy traffic in the area, the public roads are not as smooth or well
kept. They also offer less grip because of the lack of soft tyre rubber laid down from racing cars, though this only
affects the first few laps of the race. The roads are closed only within a few hours of the practice sessions and the
race, before being opened again almost as soon as the race is finished. Workers have to assemble and dismantle
safety barriers every year for the public sections.

26

24 Hours of Le Mans

27

History
For a list of individual race reports, see Category:24 Hours of Le Mans races.

19231939
The 24 Hours of Le Mans was first run on 26 and 27 May
1923, through public roads around Le Mans. Originally
planned to be a three-year event awarded the
Rudge-Whitworth Triennial Cup, with a winner being
declared by the car which could go the farthest distance
over three consecutive 24 Hour races, this idea was
abandoned in 1928 and overall winners were declared for
each single year depending on who covered the farthest
distance by the time 24 hours were up. The early races
were dominated by French, British, and Italian drivers,
teams, and cars, with Bugatti, Bentley, and Alfa Romeo
A poster for the 1923 24 Hours of Le Mans
being the dominant marques. Innovations in car design
began appearing at the track in the late 1930s, with Bugatti and Alfa Romeo running highly aerodynamic bodywork
in order to run down the Mulsanne Straight at faster speeds. In 1936, the race was cancelled due to general strikes in
France, then with the outbreak of World War II in late 1939, the race went on a ten-year hiatus.

19491969
Following the reconstruction of the circuit facilities, the race was resumed in 1949[] with renewed interest from
major automobile manufacturers. 1949 was also Ferrari's first victory, the 166MM of Luigi Chinetti and Lord
Selsdon.[] After the formation of the World Sportscar Championship in 1953, of which Le Mans was a part, Ferrari,
Aston Martin, Mercedes-Benz, Jaguar, and many others began sending multiple cars backed by their respective
factories to compete for overall wins against their competitors. Their competition sometimes resulted in tragedy, as
in an accident during the 1955 race in which Pierre Levegh's car crashed into a crowd of spectators, killing more than
80people. The incident led to the widespread introduction of safety measures, not only at the circuit, but elsewhere
in the motorsports world. Following the accident, the entire pit complex was razed and rebuilt further back allowing
the pit straight to be widened, although there was still no barrier between track and pit lane. However, even though
the safety standards improved, so did the speed of the cars; the move from open-cockpit roadsters to closed-cockpit
coupes resulted in speeds of over 320 kilometres per hour (200mph) on the Mulsanne. Ford entered the picture,
taking four straight wins before the 1960s ended and the cars, and the race, changed substantially.

19701980
For the new decade, the race took a turn towards more extreme speeds
and automotive designs. These extreme speeds led to the replacement of
the typical standing Le Mans start with a rolling Indianapolis start.
Although production-based cars still raced, they were now in the lower
classes while purpose-built sportscars became the norm. The Porsche
917, 935, and 936 were dominant throughout the decade, but a
resurgence by French manufacturers Matra-Simca and Renault saw the
first victories for the nation since the 1950 race. This decade is also

Renault Alpine A443 from 1978

24 Hours of Le Mans
remembered for strong performances from many privateer constructors, with two scoring the only victories for a
privateer. John Wyer's Mirage won in 1975, while Jean Rondeau's self-titled chassis took 1980.

19811993
The rest of the 1980s was known for the dominance by Porsche
under the new Group C race car formula that encouraged fuel
efficiency. Originally running the effective 956, it was later
replaced by the 962. Both chassis were affordable enough for
privateers to purchase them en masse, leading to the two model
types winning six years in a row. Jaguar and Mercedes-Benz
returned to sports car racing, with Jaguar being the first to break
Porsche's dominance with victories in 1988 and 1990 (with the
XJR-9 and Jaguar XJR-12 respectively). Mercedes-Benz won in
1989, with what was seen as the latest incarnation of the elegant
The dominant Group C formula Porsche 962s
"Silver Arrows", the Sauber C9, while an influx of Japanese
manufacturer interest saw prototypes from Nissan and Toyota. In
1989 too, a W.M.-Peugeot set up a new record[] speeding at 406km/h (253mph) in the Ligne Droite des
Hunaudires, famous for its 6km (3.7mi) long straight. Mazda would be the only Japanese manufacturer to
succeed, with their unique rotary-powered 787B winning in 1991. For 1992 and 1993, Peugeot entered the sport and
dominated the race with the Peugeot 905 as the Group C formula and World Sportscar Championship were fading in
participation.
The circuit would also undergo one of its most notable changes in 1990, when the 5km long Mulsanne was
modified[] to include two chicanes in order to stop speeds of more than 400km/h (249mph) from being reached.
This began a trend by the ACO to attempt to slow the cars on various portions of the track; although speeds over
320km/h (199mph) are still regularly reached at various points on a lap.

19941999
Following the demise of the World Sportscar Championship, Le Mans saw a resurgence of production-based grand
tourer cars. Thanks to a loophole in the rules, Porsche succeeded in convincing the ACO that a Dauer 962 Le Mans
supercar was a production car, allowing Porsche to race their Porsche 962 for one final time, dominating the field.
Although the ACO attempted to close the loop hole for 1995, newcomer McLaren would win the race in their
supercar's first appearance thanks to the reliability of the BMW V12 powered F1 GTR, beating faster yet more
trouble-prone prototypes. The trend would continue through the 1990s as more exotic supercars were built in order
to skirt the ACO's rules regarding production-based race cars, leading to Porsche, Mercedes-Benz, Toyota, Nissan,
Panoz, and Lotus entering the GT categories. This culminated in the 1999 event, in which these GT cars were faced
with the Le Mans Prototypes of BMW, Audi, and Ferrari. BMW would survive with the victory, their first and only
overall Le Mans win to date.
This strong manufacturer influence led the ACO to lending the Le Mans name to a sports car series in the United
States in 1999, known as the American Le Mans Series, which competes to this day and serves to qualify teams to
enter Le Mans.

28

24 Hours of Le Mans

29

20002005

A diesel-powered Audi R10 TDI

Many major automobile manufacturers withdrew from sports


car racing after the 1999 event, because of the cost involved.
Only Cadillac and Audi remained, and Audi easily
dominated the race with their R8. Cadillac pulled out of the
series after three years, and although Panoz, Chrysler, and
MG all briefly attempted to take on Audi, none could match
the R8's performance. After three victories in a row, Audi
provided engine, team staff and drivers to their corporate
partner Bentley, who had returned in 2001, and the factory
Bentley Speed 8s were able to succeed ahead of privateer

Audis in 2003.

Since 2006
At the end of 2005, after five overall victories for the R8, and six to its V8 turbo engine, Audi took on a new
challenge by introducing a diesel engined prototype known as the R10 TDI. Although not the first diesel to race, it
was the first to win at Le Mans. This era saw other alternative fuel sources being used, including bio-ethanol, while
Peugeot decided to follow Audi's lead and also pursue a diesel entry in 2007 with their 908 HDi FAP.
The 2008 24 Hours of Le Mans was a great race between the Audi R10 TDI and the Peugeot 908 HDi FAP. After 24
hours of racing, the Audi managed to win the race by a margin of less than 10 minutes. For the 2009 24 Hours of Le
Mans, Peugeot introduced a new energy-recovery system similar to the KERS used in Formula One.[6] Aston Martin
entered the LMP1 category, but still raced in GT1 with private teams. Audi returned with the new R15 TDI, but this
time, Peugeot prevailed, taking their first overall triumph since 1993.
The 2010 running reaffirmed the race as a test of endurance and reliability. In adjusting their cars and engines to
adhere to the 2010 regulations, Peugeot chose overall speed while Audi chose reliability. At the end of the race, all 4
Peugeots had retired, 3 due to engine failure, while Audi finished 1-2-3.
The 2011 and 2012 races were marred by a series of accidents. In 2011, in the first hour, the defending race winning
Audi entry, being driven at the time by Alan McNish, crashed heavily, barrell rolling into a tire wall shortly after the
Dunlop Bridge. During the night, another Audi driven by Mike Rockenfeller crashed in similar fashion between the
Mulsanne and Indianapolis corners. Neither driver was injured, nor were any spectators. The third Audi entry driven
by Marcel Fssler, Andr Lotterer, and Benot Trluyer won the race. The 2012 race saw two factory Toyotas
replacing Peugeot (who had withdrawn from racing) enter, but one of the Toyotas flipped at Mulsanne Corner
shortly before sunset. Driver Anthony Davidson suffered two broken vertebrae, but was able to exit the car under his
own power. The other Toyota retired with mechanical difficulties shortly after sunset, giving Audi another Le Mans
victory.
A second ACO-backed series was also formed, similar to the American Le Mans Series, but concentrating on
Europe. The Le Mans Endurance Series (later shortened to Le Mans Series) resurrected many well known 1,000
kilometres (620mi) endurance races, and was followed by the Asian-centered Japan Le Mans Challenge in 2006.
In 2011, the race became the premier round of the Intercontinental Le Mans Cup, an attempt to make a world
championship for Endurance Racing again. In 2012, the race became the centerpiece of the FIA World Endurance
Championship, the successor to the ILMC. The 2012 event was the first time the race was won by a hybrid electric
vehicle, which was the Audi R18 e-tron quattro .
As of 2012, Porsche remains the most successful manufacturer with a record 16 overall victories, including a record
seven in a row.

24 Hours of Le Mans

Innovations
Over its lifetime, Le Mans has seen many innovations in automotive design in order to counteract some of the
difficulties that the circuit and race present. These have either been dictated by rules or have been attempts by
manufacturers to outwit the competition. Some have made their way into the common automobile and are used
nearly every day.

Aerodynamics
One of the keys to Le Mans is top speed, caused by the long
straights that dominate the circuit. This has meant cars have
attempted to achieve the maximum speeds possible instead of
relying on downforce for the turns. While early competitors' cars
were street cars with their bodywork removed to reduce weight,
innovators like Bugatti developed cars which saw the beginnings
of aerodynamics. Nicknamed tanks due to their similarity to
military tanks of WWI, these cars used simple curves to cover all
A Porsche 908 Langheck, German for "Long Tail"
the mechanical elements of the car and increase top speed. Once
Le Mans returned after World War II, most manufacturers would
adopt closed bodies which were streamlined for better aerodynamics. A notable example in the changes brought
about by aerodynamics are the 1950 entries by Briggs Cunningham. Cunningham entered two 1950 Cadillac Coupe
de Villes, one nearly stock and the other completely rebodied in a streamlined aluminum shape developed by
aeronautical engineers from Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation. The streamlined car looked so unusual that
it was nicknamed "Le Monstre" by the French press. The smoothing of body shapes and fairing-in of various parts of
the machine brought about by the continual search for reduction of aerodynamic drag led to a separation from Grand
Prix cars, which rarely had large bodywork.
As the years went on, bodywork became all enveloping, while at the same time lighter. The larger bodywork with
spoilers were able to provide more downforce for the turns without increasing the drag, allowing cars to maintain the
high top speeds. Extended bodywork would usually concentrate on the rear of the car, usually being termed long tail.
The bodywork also began to cover the cockpit for less drag, although open cockpits would come and go over the
years as rules varied. Aerodynamics reached its peak in 1989, before the Mulsanne Straight was modified. During
the 1988 race, the crew of a W.M. prototype taped over the engine openings and set a recorded speed of 404km/h
(251mph) down the Mulsanne in a publicity stunt, although the car was almost undrivable elsewhere on the circuit
and the engine was soon destroyed from a lack of cooling. However, for the 1989 event, the Mercedes-Benz C9
reached 399km/h (248mph) under qualifying conditions.

30

24 Hours of Le Mans

31

Engines
A wide variety of engines have competed at Le Mans, in attempts
to not only achieve greater speed but also to have better fuel
economy, and spend less time in the pits. Engine sizes have also
varied greatly, with the smallest engines being a mere 569 cc
(Simca Cinq) and the largest upwards of 7986 cc (Chrysler Viper
GTS-R). Supercharging was an early innovation for increasing
output, first being raced in 1929, while turbocharging would not
appear until 1974.
The first car to enter without an engine run by pistons would be in
1963, when Rover partnered with British Racing Motors to run a
gas turbine with mixed success, repeating again in 1965. The
An early supercharged Bentley
American Howmet Corporation would attempt to run a turbine
again in 1968 with even less success. Although the engines offered
great power, they were notoriously hot and uneconomical for fuel.
Another non-piston engine that would appear would be a Wankel engine, otherwise known as the rotary engine. Run
entirely by Mazda since its introduction in 1970, the compact engine would also suffer from fuel economy problems
like the turbine had, yet would see the success that the turbine lacked. After many years of development, Mazda
finally succeeded in being the only winner of the race to not have a piston-powered engine, taking the 1991 event
with the 787B.
Alternative fuel sources would also play a part in more normal engine designs, with the first non-gasoline car
appearing in 1949. The Delettrez Special would be powered by a diesel engine, while a second diesel would appear
in the form of the M.A.P. the following year. Although diesel would appear at other times over the race existence, it
would not be until 2006 when a major manufacturer, Audi, would invest in diesels and finally succeed, with the R10
TDI.
Ethanol fuel appeared in 1980 in a modified Porsche 911, taking a class win. Alternative biological fuel sources
would return again in 2004 with Team Nasamax's DM139-Judd.[7] In 2008, the use of biofuels (10% ethanol for
petrol engines and biodiesel respectively for diesel engines) were allowed. Audi was the first to use next generation
10% BTL biodiesel manufactured from biomass and developed by partner Shell.[8]
From 2009 onwards, the Le Mans regulations new from the ACO[9] allow hybrid vehicles to be entered, with either
KERS or TERS (Kinetic/Thermal Energy Recovery System) setups, however the only energy storage allowed will
be electrical (i.e. batteries), seemingly ruling out any flywheel-based energy recovery systems. Cars equipped with
KERS systems were allowed to race in 2009 with specific classification rules. Since 2010, they are able to compete
for points and the championship. In 2012 the first victory of an KERS equipped car was recorded. The Audi R18
e-tron was equipped with a flywheel hybrid system from Williams Hybrid Power, which when activated drove the
front wheels. Usage of this type of KERS was only allowed in specified zones after the car has accelerated to at least
120kph. Therefore no advantage of the four-wheel-drive could be gained on acceleration out of corners. In the same
year, Toyota also started with an hybrid car, the TS030 Hybrid which used the KERS to power the rear wheels.
Therefore, its usage was not restricted.

24 Hours of Le Mans

Brakes
With increased speeds around the track, brakes become a key issue for teams attempting to safely bring their cars
down to a slow enough speed to make turns such as Mulsanne Corner. Disc brakes were first seen on a car when the
Jaguar C-Type raced at Le Mans in 1953. The Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR would introduce the concept of an air brake
in 1955, using a large opening hood on the rear of the car.
In the 1980s, anti-lock braking systems would become standard on most Group C cars as a safety measure, ensuring
that cars did not lose control while still moving at approximately 320km/h. By the late 1990s, reinforced
carbon-carbon brakes would be adapted for better stopping power and reliability.

Successful marques and drivers


For a list of winning drivers, teams, and cars, see List of 24 Hours of Le Mans winners.
Over the years, many manufacturers have managed to
take the overall win, while even more have taken class
wins. By far the most successful marque in the history
of the race is Porsche, which has taken sixteen overall
victories, including seven in a row from 1981 to 1987.
Audi is next with eleven, and Ferrari follows with nine,
also including six in a row from 1960 to 1965.
Recently, the Audi marque has dominated the event,
winning in eleven of the thirteen years it has
participated. Audi and Team Joest have had two
hat-tricks, the first being in 2000, 2001, and 2002.
Jaguar has seven wins, while Bentley, Alfa Romeo, and
The most successful participant of all time at Le Mans, Danish driver
Ford all managed to win four races in a row, with
Tom Kristensen has eight wins.
Bentley recording two other victories in other years as
well. The only Japanese marque to win the race so far has been Mazda, although nearly every major Japanese
manufacturer has made attempts at the race. Mazda's 1991 victory is the only win by a rotary engine, one of Mazda's
hallmarks.
Three drivers stand apart for their number of victories. Initially Jacky Ickx held the record at six, scoring victories
between 1969 and 1982, earning him an honorary citizenship to the town of Le Mans. His frequent racing-partner,
Derek Bell, trailing by a single win, with 5. However, Dane Tom Kristensen has beaten this record with eight wins
between 1997 and 2008, including six in a row. Three-time winner Woolf Barnato (1928 to 1930) and American
racing legend AJ Foyt (1967) are still the only drivers to have won every Le Mans they participated in.
Henri Pescarolo has won the race four times, and currently holds the record for the most Le Mans appearances at 33.
Japan's Yojiro Terada, currently still active as a driver, holds the record for the most Le Mans starts without an
overall win. Graham Hill is the only driver to win the so-called Triple Crown of Motorsport which is defined as
winning the Indianapolis 500 (won by Hill in 1966), Monaco Grand Prix (1963, 1964, 1965, 1968, 1969) and the 24
Hours of Le Mans (1972)[10][11]

32

24 Hours of Le Mans

Accidents
With the high speeds associated with Le Mans, the track has seen a number of accidents, some of which have been
fatal to drivers and spectators. The worst moment in Le Mans history was during the 1955 race in which more than
80 spectators and driver Pierre Levegh were killed. In the shock following this disaster, many major and minor races
were cancelled in 1955, such as the Grand Prix races in Germany and Switzerland (the latter as a reaction having
banned motorsport round-track races throughout the entire country, the ban was only lifted in 2007[12]). This
accident brought wide sweeping safety regulations to all motorsports series, for both driver and spectator protection.
In 1986, Jo Gartner drove a Porsche 962C and crashed into the barriers on the Mulsanne straight, killing him
instantly. His accident remains the most recent fatality in the race itself, however there was the fatality of Sebastien
Enjolras in 1997 during the practices.
In one of the most recognizable recent accidents, calamity would once again strike Mercedes-Benz, although without
fatality. The Mercedes-Benz CLRs which competed in 1999 would suffer from aerodynamic instabilities that caused
the cars to become airborne in the right conditions. After initially happening at the Le Mans test day, Mercedes
claimed they had solved the problem, only to have it occur again at Warm Up hours before the race. Mark Webber
was the unlucky driver to flip the car on both occasions. The final and most damaging accident occurred during the
race itself when Peter Dumbreck's CLR became airborne and then proceeded to fly over the safety fencing, landing
in the woods several metres away. No drivers were badly hurt in any of the three accidents, but Mercedes-Benz
quickly withdrew their remaining entry and ended their entire sportscar programme.
In 2011, two horrific looking accidents would occur to two of the three factory Audis running in the LMP1 class.
Near the end of the first hour, the No. 3 car driven by Allan McNish collided with one of the Ferrari GT class cars
resulting in McNish's car violently smashing into the tyre wall and being thrown into the air at the Dunlop chicanes,
resulting in pieces of bodywork flying over and nearly hitting many photographers on the other side of the barrier. In
the eleventh hour of the race, another massive accident would occur this time to the No. 1 car driven by Mike
Rockenfeller when he also appeared to have contact with another Ferrari GT car. On the run up to Indianapolis
corner, Rockenfeller's Audi was sent into the outside barrier at well over 170 miles per hour (270km/h). Only the
main cockpit safety cell of the car remained along with major damage being done to the barriers that needed to be
repaired before the race was resumed. Audi had switched to a closed-cockpit car starting in 2011-a decision that had
been credited in how nobody in either of these accidents was injured, despite both chassis' being written off. Cars
continue to advance in safety over the years, with the recently released 2014 regulations stating that all cars must be
closed-cockpit as a direct result of the 2011 accident.
In 2012, Anthony Davidson, driving for the returning Toyota team in a Toyota TS030, collided with a Ferrari 458
Italia of Piergiuseppe Perrazini, and became airborne before crashing into the tyre barrier of the Mulsanne Corner at
high speed. The Ferrari also ended up in the barrier, flipping and coming to a halt on its roof. Davidson suffered
broken vertebrae from the impact.[][]
In 2013, Danish race driver Allan Simonsen passed away after a crash into the barriers at Tetre Rouge.

33

24 Hours of Le Mans

Appearances in media
The 1964 event plays a critical part in the Academy Award winning Un Homme et Une Femme, in which the wife of
the driver hero commits suicide when she mistakenly thinks that he has been killed in an accident during the race.
The 1969 event, known for its close finish, was documented in a short film titled La Ronde Infernale. This was given
a limited cinema release, but is now available on DVD.
The race became the center of a major motion picture in 1971 when Steve McQueen released his simply titled Le
Mans, starring McQueen as Michael Delaney, a driver in the 1970 event for the Gulf Porsche team. Likened to other
motorsports films such as Grand Prix for Formula One racing and Winning for the Indianapolis 500, Le Mans is the
best known film to center on sports car racing. It was filmed during the race using modified racing cars carrying
cameras, as well as purchased Porsche 917s, Ferrari 512s and Lola T70s for action shots made after the race. The
Porsche 908 which served as a camera car in the race actually finished, yet was so far behind the winners due to
lengthy reel changes during pit stops that it was not classified in the results.
A modern film not centering on Le Mans yet featuring events from the 2002 race was Michel Valliant, about a
French comic book motorsports hero. Again using two camera cars to tape action during the race, the French film
was not as widely accepted as Le Mans had been. The 1974 TV show The Goodies also featured an episode entitled
The Race, involving a comedic trio attempting to run Le Mans.
More recently, a documentary film called Truth in 24, narrated by Jason Statham, covered the Audi team in its effort
to win a fifth straight title in 2008. The race features prominently as the film covers the racing season leading up to
the Le Mans race.
The race has also been used for several video games over the years, some of which have allowed players to compete
for the full 24 hours. Although most used the Le Mans name itself, the PlayStation 2 game Gran Turismo 4 also
included the Circuit de la Sarthe and allowed players to run the full 24-hour races with and without the chicanes on
the Mulsanne Straight. The race then returned in Gran Turismo 5 for the full 24 hours, but with the chicane version
only. The race can be raced in both A-spec and B-spec modes. The Xbox 360, PlayStation 3 and PC game Race
Driver: Grid also includes the 24 Hours of Le Mans at the end of each in-game season albeit being only 24 minutes
in length by default. However, the player can also choose to compete in the race for different lengths of time ranging
from several minutes to a full 24 hours. The track also appeared in the Xbox 360 games Forza Motorsport 3 and
Forza Motorsport 4, but are not raced in the full 24 hours in their respective career modes.

Coverage
Motors TV covered the Le Mans 24 Hours in the entirety in 2006 and 2007. This included coverage of the
scrutineering, qualifying, driver parade, warm up and the whole race. In the United States, Speed Channel airs
complete race coverage live either on-air or online through a combination of coverage from the French host
broadcaster and their own pit reporting crew. In 2008, Eurosport secured a multi-year deal to show the entire race
including the qualifying and the motorcycle race. Every hour of the 2008 race was broadcast in segments on the
main channel and on Eurosport 2, however in recent years, a couple of Hours have been missed due to scheduling
clashes with other sports.[13] In addition, live streaming video was provided on Eurosport's web page, albeit not for
free. But since 2009, Eurosport and Eurosport 2 has been covering non-stop between those two channels, all 24
hours of action. In Australia, the 2012 race was shown live and in full online by Ten Sport.[14]
The race is also broadcast (in English) on radio by Radio Le Mans. Broadcast from the circuit for the full 24 hours,
as well as before and after, it offers fans at the race the ability to listen to commentary through radio. Radio Le Mans
is also broadcast through internet radio on their website. You can also listen to live race coverage through Satellite
radio on Sirius XM Radio.

34

24 Hours of Le Mans

Vintage racing
Since 2001, the ACO has allowed the Le Mans Legend event to participate on the full Circuit de la Sarthe during the
24 Hours week. These exhibition races involve classic cars which had previously run at Le Mans or similar to ones
that had. Each year, a set era of cars is allowed to participate, with the era changing from year to year. Though
mostly amateur drivers, some famous drivers have appeared to race cars they had previously run, such as Stirling
Moss.
Starting in 2002, the Le Mans Classic has taken place on the full 13km circuit in July as a biannual event. The races
take places over a full 24-hour day/night cycle, with starts on set times allowing cars from the same era to compete at
the same time. A team typically consists of a car in each class, and the team with the most points accumulated over
five or six classes declared the overall winner. The classes are based on the era in which the cars would have
competed, the exact class requirements are re-evaluated for every event, since for every event, the age for the
youngest entries is shifted by 2 years. Although the format of the first event saw 5 classes doing more short races,
later events have seen 6 classes do fewer but longer races. With the upcoming 2008 event, probably allowing early
Group C contenders, this format could see yet another revision with either more classes or classes spanning longer
periods in time. Drivers are also required to have an FIA International Competition license to participate. This event
also includes a large concours and auction.

References
[5] G. Harding "A Wine Miscellany" pg 82, Clarkson Potter Publishing, New York 2005 ISBN 0-307-34635-8
[12] Swiss Traffic Law (German)

(French) Le Mans 1965 in Automobile Historique n48 May 2005


(French) 24 heures du Mans 1973 in Automobile Historique n49 June/July 2005

External links
Le Mans official website (http://www.24h-lemans.com/en/)
Racing Sports Cars (http://www.racingsportscars.com/photo_lemans.html) historical photos and results
Coordinates:
475630N
01330E
(http:/ / tools. wmflabs. org/ geohack/ geohack.
php?pagename=24_Hours_of_Le_Mans&params=47_56_30_N_0_13_30_E_region:FR-72_type:landmark)

35

List of 24 Hours of Le Mans winners

36

List of 24 Hours of Le Mans winners


The 24 Hours of Le Mans (24 heures du Mans) is the
world's oldest sports car endurance race and one of the
most famous and influential in motorsports history.
The winners of all events since 1923 are listed here.
The race has been run every year since its inception
with the exception of 1936, where the race was not run
due to worker strikes, and 1940 to 1948, due to World
War II. Records for wins are also listed.
125 total drivers have won in the eighty runnings of the
event.
Eight-time Le Mans winner, Danish driver Tom Kristensen

Winners
Year

Drivers

Team

2012

Marcel Fssler
Andr Lotterer
Benot Trluyer

Audi Sport Team Joest

Audi R18 e-tron quattro

378

5151.76km

2011

Marcel Fssler
Andr Lotterer
Benot Trluyer

Audi Sport Team Joest

Audi R18 TDI

355

4838.30km

Audi R15 TDI plus

397

5410.71km

Peugeot 908 HDi FAP

382

5206.28km

Audi Sport North


America

Car

Tyre Laps

Distance

2010

Mike Rockenfeller
Timo Bernhard
Romain Dumas

2009

David Brabham
Marc Gen
Alexander Wurz

2008

Tom Kristensen
Allan McNish
Rinaldo Capello

Audi Sport North


America

Audi R10 TDI

381

5192.65km

2007

Frank Biela
Emanuele Pirro
Marco Werner

Audi Sport North


America

Audi R10 TDI

369

5036.85km

2006

Frank Biela
Emanuele Pirro
Marco Werner

Audi Sport Team Joest

Audi R10 TDI

380

5187km

2005

JJ Lehto
Marco Werner
Tom Kristensen

ADT Champion Racing

Audi R8

370

5050.5km

2004

Seiji Ara
Tom Kristensen
Rinaldo Capello

Audi Sport Japan Team


Goh

Audi R8

379

5169.9km

Peugeot Sport Total

List of 24 Hours of Le Mans winners

37

2003

Tom Kristensen
Rinaldo Capello
Guy Smith

Team Bentley

Bentley Speed 8

377

5146.05km

2002

Frank Biela
Tom Kristensen
Emanuele Pirro

Audi Sport Team Joest

Audi R8

375

5118.75km

2001

Frank Biela
Tom Kristensen
Emanuele Pirro

Audi Sport Team Joest

Audi R8

321

4381.65km

2000

Frank Biela
Tom Kristensen
Emanuele Pirro

Audi Sport Team Joest

Audi R8

368

5007.99km

1999

Pierluigi Martini
Yannick Dalmas
Joachim
Winkelhock

Team BMW Motorsport

BMW V12 LMR

365

4968km

1998

Laurent Aello
Allan McNish
Stphane Ortelli

Porsche AG

Porsche 911 GT1-98

351

4773.18km

1997

Michele Alboreto
Stefan Johansson
Tom Kristensen

Joest Racing

TWR Porsche WSC-95

361

4909.6km

1996

Manuel Reuter
Davy Jones
Alexander Wurz

Joest Racing

TWR Porsche WSC-95

354

4814.4km

1995

Yannick Dalmas
J.J. Lehto
Masanori Sekiya

Kokusai Kaihatsu Racing McLaren F1 GTR

298

4055.8km

1994

Yannick Dalmas
Hurley Haywood
Mauro Baldi

Le Mans Porsche Team

Dauer 962 Le Mans

344

4678.4km

Peugeot Talbot Sport

Peugeot 905 Evo 1B

375

5100km

1993

Geoff Brabham
Christophe
Bouchut
Eric Hlary

1992

Derek Warwick
Yannick Dalmas
Mark Blundell

Peugeot Talbot Sport

Peugeot 905 Evo 1B

352

4787.2km

1991

Volker Weidler
Johnny Herbert
Bertrand Gachot

Mazdaspeed Co. Ltd.

Mazda 787B

362

4922.81km

1990

John Nielsen
Price Cobb
Martin Brundle

Silk Cut Jaguar

Jaguar XJR-12

359

4882.4km

1989

Jochen Mass
Manuel Reuter
Stanley Dickens

Team Sauber Mercedes

Sauber
C9-Mercedes-Benz

389

5265.115km

1988

Jan Lammers
Johnny Dumfries
Andy Wallace

Silk Cut Jaguar

Jaguar XJR-9LM

394

5332.97km

List of 24 Hours of Le Mans winners

38

1987

Derek Bell
Hans-Joachim
Stuck
Al Holbert

Rothmans Porsche AG

Porsche 962C

354

4791.9km

1986

Derek Bell
Hans-Joachim
Stuck
Al Holbert

Rothmans Porsche AG

Porsche 962C

367

4972.731km

1985

Klaus Ludwig
Paolo Barilla
"John Winter"

Joest Racing

Porsche 956

373

5088.507km

1984

Klaus Ludwig
Henri Pescarolo

Joest Racing

Porsche 956

359

4900.276km

1983

Vern Schuppan
Al Holbert
Hurley Haywood

Rothmans Porsche

Porsche 956

370

5047.934km

1982

Jacky Ickx
Derek Bell

Rothmans Porsche
System

Porsche 956

359

4899.086km

1981

Jacky Ickx
Derek Bell

Porsche System

Porsche 936

354

4825.348km

1980

Jean Rondeau
Jean-Pierre
Jaussaud

Jean Rondeau

Rondeau M379B-Ford
Cosworth

338

4608.02km

Porsche Kremer Racing

Porsche 935 K3

307

4173.93km

Alpine Renault

Renault Alpine A442B

369

5044.53km

1979

1978

Klaus Ludwig
Bill Whittington
Don Whittington
Jean-Pierre
Jaussaud
Didier Pironi

1977

Jacky Ickx
Hurley Haywood
Jrgen Barth

Martini Racing Porsche


System

Porsche 936/77

342

4671.83km

1976

Jacky Ickx
Gijs van Lennep

Martini Racing Porsche


System

Porsche 936

349

4769.923km

1975

Jacky Ickx
Derek Bell

Gulf Research Racing Co. Mirage GR8-Ford


Cosworth

336

4594.577km

1974

Henri Pescarolo
Grard Larrousse

Equipe Gitanes

Matra MS670C

337

4606.571km

1973

Henri Pescarolo
Grard Larrousse

Equipe Matra-Simca
Shell

Matra MS670B

355

4853.945km

1972

Henri Pescarolo
Graham Hill

Equipe Matra-Simca
Shell

Matra MS670

344

4691.343km

1971

Helmut Marko
Gijs van Lennep

Martini Racing Team

Porsche 917K

397

5335.313km

1970

Hans Herrmann
Richard Attwood

Porsche KG Salzburg

Porsche 917K

343

4607.81km

1969

Jacky Ickx
Jackie Oliver

Ford GT40 Mk. I

372

4997.88km

J.W. Automotive
Engineering

List of 24 Hours of Le Mans winners

39

1968

Pedro Rodriguez
Lucien Bianchi

Ford GT40 Mk. I

331

4452.88km

1967

Dan Gurney
A.J. Foyt

Shelby-American Inc.

Ford GT40 Mk. IV

388

5232.9km

1966

Bruce McLaren
Chris Amon

Shelby-American Inc.

Ford GT40 Mk. II

360

4843.09km

1965

Jochen Rindt
Masten Gregory

North American Racing


Team

Ferrari 250LM

348

4677.11km

1964

Jean Guichet
Nino Vaccarella

SpA Ferrari SEFAC

Ferrari 275P

349

4695.31km

1963

Ludovico Scarfiotti
Lorenzo Bandini

SpA Ferrari SEFAC

Ferrari 250P

339

4561.71km

1962

Olivier Gendebien
Phil Hill

SpA Ferrari SEFAC

Ferrari 330 TRI/LM


Spyder

331

4451.255km

1961

Olivier Gendebien
Phil Hill

Scuderia Ferrari

Ferrari 250 TRI/61

333

4476.58km

1960

Olivier Gendebien
Paul Frre

Scuderia Ferrari

Ferrari 250 TR59/60

314

4217.527km

1959

Carroll Shelby
Roy Salvadori

David Brown Racing


Dept.

Aston Martin DBR1

323

4347.9km

1958

Olivier Gendebien
Phil Hill

Scuderia Ferrari

Ferrari 250 TR58

305

4101.926km

1957

Ron Flockhart
Ivor Bueb

Ecurie Ecosse

Jaguar D-Type

327

4397.108km

1956

Ron Flockhart
Ninian Sanderson

Ecurie Ecosse

Jaguar D-Type

300

4034.939km

1955

Mike Hawthorn
Ivor Bueb

Jaguar Cars Ltd.

Jaguar D-Type

307

4135.38km

Scuderia Ferrari

Ferrari 375 Plus

302

4061.15km

1954

Jos Froiln
Gonzlez
Maurice
Trintignant

J.W. Automotive
Engineering

1953

Tony Rolt
Duncan Hamilton

Jaguar Cars Ltd.

Jaguar C-Type

304

4088.064km

1952

Hermann Lang
Fritz Riess

Daimler-Benz A.G.

Mercedes-Benz 300SL

277

3733.839km

1951

Peter Walker
Peter Whitehead

Peter Walker

Jaguar XK-120C

267

3611.193km

1950

Louis Rosier
Jean-Louis Rosier

Louis Rosier

Talbot-Lago T26 Grand


Sport

256

3465.12km

Lord Selsdon

Ferrari 166MM

235

3178.299km

1949

1940
to
1948

Luigi Chinetti
Peter
Mitchell-Thomson

Races cancelled for World War II and French reconstruction

List of 24 Hours of Le Mans winners

1939

Jean-Pierre
Wimille
Pierre Veyron

1938
1937

Eugne Chaboud
Jean Trmoulet
Jean-Pierre
Wimille
Robert Benoist

1936

40
Jean-Pierre Wimille

Eugne Chaboud / Jean


Trmoulet
Roger Labric

Bugatti Type 57S Tank

248

3354.76km

Delahaye 135CS

235

3180.94km

Bugatti Type 57G Tank

243

3287.938km

Race cancelled due to workers strike

1935

Johnny Hindmarsh
Arthur W. Fox / Charles
Luis Fonts
Nichol

Lagonda M45R Rapide

222

3006.797km

1934

Luigi Chinetti
Philippe tancelin

Luigi Chinetti / Philippe


tancelin

Alfa Romeo 8C 2300

213

2886.938km

1933

Raymond Sommer
Tazio Nuvolari

Soc. Anon. Alfa Romeo

Alfa Romeo 8C 2300

233

3144.038km

1932

Raymond Sommer
Luigi Chinetti

Raymond Sommer

Alfa Romeo 8C 2300

218

2954.038km

1931

Earl Howe
Henry Birkin

Earl Howe

Alfa Romeo 8C 2300

184

3017.654km

1930

Woolf Barnato
Glen Kidston

Bentley Motors Ltd.

Bentley Speed Six

179

2930.663km

1929

Woolf Barnato
Henry Birkin

Bentley Motors Ltd.

Bentley Speed Six

174

2843.83km

1928

Woolf Barnato
Bernard Rubin

Bentley Motors Ltd.

Bentley 4 Litre

154

2669.272km

1927

Dudley Benjafield
Sammy Davis

Bentley Motors Ltd.

Bentley 3 Litre Super


Sport

137

2369.807km

1926

Robert Bloch
Andr Rossignol

No Team Name

Lorraine-Dietrich B3-6

147

2552.414km

1925

Grard de
Courcelles
Andr Rossignol

No Team Name

Lorraine-Dietrich B3-6

129

2233.982km

1924

John Duff
Frank Clement

Duff & Aldington

Bentley 3 Litre Sport

120

2077.341km

1923

Andr Lagache
Ren Lonard

Chenard & Walcker SA

Chenard & Walcker Sport M


3-Litre

128

2209.536km

Records
Drivers
Most wins

List of 24 Hours of Le Mans winners

41

Rank

Driver

Wins

Years

Tom Kristensen

1997, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2008

Jacky Ickx

1969, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1981, 1982

Derek Bell

1975, 1981, 1982, 1986, 1987

Frank Biela

2000, 2001, 2002, 2006, 2007

Emanuele Pirro

2000, 2001, 2002, 2006, 2007

Olivier Gendebien

1958, 1960, 1961, 1962

Henri Pescarolo

1972, 1973, 1974, 1984

Yannick Dalmas

1992, 1994, 1995, 1999

Most consecutive wins


Rank

Driver

Consecutive
Wins

Years

Tom Kristensen

2000 - 2005

Woolf Barnato

1928 - 1930

Olivier Gendebien

1960 - 1962

Henri Pescarolo

1972 - 1974

Jacky Ickx

1975 - 1977

Emanuele Pirro

2000 - 2002

Frank Biela

2000 - 2002

Marco Werner

2005 - 2007

Winning drivers per nation


Rank

Nation

Winning
Drivers

United Kingdom

29

France

28

Germany

17

United States

12[1]

Italy

11[1]

Belgium

Austria

Australia
9

Denmark
Japan
Netherlands
New Zealand
Sweden

List of 24 Hours of Le Mans winners

42
14

Argentina

Canada
Finland
Mexico
Spain
Switzerland
Total wins per nation
Rank
1

Nation
United Kingdom

Wins
40

France
3

Germany

27

United States

18

Italy
6

Belgium

13

Denmark

Austria

Netherlands

Australia
11

Finland

Japan
New Zealand
Sweden
Switzerland
16

Argentina
Canada
Mexico
Spain

Constructors
Most wins

List of 24 Hours of Le Mans winners

Rank

43

Constructor

Wins

Years

Porsche

16

1970, 1971, 1976, 1977, 1979, 1981, 1982, 1983, 1984,


1985,
1986, 1987, 1994,[2] 1996, 1997,[3] 1998

Audi

11

2000, 2001, 2002, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2010,


2011,
2012

Ferrari

1949, 1954, 1958, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965

Jaguar

1951, 1953, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1988, 1990

Bentley

1924, 1927, 1928, 1929, 1930, 2003

Alfa Romeo

1931, 1932, 1933, 1934

Ford
8

1966, 1967, 1968, 1969

Matra-Simca

Peugeot
10

13

1972, 1973, 1974


1992, 1993, 2009

Lorraine-Dietrich

1925, 1926

Bugatti

1937, 1939

Mercedes-Benz

1952, 1989[4]

Chenard & Walcker

1923

Lagonda

1935

Delahaye

1938

Talbot-Lago

1950

Aston Martin

1959

Mirage

1975

Renault-Alpine

1978

Rondeau

1980

Mazda

1991

McLaren

1995

BMW

1999

Most consecutive wins


Rank

Constructor

Consecutive
Wins

Years

Porsche

1981 - 1987

Ferrari

1960 - 1965

Audi

2004 - 2008

Bentley

1927 - 1930

Alfa Romeo

1931 - 1934

Ford

1966 - 1969

List of 24 Hours of Le Mans winners

44
7

12

Jaguar

1955 - 1957

Matra-Simca

1972 - 1974

Porsche

1996 - 1998

Audi

2000 - 2002

Audi

2010 - 2012

Lorraine-Dietrich

1925 - 1926

Porsche

1970 - 1971

Porsche

1976 - 1977

Peugeot

1992 - 1993

By nationality
Country

Constructors Total wins

Germany

30

United Kingdom

17

France

15

Italy

13

United States

Japan

Notes
[1] Luigi Chinetti won Le Mans initially as an Italian, but later won as an American. His wins are included for both countries.
[2] The 1994 victory is listed with Porsche, although Dauer Sportwagen was the official constructor of the road car.
[3] The 1996 and 1997 victories are listed with Porsche, although the car was built by TWR on a modified Jaguar XJR-14 chassis, fitted with a
Porsche 962 engine.
[4] The 1989 victory is listed with Mercedes-Benz as it was their project and engine, they merely used Sauber as a chassis builder.

External links

Le Mans official site (http://www.lemans.org/)


Results pages (http://www.wspr-racing.com/wspr/results/lemans/nf_lemans_home.html)
Le Mans Register (http://www.formula2.net/)
Le Mans History (http://www.lemans-history.com/) All the cars, drivers, classifications, history, photos

References
(French) Le Mans 1965 in Automobile Historique n48 May 2005
(French) 24 heures du Mans 1973 in Automobile Historique n49 June/July 2005

1955 Le Mans disaster

45

1955 Le Mans disaster


The 1955 Le Mans disaster occurred during the 1955 24 Hours of Le Mans motor race, when a crash caused large
pieces of racing car debris to fly into the crowd. Eighty-three spectators and driver Pierre Levegh died at the scene
and 120 more were injured in the most catastrophic accident in motorsport history.[1]

Before the accident


Pierre Levegh, aged 49, had been hired by Mercedes-Benz as a factory driver that year. Part of his appeal to
Mercedes was his determination shown in the 1952 race when he had driven for 23 straight hours, even though the
team had a driver who could have replaced him. He failed to win only because of a missed gear change, due to
exhaustion, with just 45 minutes remaining, resulting in a failed connecting rod in his Talbot-Lago.
Mercedes-Benz had debuted its new 300 SLR sportscar in the 1955 World Sportscar Championship season, with
some notable success, including a win at the Mille Miglia. The 300 SLR featured a body made of an ultralightweight
magnesium alloy called Elektron with a specific gravity of 1.8 (in comparison, aluminium has a S.G. of 2.7 and steel
7.8). This new material reduced the weight of the car and thus improved its performance. However, the car lacked
the more efficient state-of-the-art disc brakes featured on the rival Jaguar D-Type, employing instead the traditional
drum brake system. The high power of the car forced Mercedes' engineers to incorporate a large air brake behind the
driver that could be raised to increase drag and slow the car with sufficient rapidity for most conditions.
Safety measures commonly in place today were relatively unknown in 1955. Aside from two layout changes to make
the circuit shorter, the Le Mans circuit itself had remained largely unaltered since the inception of the race in 1923,
when top speeds of cars were typically in the region of 60 miles per hour (97km/h). By 1955 top speeds were in
excess of 185 miles per hour (298km/h).[2] The cars had no seatbelts, the drivers reasoning that it was preferable to
be thrown clear in a collision rather than be trapped in a burning or damaged car.[1]

Accident
Immediate cause
The 1955 24 Hours of Le Mans began on 11 June 1955, with Pierre
Levegh behind the wheel of the #20 Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR run by
Daimler-Benz. American John Fitch was Levegh's assigned partner in
the car, and he would take over driving duties later. Competition
between Mercedes, Jaguar, Ferrari, Aston Martin and Maserati was
close, with all the marques fighting for the top positions early on. The
race was extremely fast, with lap records being repeatedly broken.[1]
At the end of Lap 35, Levegh was following Mike Hawthorn's leading
Jaguar D-type, just as they were entering the pit straight. Hawthorn had
just passed Lance Macklin's slower Austin-Healey 100 when he
belatedly noticed a pit signal to stop for fuel. Hawthorn slowed
suddenly in an effort to stop rather than make another lap. Hawthorn's
Jaguar, with the new disc brakes, decelerated much faster than other
cars using drum brakes, such as Levegh's Mercedes. The sudden,
unexpected braking by Hawthorn caused Macklin in the Healey to hit

How the accident happened

1955 Le Mans disaster

46

his brakes, throwing up a small cloud of dust in front of Levegh, who trailed close behind. Macklin then swerved
across the centre of the track, attempting to re-pass the slowing Jaguar, but also apparently out of control.[1] Macklin
had not noticed both Levegh and Juan Manuel Fangio, in another 300 SLR, approaching rapidly from behind. Fangio
was in second place at the time, but directly behind, and attempting to lap Levegh.[1]
Levegh, ahead of Fangio on the track, did not have time to react. Levegh's car made contact with the left rear of
Macklin's car as he closed rapidly (at about 150mph) upon the slowed car. When Levegh hit the Austin-Healey from
behind, his car became airborne, soaring towards the left side of the track, where it landed atop the earthen
embankment separating spectators from the track itself.

Collision
Levegh's 300 SLR struck the mound at such speed and angle that it was launched into a somersault, which caused
some parts of the car, already damaged and loosened by the collision, to be flung from the vehicle at very great
speeds. This included the bonnet and the front axle, both of which separated from the frame and flew through the
crowd. The bonnet decapitated tightly jammed spectators like a guillotine.[3] With the front of the spaceframe
chassisand thus crucial engine mountsdestroyed, the car's heavy engine block also broke free and hurtled into
the crowd. Spectators who had climbed onto trestle tables to get a better view of the track found themselves in the
direct path of the lethal debris.[1] Levegh was also thrown free of the tumbling car, but his skull was fatally crushed
when he landed.
As the remains of the 300 SLR slowed its somersault, the rear-mounted fuel tank ruptured. The ensuing fuel fire
raised the temperature of the remaining Elektron bodywork past its ignition temperature, which due to its high
magnesium content was lower than for other metal alloys. The alloy burst into white-hot flames, sending searing
embers onto the track and into the crowd. Rescue workers, totally unfamiliar with magnesium fires, poured water on
the inferno greatly intensifying the fire. As a result, the car burned for several hours. Official accounts put the
death total at 84 (83 spectators plus Levegh), either by flying debris or from the fire, with a further 120 injured.
Other observers estimated the toll to be much higher.[1]
Fangio, driving behind Levegh, narrowly escaped the heavily damaged Austin-Healey, which was now skidding to
the right of the track, across his path. Macklin then hit the pit wall and bounced back to the left, crossing the track
again. He struck the barrier near the location of the now burning 300 SLR, causing the death of another single
spectator, although Macklin survived the incident without serious injury.[1]

Aftermath
Conclusion of the race
The race was continued, officially in order to prevent departing
spectators from crowding the roads and slowing down ambulances. An
emergency meeting of the Daimler-Benz board of directors was
convened by midnight at the request of John Fitch.[4] Mindful of
sensitivities involving German cars in a French race just 10 years after
the end of World War II, the board decided to pull out from the race as
a sign of respect to the victims. Eight hours after the accident, while
leading the race (and two laps ahead of the Jaguar team), the Mercedes
team withdrew the cars of Juan Manuel Fangio/Stirling Moss and Karl
Kling/Andr Simon.[5] Mercedes invited Jaguar to also retire, but they
declined.[1]

Le Mans Memorial Plaque

1955 Le Mans disaster


Mike Hawthorn and the Jaguar team, led by motorsport manager Lofty England, kept racing. Hawthorn won the race
with teammate Bueb.

After the race


Funeral services were held the next day at the cathedral in the town of Le Mans.
The French press carried photographs of Hawthorn and Bueb celebrating their win with the customary champagne
but treated them with scorn.[1]
The official inquiry into the accident ruled that Jaguar was not responsible for the crash, and that it was merely a
racing incident. The death of the spectators was blamed on inadequate safety standards for track design, leading to a
ban on motorsports in France, Spain, Switzerland, Germany and other nations, until the tracks could be brought to a
higher safety standard. In the United States, the American Automobile Association (AAA) dissolved their Contest
Board that had been the primary sanctioning body for autosport in the US (including the Indianapolis 500) since
1904. Switzerland's ban did not allow for the running of timed motorsports such as hillclimbs, a race which allowed
two cars to compete alongside one another.Wikipedia:Please clarify This forced Swiss racing promoters to organize
circuit events in foreign countries including France, Italy and Germany. In 2003 the Swiss parliament started a
lengthy discussion about whether this ban should be lifted. The discussion focused on traffic policy and
environmental questions rather than on safety. On 10 June 2009, the Stnderat (one chamber of the parliament)
defeated the proposal to lift the ban for the second time and thus definitively,[6] which meant that the ban would
stay.[7]
The rest of the 1955 World Sportscar Championship season was completed, with two more races at the British RAC
Tourist Trophy and the Italian Targa Florio, although they were not run until September and October, several months
after the accident. Mercedes-Benz won both of these events, and were able to secure the constructors championship
for the season.
Opinions differed widely, amongst the other drivers, as to who was directly to blame for the accident, and such
differences remain even today. Levegh's co-driver, John Fitch, became a major safety advocate and began active
development of safer road cars and racing circuits. At the Le Mans circuit itself, the Grandstand and pit areas were
demolished and rebuilt soon after.[1]
After also winning the Targa Florio, the last major race of the 1955 season, Mercedes-Benz announced that they
would no longer participate in factory sponsored motor-sport in order to concentrate on development of production
cars. The self-imposed ban on circuit racing lasted until the 1980s. The Jaguar works racing team also closed down a
few months later and did not return to Le Mans for over thirty years. Two drivers, Fangio and Jaguar's Norman
Dewis, never raced at Le Mans again.[1]
Macklin had regarded Hawthorn as a friend but, on reading Hawthorn's autobiography Challenge Me The Race in
1958, he was embittered to find that Hawthorn disclaimed all responsibility for the accident without identifying who
had actually caused it. With Levegh dead, Macklin presumed that Hawthorn's implication was that he (Macklin) had
been responsible, and he began a libel action. The action was unresolved when Hawthorn was killed in a crash on the
Guildford bypass in 1959.[]

47

1955 Le Mans disaster

48

Legacy
The Austin-Healey was sold to several private buyers before appearing on the auction block. In 1969, it was
purchased for 155.[8] In December 2011, the car was sold at auction for 843,000 ($1,323,915).[] The car retained
the original engine SPL 261-BN and was valued at 800,000 prior to the auction.[8] Its condition was reported to be
'barn-find'.[9]

References
Le Mans 1965 in Automobile Historique n48 May 2005 (in French)
24 heures du Mans 1973 in Automobile Historique n49 June/July 2005 (in French)
[1] Deadliest Crash:the Le Mans 1955 Disaster (Programme Website) (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ programmes/ b00sfptx), BBC Four
documentary, broadcast 16 May 2010.
[4] 2009 interview with John Fitch, as part of his 92nd birthday (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=WOAQu4C3yAc& feature=related)
[6] Amtliches Bulletin (http:/ / www. parlament. ch/ ab/ frameset/ d/ s/ 4809/ 303265/ d_s_4809_303265_303341. htm) Minutes of the
parliament session
[7] SVG Art. 52 (http:/ / www. admin. ch/ ch/ d/ sr/ 741_01/ a52. html) Swiss Highway Code
[8] "Historic Austin-Healey car in Le Mans disaster to fetch '1m at auction." Hindustan Times (New Delhi, India). McClatchy-Tribune
Information Services. 2011. Retrieved August 14, 2012 from HighBeam Research: http:/ / www. highbeam. com/ doc/ 1P3-2524522551. html
[9] "Top price for 'disaster' car.(News)." Birmingham Mail (England). MGN Ltd. 2011. Retrieved August 14, 2012 from HighBeam Research:
http:/ / www. highbeam. com/ doc/ 1G1-273877804. html

External links
Newsreel footage of the 1955 race and crash (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RMoh5hZAaZk&
feature=channel_video_title)
Le Mans 1955 from The Mike Hawthorn Tribute Site (http://www.mike-hawthorn.org.uk/lemans.php)
extensive 1955 Le Mans coverage, including reports, analysis and photos
Life Magazine report of the 1955 Le Mans Disaster (http://www.ewilkins.com/wilko/lemans.htm)
1955 Le Mans Disaster depicted and analysed in depth by a witness (currently available only in French) (http://
www.germaris.com/le_mans.html)
BBC: On This Day: 11 June 1955 (http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/june/11/
newsid_3726000/3726535.stm)
Pierre Levegh at motorsportmemorial.org (http://motorsportmemorial.org/focus.php?db=ct&n=148)
Coordinates:
475659.5N
01226E
(http:/ /
php?pagename=1955_Le_Mans_disaster&
5_N_0_12_26_E_region:FR-72_type:landmark_scale:5000)

tools.

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49

Major endurance races


24 Hours of Daytona
24 Hours of Daytona

Venue

Daytona International Speedway

Corporate sponsor

Rolex

First race

1962

Duration

24 hours

Previous names

Daytona 3 Hour Continental


(19621963)
Daytona 2000 (19641965)
24 Hours of Daytona (19661971)
6 Hours of Daytona (1972)
24 Hours of Daytona (1973, 19751977)
24 Hour Pepsi Challenge (19781983)
SunBank 24 at Daytona (19841991)

Most wins (driver)

Hurley Haywood (5)


Scott Pruett (5)

Most wins (team)

Chip Ganassi Racing (5)

Most wins (manufacturer) Porsche (18)

The 24 Hours of Daytona, currently known as the Rolex 24 At Daytona for sponsorship reasons, is a 24-hour
sports car endurance race held annually at Daytona International Speedway in Daytona Beach, Florida. It is run on a
3.56-mile (5.73km) combined road course, utilizing portions of the NASCAR tri-oval and an infield road course.
Since its inception, it has been held the last weekend of January or first weekend of February, part of Speedweeks,
and it is the first major automobile race of the year in the United States.
The race has had several names over the years. Since 1991, the Rolex Watch Co. is the title sponsor of the race under
a naming rights arrangement, replacing Sunbank (now SunTrust) which in turn replaced Pepsi in 1984. Winning
drivers of all classes receive a steel Rolex Daytona watch.
In 2006, the race moved one week earlier into January to prevent a clash with the Super Bowl, which had in turn
moved one week later into February a few years earlier.
The race has been known historically as a leg of the informal Triple Crown of endurance racing,[] although
increasing isolation from international Sports Car racing regulations has seen a gradual shift of importance to Petit
Le Mans. However, the link is expected to be reunited with the unification of the sport in 2014.

24 Hours of Daytona

Beginnings
In 1962, a few years after the track was built, a 3-hour sports car race was introduced. Known as the Daytona
Continental, it counted towards the FIA's new International Championship for GT Manufacturers. The first
Continental was won by Dan Gurney, driving a 2.7L Coventry Climax-powered Lotus 19.[] Gurney was a factory
Porsche driver at the time, but the 1600-cc Porsche 718 was considered too small and slow for what amounted to a
sprint race on a very fast course.
In 1964, the event was expanded to 2,000km (1,240mi), doubling the classic 1000km distance of races at
Nrburgring, Spa and Monza. The distance amounted to roughly half of the distance the 24 Hours of Le Mans
winners covered at the time, and was similar in length to the 12 Hours of Sebring, which was also held in Florida in
March. Starting in 1966, the Daytona race was extended to the same 24-hour length as Le Mans.

24-hour history
Unlike the Le Mans event, the Daytona race is conducted entirely over a closed course within the speedway arena
without the use of any public streets. Most parts of the steep banking are included, interrupted with a chicane on the
back straight and a sweeping, fast infield section which includes two hairpins. Unlike Le Mans, the race is held in
wintertime, when nights are at their longest. There are lights installed around the circuit for night racing, although
the infield section is still not as well-lit as the main oval. However, the stadium lights are turned on only to a level of
20%,[citation needed] similar to the stadium lighting setup at Le Mans, with brighter lights around the pit straight, and
decent lighting similar to street lights around the circuit.
In the past, a car had to cross the finish line after 24 hours to be classified, which led to dramatic scenes where
damaged cars waited in the pits or on the edge of the track close to the finish line for hours, then restarted their
engines and crawled across the finish line one last time in order to finish after the 24 hours and be listed with a
finishing distance, rather than dismissed with DNF (Did Not Finish). This was the case in the initial 1962 Daytona
Continental (then 3 hours), in which Dan Gurney's Lotus had established a lengthy lead when the engine failed with
just minutes remaining. Gurney stopped the car at the top of the banking, just short of the finish line. When the three
hours had elapsed, Gurney simply cranked the steering wheel to the left (toward the bottom of the banking) and let
gravity pull the car across the line, to not only salvage a finishing position, but actually win the race.[] This led to the
international rule requiring a car to cross the line under its own power in order to be classified.
The first 24 Hour event in 1966 was won by Ken Miles and Lloyd Ruby driving a Ford Mk. II. Motor Sport reported:
"For their first 24-hour race the basic organization was good, but the various officials in many cases were out of
touch, childish and lacked the professional touch which one now finds at Watkins Glen."[1] After having lost in 1966
at Daytona, Sebring and Le Mans to the Fords, the Ferrari P series prototypes staged a 123 side-by-side parade
finish at the banked finish line in 1967.[2] The Ferrari 365 GTB/4 road car was given the unofficial name Ferrari
Daytona in celebration of this victory.[3]
Porsche repeated this show in their 123 win in the 1968 24 Hours. After the car of Gerhard Mitter had a big crash
caused by tyre failure in the banking, his teammate Rolf Stommelen supported the car of Vic Elford and Jochen
Neerpasch.Wikipedia:Please clarify When the car of the longtime leaders Jo Siffert and Hans Herrmann dropped to
second due to a technical problem, these two also joined the new leaders while continuing with their car. So Porsche
managed to put 5 of 8 drivers on the center of the podium, plus Jo Schlesser and Joe Buzzetta finishing in 3rd place,
with only Mitter being left out.[4]
Lola finished 12 in the 1969 24 Hours of Daytona. The winning car was the Penske Lola T70-Chevrolet of Mark
Donohue and Chuck Parsons.[5] Few spectators witnessed the achievement as Motor Sport reported: "The Daytona
24-Hour race draws a very small crowd, as can be seen from the empty stands in the background."[6]
In 1972, due to the energy crisis, the race was shortened to 6 hours, while for 1974 the race was cancelled altogether.

50

24 Hours of Daytona
In 1982, following near-continuous inclusion on the World Sportscar Championship, the race was dropped as the
series attempted to cut costs by both keeping teams in Europe and running shorter races. The race continued on as
part of the IMSA GT Championship.
The regular teams were expanded to three drivers in the 1970s. Nowadays, often four or five drivers compete. Many
of these additional drivers are known as "gentleman racers"; people with the personal means to buy their place in the
cockpit. The winning entry in 1997 featured as many as seven drivers taking a turn in the cockpit.

Grand American and Daytona Prototypes


After several ownership changes at IMSA which changed the direction the organization followed, It was decided by
the 1990s, the Daytona event would align with the Grand-Am series, a competitor of the American Le Mans Series,
which, as its name implies, uses the same regulations as the Le Mans Series and the 24 Hours of Le Mans. The
Grand Am series, though, is instead closely linked to NASCAR and the original ideas of IMSA and focused on
controlled costs and close competition.
In order to make sports car racing less expensive than elsewhere, new rules were introduced in 2002. The dedicated
Daytona Prototypes (DP) use less expensive materials and technologies and the car's simple aerodynamics reduce the
development and testing costs. The DPs began racing in 2003 with six cars in the race.[]
Specialist chassis makers like Riley, Dallara, and Lola provide the DP cars for the teams and the engines are branded
under the names of major car companies like Pontiac, Lexus, Ford, BMW, and Porsche.

Daytona GTs
The Gran Turismo class cars at Daytona are closer to the road versions, similar to the GT3 class elsewhere. For
example, the more standard Cup version of the Porsche 996 is used, instead of the usual RS/RSR racing versions.
Recent Daytona entries also include BMW M3s and M6s, Porsche 911s, Chevy Camaros and Corvettes, Mazda
RX-8s, Pontiac GTO.Rs, and Ferrari F430 Challenges. The Audi R8 and the Ferrari 458 Italia debuted in the 50th
anniversary of the race in 2012.
In an effort for teams to save money, GT rules have now changed to permit spaceframe cars clad in lookalike body
panels to compete in GT (the new BMW M6, Chevrolet Camaro, and Mazda RX-8). These rules are similar to the
old GTO specification, but with more restrictions.
The intent of spaceframe cars is to allow teams to save money, especially after crashes, where teams can rebuild the
cars for the next race at a much lower cost, or even redevelop cars, instead of having to write off an entire car after a
crash or at the end of a year.

GX Class
The 2013 race was the first year for the GX class. Six cars started in the event. The class consisted of purpose built
production Porsche Cayman S and Mazda 6 racecars. Mazda debuted their first diesel racecar there which is the first
time a diesel fuel racecar ever started at the Daytona 24. Throughout the race, the Caymans were dominant, while all
three Mazdas suffered premature engine failure and retired from the race. By a 9 lap lead, the #16 Napleton Porsche
Cayman, driven by David Donohue, was the first GX winner.

51

24 Hours of Daytona

52

Star drivers appearances


Since the Rolex 24 has a winter date during the off-season for other racing series, many top class drivers are
available to take part in the event if sponsorship commitments allow. The track's marketing has sold the roll call of
champions, considering the race a sort of "all-star" event of motorsports figures. Since each entry requires 35
drivers to trade shifts throughout the 24 hours, dozens of one-off drivers are necessary, and top-level participants
from other forms of racing are highly sought after.
From NASCAR, drivers including Rusty Wallace, Tony Stewart, Jeff Gordon, Jimmie Johnson, Greg Biffle, Kurt
Busch, Kyle Petty, AJ Allmendinger, Mark Martin, Jamie McMurray, Kevin Harvick, Brian Vickers, Marcos
Ambrose, Clint Bowyer, Michael Waltrip, Robby Gordon, and Nelson Piquet Jr. have all participated, with Martin
and Robby Gordon notably winning several class victories for Roush Racing in the GTO class in the 1980s90s. In
2001, Dale Earnhardt and Dale Earnhardt, Jr. teamed together in a Corvette, just weeks before Earnhardt's death in
the Daytona 500.
Indianapolis 500 winners Buddy Rice, Dan Wheldon, Hlio Castroneves, Juan Pablo Montoya, Sam Hornish, Jr., and
Dario Franchitti are all recent participants. Other recent IndyCar drivers to take part in the event are Paul Tracy,
Scott Sharp, Mario Andretti, Michael Andretti, Marco Andretti, Sbastien Bourdais, Danica Patrick, Jimmy Vasser,
Scott Dixon, James Hinchcliffe, and Graham Rahal.
In addition, drivers in the race included celebrities such as Tim Allen, Frank Beard, Robert Carradine, Patrick
Dempsey, James Garner, Gene Hackman, Bruce Jenner, Perry King, Lorenzo Lamas, Phil Mahre, Craig T. Nelson,
Paul Newman, Dan Pastorini, Brian Johnson, and Jason Priestly.[7]

Statistics
Constructors
Porsche has the most overall victories of any manufacturer with 22, scored by various models, including the road
based 911, 935 and 996. Porsche also won a record 11 consecutive races from 19771987 and won 18 out of 23
races from 19681991.
Rank

Constructor

Wins

Years

Porsche

18

1968, 197071, 1973, 1975, 197783, 198587, 1989, 1991, 2003

Riley

200513

Ferrari

196364, 1967, 1972, 1998

Riley & Scott

199697, 1999

Ford

196566

Jaguar

1988, 1990

Nissan

1992, 1994

24 Hours of Daytona

53
8

Lotus

1962

Lola

1969

BMW

1976

March

1984

Toyota

1993

Kremer

1995

Dodge

2000

Chevrolet

2001

Dallara

2002

Doran

2004

Drivers with the most overall wins


Rank
1

Driver
Hurley Haywood

Wins

Years

1973, 1975, 1977, 1979, 1991

Scott Pruett
3

13

Pedro Rodrguez

1994, 2007, 2008, 2011, 2013


4

1963, 1964, 1970, 1971

Bob Wollek

1983, 1985, 1989, 1991

Peter Gregg

1973, 1975, 1976, 1978

Rolf Stommelen

1968, 1978, 1980, 1982

Brian Redman

1970, 1976, 1981

Andy Wallace

1990, 1997, 1999

Butch Leitzinger

1994, 1997, 1999

Derek Bell

1986, 1987, 1989

Juan Pablo Montoya

2007, 2008, 2013

Memo Rojas

2008, 2011, 2013

Ken Miles

1965, 1966

Lloyd Ruby

1965, 1966

A. J. Foyt

1983, 1985

Al Holbert

1986, 1987

Al Unser, Jr.

1986, 1987

Jan Lammers

1988, 1990

John Paul, Jr.

1982, 1997

Elliott Forbes-Robinson

1997, 1999

Mauro Baldi

1998, 2002

Didier Theys

1998, 2002

Wayne Taylor

1996, 2005

Terry Borcheller

2004, 2010

24 Hours of Daytona

54

Overall winners
Year

Date

Drivers

Team

Car

Tyre Car
#

Distance

Championship

3 Hour duration
1962 February
11

Dan Gurney

1963 February
Pedro
17
Rodrguez

Frank Arciero

North American
Racing Team

Lotus
19B-Coventry
Climax

96

312.420mi
(502.791km)

International
Championship for
GT
Manufacturers

Ferrari 250 GTO

18

307.300mi
(494.551km)

International
Championship for
GT
Manufacturers

2,000-kilometer (1,200mi) distance


1964 February
Pedro
16
Rodrguez
Phil Hill

Ferrari 250 GTO

30

International
Championship for
GT
Manufacturers

Ford GT40

73

International
Championship for
GT
Manufacturers

Ford GT40 Mk.


II

98

2,583.178mi
(4,157.222km)

International
Championship for
Sports-Prototypes
International
Championship for
Sports Cars

1967 February
Lorenzo
SpA Ferrari
4
Bandini
SEFAC
February
Chris Amon
5

Ferrari 330 P4

23

2,537.460mi
(4,083.646km)

International
Championship for
Sports-Prototypes
International
Championship for
Sports Cars

1968 February
Vic Elford
3
Jochen
February Neerpasch
4
Rolf
Stommelen
Jo Siffert
Hans
Herrmann

Porsche System
Engineering

Porsche 907LH

54

2,564.130mi
(4,126.567km)

International
Championship for
Makes

1969 February
Mark
1
Donohue
February
Chuck
2
Parsons

Roger Penske
Sunoco Racing

Lola T70
G
Mk.3B-Chevrolet

2,385.060mi
(3,838.382km)

International
Championship for
Makes

1965 February
28

Ken Miles
Lloyd Ruby

North American
Racing Team

Shelby-American
Inc.

24 Hour duration
1966 February
5
February
6

Ken Miles
Lloyd Ruby

Shelby-American
Inc.

24 Hours of Daytona

1970 January
Pedro
31
Rodrguez
February
Leo
1
Kinnunen
Brian
Redman
1971 January
30
January
31

Pedro
Rodrguez
Jackie
Oliver

55
J.W. Engineering

Porsche 917K

2,758.440mi
(4,439.279km)

International
Championship for
Makes

J.W. Automotive
Engineering

Porsche 917K

2,621.280mi
(4,218.542km)

International
Championship for
Makes

739.140mi
(1,189.531km)

World
Championship for
Makes

59

2,552.700mi
(4,108.172km)

World
Championship for
Makes

Porsche Carrera
RSR

59

2,606.040mi
(4,194.015km)

World
Championship for
Makes
IMSA GT
Championship

BMW 3.0 CSL

59

2,092.800mi
(3,368.035km)

IMSA GT
Championship

6 Hour duration
1972 February
Mario
6
Andretti
Jacky Ickx

Ferrari 312PB

SpA Ferrari
SEFAC

24 Hour duration
1973 February
Peter Gregg
3
Hurley
February Haywood
4
1974
1975 February
Peter Gregg
1
Hurley
February Haywood
2

Brumos Porsche

Porsche Carrera
RSR

No race due to an energy crisis


Brumos Porsche

1976 January
Peter Gregg
31
Brian
February Redman
1
John
Fitzpatrick

BMW of North
America

1977 February
Hurley
5
Haywood
February
John Graves
6
Dave
Helmick

Ecurie Escargot

Porsche Carrera
RSR

43

2,615.040mi
(4,208.499km)

World
Championship for
Makes
IMSA GT
Championship

1978 February
Peter Gregg
4
Rolf
February Stommelen
5
Toine
Hezemans

Brumos Porsche

Porsche 935/77

99

2,611.200mi
(4,202.319km)

World
Championship of
Makes
IMSA GT
Championship

1979 February
Hurley
3
Haywood
February
Ted Field
4
Danny
Ongais

Interscope Racing

Porsche 935/79

2,626.560mi
(4,227.039km)

World
Championship of
Makes
IMSA GT
Championship

1980 February
Rolf
2
Stommelen
February
Volkert
3
Merl
Reinhold
Joest

L&M Joest Racing

Porsche 935J

2,745.600mi
(4,418.615km)

World
Championship of
Makes
IMSA GT
Championship

24 Hours of Daytona

56

1981 January
Bobby
31
Rahal
February
Brian
1
Redman
Bob
Garretson

Porsche 935 K3

2,718.720mi
(4,375.355km)

Porsche 935
JLP-3

18

IMSA GT
2,760.960mi
B Championship
(4,443.334km)

Porsche 935L

2,373.120mi
(3,819.167km)

IMSA GT
Championship

1984 February
Sarel van
Kreepy Krauly
4
der Merwe
Racing
February
Tony Martin
5
Graham
Duxbury

March
83G-Porsche

00

2,476.800mi
(3,986.023km)

IMSA GT
Championship

1985 February
2
February
3

Porsche 962

2,502.680mi
(4,027.673km)

IMSA GT
Championship

Al Holbert
Lwenbru Holbert Porsche 962
Derek Bell
Racing
Al Unser, Jr.

14

2,534.720mi
(4,079.236km)

IMSA GT
Championship

1987 January
Al Holbert
Lwenbru Holbert Porsche 962
31
Derek Bell
Racing
February
Chip
1
Robinson
Al Unser, Jr.

14

2,680.680mi
(4,314.136km)

IMSA GT
Championship

1988 January
30
January
31

60

2,591.680mi
(4,170.905km)

IMSA GT
Championship

1982 January
30
January
31

John Paul,

Garretson
Racing/Style Auto

JLP Racing

Sr.
John Paul,

World Endurance
Championship
IMSA GT
Championship

Jr.
Rolf
Stommelen

1983 February
A. J. Foyt
5
Preston
February Henn
6
Bob Wollek
Claude
Ballot-Lena

1986 February
1
February
2

A. J. Foyt
Bob Wollek
Al Unser
Thierry
Boutsen

Raul Boesel
Martin
Brundle
John
Nielsen
Jan
Lammers

Henn's Swap Shop


Racing

Henn's Swap Shop


Racing

Castrol Jaguar
Racing (TWR)

Jaguar XJR-9

1989 February
John
4
Andretti
February
Derek Bell
5
Bob Wollek

Miller/BFGoodrich Porsche 962


Busby Racing

BF

67

IMSA GT
2,210.760mi
A Championship
(3,557.873km)

1990 February
Davy Jones
3
Jan
February Lammers
4
Andy
Wallace

Castrol Jaguar
Racing (TWR)

61

2,709.160mi
(4,359.970km)

Jaguar XJR-12D

IMSA GT
Championship

24 Hours of Daytona

57

1991 February
Hurley
2
Haywood
February
"John
3
Winter"
Frank
Jelinski
Henri
Pescarolo
Bob Wollek

Porsche 962C

2,559.640mi
(4,119.341km)

IMSA GT
Championship

Nissan Motorsports Nissan R91CP

23

2,712.720mi
(4,365.700km)

IMSA GT
Championship

Toyota Eagle
MkIII

99

2,484.880mi
(3,999.027km)

IMSA GT
Championship

1994 February
Paul
Cunningham
5
Gentilozzi
Racing
February
Scott Pruett
6
Butch
Leitzinger
Steve Millen

Nissan 300ZX

76

2,516.609mi
(4,050.090km)

IMSA GT
Championship

1995 February
Jrgen
4
Lssig
February
Christophe
5
Bouchut
Giovanni
Lavaggi
Marco
Werner

Kremer Racing

Kremer K8
Spyder-Porsche

10

2,456.400mi
(3,953.192km)

IMSA GT
Championship

1996 February
Wayne
3
Taylor
February
Scott Sharp
4
Jim Pace

Doyle Racing

Riley & Scott Mk D


III-Oldsmobile

2,481.320mi
(3,993.298km)

IMSA GT
Championship

1997 February
Rob Dyson
1
James
February Weaver
2
Butch
Leitzinger
Andy
Wallace
John Paul Jr.
Elliott
Forbes-Robinson
John
Schneider

Dyson Racing

Riley & Scott Mk G


III-Ford

16

2,456.400mi
(3,953.192km)

IMSA GT
Championship

1992 February
Masahiro
1
Hasemi
February
Kazuyoshi
2
Hoshino
Toshio
Suzuki
1993 January
30
January
31

P. J. Jones
Mark
Dismore
Rocky
Moran

Joest Racing

Intl.

All American
Racers

24 Hours of Daytona

58

1998 January
Doran-Moretti
Mauro Baldi
31
Racing
Arie
February Luyendyk
1
Giampiero
Moretti
Didier
Theys

Ferrari 333 SP

30

2,531.160mi
(4,073.507km)

U.S. Road Racing


Championship

1999 January
30
January
31

Riley & Scott Mk G


III-Ford

20

2,520.480mi
(4,056.319km)

U.S. Road Racing


Championship

Elliott
Dyson Racing
Forbes-Robinson Team Inc.
Butch
Leitzinger
Andy
Wallace

2000 February
Olivier
5
Beretta
February
Dominique
6
Dupuy
Karl
Wendlinger

Viper Team Oreca

Dodge Viper
GTS-R

91

2,573.880mi
(4,142.258km)

Rolex Sports Car


Series

2001 February
Ron Fellows
3
Chris
February Kneifel
4
Franck
Fron
Johnny
O'Connell

Corvette Racing

Chevrolet
Corvette C5-R

2,335.360mi
(3,758.398km)

Rolex Sports Car


Series

2002 February
Didier
2
Theys
February
Fredy
3
Lienhard
Max Papis
Mauro Baldi

Doran Lista Racing Dallara SP1-Judd G

27

2,548.960mi
(4,102.153km)

Rolex Sports Car


Series

2003 February
Kevin
1
Buckler
February
Michael
2
Schrom
Timo
Bernhard
Jrg
Bergmeister

The Racer's Group

Porsche 911
GT3-RS

66

2,474.200mi
(3,981.839km)

Rolex Sports Car


Series

2004 January
Christian
31
Fittipaldi
February
Terry
1
Borcheller
Forest
Barber
Andy
Pilgrim

Bell Motorsports

Doran
JE4-Pontiac

54

1,872.80mi
(3,013.98km)A

Rolex Sports Car


Series

2005 February
Max
5
Angelelli
February
Wayne
6
Taylor
Emmanuel
Collard

SunTrust Racing

Riley
MkXI-Pontiac

10

Rolex Sports Car


2,527.924mi
A Series
(4,068.300km)

24 Hours of Daytona

59

2006 January
28
January
29

Scott Dixon
Dan
Wheldon
Casey
Mears

Target Ganassi
Racing

Riley
MkXI-Lexus

02

2,613.38mi
(4,205.82km)

Rolex Sports Car


Series

2007 January
27
January
28

Juan Pablo
Montoya
Salvador
Durn
Scott Pruett

Telmex Ganassi
Racing

Riley
MkXI-Lexus

01

2,377.970mi
(3,826.972km)

Rolex Sports Car


Series

2008 January
26
January
27

Telmex Ganassi
Juan Pablo
Racing
Montoya
Dario
Franchitti
Scott Pruett
Memo Rojas

Riley
MkXI-Lexus

01

2,474.200mi
(3,981.839km)

Rolex Sports Car


Series

2009 January
24
January
25

David
Donohue
Antonio
Garca
Darren Law
Buddy Rice

Brumos Racing

Riley
MkXI-Porsche

58

2,616.600mi
(4,211.009km)

Rolex Sports Car


Series

2010 January
30
January
31

Joo
Barbosa
Terry
Borcheller
Ryan
Dalziel
Mike
Rockenfeller

Action Express
Racing

Riley
MkXI-Porsche

2,688.14mi
(4,326.15km)

Rolex Sports Car


Series

2011 January
29
January
30

Joey Hand
Telmex Chip
Graham
Ganassi Racing
Rahal
Scott Pruett
Memo Rojas

Riley
MkXX-BMW

01

2,563.53mi
(4,125.60km)

Rolex Sports Car


Series

2012 January
28
January
29

A. J.
Allmendinger
Oswaldo
Negri
John Pew
Justin
Wilson

Riley
MkXXVI-Ford

60

2,709.16mi
(4,359.97km)

Rolex Sports Car


Series

2013 January
26
January
27

Chip Ganassi
Juan Pablo
Racing
Montoya
Charlie
Kimball
Scott Pruett
Memo Rojas

Riley
MkXXVI-BMW

01

2,474.200mi
(3,981.839km)

Rolex Sports Car


Series

Michael Shank
Racing with
Curb-Agajanian

[8]

^A Races were red flagged during the event due to weather or fog. The official timing of 24 hours did not stop
during these periods.
^B Race record for most distance covered

24 Hours of Daytona

References
[1]
[2]
[4]
[5]
[6]

Motor Sport, March 1966, Pages 196197. See also cover photograph and centre spread.
Motor Sport, March 1967, Pages 180181. See also cover photograph and centre spread.
Motor Sport, March 1968, Pages 171172. See also cover photograph and center spread.
Motor Sport, March 1969, Pages 236, 244.
Motor Sport, March 1969, Page 201. See also cover photograph.

External links
Rolex 24 at Daytona (http://www.daytonainternationalspeedway.com/Vanity-Pages/50th-Rolex-24/Home.
aspx)

24 Hours of Le Mans Moto


The 24 Hours of Le Mans Moto (24 Heures Moto) is a motorcycle endurance race held annually since 1978 on the
Bugatti Circuit Le Mans, Sarthe, France. The race is organized by the Automobile Club de l'Ouest (ACO) and is part
of the Endurance FIM World Championship.

History
When the Bol d'Or moved from Bugatti Circuit to Circuit Paul Ricard at the end of 1977, the ACO created the 24
Heures Moto.[1] The race became one of "the classics" of endurance racing along with the 24 Hours of Lige, the 8
Hours Of Suzuka, and the Bol d'Or.
At the end of 2001, the three 24 Hour classic races (Le Mans, Lige and the Bol d'Or) withdrew from the Endurance
World Championship to create the Master of Endurance. Le Mans returned to the Endurance FIM World
Championship in 2006.

Race weekend format


Thursday
Free practice sessions, 1st qualifying practice sessions (in groups) and night practice sessions
Friday
2nd qualifying practice sessions (in groups), superpole
Saturday
Warm-up session. 3.00 PM Le Mans start
Sunday
3.00 pm, finish of the race followed by the prize-giving ceremony

Winners

60

24 Hours of Le Mans Moto

61

Year

Riders
Rider 1

Rider 2

Manufacturer
Rider 3

1978

Jean-Claude Chemarin

Christian Leon

Honda

1979

Jean-Claude Chemarin

Christian Leon

Honda

1980

Marc Fontan

Herv Moineau

Honda

1981

Jean-Claude Chemarin

Christian Huguet

Kawasaki

1982

Pierre-Etienne Samin

Dominique Pernet

Suzuki

1983

Grard Coudray

1984

Dirk Brand

Henk Van der Mark

1985

Bernard Millet

Guy Bertin

Philippe Guichon

Suzuki

1986

Alex Vieira

Grard Coudray

Patrick Igoa

Honda

1987

Alex Vieira

Jean-Michel Mattioli

Jean-Louis Battistini

Honda

1988

Alex Vieira

Jean-Michel Mattioli

Christophe Bouheben Honda

1989

Alex Vieira

Jean-Michel Mattioli

Roger Burnett

Honda

1990

Alex Vieira

Jean-Michel Mattioli

Stphane Mertens

Honda

1991

Philippe Monneret

Bruno Bonhuil

Rachel Nicotte

Yamaha

1992

Terry Rymer

Carl Fogarty

Michel Simul

Kawasaki

1993

Adrien Morillas

Brian Morrison

Wilfried Veille

Kawasaki

1994

Adrien Morillas

Jean-Louis Battistini

Terry Rymer

Kawasaki

1995

Alex Vieira

Rachel Nicotte

Brian Morrison

Honda

1996

Jehan D'Orgeix

Pier-Giorgio Bontempi

Brian Morrison

Kawasaki

1997

Doug Polen

Juan-Eric Gomez

Peter Goddard

Suzuki

1998

Bertrand Sebileau

Thierry Paillot

Igor Jerman

Kawasaki

1999

Bertrand Sebileau

Steve Hislop

Chris Walker

Kawasaki

2000

Sbastien Charpentier

William Costes

Sbastien Gimbert

Honda

2001

Christophe Guyot

Sbastien Scarnato

Nicolas Dussauge

Suzuki

2002

Jean-Michel Bayle

Sbastien Gimbert

Nicolas Dussauge

Suzuki

2003

Brian Morrison

Philippe Dob

Vincent Philippe

Suzuki

2004

Stphane Chambon

Keiichi Kitagawa

Warwick Nowland

Suzuki

2005

David Checa

William Costes

Sbastien Gimbert

Yamaha

2006

Olivier Four

Frederic Protat

Daniel Ribalta-Bosch Honda

2007

William Costes

Guillaume Dietrich

Max Neukirchner

Suzuki

2008

William Costes

Guillaume Dietrich

Barry Veneman

Suzuki

2009

Gwen Giabbani

Steve Martin

Igor Jerman

Yamaha

2010

Julien Da Costa

Olivier Four

Grgory Leblanc

Kawasaki

2011

Julien Da Costa

Olivier Four

Grgory Leblanc

Kawasaki

2012

Julien Da Costa

Freddy Foray

Grgory Leblanc

Kawasaki

Jacques Cornu

Sergio Pellandini

Kawasaki
Suzuki

24 Hours of Le Mans Moto

References
External links
Official website (http://www.lemans.org/24heuresmoto/live/pages/accueil_gb.html)

62

24 Hours of Nrburgring

63

24 Hours of Nrburgring
24 Hours Nrburgring

Venue

Nrburgring Nordschleife

First race

1970

Duration

24 Hours

Most wins (driver)

Timo Bernhard (5)


Pedro Lamy
Marcel Tiemann

Most wins (team)

Manthey Racing (5)


Schnitzer Motorsport

Most wins (manufacturer) BMW (19)

The 24 Hours Nrburgring is a touring car and GT endurance racing event on the Nordschleife (north loop) of the
Nrburgring in central Germany. With a lap length of over 25km (15.5mi), it allows the participation of more than
200 cars, and over 700 drivers.

Overview
Officially[1] called ADAC 24h Rennen Nrburgring in German ('ADAC 24 hour Race Nrburgring'), it was
introduced in 1970 by the ADAC as a real race, unlike the earlier endurance contests that covered 12, 24 (in 1961
and 1967), 36, 84 and even 96 hours, like the Marathon de la Route.[2] This substitute for the Lige-Rome-Lige and
Lige-Sofia-Lige rallies was held on the Nrburgring from 1965 to 1971.
It is similar to the Spa 24 Hours, which had been introduced in 1924, following the 24 Hours of Le Mans. The
ADAC had held its first 1000 km Nrburgring sports car racing event in 1953. As the 1000 km Spa had been
introduced in 1966, the 24h at the Ring gave both circuits a pair of endurance racing events at very long tracks, at
least until Spa was shortened in the late 1970s.
Just like the VLN series with its 4 hour races, the 24h race is mainly aimed at amateurs, in order to fill a starting field
of around 200 cars. Unlike the VLN races, the 24h is officially an international event, with bilingual (German and
English) organization, paper work etc. For each car, an entry fee of 4,508 (as per 2010) has to be paid, plus 3,000
in advance for fuel. Typical entries range from second hand standard road cars to European Touring Car
Championship vehicles and GT3 sports cars like the Porsche 911 GT3. The participation of manufactures and
professional teams and drivers has varied over the decades. As spectator numbers had dropped in the 1990s when
only rather standard FIA Group N cars competed, more spectacular vehicles were admitted since 1999, like the
Zakspeed Chrysler Viper GTS-R which originally was built by Oreca to FIA GT2-spec, turbo-charged Porsche,
modified Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters cars from Opel and Abt Sportsline-Audi, and the Schnitzer
Motorsport-entered BMW M3 GTR V8 that had been run in the 2001 American Le Mans Series.
Due to various changes and versions of the Grand Prix Strecke, the overall length of the track varied from the
original 22.835km (14.189mi) to nearly 26km (16.2mi) of the maximum length configuration which was in use in

24 Hours of Nrburgring
2002 and 2003, after the GP track had been extended by the Mercedes Arena. As this section and its large paved
run-off areas was useful as extra paddock zone for the competitors of the support races, it is bypassed with a sharp
Z-shape chicane since 2005 for a 25.3km (15.7mi) track length.
For practice, 230[3] cars are allowed, 210 qualify for the race, driven by 800 or more drivers, as 2, 3 or 4 can share a
car. One driver is allowed to drive 150 minutes non-stop, and can enter on two cars, yet a rest time of at least 2 hours
has to be observed between two turns of the same driver.

2006 race
Unlike the two previous races, held on Ascension Day weekend in May in rainy and very cold weather, the 2006
event[4] was run in warm, sunny and dry conditions on Corpus Christi (feast) weekend of June 1718. Pure factory
teams that challenged for the overall win were absent, yet Aston Martin and Maserati had entered factory-backed
cars to promote their products, reminding of three overall wins each in the 1000 km Nrburgring decades ago. The
Aston Martin car with Aston CEO Ulrich Bez finished 4th in class and 24th overall.
Due to good conditions and stiff competition by similar cars, a new overall distance record (3,832km (2,381mi) in
151 laps) was scored by the Porsche 996 GT3 of Manthey Racing that already had been the best privateer team in the
previous three years. This team is partially supported by Porsche, though, with factory drivers, a 3.8L 500PS
(370kW; 490hp) engine and a sequential gear box. Second place finishers Jrgen Alzen/Uwe Alzen/Klaus
Ludwig/Christian Abt of teamJrgen Alzen Motorsport was only one lap down and have beaten the old record, too.
They used a conventional gear box and a privately built 3.8L 500PS engine. The third of three fastest Porsche, the
Wolfgang Land Motorsport 911, had suffered a fiery failure of its standard 3.6L Porsche 911 GT3-RSR race engine
after 21 hours, yet was classified as 14th with 133 laps.
A remarkable 5th place overall was scored by a BMW 120d, which has roughly half the power of some cars it has
beaten. It was driven by Claudia Hrtgen (2005 VLN champion), Marc Hennerici (2005 privateer WTCC
champion), Johannes Stuck (son of Hans-Joachim Stuck) and team owner Torsten Schubert.

2007 race
For the 2007 event held on Corpus Christi weekend of June 710, more than 260 teams had applied for the 220 race
entries. Prior to the start which had been scheduled for 15:00, an approaching thunderstorm made the organizers
delay the beginning of the race. Lightning struck the camp of fans, injuring several, while heavy rain made the track
muddy. At 16:51, the race was started after two laps behind a safety car. Veteran Klaus Ludwig at the wheel of the
Aston Martin DBRS9 which had been given the number 007 took the lead in wet conditions, but hesitating too long
with the change to dry tyres, the favorite Manthey team took the lead in their new Porsche 997 GT3-RSR. More
weather related drama occurred in the night, when the race was interrupted due to fog for six hours, making the race
18 hours.
When the race resumed, the Land Porsche 996 GT3-RSR was slightly damaged when hitting the back of the
Manthey car, and the Aston Martin engine failed. Thus the Manthey team could easily defend its 2006 victory. The
reliable, yet no more fast enough Zakspeed Dodge Viper GTS-R came in second, with the Alzen brothers Porsche
Cayman in 4th and the BMW Z4 M-Coupe 5th.
Remarkable performances were the top ten finishes of a VW Golf 5, an Opel Astra GTC and a BMW 130i, and the
13th place of a Hyundai Coupe V6 piloted by ex British Touring Car racer Peter Cate.

64

24 Hours of Nrburgring

2008 race
For the 2008, over 270 cars were entered, of which only 230 could be accepted. The race began in sunny weather
with drama for the favorite Porsche teams of Manthey and Land, losing time with a leaky radiator and a tire failure,
and the new Alzen 997 Turbo and the Zakspeed Viper battling for the lead. After the Viper was out, only the BMW
Z4 of Claudia Hrtgen, pole setter and winner of the recent VLN race, could challenge the Porsche armada and lead
for some laps, but it crashed during the night.
Manthey could catch up and win the race for a third time in a row, with the winning car of 2006 (a 996 model)
finishing 2nd. The triumph made the team mechanics cut off Olaf Manthey's famous moustache tips. Sabine Schmitz
came in third, also on a Porsche 997. A strong showing among the high powered cars gave the three new
Volkswagen Scirocco, finishing 9th and 12th, with veteran Hans Joachim Stuck driving both cars.

2009 race
For 2009, the organizers announced that they wanted to reduce the gap in speeds, by not accepting small capacity
cars any more, and by slowing down the fastest classes, SP7 and SP8. Also, the new FIA GT3 and FIA GT4 classes
were adopted, called SP9 and SP10. Some of the new rules are controversial, especially the fact that instead of the
regular fuel pumps as used in any public station, the top teams have to use expensive equipment designed to equal
the times needed to refill, meaning that an economic car is punished compared to a thirsty car. Due to the various
rule changes, some teams have declined to take part, namely Zakspeed with their Viper.
Probably also due to the economic crisis, the number of entries is much lower than in previous years, with only 170
cars starting the race. Surprisingly, the pole was set by a Ford GT, followed closely by the four factory-entered Audi
R8 LMS and two Porsche GT3 of the Manthey team. They have decided to enter their well-known RSR, which is
basically a GT2 car, but now has about 70hp less due to new air restrictors, and also a 997 GT3 Cup S, the version
Porsche homologated for FIA GT3. For the first 19 hours, two of the Audis and the two Manthey Porsche battled for
the lead within a lap, the pace likely to result in a new distance record. The Manthey #1 had been punished for
approaching an accident site too quickly and had to wait 3 minutes in the box, but the decision was reverted later
based on data logging evidence, with the lost time deducted from the results. Around 11:30, the #99 Audi which had
a narrow lead was stopped by suspension problems. Following repairs this car finished in 5th position. This left the
#97 Audi in second, and with the win in its class, 5 minutes behind the overall winner.

2010 race
The 2010 event on Ascension Day weekend of May 1316 saw a return of most prominent entries, except the Ford
GT, as team Raeder had discontinued this project. To give teams time to rest or for repairs before the race, the night
practice was scheduled on Thursday evening. In cold and wet conditions, the Farnbacher-entered Ferrari F430 GTC
set the best lap time before the session was red-flagged due to fog. In Friday afternoon qualifying, held in fair
weather, it crashed out and was barely repaired in time for the race. Four of the five factory-backed Audi R8 LMS
(officially entered by "customers", which happen to be the Audi-DTM-teams Phoenix Racing and Abt Sportsline)
occupied the first four places on the grid, with Marco Werner setting pole at 8:24.753 with a new record average
speed of 181km/h (112mph). With lap times around 8:29, three of Porsche's new SP9/GT3-class cars occupied
places 5 to 7, two of them entered by four-time winner Team Manthey, which had chosen to let the #1 car do only a
single lap. BMW had entered two of their ALMS BMW M3 GT2, run by Schnitzer Motorsport. Due to the
modifications that include a transaxle gear box, they do not comply to the standard rules set of SP classes and their
"Balance of Performance".[5] Along with a factory-entered Porsche GT3 Hybrid,[6] the GT2-BMWs have thus been
grouped into the E1-XP class for experimental factory entries. The better BMW and the Hybrid posted times of 8:32
and 8:34 in qualifying. Save for the 16th placed GT3-class Dodge Viper, only several other Porsche, Audi R8 and
V8-powered BMW Z4 GT3 have qualified in the top 20, with times up to 8:47, which earns them a blue flash light

65

24 Hours of Nrburgring
that is supposed to facilitate passing of the approx. 180 slower cars.
Porsche test driver Walter Rhrl had intended[7] to enter on a standard road legal Porsche 911 GT3 RS, but had to
withdraw due to health reasons from the team that comprises racers Roland Asch and Patrick Simon, plus journalists
Horst von Saurma and Chris Harris. The car, entered in cooperation with sport auto (Germany),[8] is registered as
S-GO 2400, and was driven from Weissach to Nrburg. It has qualified with 9:15, 42nd overall, and 9th[9] among the
17 SP7 class entrants, only beaten by its race-prepped Porsche 997 siblings.
The race was started on Saturday 3 p.m. in sunny but cold weather. Already on the Grand Prix track, the #1 Manthey
Porsche driven by five-time winner Marcel Tiemann passed all Audis, taking the lead and pulling away about 100m
(330ft) before catching up in lap 2 with the slowest cars of the third group, which were still in their first lap. After
lap 3, three Porsche lead ahead of three Audi, a BMW M3 and the Hybrid-Porsche, which due to his larger range
could take the lead after the others pitted. The #1 Manthey Porsche led by a couple of minutes until got involved in a
collision after seven hours. At halftime, the race is on pace to another distance record, with the Audi #99 leading by
a small margin ahead of the Hybrid Porsche, the only remaining representative of his brand in the top 8, which used
to be dominated by Porsche in recent years. Places three to eight were occupied by three Audi R8, two BMW, and,
rather surprisingly, on p 5 the Ferrari which had started in row 21. The Porsches that occupy most places up to 15th
were followed by the CNG-powered Volkswagen Scirocco GT24, the road-legal Porsche GT3 RS and a Nissan Z33.
On Sunday morning, the #99 Audi needed a rear axle change, and with less than 5 hours to go, also the second place
#2 Audi failed. This left the Hybrid Porsche in a one lap lead ahead of the #25 BMW GT2 with gearbox woes and
the Ferrari, until also the Porsche stopped with less than two hours to go. The BMW made it to the finish, giving
Pedro Lamy a record-tying fifth win ahead of Ferrari and Audi. The best Porsche, entered by Alzen, finished only
sixth, six laps ahead of the Falken Nissan and the road legal GT3.
The SP4 class was won by 4 Argentinian drivers in the BMW 325i E92 Coupe of Motorsport Team Sorg Rennsport
[10]
. This was the first victory for an Argentinian team at the 24 hours Nrburgring race and the first Argentinian
team to compete in the Nrburgring since Juan Manuel Fangio.

2011 race
With Corpus Christi weekend being rather late in 2011 on June 2326, the 2011 event was held two weeks after the
2011 24 Hours of Le Mans. The first five VLN races of 2011 were won by a factory-entered BMW, a GT3-class
Mercedes SLS, a new Ferrari 458, the Hybrid Porsche GT3 and finally an Audi R8 LMS, so at least these five
different brands were expected to challenge for the overall win in the 24 hours. In the first qualifying session, the
Hankook-sponsored Farnbacher-Ferrari used soft tyres and was about 7 seconds faster than the competitors, lapping
at an average speed of over 181km/h, the fastest since 1983. This earned the team the pole position, but also an extra
weight of 25kg in the pre-race update of the Balance of Performance. Team Manthey decided to find out in the
early stages of the race which class was more effective under the current conditions, entering their four Porsche
factory drivers on two yellow and green Porsche 997 GT3: two pilots shared the #11 SP9/GT3-spec R, which had
more power and qualified 8th, two others the #18 SP7/GT2-class RSR, which had more downforce, but was only
16th on the grid. After a few hours in changing weather conditions, the team retired the R to focus on the RSR
which already had won three times since 2007. Without any problems, it went on to win its fourth Nrburgring 24
Hours, with a new distance record of 156 laps. Second place was taken by another GT2-spec car, the #1 factory
BMW M3 GT which had won in 2010. Five GT3 cars of Audi and Mercedes followed. The SP8/GT2-class #2
Ferrari had run into early problems, but set the fastest race lap in the final hours, finishing 8th and James
Glickenhaus P4/5 Competizione finished 40th, third in the E1-XP2.
After 2010 Sorg Rennsport [10] took the victory in class SP4 again. Gianvito Rossi, Diego Romanini, Alfredo Varini
and Alexander Rappold have been the only team in that class, but as it has been the first 24h race for Rossi and
Rappold the 122 laps they did and final 78th place overall have been great result!

66

24 Hours of Nrburgring

67

2012 race
The 40th ADAC Zurich 24-Hour Race ran on Saturday, May 19, 14:00 to Sunday, May 20, 2012, 14:00.
For 2012: The race is limited to a maximum of 190 cars/entries (down from a limit of 250 entries in 2011[11]), which
will start in 3 groups of up to 70 cars (maximum). Each entry must have between 2 drivers (minimum) and 4 drivers
(maximum). Drivers may drive more than one car (2 maximum). All drivers are permitted to drive 3 hours per stint
(maximum) with all refuelling and pit stops included. All drivers are required to take a MINIMUM REST TIME of 2
hours (whether driving 1 or 2 cars).[]
New in 2012: There is an exciting new "Top-40" qualifying format for the 40 fastest cars on the starting grid, which
will take place, Friday, after the first 2 qualifying sessions: "the 40 fastest teams will battle it out on Friday afternoon
for the positions at the front end of starting group 1".[12]
As in previous years, the Top 40 Qualifying cars eligible to start, must have flashing lights installed (for better
identification of the Top 40 competitors) behind the windscreen on the passengers side.[]

Classes for 2012


In 2012, there were 28 classes split into 4 divisions.
[]

2012: Classes: ADAC Zurich 24h-Rennen


Division

Classes

Division 1 Group 24h-Special

Normally aspirated engines: SP3, SP4, SP5 , SP6, SP7, SP8, SP9 (FIA-GT3), SP10
(SRO-GT4)
Turbo engines: SP3T, SP4T, SP8T
Diesel engines (Turbo): D1T, D2T, D3T, D4T
AT (gas driven vehicles, liquid gas, natural gas, HVO, alternative Diesel fuels)

Division 1 Group E1-XP

E1-XP1, E1-XP2, E1-XP Hybrid

Division 1 Group VLN Series


Production cars

V2, V3, V4, V5, V6

Division 2 Group N (Production Touring


Cars)

N2, N3, N4, N5

Schedule
[]

Schedule: 2012: ADAC Zurich 24h-Rennen


Date

Time (CEST)

Wednesday, 11 April 24:00

Event
Registration entry closing date

Tuesday 15 May

10:00 21:00 Administrative checks and scrutineering

Wednesday 16 May

08:00 21:00 Administrative checks and scrutineering

Thursday, 17 May

14:30 16:00 Practice session


19:30 23:30 Qualifying session 1

Friday, 18 May

09:35 11:35 Qualifying session 2


18:00 18:50 Top-40 Qualifying

Saturday, 19 May

16:00

40th ADAC Zurich 24h race: Start

Sunday, 20 May

16:00

40th ADAC Zurich 24h race: Finish

24 Hours of Nrburgring

68

2013
The 2013 race saw Aston Martin's hydrogen powered car run the first zero-emissions lap of the circuit.[13]

Winners
Year

Drivers

Car

Team

Remarks

2013

Bernd Schneider
Jeroen Bleekemolen
Sean Edwards
Nicki Thiim

Mercedes-Benz SLS
AMG GT3

Black Falcon

Race red flagged for 9 hours due to Rain. First win for a
[14]
Mercedes-Benz

2012

Marc Basseng
Christopher Haase
Frank Stippler
Marcus Winkelhock

Audi R8 LMS ultra

Audi Sport
(Team Phoenix)

155 laps. First ever victory for an Audi.

2011

Marc Lieb
Timo Bernhard
Romain Dumas
Lucas Luhr

Porsche 997
GT3-RSR

Manthey Racing

New distance record 156 laps. Record-tying 5th victory for


Bernhard

2010

Jrg Mller
Augusto Farfus
Uwe Alzen
Pedro Lamy

BMW M3 GT2

BMW Motorsport
(Schnitzer
Motorsport)

154 laps. Record-tying 5th victory for Lamy

2009

Marc Lieb
Timo Bernhard
Romain Dumas
Marcel Tiemann

Porsche 997
GT3-RSR

Manthey Racing

New distance record 155 laps, record 5th victory for Tiemann,
4th in a row for Manthey

2008

Marc Lieb
Timo Bernhard
Romain Dumas
Marcel Tiemann

Porsche 997
GT3-RSR

Manthey Racing

Winner came from 1 lap down up to nearly two laps ahead for
victory.

2007

Marc Lieb
Timo Bernhard
Romain Dumas
Marcel Tiemann

Porsche 997
GT3-RSR

Manthey Racing

Race stopped for about 6h due to fog

2006

Lucas Luhr
Timo Bernhard
Mike Rockenfeller
Marcel Tiemann

Porsche 996 GT3-MR

Manthey Racing

Officially a private entry, supported by Porsche with drivers.

2005

Pedro Lamy
Boris Said
Duncan Huisman
Andy Priaulx

BMW M3 GTR

BMW Motorsport
(Schnitzer
Motorsport)

Final race for the M3 GTR V8.

2004

Dirk Mller
Jrg Mller
Hans-Joachim Stuck
Pedro Lamy

BMW M3 GTR

BMW Motorsport
(Schnitzer
Motorsport)

BMW prevails against ABT-Audi in changing weather


conditions.

2003

Manuel Reuter
Timo Scheider
Marcel Tiemann

Opel Astra V8 Coup

Phoenix Racing
OPC Team Phoenix

Three factories enter V8 powered race cars: Audi, BMW,


Opel. Turbocharged Porsches by Manthey and Alzen.

24 Hours of Nrburgring

69

2002

Peter Zakowski
Robert Lechner
Pedro Lamy

Chrysler Viper GTS-R Zakspeed

2001

Peter Zakowski
Michael Bartels
Pedro Lamy

Chrysler Viper GTS-R Zakspeed

2000

Bernd Maylnder
Michael Bartels
Uwe Alzen
Altfrid Heger

Porsche 911 GT3-R

1999

Peter Zakowski
Hans-Jrgen Tiemann
Klaus Ludwig
Marc Duez

Chrysler Viper GTS-R Zakspeed

Return of powerful cars, with Viper dominating the season.


None of the new water-cooled Porsche 996 GT3 is entered
yet.

1998

Marc Duez
Andreas Bovensiepen
Christian Menzel
Hans-Joachim Stuck

BMW 320d

Schnitzer
Motorsport

First Diesel victory in a major 24h race. After 28 years, a


second win for Stuck, the first winner.

1997

Johannes Scheid
Sabine Reck
Hans-Jrgen Tiemann
Peter Zakowski

BMW M3 E36

Scheid Motorsport

1996

Johannes Scheid
Sabine Reck
Hans Widmann

BMW M3 E36

Scheid Motorsport

1995

Roberto Ravaglia
Marc Duez
Alexander Burgstaller

BMW 320i

Team Bigazzi

1994

Karl-Heinz Wlazik
Frank Katthfer
Fred Rosterg

BMW M3

1993

"Tonico de Azevedo"
Franz Konrad
rnulf Wirdheim
Frank Katthfer

Porsche 911 Carrera

Konrad Motorsport

1992

Johnny Cecotto
Christian Danner
Jean-Michel Martin
Marc Duez

BMW M3 Evo. 2

Team Bigazzi

1991

Joachim Winkelhock
Kris Nissen
Armin Hahne

BMW M3 Evo. 2

Schnitzer
Motorsport

1990

Altfrid Heger
Joachim Winkelhock
Frank Schmickler

BMW M3 Evo. 2

Linder Motorsport

1989

Emanuele Pirro
Roberto Ravaglia
Fabien Giroix

BMW M3

Team Bigazzi

1988

Edgar Dren
Gerhard Holup
Peter Faubel

Porsche 911 Carrera


RSR

Dren

Porsche Zentrum
Koblenz

Factory backed Porsche effort beats a very heavy Viper, and


[15]
with 145 laps, the old distance record of 1990.

Race stopped for hours due to fog.

[15]

144 laps, new distance record.

The privateer '74 Porsche beats modern factory-backed


turbocharged Fords

24 Hours of Nrburgring

70

1987

Klaus Ludwig
Klaus Niedzwiedz
Steve Soper

Ford Sierra RS
Cosworth

Eggenberger

1986

Markus Oestreich
Otto Rensing
Winfried Vogt

BMW 325i

Auto Budde Team

1985

Axel Felder
Jrgen Hammelmann
Robert
Walterscheid-Mller

BMW 635 CSi

Auto Budde Team

1984

Axel Felder
Franz-Josef Brhling
Peter Oberndorfer

BMW 635 CSi

Auto Budde Team

First win by a turbocharged car.

1983 (no race due to construction work)


1982

Dieter Gartmann
Klaus Ludwig
Klaus Niedzwiedz

Ford Capri

Eichberg Racing

1981

Helmut Dring
Dieter Gartmann
Fritz Mller

Ford Capri

Gilden-Klsch

1980

Dieter Selzer
Wolfgang Wolf
Matthias Schneider

Ford Escort RS 2000

Berkenkamp Racing

1979

Herbert Kummle
Karl Mauer
Winfried Vogt

Ford Escort

Cavallo Matras

1978

Fritz Mller
Herbert Hechler
Franz Geschwendtner

Porsche 911 Carrera

Valvoline
Deutschland

1977

Fritz Mller
Herbert Hechler

Porsche 911 Carrera

1976

Fritz Mller
Herbert Hechler
Karl-Heinz Quirin

Porsche 911 Carrera

1975 (no race due to oil crisis)


1974 (no race due to oil crisis)
1973

Niki Lauda
Hans-Peter Joisten

BMW 3.0 CSL

Alpina

1972

Helmut Kelleners
Gerold Pankl

BMW 2800 CS

Alpina

BMW 2002

Alpina

BMW 2002 TI

Koepchen BMW
[20]
Tuning

1971

1970

Ferfried Prinz von


[17]
Hohenzollern
[18]
Gerold Pankl
Hans-Joachim Stuck
Clemens
[19]
Schickentanz

Race held in two heats of 8h each, with 8h break at


[16]
midnight.

24 Hours of Nrburgring

71

5 wins Timo Bernhard


Pedro Lamy

2001, 2002, 2004, 2005, 2010

Marcel Tiemann

2003, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009

4 wins Marc Lieb

2007, 2008, 2009, 2011

Romain Dumas

2007, 2008, 2009, 2011

Fritz Mller

1976, 1977, 1978, 1981

Marc Duez

1992, 1995, 1998, 1999

Peter Zakowski

1997, 1999, 2001, 2002

3 wins Hans-Joachim Stuck

1970, 1998, 2004

Herbert Hechler

1976, 1977, 1978

Klaus Ludwig

1982, 1987, 1999

2 wins Altfrid Heger

1 win

2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2011

1990, 2000

Axel Felder

1984, 1985

Dieter Gartmann

1981, 1982

Frank Katthfer

1993, 1994

Gerold Pankl

1971, 1972

Hans-Jrgen Tiemann

1997, 1999

Joachim Winkelhock

1990, 1991

Johannes Scheid

1996, 1997

Jrg Mller

2004, 2010

Klaus Niedzwiedz

1982, 1987

Lucas Luhr

2006, 2011

Michael Bartels

2000, 2001

Roberto Ravaglia

1989, 1995

Sabine Reck

1996, 1997

Uwe Alzen

2000, 2010

Winfried Vogt

1979, 1986

Alexander Burgstaller

1995

Andreas Bovensiepen

1998

Andy Priaulx

2005

Armin Hahne

1991

Augusto Farfus

2010

Bernd Maylnder

2000

Boris Said

2005

Christian Danner

1992

Christian Menzel

1998

Christopher Haase

2012

Clemens Schickentanz

1970

Dieter Selzer

1980

24 Hours of Nrburgring

72
Dirk Mller

2004

Duncan Huisman

2005

Edgar Dren

1988

Emanuele Pirro

1989

Fabien Giroix

1989

Prince Ferfried of Hohenzollern 1971


Frank Schmickler

1990

Franz Geschwendtner

1978

Franz Konrad

1993

Frank Stippler

2012

Franz-Josef Brhling

1984

Fred Rosterg

1994

Gerhard Holup

1988

Hans Widmann

1996

Hans-Peter Joisten

1973

Helmut Dring

1981

Helmut Kelleners

1972

Herbert Kummle

1979

Jean-Michel Martin

1992

Johnny Cecotto

1992

Jrgen Hammelmann

1985

Karl Mauer

1979

Karl-Heinz Quirin

1976

Karl-Heinz Wlazik

1994

Kris Nissen

1991

Manuel Reuter

2003

24 Hours of Nrburgring

73
Marc Basseng

2012

Marcus Winkelhock

2012

Markus Oestreich

1986

Matthias Schneider

1980

Mike Rockenfeller

2006

Niki Lauda

1973

rnulf Wirdheim

1993

Otto Rensing

1986

Peter Faubel

1988

Peter Oberndorfer

1984

Robert Lechner

2002

Robert Walterscheid-Mller

1985

Steve Soper

1987

Timo Scheider

2003

Tonico de Azevedo

1993

Wolfgang Wolf

1980

References
[3] As of 2010: Number of cars allowed to start: Practice: 230 cars Race: 3 starting groups with 70 cars each
[5] (http:/ / adac. 24h-rennen. de/ Balance-of-Performance. 4237. 0. html)
[10] http:/ / www. sorg-rennsport. de
[15] (http:/ / www. motorsport-xl. de/ automobil/ tourenwagen/ 24h_nbr/ 24h_nbr_00. HTM)
[17] de:Ferfried Prinz von Hohenzollern
[18] (http:/ / www. pankl. net/ index. php?id=109)
[20] de:Hans-Peter Koepchen

External links
Official website (http://www.24h-rennen.de/en/)
Information about the event on the official Nrburgring-website (http://www.nuerburgring.de/en/events/
motorsports-events/adac-zurich-24-hour-race.html)
Road to 24h race Nrburgring Nordschleife 2012 (http://sorg-rennsport.de/cms/?page_id=697)

24 Hours of Spa

74

24 Hours of Spa
Spa 24 Hours

Blancpain Endurance Series


Venue

Circuit de Spa-Francorchamps

First race

1924

Duration

24 Hours

Most wins (driver)

Eric van de Poele (5)

Most wins (manufacturer) BMW (21)

The Total 24 Hours of Spa is an endurance racing event held annually in Belgium at the Circuit de
Spa-Francorchamps. Conceived by Jules de Their and Henri Langlois Van Ophem just one year after the first 24
Hours of Le Mans, the race was run under the auspices of the Royal Automobile Club Belgium (RACB).
It was held for the first time in 1924 over a 9.3 miles (15.0km) circuit on public roads between the towns of
Francorchamps, Malmedy and Stavelot. The present 6.9760 km circuit was inaugurated in 1979.
The Spa 24 Hours were part of the European Touring Car Championship from 1966 to 1973. The event also counted
towards the World Sportscar Championship in 1953 and 1981. As on the Nrburgring, both a 24h and a 1000 km
race is held at Spa, as the 1000 km Spa for sports car racing were introduced in 1966.
Cars entered included Russian Moskvitch and engine sizes ranged from 996 cc NSU Prinz TT to the luxurious
V8-powered Mercedes-Benz 300 SEL 6.3, tuned by Mercedes-AMG, the so-called "Red pig" [1]. This heavy and fast
vehicle with 6834 cc and 420hp (313kW) finished only second in 1971, as frequent refuelling was necessary, and
tyre wear was also high.
With the participation of Swiss Lilian Bryner on the victorious Ferrari 550 of the BMS Scuderia Italia team, the 2004
race marked the first time in history that a female driver has won a 24-hour endurance race in a Gran Turismo with
more than 500hp (370kW).
The race is currently sponsored by Total S.A..

Results on 14km track

24 Hours of Spa

Year

75

Car

Pilots

Distance Average

1924 Bignan 2L

Henri Springuel
Maurice Becquet

1925 Chenard-Walcker

Andr Lagache
Ren Lonard

1926 Peugeot 174S

Andr Boillot
Louis Rigal

1927 Excelsior

Robert Snchal
Nicolas Caerels

1928 Alfa Romeo 6C 1500 S

[2]
Boris Ivanowski
Attilio Marinoni

1929 Alfa Romeo 6C 1750SS

Robert Benoist
Attilio Marinoni

1930 Alfa Romeo 6C 1750GS

Attilio Marinoni
Pietro Ghersi

1931 Mercedes-Benz SSK

[3]
Dimitri Djordjadze
Goffredo Zehender

1932 Alfa Romeo 8C 2300LM

Antonio Brivio
Eugenio Siena

1933 Alfa Romeo 8C 2300LM

Louis Chiron
Luigi Chinetti

1934 Bugatti Type 44

Jean Desvignes
Norbert Mah

1935
1936 Alfa Romeo 8C 2900A

No race held
Francesco Severi
Raymond Sommer

1937
1938 Alfa Romeo 8C 2900B

No race held
Carlo Pintacuda
Francesco Severi

1939
1947

No races held

1948 Aston Martin 2-Litre Sports

St. John Horsfall


Leslie Johnson

1949 Ferrari 166MM

Luigi Chinetti
Jean Lucas

1950
1952
1953 Ferrari 375MM Pinin

Notes

No races held

World Sportscar Championship

Giuseppe Farina
Mike Hawthorn

1954
1963

No races held

1964 Mercedes-Benz 300SE

Robert Crevits
Gustave Gosselin

3962,100 164,825

1965 BMW 1800 Ti/SA

3812,591 158,855
Pascal Ickx
Grard Langlois van Ophem

24 Hours of Spa

76

1966 BMW 2000ti

Hubert Hahne
Jacky Ickx

4048,368 168,681

1967 Porsche 911

Jean-Pierre Gaban
Norbert Van Assche

4052,883 168,867

1968 Porsche 911

Erwin Kremer
Willi Kauhsen
Helmut Kelleners

4004,827 166,867

1969 Porsche 911

Guy Chasseuil
Claude Ballot-Lena

4272,231 187,006

1970 BMW 2800CS

Gnther Huber
Helmut Kelleners

4252,407 177,183

1971 Ford Capri RS

Dieter Glemser
Alex Soler-Roig

4385,100 182,690

1972 Ford Capri RS 2600

Jochen Mass
Hans-Joachim Stuck

4498,436 187,431

1973 BMW 3.0 CSL

Toine Hezemans
Dieter Quester

4422,980 184,290

1974 BMW 3.0 CSi

Jean Xhenceval
Alain Peltier
Pierre Dieudonn

4147,289 172,804

1975 BMW 3.0 CSi

Pierre Dieudonn
Jean Xhenceval
Hughes de Fierlandt

4249,270 177,053

1976 BMW 3.0 CSL

Jean-Marie Detrin
Nico Demuth
Charles Van Stolle

4087,904 170,329

1977 BMW 530i

Eddy Joosen
Jean-Claude Andruet

4083,835 170,159

1978 Ford Capri III 3.0S

Gordon Spice
Teddy Pilette

4315,594 179,816

Results on 7km track


The current version of the Spa 24 Hours is an event under the Blancpain Endurance Series calendar, although it was
previously run as part of the FIA GT Championship featuring GT1 and GT2 machinery, and by various touring car
series. Currently, the cars run fall under the FIA GT3 and GT3 Cup classifications.
Year

Car

Pilots

Distance Average

Notes

1979 Ford Capri III 3.0S

Jean-Michel Martin
Philippe Martin

3083,632 128,485

1980 Ford Capri III 3.0S

Jean-Michel Martin
Philippe Martin

2952,318 123,013

1981 Mazda RX-7

Tom Walkinshaw
Pierre Dieudonn

3183,952 132,737

World Sportscar Championship

1982 BMW 528i

Hans Heyer
Armin Hahne
Eddy Joosen

3132,224 130,808

European Touring Car Championship

24 Hours of Spa

77

1983 BMW 635 CSi

Thierry Tassin
Hans Heyer
Armin Hahne

3333,726 130,808

European Touring Car Championship

1984 Jaguar XJS

Tom Walkinshaw
Hans Heyer
Win Percy

3055,485 131,091

European Touring Car Championship

Roberto Ravaglia
Gerhard Berger
Marc Surer

3470,000 144,344

European Touring Car Championship

1985 BMW 635 CSi

1986 BMW 635 CSi

Dieter Quester
Thierry Tassin
Altfrid Heger

3463,060 144,232

European Touring Car Championship

1987 BMW M3

Jean-Michel Martin
Didier Theys
Eric van de Poele

3338,140 139,908

World Touring Car Championship

1988 BMW M3

Altfrid Heger
Dieter Quester
Roberto Ravaglia

3532,460 146,929

European Touring Car Championship

1989 Ford Sierra RS500

Gianfranco
Brancatelli
Win Percy
Bernd Schneider

3338,140 139,130

1990 BMW M3

Fabien Giroix
Johnny Cecotto
Markus Oestreich

3247,920 135,330

1991 Nissan Skyline GT-R

Anders Olofsson
David Brabham
Naoki Hattori

3587,980 149,456

1992 BMW M3

Steve Soper
Jean-Michel Martin
Christian Danner

3560,220 148,947

1993 Porsche 911 RSR

Christian Fittipaldi
Uwe Alzen
Jean-Pierre Jarier

2154,904 144,667

1994 BMW 318is

3625,960 151,047
Roberto Ravaglia
Thierry Tassin
Alexander Burgstaller

1995 BMW 320i

Joachim Winkelhock
Steve Soper
Peter Kox

1996 BMW 320i

3507,821 145,956
Jrg Mller
Thierry Tassin
Alexander Burgstaller

1997 BMW 320i

Didier de Radigues
Marc Duez
Eric Hlary

3372,680 140,252

1998 BMW 318i

Marc Duez
Eric van de Poele
Alain Cudini

3344,807 139,344

3612,532 150,531

24 Hours of Spa

78

1999 Peugeot 306 GTI

Frdric Bouvy
Emmanuel Collard
Anthony Beltoise

3428,427 142,588

2000 Peugeot 306 GTI

Frdric Bouvy
Kurt Mollekens
Didier Defourny

3330,870 138,686

Last race for touring cars

2001 Chrysler Viper GTS-R (GT/GTS)

Christophe Bouchut
Jean-Philippe Belloc
Marc Duez

3679,104 152,999

FIA GT Championship

2002 Chrysler Viper GTS-R (GT/GTS)

Christophe Bouchut
Sbastien Bourdais
David Terrien
Vincent Vosse

3654,059 152,019

FIA GT Championship

2003 Porsche 911 GT3-RS (N-GT/GT)

Stphane Ortelli
Marc Lieb
Romain Dumas

3327,613 138,557

FIA GT Championship

2004 Ferrari 550 Maranello (GT/GTS)

Luca Cappellari
Fabrizio Gollin
Lilian Bryner
Enzo Calderari

3888,144 161,974

FIA GT Championship

2005 Maserati MC12 (GT1)

Michael Bartels
Timo Scheider
Eric van de Poele

4000,896 166,638

FIA GT Championship

2006 Maserati MC12 (GT1)

Michael Bartels
Andrea Bertolini
Eric van de Poele

4092,961 171,034

FIA GT Championship

Mike Hezemans
Fabrizio Gollin
Jean-Denis Dltraz
Marcel Fssler

3726,660 155,241

FIA GT Championship

2008 Maserati MC12 (GT1)

Michael Bartels
Andrea Bertolini
Eric van de Poele
Stphane Sarrazin

4041,885 168,096

FIA GT Championship

2009 Chevrolet Corvette C6.R (GT1)

Anthony Kumpen
Kurt Mollekens
Mike Hezemans
Jos Menten

3915.236 163.128

FIA GT Championship

2010 Porsche 997 GT3-RSR (GT2)

Romain Dumas
Martin Ragginger
Jrg Bergmeister
Wolf Henzler

3789.164 157.832

FIA GT2 European Cup

2011 Audi R8 LMS (GT3)

Greg Franchi
Timo Scheider
Mattias Ekstrm

3817.180 158.898

Blancpain Endurance Series

2012 Audi R8 LMS ultra (GT3)

Andrea Piccini
Ren Rast
Frank Stippler

3565.036

Blancpain Endurance Series

2007 Chevrolet Corvette C6.R (GT1)

24 Hours of Spa

References
[1] http:/ / www. spiegel. de/ auto/ aktuell/ 0,1518,415796,00. html
[2] Ivanowski was a Russian national, but in exile since the Russian Revolution
[3] Djordjadze was a Russian national, but in exile since the Russian Revolution

External links

Total Spa 24 Hours website (http://www.total24hours.com/24h-spa.cfm) (French) (Dutch)


1971 results (http://homepage.mac.com/frank_de_jong/Races/1971 Spa.html)
1972 results (http://homepage.mac.com/frank_de_jong/Races/1972 Spa.html)
1981 results (http://www.wspr-racing.com/wspr/results/wscc/ms1981.html#12)
FIA GT Website (http://www.fiagt.com/)

79

12 Hours of Sebring

80

12 Hours of Sebring
12 Hours of Sebring

American Le Mans Series


Venue

Sebring International Raceway

Corporate sponsor

Mobil 1

First race

1950

First ALMS race

1999

Duration

12 hours

Most wins (driver)

Tom Kristensen (6)

Most wins (team)

Scuderia Ferrari/SpA Ferrari (8)

Most wins (manufacturer) Porsche (17)

The 12 Hours of Sebring is an annual motorsport endurance race for sports cars held at Sebring International
Raceway, on the site of the former Hendricks Army Airfield World War II air base in Sebring, Florida. The event is
perennially the opening round of the American Le Mans Series and in the past has been a round of the now defunct
World Sportscar Championship and IMSA GT Championship. In 2012, the race was the opening event of the FIA
World Endurance Championship.
The race is also a leg of the informal Triple Crown of endurance racing, which links the three largest sports car races
together in a rough equivalent of Golf or Tennis' Grand Slam with the 24 Hours of Le Mans and the 24 Hours of
Daytona forming the other legs.

History
The track opened in 1950 on an airfield and is a road racing course styled after those used in European Grand Prix
motor racing. The first race was a six-hour race on New Year's Eve 1950, with the next race held 14 months later as
the first 12 Hours of Sebring.[] The race is now considered one of the premier endurance races in the United States
and is famous for its "once around the clock" action, starting during the day and finishing at night. From 1953 to
1972 the 12 Hour was a round of the FIAs premier sports car series which was contested under various names
including the World Sportscar Championship and the International Championship for Makes.
In its early years, the Sebring circuit was somewhat of a makeshift effort; combining airport runways and narrow
2-lane service roads. The 1966 event was a turning point in Sebring history, as the facilities and the safety of the
circuit were heavily criticized, as 5 people were killed during the race, which was more people killed in the race's 16
year history. In those days, safety wasn't really taken into account and there were no safety measures to protect the
spectators, electric poles, houses and other things from the race. 33-year old Canadian Bob McLean crashed heavily
while approaching the Hairpin; his Ford GT40 Mk.I rolled several times, struck a utility pole and then exploded,

12 Hours of Sebring

81

landing in a ditch. McLean perished in the flames, the ill-equipped track marshals had no chance to save him. And in
another incident Mario Andretti in his Ferrari 365 tangled with Don Wester's Porsche 906 on the Warehouse Straight
near the Webster Turns, killing 4 spectators and then crashing into a warehouse next to the track. The facilities were
upgraded and the circuit layout was changed, including eliminating the Webster Turns and creating the Green Park
Chicane further down the track to move the straight further away from the airport warehouses. The circuit was made
safer and there were no fatalities until 1980; safety issues never plagued the circuit or the event ever again.
The race has a rich history, as legendary drivers such as Mario Andretti, Briggs Cunningham, Juan Manuel Fangio,
A.J. Foyt, Dan Gurney, Phil Hill, Jacky Ickx, Geoff Brabham, Stirling Moss, John Morton, Steve Millen and Lake
Underwood, and manufacturers such as Ferrari, Porsche, BMW, MG, Toyota, Jaguar, Cunningham, Audi and Ford
have all been victorious.
It is known as an excellent preparation for the famous 24 Hours of Le Mans, as the track's extremely bumpy surface,
combined with south-central Florida's perennial hot weather, is a true test of a car's reliability. In recent years, six
overall victories have been achieved by the Audi R8, one less than record seven wins of the Porsche 935.
Tom Kristensen has won the race more times than anyone else with six victories - in 99-00, 05-06, 2009 and in 2012.

The event
Fans are allowed to camp inside the green of the race track, starting several days before the actual race. Both general
admission and, for a fee, reserved camping exists. RVs and cars are allowed into the track. Fans that show up during
the week (and in some cases months before the actual race) can watch the many practice and qualification races, as
well as a vintage race. There are several classes of tickets, ranging anywhere from full-access to simply the (usually
Saturday) actual race. The tickets are numbered, and there are designated numbered tickets needed to access pit
areas, press and spectator boxes, and certain parts of the track. Attendance is usually over 100,000 spectators.
Within the track is a Midway, containing everything from souvenirs and official merchandise, to hot coffee and cold
beer. Attractions are also featured in the midway and differ from year to year; In recent years Spring Break
attractions have been set up to draw in college students on break during the week of the race. Radio promotions for
the race are not uncommon to hear in Florida weeks before the race, advertising to both race fans and spring
breakers.
Actor Steve McQueen placed first in his class and second overall, when he raced with a broken foot.[citation needed]

Race results
The 1966 race had Dan Gurney leading at the last lap, when his
engine of his Shelby American Ford Mk II seized near the end.
Gurney pushed his car over the finish line, beat only by Ken Miles
and Lloyd Ruby. However, his actions were ultimately determined
to be against the rules and he did not receive credit for his finish.[]
In 2005, the Chevrolet Corvette C6.R and Aston Martin DBR9
made their race debut in the hotly contested GT1 class, with Aston
Martin winning its class for the first time in 49 years at Sebring
ahead of the two Corvettes. Corvette had dominated the class the
past three years with its previous generation C5R.

2008 overall winner Porsche RS Spyder.

The all-new Audi R10 TDI won the 2006 edition of the race, the car's first ever run in competition. The victory set
the stage for an even more momentous win by the R10 in its next race, the Le Mans 24 Hours later in the year. The
much-hyped Porsche RS Spyder campaigned by Penske Racing dropped to take 2nd place in its LMP2 class, behind
the Intersport Lola car. The GT1 Corvette C6R team got their revenge against the Aston Martin, although the second

12 Hours of Sebring

82

Corvette came within 1/3 of a second of the podium in the closing laps of the race.
2007 saw Audi again winning in the R10 TDI despite requiring more frequent refueling due to changes in American
Le Mans series rules intended to even the field between gasoline and diesel powered engines. In addition to an
overall win, Audi also set a track record in 2007 with Marco Werner behind the wheel in qualifying.

Statistics

Audi R8 winner 2000-2005

Rank

Constructor

Wins

Years

Porsche

18

1960, 1968, 1971, 1973, 7688, 2008

Ferrari

12

1956, 58-64, 1970, 1972, 1995, 97-98

Audi

11

0007, 2009, 12-13

Nissan

8991, 1994

Ford

66-67, 1969

Toyota

92-93

BMW

1975, 1999

Peugeot

10-11

Allard

1950

Frazer-Nash

1952

Cunningham

1953

O.S.C.A.

1954

Jaguar

1955

Maserati

1957

Chaparral

1965

Riley & Scott

1996

12 Hours of Sebring

83

Rank

Driver

Wins

Years

Tom Kristensen

99-00, 05-06, 2009, 2012

Rinaldo Capello

01-02, 2006, 2009, 2012

Frank Biela

2000, 03-04, 07

Allan McNish
5

2004, 2006, 2009, 2012

Mario Andretti

Hans-Joachim Stuck

1967, 1970, 1972


1975, 1986, 1988

Overall Winners
Year

Drivers

Team

Car

Tires

Distance

Championship

3.3 mile/5.31km circuit


1950
D

Fritz Koster
Ralph Deshon

Victor
Sharpe/Tommy Cole

Crosley HotShot

Non-championship
613.84km (381.42mi)
(Sam Collier Memorial
Sebring Grand Prix of
[1]
Endurance Six Hours)

1951 Not held


5.382 mile/8.6km circuit
1952

Harry Gray
Larry Kulok

Stuart Donaldson Frazer-Nash Le


Mans Replica

1,213.445km
(754.000mi)

American Automobile
Association (AAA)

1953

Phil Walters
John Fitch

Briggs
Cunningham

Cunningham
C4R-Chrysler

1,447.766km
(899.600mi)

World Sportscar
Championship

1954

Stirling Moss
Bill Lloyd

Briggs
Cunningham

O.S.C.A. MT4

1,405.923km
(873.600mi)

World Sportscar
Championship

Briggs
Cunningham

Jaguar D-Type

1,523.083km
(946.400mi)

World Sportscar
Championship

1955

Mike
Hawthorn
Phil Walters

1956

Juan Manuel
Fangio
Eugenio
Castellotti

Scuderia Ferrari

Ferrari 860
Monza

1,623.506km
(1,008.800mi)

World Sportscar
Championship

1957

Jean Behra
Juan Manuel
Fangio

Maserati

Maserati 450S

1,648.612km
(1,024.400mi)

World Sportscar
Championship

1958

Phil Hill
Peter Collins

Scuderia Ferrari

Ferrari 250 TR58 E

1,673.718km
(1,040.000mi)

World Sportscar
Championship

1959

Dan Gurney
Chuck Daigh

Scuderia Ferrari

Ferrari 250 TR59 E


Fantuzzi

1,573.295km
(977.600mi)

World Sportscar
Championship

Joakim Bonnier

PorscheRS-60

1,640.243km
(1,019.200mi)

World Sportscar
Championship

Ferrari 250
TRI/61

1,740.666km
(1,081.600mi)

World Sportscar
Championship

1960

Hans
Herrmann
Olivier
Gendebien

1961

Phil Hill
Olivier
Gendebien

SpA Ferrari
SEFAC

12 Hours of Sebring

84

1962

Joakim
Ferrari 250
Scuderia SSS
Bonnier
Republica di Venezia TRI/61
Lucien Bianchi

1,723.929km
(1,071.200mi)

International
Championship for GT
Manufacturers

1963

John Surtees
Ludovico
Scarfiotti

SpA Ferrari
SEFAC

Ferrari 250P

1,749.035km
(1,086.800mi)

International
Championship for GT
Manufacturers

1964

Mike Parkes
Umberto
Maglioli

SpA Ferrari
SEFAC

Ferrari 275P

1,790.878km
(1,112.800mi)

International
Championship for GT
Manufacturers

Chaparral
2-Chevrolet

1,640.243km
(1,019.200mi)

International
Championship for GT
Manufacturers

Shelby American Ford X1 Roadster G

1,908.038km
(1,185.600mi)

International
Championship for
Sports-Prototypes
International
Championship for
Sports Cars

Ford GT40 MkIV F

1,991.724km
(1,237.600mi)

International
Championship for
Sports-Prototypes
International
Championship for
Sports Cars

Porsche 907

1,983.356km
(1,232.400mi)

International
Championship for
Makes

2,000.093km
(1,242.800mi)

International
Championship for
Makes

1965

1966

Jim Hall
Hap Sharp

Inc.

Chaparral Cars

Ken Miles
Lloyd Ruby

Inc.

5.4 mile/8.66km circuit


1967

Bruce
Ford Motor
McLaren
Company
Mario Andretti

1968

Jo Siffert
Hans
Herrmann

1969

Jacky Ickx
Jackie Oliver

Porsche
Automobile
Company

J.W. Automotive Ford GT40 MkI


Engineering

1970

Ignazio Giunti
SpA Ferrari
Nino
SEFAC
Vaccarella
Mario Andretti

Ferrari 512S

2,075.410km
(1,289.600mi)

International
Championship for
Makes

1971

Vic Elford
Grard
Larrousse

Porsche 917K

2,175.833km
(1,352.000mi)

International
Championship for
Makes

Ferrari 312PB

2,167.465km
(1,346.800mi)

World Championship
for Makes

Porsche Carrera
RSR

1,891.301km
(1,175.200mi)

IMSA GT
Championship

1972
1973

Martini Racing

Mario Andretti
SpA Ferrari
Jacky Ickx
SEFAC
Hurley
Haywood
Peter Gregg
Dave Helmick

Dave Helmick

1974
1975

1976

No race due to energy crisis


Hans-Joachim
Stuck
Brian Redman
Allan Moffat
Al Holbert
Mike Keyser

BMW
Motorsport

BMW 3.0 CSL

1,991.724km
(1,237.600mi)

IMSA GT
Championship

Holbert
Porsche-Audi

Porsche Carrera
RSR

1,924.775km
(1,196.000mi)

IMSA GT
Championship

12 Hours of Sebring

85

1977

George Dyer
Brad Frisselle

George Dyer

Porsche Carrera
RSR

1,958.450km
(1,216.924mi)

IMSA GT
Championship

1978

Brian Redman
Charles
Mendez
Bob Garretson

Dick Barbour
Racing

Porsche 935

2,008.461km
(1,248.000mi)

IMSA GT
Championship

1979

Bob Akin
Rob McFarlin
Roy Woods

Dick Barbour
Racing

Porsche 935

2,000.093km
(1,242.800mi)

IMSA GT
Championship

1980

John
Fitzpatrick
Dick Barbour

Dick Barbour
Racing

Porsche 935 K3

2,117.253km
(1,315.600mi)

IMSA GT
Championship

1981

Bruce Leven
Hurley
Haywood
Al Holbert

Bayside Disposal Porsche 935/80


Racing

2,050.304km
(1,274.000mi)

IMSA GT
Championship
World Endurance
Championship

2,041.936km
(1,268.800mi)

IMSA GT
Championship

1982

John Paul, Sr.


John Paul, Jr.

JLP Racing

Porsche 935
JLP-3

4.7 mile/7.52km circuit


1983

Wayne Baker
Jim Mullen
Kees Nierop

1984

Mauricio de
Narvaez
Hans Heyer
Stefan
Johansson

1985

A. J. Foyt
Bob Wollek

1986

Hans-Joachim
Stuck
Jo Gartner
Bob Akin

Personalized
Autohaus

Porsche 934A

1,765.853km
(1,097.250mi)

IMSA GT
Championship

De Narvaez
Enterprises

Porsche 935J

2,057.031km
(1,278.180mi)

IMSA GT
Championship

Preston Henn

Porsche 962

2,197.817km
(1,365.660mi)

IMSA GT
Championship

Bob Akin Motor


Racing

Porsche 962

2,244.745km
(1,394.820mi)

IMSA GT
Championship

4.2 mile/6.85km circuit


1987
1988

Jochen Mass
Bobby Rahal
Klaus Ludwig
Hans-Joachim
Stuck

Bayside Disposal Porsche 962


Racing

1,971.092km
(1,224.780mi)

IMSA GT
Championship

Bayside Disposal Porsche 962


Racing

2,103.380km
(1,306.980mi)

IMSA GT
Championship

1989

Geoff Brabham
Electramotive
Chip Robinson Engineering
Arie Luyendyk

Nissan GTP
ZX-Turbo

2,182.753km
(1,356.300mi)

IMSA GT
Championship

1990

Derek Daly
Bob Earl

Nissan GTP
ZX-Turbo

1,990.936km
(1,237.110mi)

IMSA GT
Championship

1,774.463km
(1,102.600mi)

IMSA GT
Championship

Nissan
Performance
Technology

3.72 mile/5.99km circuit


1991

Derek Daly
Nissan
Geoff Brabham Performance
Gary Brabham Technology

Nissan NPT-90

12 Hours of Sebring

86

1992

Juan Manuel
Fangio II
Andy Wallace

All American
Racers

Eagle
MkIII-Toyota

2,143.646km
(1,332.000mi)

IMSA GT
Championship

1993

Juan Manuel
Fangio II
Andy Wallace

All American
Racers

Eagle
MkIII-Toyota

1,369.552km
(851.000mi)B

IMSA GT
Championship

1994

Steve Millen
Johnny
O'Connell
John Morton

Clayton
Cunningham Racing

Nissan 300ZX

1,947.145km
(1,209.900mi)

IMSA GT
Championship

1995

Andy Evans
Fermn Vlez
Eric van de
Poele

Scandia
Motorsports

Ferrari 333 SP

1,548.189km
(962.000mi)B

IMSA GT
Championship

1996

Wayne Taylor
Jim Pace
Eric van de
Poele

Doyle Racing

Riley & Scott Mk P


III-Oldsmobile

1,935.075km
(1,202.400mi)

IMSA GT
Championship

1997

Andy Evans
Fermn Vlez
Yannick
Dalmas
Stefan
Johansson

Team Scandia

Ferrari 333 SP

1,628.012km
(1,011.600mi)B

IMSA GT
Championship

1998

Didier Theys
Gianpiero
Moretti
Mauro Baldi

MOMO Doran
Racing

Ferrari 333 SP

1,925.178km
(1,196.250mi)

IMSA GT
Championship

1,863.781km
(1,158.100mi)

American Le Mans
Series

3.74 mile/6.02km circuit


1999

Tom
Kristensen
JJ Lehto
Jrg Mller

2000

Frank Biela
Audi Sport North Audi R8
Tom
America
Kristensen
Emanuele Pirro

2,143.646km
(1,332.000mi)

American Le Mans
Series

2001

Rinaldo
Capello
Michele
Alboreto
Laurent Aello

Audi Sport North Audi R8


America

2,203.192km
(1,369.000mi)

American Le Mans
Series
European Le Mans
Series

2002

Audi Sport North Audi R8


Rinaldo
America
Capello
Christian
Pescatori
Johnny Herbert

2,060.282km
(1,280.200mi)

American Le Mans
Series

2,185.328km
(1,357.900mi)

American Le Mans
Series

2003

Frank Biela
Marco Werner
Philipp Peter

BMW
Motorsport

Infineon Team
Joest

BMW V12 LMR

Audi R8

12 Hours of Sebring

2004

Allan McNish
Frank Biela
Pierre Kaffer

2005

2006

2007

87
Audi Sport UK
Team Veloqx

Audi R8

2,084.101km
(1,295.000mi)

American Le Mans
Series

JJ Lehto
Marco Werner
Tom
Kristensen

ADT Champion
Racing

Audi R8

2,149.601km
(1,335.700mi)

American Le Mans
Series

Tom
Kristensen
Allan McNish
Rinaldo
Capello

Audi Sport North Audi R10 TDI


America
(Diesel)

2,078.145km
(1,291.299mi)

American Le Mans
Series

Frank Biela
Audi Sport North Audi R10 TDI
Emanuele Pirro America
(Diesel)
Marco Werner

2,165.8km (1,345.8mi)

American Le Mans
Series

2,088.45km
(1,297.70mi)

American Le Mans
Series

2,278.85km
(1,416.01mi)C

American Le Mans
Series

2008

Timo Bernhard
Romain Dumas
Emmanuel
Collard

Penske Racing

Porsche RS
Spyder

2009

Tom
Kristensen
Allan McNish
Rinaldo
Capello

Audi Sport Team Audi R15 TDI


Joest
(Diesel)

2010

Marc Gen
Alexander
Wurz
Anthony
Davidson

Team Peugeot
Total

Peugeot 908 HDi


FAP
(Diesel)

2,185.328km
(1,357.900mi)

American Le Mans
Series

2011

Loc Duval
Nicolas
Lapierre
Olivier Panis

Team Oreca
Matmut

Peugeot 908 HDi


FAP
(Diesel)

1,975.4km (1,227.5mi)

American Le Mans
Series
Intercontinental Le
Mans Cup

2012

Tom
Kristensen
Allan McNish
Rinaldo
Capello

Audi Sport Team Audi R18 TDI


Joest
(Diesel)

1,933.8km (1,201.6mi)

FIA World Endurance


Championship
American Le Mans
Series

2013

Marcel Fssler
Benot
Trluyer
Oliver Jarvis

Audi Sport Team Audi R18 e-tron


Joest
quattro
(hybrid diesel)

2,191.3km (1,361.6mi)

American Le Mans
Series

^A The car was in fact, a Porsche 935 K3 that has been modified with a single plug cylinder head and a front
nose to resemble a Porsche 934 to comply to IMSA GTO specification.[2]
^B These races were stopped for a period of time due to heavy rain and/or accidents. The race clock was not
stopped for these periods and counted towards the 12 Hours.
^C Race record for most distance covered.
^D Technically the race "winner" in 1950 was the Crosley Hot Shot of Fritz Koster / Ralph Deshon, entered
by Victor Sharpe Jr. of Tampa. While the Wacker / Burrell Allard did cover more distance, the race was run
under the "Index of Performance" handicapping rules and the Crosley, with a much smaller engine than the

12 Hours of Sebring
Cadillac-powered Allard, is listed in the Official Sebring Record Book as the winner.

References
[1] Sam Collier Memorial Sebring Grand Prix of Endurance Six Hours, www.racingsportscars.com (http:/ / www. racingsportscars. com/ results/
Sebring-1950-12-31. html) Retrieved on 31 July 2012

External links
Official Homepage (http://www.sebringraceway.com/)
ALMS Official Homepage (http://www.americanlemans.com/)

8 Hours of Suzuka
The Coca-Cola Zero Suzuka 8 Hours ( 8 Suzuka hachi-jikan taiky rdo
rsu, Suzuka 8 Hours Endurance Road Race) is a motorcycle endurance race held at the Suzuka Circuit in Japan each
year. The race runs for eight hours consecutively and teams are composed of two riders and one alternate.

History
The race began in 1978 as a race for prototype Tourist Trophy Formula One (TT-F1) motorcycles which meant the
big four Japanese companies (Honda, Kawasaki, Suzuki and Yamaha), who had unlimited engineering resources,
could use them on the track.
Throughout the years, the race had gone through several rule changes in accordance to the FIM, including the
restriction to 750cc for F1 bikes
One major change for the race came in 1993. Due to the high popularity of Superbike racing, which had been a
support class in previous 8 Hours races, the race now centered around superbikes. The Formula One class, which at
the time was the pinnacle of the race, would be removed altogether. Another category included in the race is the
Naked class (for motorcycles without fairings - similar to the streetfighter bikes).
At the event's peak during the 1980s, the race attracted in excess of 130,000 spectators while presently it attracts a
crowd around 85,000. The record attendance figure is 160,000 in 1990.[1] The race is part of the FIM Endurance
World Championship for motorcycles and with the exception of 2005, due to the high importance the big four
Japanese manufacturers place on the race, the governing bodies set a race date that avoids conflict with any of the
other major championship races.

Star riders
A main attraction of the Suzuka 8 Hours race is that it normally features star riders from MotoGP and Superbike
racing factions from around the world. It is not uncommon for a rider to have the 8 Hours race written into their
contracts when they acquire a factory ride in MotoGP or Superbike. If the rider has notable success in their
respective class during the season, they will usually negotiate to have the requirement of racing future 8 Hours races
removed from their contract. Most high-level riders don't like racing it because it breaks up their mid-season
momentum and because it is physically draining. Michael Doohan is an example of one such rider who raced the 8
Hours early in his career but had his contractual obligations to the race removed following his significant success in
500cc (now MotoGP).
On the other hand, high-level Japanese riders return for the race annually as it is regarded by the Japanese as one of
the biggest motorsport events on the calendar. As the Coke Zero Suzuka 8 Hours is part of the FIM World
Endurance Racing Championship, its priority on the international calendar, along with the off-weeks in the FIM

88

8 Hours of Suzuka

89

calendar, makes this race one of the most crucial on the schedule.
Since the 2003 race, race winners have almost been exclusively Japanese, with only an occasional international-level
star in the race. This is mostly a result of the date, sometimes conflicting, while other times within just days after the
MotoGP class Laguna Seca round. Since 2002, only World Superbike stars have participated in the event, and only
two European riders have won.

Winners
Year

Riders

Manufacturer

Motorcycle

Plate Number

2012

Kousuke Akiyoshi Honda


Tadayuki Okada
Jonathan Rea

CBR1000RRW

11

2011

Kousuke Akiyoshi Honda


Ryuichi Kiyonari
Shinichi Itoh

CBR1000RRW

11

2010

Takumi Takahashi Honda


Ryuichi Kiyonari
Takaaki Nakagami

CBR1000RRW

634

2009

Suzuki
Daisaku Sakai
Kazuki Tokudome
Nobuatsu Aoki

S-GSX-R1000

12

2008

Ryuichi Kiyonari
Carlos Checa

CBR1000RRW

11

2007

Yukio Kagayama Suzuki


Kousuke Akiyoshi

S-GSX-R1000

34

2006

Takeshi Tsujimura Honda


Shinichi Itoh

CBR1000RRW

778

2005

Tohru Ukawa
Ryuichi Kiyonari

Honda

CBR1000RRW

2004

Tohru Ukawa
Hitoyasu Izutsu

Honda

CBR1000RRW

2003

Yukio Nukumi
Manabu Kamada

Honda

VTR1000SPW

71

2002

Daijiro Kato
Colin Edwards

Honda

VTR1000SPW

11

2001

Valentino Rossi
Colin Edwards

Honda

VTR1000SPW

11

2000

Tohru Ukawa
Daijiro Kato

Honda

VTR1000SPW

1999

Tadayuki Okada
Alex Barros

Honda

RC45

1998

Shinichi Itoh
Tohru Ukawa

Honda

RC45

33

1997

Shinichi Itoh
Tohru Ukawa

Honda

RC45

33

1996

Colin Edwards
Noriyuki Haga

Yamaha

YZF750

45

Honda

8 Hours of Suzuka

90
1995

Aaron Slight
Tadayuki Okada

Honda

RC45

11

1994

Doug Polen
Aaron Slight

Honda

RC45

11

1993

Scott Russell
Aaron Slight

Kawasaki

ZXR-7

1992

Wayne Gardner
Daryl Beattie

Honda

RVF750

11

1991

Wayne Gardner
Mick Doohan

Honda

RVF750

11

1990

Tadahiko Taira
Eddie Lawson

Yamaha

YZF750

21

1989

Dominique Sarron Honda


Alex Vieira

RVF750

1988

Kevin Magee
Wayne Rainey

Yamaha

YZF750

1987

Martin Wimmer
Kevin Magee

Yamaha

YZF750

21

1986

Wayne Gardner
Honda
Dominique Sarron

RVF750

1985

Wayne Gardner
Masaki Tokuno

Honda

RVF750

1984

Mike Baldwin
Fred Merkel

Honda

RS750R

1983

Herv Moineau
Richard Hubin

Suzuki

GS1000R

1982

Shigeo Iijima
Shinji Hagiwara

Honda

CB900F

27

1981

Mike Baldwin
David Aldana

Honda

RS1000

1980

Wes Cooley
Graeme Crosby

Suzuki

GS1000

12

1979

Tony Hatton
Michael Cole

Honda

CB900

1978

Wes Cooley
Mike Baldwin

Suzuki

GS1000

8 Hours of Suzuka

References
External links
Suzuka 8 Hours Official Website (http://www.suzukacircuit.jp/8tai/)
Suzuka Circuit Website (http://www.suzukacircuit.com/) - English version
2009 Suzuka 8 Hours results (http://www.suzukacircuit.jp/result_s/2009/8tai/0726_8tai_f.html)
Suzuka 8 Hours (http://www.tbs.co.jp/8tai/) - TBS Channel site
Suzuka 8 Hours Site (http://suzuka8h.powertag.jp/)
Moto Race Japan year by year results (http://www.motoracing-japan.com/result/index.html)

91

6 Hours of Watkins Glen

92

6 Hours of Watkins Glen


Six Hours of Watkins Glen

Rolex Sports Car Series


Venue

Watkins Glen International

Corporate sponsor

Sahlen's

First race

1948

First Grand-Am race

2000

Duration

six hours

Previous names

Watkins Glen Grand Prix

Most wins (driver)

Walt Hansgen, Derek Bell, James Weaver, Scott Pruett (4)

Most wins (team)

Briggs Cunningham (8)

Most wins (manufacturer) Porsche (10)

The Six Hours of Watkins Glen (currently sponsored as the Sahlen's Six Hours of The Glen) is a sports car
endurance race held annually at Watkins Glen International in Watkins Glen, New York. The race dates from 1948,
and has been a part of the SCCA National Sports Car Championship, United States Road Racing Championship,
World Sportscar Championship, IMSA GT Championship, and currently the Rolex Sports Car Series.

History
The first Watkins Glen Grand Prix was held in 1948 on a 6.6-mile
course around Watkins Glen State Park and the village of Watkins
Glen. Cameron Argetsinger, a Cornell law student and SCCA member,
organized the event along with the local Chamber of Commerce. The
8-lap, 52.8-mile race was won by Frank Griswold in a pre-war Alfa
Romeo 8C. In 1950, three spectators were injured during a support
race, and driver Sam Collier was killed during the Grand Prix. The
1951 event became a part of the new SCCA National Sports Car
Frank Griswold won the first Watkins Glen
Championship series. In 1952, twelve spectators were injured and one
Grand Prix in this 1938 Alfa Romeo 8C 2900B
[1]
[]
killed when a car left the circuit in the village. This led organizers to
Touring Berlinetta
move the course to a hillside southwest of Watkins Glen for 1953.
Drivers complained of poor visibility and run-off, prompting the construction of a permanent circuit, today called
Watkins Glen International, in 1956.[2]
In 1963, the race switched to the SCCA's new series, the United States Road Racing Championship. In 1968, the race
was expanded to six hours, and joined the World Sportscar Championship. Along with the 24 Hours of Daytona and
12 Hours of Sebring, the Six Hours of Watkins Glen served as an American round of the WSC from 1968 until 1981,
traditionally held during the summer. With the track's bankruptcy and the FIA's decision not to return the World

6 Hours of Watkins Glen

93

Championship to the United States in 1982, the event was not held again until 1984. It returned as an event for the
IMSA Camel GT Championship.
Under the control of IMSA, the event was radically altered and shortened. In the 1984 running, a break was held
after three hours before the race began again and completed the next three hours. This event became known as the
Camel Continental. A second event later in the year was also held lasting for just three hours or 500kilometers, and
was known as the New York 500. The Continental was modified once more in 1985, this time running sports
prototypes in one three hour event, and grand tourer cars in a second three hour event. By 1986, the event was
shortened altogether, and became a single 500mile race, then shortened once more in 1987 to just 500km.
For several years IMSA kept the Continental as a 500km race for prototypes in the summer, and the 500km New
York 500 for grand tourers in autumn. IMSA chose to drop the New York 500 in 1992, retaining the Continental as
an event just for prototypes until 1995. In 1996, IMSA restored the Watkins Glen event to its historic format,
combining prototypes and grand tourers once again.
By 1998, Watkins Glen chose to schedule the Six Hours as part of the new United States Road Racing
Championship. This championship change was short lived, as the USSRC folded during the 1999 season prior to
their second running at Watkins Glen, leaving an FIA GT Championship event as the year's sportscar headliner. In
the wake of USRRC's collapse, the Grand American Road Racing Championship took control of the event, and have
retained the Six Hours since 2000 as part of the Rolex Sports Car Series.

Race winners
First street course
Year

Drivers

Team

Car

Duration/Distance

Race Title

Championship

1948

Frank
Griswold

Frank
Griswold

Alfa Romeo 8C
2900B

50mi (80km)

Grand Prix
Watkins Glen

Non-championship

1949

Miles
Collier

Collier
Bros.

Riley-Mercury
Special
"Ardent
[3]
Alligator"

100mi (160km)

Grand Prix
Watkins Glen

Non-championship

1950

Erwin
Goldschmidt

Alfred
Goldschmidt

Allard J2-Cadillac 100mi (160km)

Sports Car Grand


Prix of Watkins
Glen

Non-championship

1951

Phil
Walters

Briggs
Cunningham

Cunningham C2R 100mi (160km)

Sports Car Grand


Prix of Watkins
Glen

SCCA National Sports


Car Championship

1952

Briggs
Cunningham

Briggs
Cunningham

Cunningham
C4R-Chrysler

100mi (160km) Sports Car Grand


Prix of Watkins
Glen

SCCA National Sports


Car Championship

Not completed; race stopped after fatal accident involving spectators

Second street course

6 Hours of Watkins Glen

Year
1953

1954

1955

Drivers
Walt
Hansgen
Phil Walters

Sherwood
Johnston

94

Team

Car

Duration/Distance

Race Title

Championship

Walt
Hansgen

Jaguar XK120

100mi (160km)

Sports Car Grand Non-championship


Prix of Watkins
Glen

Briggs
Cunningham

Cunningham
C4R-Chrysler

100mi (160km)

Sports Car Grand SCCA National Sports


Prix of Watkins
Car Championship
Glen

Briggs
Cunningham

Jaguar D-Type

100mi (160km)

Sports Car Grand SCCA National Sports


Prix of Watkins
Car Championship
Glen

Watkins Glen International


Year
1956

Drivers
George
Constantine

Team

Car

Duration/Distance

Race Title

Championship

Mary L.
Constantine

Jaguar D-Type

50mi (80km)

Sports Car
Grand Prix of
Watkins Glen

SCCA National
Sports Car
Championship

1957

Walt Hansgen

Briggs
Cunningham

Jaguar D-Type

100mi (160km)

Watkins Glen
Grand Prix

SCCA National
Sports Car
Championship

1958

Ed Crawford

Briggs
Cunningham

Lister-Jaguar

100mi (160km)

Grand Prix
Watkins Glen

SCCA National
Sports Car
Championship

1959

Walt Hansgen

Briggs
Cunningham

Lister-Costin
Jaguar

100mi (160km)

Watkins Glen
Grand Prix

SCCA National
Sports Car
Championship

1960

Augie Pabst

Meister Brauser

Scarab Mk
II-Chevrolet

100mi (160km)

Watkins Glen
Grand Prix

SCCA National
Sports Car
Championship

John T. Bunch

Ferrari 250 TR 59

100mi (160km)

Grand Prix at
Watkins Glen

SCCA National
Sports Car
Championship

Cooper Monaco
T61-Buick

100mi (160km)

Grand Prix at
Watkins Glen

SCCA National
Sports Car
Championship

Porsche 718 RS61 300km (190mi)

Watkins Glen
Sports Car
Grand Prix

United States
Road Racing
Championship

1961

George
Constantine

1962

Walt Hansgen

Briggs
Cunningham

1963

Bob Holbert

1964

Jim Hall

Chaparral Cars

Chaparral
2A-Chevrolet

200mi (320km)

Watkins Glen
Sports Car
Grand Prix

United States
Road Racing
Championship

1965

Jim Hall

Chaparral Cars

Chaparral
2A-Chevrolet

200mi (320km)

Watkins Glen
Sports Car
Grand Prix

United States
Road Racing
Championship

1966

John Fulp

Lola T70
Mk.2-Chevrolet

200mi (320km)

Watkins Glen
Sports Car
Grand Prix

United States
Road Racing
Championship

6 Hours of Watkins Glen

95

1967

Mark
Donohue

Roger Penske

Lola T70
Mk.3-Chevrolet

200mi (320km)

Sports Car
Grand Prix at
Watkins Glen

1968

Mark
Donohue

Roger Penske

McLaren
M6A-Chevrolet

200mi (320km)

Watkins Glen
United States
Sports Car Road Road Racing
Race
Championship

Jacky Ickx
Lucien
Bianchi
1969

J.W. Automotive Ford GT40


Engineering

Porsche of
Jo Siffert
Austria
Brian Redman

Porsche 908/02

six hours
1,058.626km
(657.800mi)

United States
Road Racing
Championship

World Sportscar
Championship

six hours
1,077.134km
(669.300mi)

Watkins Glen
Six Hours

World Sportscar
Championship

six hours
1,140.059km
(708.400mi)

6 Hours of the
Glen

World Sportscar
Championship

Alfa Romeo T33/3 six hours


1,090.189km
(677.412mi)

6 Hours of the
Glen

World Sportscar
Championship

1970

Pedro
J.W. Automotive Porsche 917K
Rodrguez
Engineering
Leo Kinnunen
Jo Siffert

1971

Andrea de
Adamich
Ronnie
Peterson

1972

Mario
Andretti
Jacky Ickx

SpA Ferrari
SEFAC

Ferrari 312PB

six hours
1,059.777km
(658.515mi)

6 Hours of the
Glen

World Sportscar
Championship

1973

Grard
Larrousse
Henri
Pescarolo

quipe
Matra-Simca

Matra-Simca MS
670B

six hours
1,081.516km
(672.023mi)

6 Hours of the
Glen

World Sportscar
Championship

1974

Jean-Pierre
Jarier
Jean-Pierre
Beltoise

Matra-Simca MS
670C

six hours
1,048.906km
(651.760mi)

6 Hours of the
Glen

World Sportscar
Championship

1975

Derek Bell
Henri
Pescarolo

Willi Kauhsen
Racing Team

Alfa Romeo
33TT12

six hours
826.083km
(513.304mi)

6 Hours of the
Glen

World Sportscar
Championship

1976

Rolf
Stommelen
Manfred
Schurti

Martini Racing
Porsche System

Porsche 935

six hours
945.647km
(587.598mi)

6 Hours of the
Glen

World Sportscar
Championship

Martini Racing
Porsche System

Porsche 935/77

six hours
940.213km
(584.221mi)

6 Hours of the
Glen

World Sportscar
Championship

GeLo Racing
Team

Porsche 935/77

six hours
793.474km
(493.042mi)

World
Championship
6-Hours

World Sportscar
Championship

Porsche 935 K3

six hours
951.082km
(590.975mi)

World
Championship
6-Hours

World Sportscar
Championship

1977

Jochen Mass
Jacky Ickx

Autodelta SpA

quipe Gitanes

1978

Toine
Hezemans
John
Fitzpatrick

1979

Don
Whittington
Whittington
Brothers
Klaus Ludwig
Kremer Racing
Bill
Whittington

6 Hours of Watkins Glen

96

1980

Hans Heyer
Riccardo
Patrese

Lancia Corse

Lancia Beta Monte six hours


Carlo
755.431km
(469.403mi)

World
Championship
6-Hours

World Sportscar
Championship

1981

Riccardo
Patrese
Michele
Alboreto

Martini Racing

Lancia Beta Monte six hours


Carlo
940.213km
(584.221mi)

Glen Six Hours


of Endurance

World Sportscar
Championship

1982 Not held


1983
1984

Al Holbert
Derek Bell
Jim Adams

Holbert Racing

Porsche 962

six hours
1,054.342km
(655.138mi)

Camel
Continental

IMSA GT
Championship

1985

Al Holbert
Derek Bell

Holbert Racing

Porsche 962

three hours

Camel
Continental

IMSA GT
Championship

1986

Al Holbert
Derek Bell

Holbert Racing

Porsche 962

500mi (800km)

Camel
Continental

IMSA GT
Championship

1987

Price Cobb
Vern
Schuppan

Dyson Racing

Porsche 962

500km (310mi)

Camel
Continental

IMSA GT
Championship

1988

Geoff
Brabham
John Morton

Electramotive
Engeineering

Nissan GTP
ZX-Turbo

500km (310mi)

Camel
Continental

IMSA GT
Championship

1989

Geoff
Brabham
Chip
Robinson

Electramotive
Engeineering

Nissan GTP
ZX-Turbo

500km (310mi)

Camel
Continental

IMSA GT
Championship

1990

Chip
Robinson
Bob Earl

Nissan
Performance
Technology

Nissan NPT-90

500km (310mi)

Camel
Continental

IMSA GT
Championship

1991

Juan Manuel
Fangio II

All American
Racers

Eagle
HF90-Toyota

500km (310mi)

Camel
Continental

IMSA GT
Championship

1992

Juan Manuel
Fangio II

All American
Racers

Eagle
MkIII-Toyota

two hours,
forty-five minutes

Camel
Continental

IMSA GT
Championship

1993

Juan Manuel
Fangio II

All American
Racers

Eagle
MkIII-Toyota

500km (310mi)

Camel
Continental

IMSA GT
Championship

1994

Giampiero
Moretti
Eliseo Salazar

MOMO

Ferrari 333 SP

three hours

Glen Continental IMSA GT


Championship

1995

Butch
Leitzinger
James Weaver

Dyson Racing

Riley & Scott Mk


III-Ford

three hours

Glen Continental IMSA GT


Championship

1996

Giampiero
Moretti
Max Papis

MOMO

Ferrari 333 SP

six hours
973.975km
(605.200mi)

First Union 6
Hours of the
Glen

IMSA GT
Championship

1997

Butch
Leitzinger
James Weaver
Elliott
Forbes-Robinson

Dyson Racing

Riley & Scott Mk


III-Ford

six hours
924.980km
(574.756mi)

First Union 6
Hours of the
Glen

IMSA GT
Championship

6 Hours of Watkins Glen

97

1998

Giampiero
Moretti
Mauro Baldi
Didier Theys

MOMO/Doran
Racing

Ferrari 333 SP

six hours
949.392km
(589.925mi)

First Union 6
Hours of the
Glen

United States
Road Racing
Championship

1999

Jean-Philippe
Belloc
David
Donohue

Viper Team
Oreca

Chrysler Viper
GTS-R

three hours

Bosch Sports
Car Oktoberfest

FIA GT
Championship

2000

James Weaver
Andy Wallace
Butch
Leitzinger

Dyson Racing

Riley & Scott Mk


III-Ford

six hours
931.632km
(578.889mi)

Bosch Sports
Car Summerfest

Grand American
Road Racing
Championship

2001

Didier Theys
Mauro Baldi
Freddy
Lienhard

Doran Racing

Ferrari 333
SP-Judd

six hours
988.256km
(614.074mi)

Sports Car
Grand American
Grand Prix at the Road Racing
Glen
Championship

Dyson Racing

Riley & Scott Mk


III-Ford

six hours
1,038.224km
(645.122mi)

Six Hours of the Grand-Am Rolex


Glen
Sports Car Series

Brumos Porsche

Fabcar
FDSC/03-Porsche

six hours
927.184km
(576.125mi)

Sahlen's Six
Hours of the
Glen

Grand-Am Rolex
Sports Car Series

Riley Mk
XI-Lexus

six hours
910.528km
(565.776mi)

Sahlen's Six
Hours of the
Glen

Grand-Am Rolex
Sports Car Series

2002

2003

2004

James Weaver
Chris Dyson
David
Donohue
Mike
Borkowski
Scott
Goodyear
Max Papis
Scott Pruett

Chip Ganassi
Racing

2005

Tracy Krohn
Niclas
Jnsson

Krohn Racing

Riley Mk
XI-Pontiac

six hours
832.800km
(517.478mi)

Sahlen's Six
Hours of the
Glen

Grand-Am Rolex
Sports Car Series

2006

Jrg
Bergmeister
Boris Said

Krohn Racing

Riley Mk XI-Ford

6 hours
855.008km
(531.277mi)

Sahlen's Six
Hours of the
Glen

Grand-Am Rolex
Sports Car Series

2007

Alex Gurney
Jon Fogarty

Bob Stallings
Racing

Riley Mk
XI-Pontiac

six hours
927.184km
(576.125mi)

Sahlen's Six
Hours of the
Glen

Grand-Am Rolex
Sports Car Series

2008

Scott Pruett
Memo Rojas

Chip Ganassi
Racing

Riley Mk
XX-Lexus

six hours
993.808km
(617.524mi)

Sahlen's Six
Hours of the
Glen

Grand-Am Rolex
Sports Car Series

2009

Scott Pruett
Memo Rojas

Chip Ganassi
Racing

Riley Mk
XX-Lexus

six hours
1,020.840km
(634.321mi)

Sahlen's Six
Hours of the
Glen

Grand-Am Rolex
Sports Car Series

2010

Scott Pruett
Memo Rojas

Chip Ganassi
Racing with Felix
Sabates

Riley Mk
XX-BMW

six hours
1,037.130km
(644.443mi)

Sahlen's Six
Hours of the
Glen

Grand-Am Rolex
Sports Car Series

2011

Max Angelelli
Ricky Taylor

six hours
944.820km
(587.084mi)

Sahlen's Six
Hours of the
Glen

Grand-Am Rolex
Sports Car Series

SunTrust Racing Dallara


DP08-Chevrolet

6 Hours of Watkins Glen

2012

Joo Barbosa
Darren Law

98
Action Express
Racing

Chevrolet Corvette six hours


DP
995.656km
(Coyote
(618.672mi)
CPM-Chevrolet)

Sahlen's Six
Hours of the
Glen

Grand-Am Rolex
Sports Car Series

References
Ultimate Racing History: Watkins Glen archive (http://www.ultimateracinghistory.com/racelist3.
php?trackid=165)
Racing Sports Cars: Watkins Glen archive (http://www.racingsportscars.com/track/archive/Watkins Glen.
html)
World Sports Racing Prototypes: SCCA National archive (http://wsrp.ic.cz/nationals.html), USRRC archive
(http://wsrp.ic.cz/usrrc.html), WSC archive (http://wsrp.ic.cz/wsc.html), IMSA archive (http://wsrp.ic.
cz/imsa.html)

External links
Watkins Glen International (http://www.theglen.com/)
Grand-Am Rolex Sports Car Series (http://www.grand-am.com/)

1000 km Nrburgring

99

1000 km Nrburgring
Nrburgring 1000km-Rennen
Le Mans Series
Venue

Nrburgring

First race

1953

First LMS race

2004

Distance

1000 km (621 mi)

Most wins (driver)

Stirling Moss (4)

Most wins (team)

SpA Ferrari (7)

Most wins (manufacturer) Porsche (11)

The ADAC 1000km Nrburgring is an endurance race for sports cars held on the Nrburgring in Germany and
organized by the ADAC since 1953.

History
On the traditional 22.810km long Nordschleife ("Northern Loop") version, the competition took usually 44 laps
(1003.64km, since 1967 1004.74km) and lasted about eight hours, later less than six hours. While the 1974 event
was shortened in the wake of the oil crisis, the 1976 race was extended by 3 laps and covered 1073.245km.
The first event that counted towards the World Sportscar Championship was won by Alberto Ascari and Giuseppe
Farina in a Ferrari. Due to disappointing attendance, the race was not held in the following two years. It became
quite popular in the 1960s and 1970s though, and even more so after Formula One decided not to race at the
Nrburgring after 1976 on safety grounds.
The last race on the Northern Loop in 1983 was won by Jochen Mass and Jacky Ickx in their Rothmans Porsche 956.
In that year, due to the ongoing construction work, the track had been shorted to 20.832km and provisional pits were
used. This event saw the fastest ever timed lap of the Nordschleife when German driver Stefan Bellof lapped his
Rothmans Porsche in 6:11.13 during practice, and an average of over 200 kph. Bellof also set the race lap record
during that race lapping in 6:25.91.
Since 1984, the 1000km races were run on the new, much shorter Grand-Prix-Strecke, while the 24 Hours
Nrburgring stayed on the legendary long track. In 1991, the 1000km races were first shortened to 480km, then
discontinued overall due to the demise of the World Sportscar Championship.
In 2000, the 1000km were resumed, with new competitive cars of BMW and Audi. The race was held as a part of
the European Le Mans Series (ELMS), the European version of the American Le Mans Series (ALMS). In a wet
race, the unusual front-engined Panoz of Jan Magnussen and David Brabham won, ahead of a BMW V12 LMR, an
Audi R8 and the second Panoz.
On September 4, 2005, the 1000km was held as a part of the Le Mans Endurance Series (LMES).
The 500km Nrburgring was also similar event for smaller sportscars during the 1960s and 1970s.
VLN also runs a six hour endurance race, while covering only 4h in other heats. In 2010, for the first time a distance
of more than 1000km was covered by the winning Porsche 911 GT3.[1]
Current record of most wins belongs to Stirling Moss who won the race in 1956, 1958, 1959 and 1960.

1000 km Nrburgring

100

In 2010, the winning Porsche 911 GT3 R of the 6h ADAC Ruhr-Pokal-Rennen race was the first[2] to cover more
than 1000km in a 6-hour VLN endurance race for GT3 and touring cars, lapping the 24,369km long modern version
of the Nordschleife 42 times for 1023.498km in a time of 6:06:56.091. The 2012 winner, a Mercedes-Benz SLS
AMG GT3, covered the same distance in a time of only 6:01:29.541,[3] at an average of 169.879 kph.

The present as a vintage car race event


As a part of the Oldtimer Festival in 2010 the tradition and name of the renowned ADAC 1000 km of Nrburgring
will be continued by the motor sport club DAMC 05. In contrast to former years, the race is organised for older cars
and therefore the term classic was added to the name.[4][5]

Winners

Nrburgring Nordschleife, used from 1953-1982

Year

Drivers

Team

Car

Time

Championship

1000km distance, 22.8km circuit


1953

Alberto Ascari
Giuseppe Farina

Automobili Ferrari

Ferrari 375MM
Spyder

8:20:44.000

World Sportscar
Championship

Maserati 300S

7:43:54.400

World Sportscar
Championship
German Sportscar
Championship

1954

No Race

1955

No Race

1956

Piero Taruffi
Harry Schell
Jean Behra
Stirling Moss

1957

Tony Brooks
Nol
Cunningham-Reid

David Brown

Aston Martin DBR1

7:33:38.200

World Sportscar
Championship

1958

Stirling Moss
Jack Brabham

David Brown

Aston Martin DBR1

7:23:33.000

World Sportscar
Championship

1959

Stirling Moss
Jack Fairman

David Brown

Aston Martin DBR1

7:33:18.000

World Sportscar
Championship

1960

Stirling Moss
Dan Gurney

Camoradi USA

Maserati Tipo 61

7:31:40.500

World Sportscar
Championship

1961

Lloyd Casner
Masten Gregory

Camoradi USA

Maserati Tipo 61

7:51:39.200

World Sportscar
Championship

Officine Alfieri
Maserati

1000 km Nrburgring

101

1962

Phil Hill
Olivier Gendebien

SpA Ferrari SEFAC

Ferrari Dino 246SP

7:33:27.700

World Sportscar
Championship

1963

John Surtees
Willy Mairesse

SpA Ferrari SEFAC

Ferrari 250P

7:32:18.000

World Sportscar
Championship

1964

Ludovico Scarfiotti
Nino Vaccarella

SpA Ferrari SEFAC

Ferrari 275P

7:08:27.000

World Sportscar
Championship

1965

John Surtees
Ludovico Scarfiotti

SpA Ferrari SEFAC

Ferrari 330P2

6:53:05.400

World Sportscar
Championship

1966

Phil Hill
Jo Bonnier

Chaparral Cars Inc.

Chaparral
2D-Chevrolet

6:58:47.600

World Sportscar
Championship

1967

Joe Buzzetta
Udo Schtz

Porsche System
Engineering

Porsche 910

6:54:12.900

World Sportscar
Championship

1968

Vic Elford
Jo Siffert

Porsche System
Engineering

Porsche 908

6:34:06.300

World Sportscar
Championship

1969

Jo Siffert
Brian Redman

Porsche System
Engineering

Porsche 908/02

6:11:02.300

World Sportscar
Championship

1970

Vic Elford
Kurt Ahrens, Jr.

Porsche Salzburg

Porsche 908/03

6:05:21.200

World Sportscar
Championship

1971

Vic Elford
Grard Larrousse

Martini Racing

Porsche 908/03

5:51:49.300

World Sportscar
Championship

1972

Ronnie Peterson
Tim Schenken

SpA Ferrari SEFAC

Ferrari 312PB

6:01:40.200

World Sportscar
Championship
Deutsche Rennsport
Meisterschaft

1973

Jacky Ickx
Brian Redman

SpA Ferrari SEFAC

Ferrari 312PB

5:36:53.400

World Sportscar
Championship
Deutsche Rennsport
Meisterschaft

1974

Jean-Pierre Jarier
Jean-Pierre Beltoise

Equipe Gitanes

Matra-Simca MS670C 4:07:24.1001 World Sportscar


Championship
Deutsche Rennsport
Meisterschaft

1975

Arturo Merzario
Jacques Laffite

1976

Albrecht Krebs
Dieter Quester

Schnitzer Motorsport

1977

Rolf Stommelen
Tim Schenken
Toine Hezemans

1978

Willi Kauhsen Racing Alfa Romeo 33TT12


Team

5:41:14.100

World Sportscar
Championship

BMW 3.5 CSL

6:38:20.600

World Sportscar
Championship

Gelo Racing

Porsche 935

5:58:30.500

World Sportscar
Championship

Klaus Ludwig
Hans Heyer
Toine Hezemans

Gelo Racing

Porsche 935/77

5:55:46.600

World Sportscar
Championship

1979

Manfred Schurti
Bob Wollek
John Fitzpatrick

Gelo Racing

Porsche 935/77

5:57:35.100

World Sportscar
Championship

1980

Rolf Stommelen
Jrgen Barth

Joest Racing

Porsche 908/4 Turbo

5:52:15.100

World Sportscar
Championship

1981

Hans-Joachim Stuck
Nelson Piquet

GS Tuning

BMW M1 Gr.5

2:16:50.8602 World Sportscar


Championship

1000 km Nrburgring

1982

Michele Alboreto
Teo Fabi
Riccardo Patrese

102
Martini Racing

Lancia LC1 Spyder

5:54:10.830

World Sportscar
Championship

5:26:34.630

World Sportscar
Championship

6:00:43.590

World Sportscar
Championship
Deutsche Rennsport
Meisterschaft

1000km distance, 20.8km circuit


1983

Jochen Mass
Jacky Ickx

Porsche Racing
International

Porsche 956

1000km distance, 4.5km circuit


1984

Stefan Bellof
Derek Bell

Rothmans Porsche

1985

Porsche 956

No Race

1986

Henri Pescarolo
Mike Thackwell

1987

Eddie Cheever
Raul Boesel

1988

Jean-Louis Schlesser
Jochen Mass

Kouros Racing Team


Silk Cut Jaguar

Sauber C8-Mercedes

3:42:30.0203 World Sportscar


Championship

Jaguar XJR-8

5:55:53.120

World Sportscar
Championship

5:53:00.600

World Sportscar
Championship

Team Sauber Mercedes Sauber C9-Mercedes


480km distance, 4.5km circuit

1989

Jean-Louis Schlesser
Jochen Mass

Team Sauber
Mercedes

Sauber C9-Mercedes

2:47:14.599

World Sportscar
Championship

1990

Jean-Louis Schlesser
Mauro Baldi

Team Sauber
Mercedes

Mercedes-Benz C11

2:39:15.913

World Sportscar
Championship

2:23:41.028

World Sportscar
Championship

5:45:55.173

American Le Mans Series

Audi R8

6:00:32.645

Le Mans Series

Zytek Motorsport

Zytek 04S

6:01:06.739

Le Mans Series

Pescarolo Sport

Pescarolo C60-Judd

6:01:26.300

Le Mans Series

Team Peugeot Total

Peugeot 908 HDi FAP 6:01:13.628


(Diesel)

Le Mans Series

430km distance, 4.5km circuit


1991

Derek Warwick
David Brabham

Silk Cut Jaguar

1992
to
1999

Jaguar XJR-14
No Races

1000km distance, 4.5km circuit


2000

Jan Magnussen
David Brabham

Panoz Motor Sports

2001
to
2003

Panoz LMP1-lan
No Races

1000km distance, 5.1km circuit


2004

Allan McNish
Pierre Kaffer

2005

Tom Chilton
Hayanari Shimoda

2006

Jean-Christophe
Boullion
Emmanuel Collard
Eric Hlary

2007

Stphane Sarrazin
Pedro Lamy

Audi Sport UK
Veloqx

1000 km Nrburgring

103

2008

Stphane Sarrazin
Pedro Lamy

Team Peugeot Total

Peugeot 908 HDi FAP 5:44:48.174


(Diesel)

Le Mans Series

2009

Jan Charouz
Tom Enge
Stefan Mcke

Aston Martin Racing

Lola-Aston Martin
B09/60

Le Mans Series

5:57:26.595

1000km distance, 25.4km circuit


2010

Wolfgang Pohl
Daniel Schrey

Porsche Carrera RS

[6]

7:00:42,2484 FHR Langstreckencup

- 1974 Race scheduled for 750km only


- 1981 Race stopped after 17 laps due to fatal accident of Herbert Mller which caused track damage
3
- 1986 Race was stopped due to torrential rain and only ran approximately 600km.
4
- 2010 Race finished after 888km.
2

Gallery

Le-Mans-Start 1965

Pit stop in the sixties

Starting 1973

Jean-Pierre Jarier, winner 1974


on Matra Simca, together with
Jean-Pierre Beltoise

1965: Mike Parkes in front of


Graham Hill

Indianapolisstart 1969

References
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]

http:/ / www. vln. de/ newsausgabe. de. php?id=2325


http:/ / www. vln. de/ newsausgabe. de. php?id=2325& rennen=2010-07-31
http:/ / www. vln. de/ newsausgabe. de. php?id=3068
Homepage for the 2010 Oldtimer Festival.
Homepage of the Fahrergemeinschaft Historischer Rennsport.
Homepage DAMC 05.

External links
Official Website (http://www.1000km-nuerburgring.de/index.php?id=5)
Le Mans Series (http://www.lmes.net/2007/uk/nurburgring/index.asp) - 2007 1000km of Nrburgring
Story and Photos 1966-1970 (http://www.motorsportphotos.de/Deutsch/Stories___Photos/Historisches/
1000_KM_1970/1000_km_1970.html) (German)

1000 km Nrburgring

104

Story and Photos of 2000 (http://www.motorsportphotos.de/Deutsch/Stories___Photos/Saison_2000_01/


_ELMS_1000KM_Nurburgring/_elms_1000km_nurburgring.html) (German)
Story and Photos of 2004 (http://www.gt-eins.de/Berichte2004/LMES04/1000kRing/index1.html) (German)

1000 km Spa
1000 Kilometres de Spa-Francorchamps

Le Mans Series
Venue

Circuit de Spa-Francorchamps

First race

1953

First LMS race

2004

Distance

1,000km (620mi)

Duration

6 hours

Most wins (driver)

Jacky Ickx (5)

Most wins (team)

Team Peugeot Total (5)

Most wins (manufacturer) Ferrari (10)

The 1000 Kilometres of Spa-Francorchamps is an endurance race for sports cars held at Circuit de
Spa-Francorchamps in Belgium.

History
The Spa 24 Hours had been introduced in 1924, and other races followed. As on the Nrburgring, both a 24-hour
race for touring cars and GTs is held, and an endurance race for sports cars and GTs. The sports car race began in
1953, and in 1963 joined the World Sportscar Championship and was extended to 500km. Starting in 1966, it was
run for 1000km, following the 1000 km Nrburgring and 1000 km Monza. Due to safety problems on the traditional
long and very fast 14km track over public roads, the race was discontinued after 1975.
The 1000km race was resumed in 1982 after the track was made safer
by shortening it to 7km. In 1989 and 1990, the race distance was
lowered to 480km as a rule change required the use of Formula
One-derived engines that lasted longer. Due to the decline of the WSC,
the "1000km" was discontinued after 1990 even before the WSC
closed.

The 14km Spa used by sportscars up until 1975

The race was revived in 1999, as a part of the SportsRacing World Cup
(the predecessor to the FIA Sportscar Championship), running to a 2
hour, 30 minute time limit. In 2003, the 1000km race was resumed as

1000 km Spa

105

a joint event of the FIA SCC with the British GT Championship. Since 2004, it has been part of the Le Mans Series
(LMS). In 2011, the race was also part of the Intercontinental Le Mans Cup and from 2012 onwards will be part of
the FIA World Endurance Championship.
Jacky Ickx currently holds record of most wins, having won the race 5 times, in 1967, 1968, 1974, 1982, and 1983.
He is also one of two drivers to win the 1000km on both the original and current circuits, the other being Derek Bell.

Winners
Year

Drivers

Team

Car

Time

Distance

Championship

14.1km (8.8mi) circuit


1953

Olivier
Gendebien

Ferrari 166 MM

1954

Hans Davids

Hans Davids

Jaguar C-Type

1955

Paul Frre

Aston Martin

Aston Martin
DB3S

1956

Ninian
Sanderson

Non-championship
169km
(105mi)

Non-championship

1:37:33.900

282km
(175mi)

Non-championship

Ecurie Ecosse Jaguar D-Type

0:57:34.800

169km
(105mi)

Non-championship

1957

Tony Brooks

Aston Martin

Aston Martin
DBR1

1:15:56.000

211.8km
(131.6mi)

Non-championship

1958

Masten Gregory

Ecurie Ecosse Lister-Jaguar

1:05:02.300

211.8km
(131.6mi)

Non-championship

Porsche 718 RSK 1:11:10.100

211.8km
(131.6mi)

Non-championship

Porsche 718 RSK 1:20:54.800

211.8km
(131.6mi)

Non-championship

Ferrari 250 GT
SWB

1:05:33.800

211.8km
(131.6mi)

Non-championship

Ferrari 250 GT
SWB

1:12:32.100

211.8km
(131.6mi)

Non-championship

1959

Carel Godin de
Beaufort

1960

Paul Frre

1961

Willy Mairesse

1962

Edgar Berney

Ecurie
Maarsbergen

Scuderia
Ferrari
Edgar Berney

1963

Willy Mairesse

Ecurie
Nationale Belge

Ferrari 250 GTO

2:38:40:800

500km
(310mi)

World Sportscar
Championship

1964

Mike Parkes

Maranello
Concessionaires

Ferrari 250 GTO

2:32:05.200

500km
(310mi)

World Sportscar
Championship

1965

Willy Mairesse

Ecurie
Francorchamps

Ferrari 250LM

2:29:45.700

500km
(310mi)

World Sportscar
Championship

SpA Ferrari
SEFAC

Ferrari 330P3

4:43:24.000

1,000km
(620mi)

World Sportscar
Championship

1966

Mike Parkes
Ludovico
Scarfiotti

1967

Dick Thompson
Jacky Ickx

J.W.
Automotive
Engineering

Mirage M1-Ford

5:09:46.500

1,000km
(620mi)

World Sportscar
Championship

1968

Brian Redman
Jacky Ickx

J.W.
Automotive
Engineering

Ford GT40 Mk.I

5:05:19:300

1,000km
(620mi)

World Sportscar
Championship

1000 km Spa

106

1969

Brian Redman
Jo Siffert

Porsche
System
Engineering

Porsche 908LH

4:24:19.600

1,000km
(620mi)

World Sportscar
Championship

1970

Brian Redman
Jo Siffert

J.W.
Automotive
Engineering

Porsche 917K

4:09:47.800

1,000km
(620mi)

World Sportscar
Championship

1971

Jackie Oliver
Pedro Rodrguez

J.W.
Automotive
Engineering

Porsche 917K

4:01:09.700

1,000km
(620mi)

World Sportscar
Championship

1972

Brian Redman
Arturo Merzario

SpA Ferrari
SEFAC

Ferrari 312PB

4:17:19.100

1,000km
(620mi)

World Sportscar
Championship

1973

Derek Bell
Mike Hailwood

4:05:43.500

1,000km
(620mi)

World Sportscar
Championship

1974

Jacky Ickx
Equipe
Jean-Pierre Jarier Gitanes

4:12:15.600

1,000km
(620mi)

World Sportscar
Championship

1975

Henri Pescarolo
Derek Bell

3:32:58.400

750km
(470mi)A

World Sportscar
Championship

Gulf Research Mirage M6-Ford


Matra-Simca
MS670C

Willi Kauhsen Alfa Romeo


Racing Team
33TT12

1976
to
1981

No Races

7.0km (4.3mi) circuit


1982

Jacky Ickx
Jochen Mass

Rothmans
Porsche

Porsche 956

6:06:04.140

1,000km
(620mi)

World Sportscar
Championship

1983

Jacky Ickx
Jochen Mass

Rothmans
Porsche

Porsche 956

5:44:33.520

1,000km
(620mi)

World Sportscar
Championship

1984

Stefan Bellof
Derek Bell

Rothmans
Porsche

Porsche 956B

5:53:17.190

1,000km
(620mi)

World Sportscar
Championship

1985

Bob Wollek
Mauro Baldi

Martini
Racing

Lancia LC2

5:00:23.420

848km
(527mi)B

World Sportscar
Championship

1986

Thierry Boutsen
Frank Jelinski

Brun
Motorsport

Porsche 962C

5:35:54.540

1,000km
(620mi)

World Sportscar
Championship

1987

Martin Brundle
Silk Cut
Johnny Dumfries Jaguar
Raul Boesel

Jaguar XJR-8

6:00:16.180

1,000km
(620mi)

World Sportscar
Championship

1988

Mauro Baldi
Team Sauber
Stefan Johansson Mercedes

Sauber
C9-Mercedes

6:01:34.230

1,000km
(620mi)

World Sportscar
Championship

1989

Mauro Baldi
Kenny Acheson

Team Sauber
Mercedes

Sauber
C9-Mercedes

2:39:16.453

480km
(300mi)

World Sportscar
Championship

1990

Jochen Mass
Karl Wendlinger

Team Sauber
Mercedes

Mercedes-Benz
C11

2:42:54.880

480km
(300mi)

World Sportscar
Championship

1991
to
1998

No Races

1999

Mauro Baldi
Laurent Rdon

JB Giesse
Team Ferrari

2000

Filippo Francioni
Lucchini
Salvatore Ronca Engineering

Ferrari 333 SP

2:30:24.347

452.920km
(281.431mi)

SportsRacing World
Cup

Lucchini
SR2000-Alfa
Romeo

2:31:17.377

355.368km
(220.815mi)

SportsRacing World
Cup

1000 km Spa

107

2001

Marco Zadra
Jean-Marc
Gounon

BMS Scuderia Ferrari 333 SP


Italia

2:31:27.898

445.952km
(277.102mi)

FIA Sportscar
Championship

2002

Sbastien
Bourdais
Jean-Christophe
Boullion

Pescarolo
Sport

Courage C60
Evo-Peugeot

2:03:16.089C 376.272km
(233.805mi)

FIA Sportscar
Championship

2003

Tom Kristensen
Seiji Ara

Audi Sport
Japan

Audi R8

5:47:50.209

1,000km
(620mi)

FIA Sportscar
Championship
British GT
Championship

2004

Johnny Herbert
Jamie Davies

Audi Sport
UK Veloqx

Audi R8

5:58:55.262

1,000km
(620mi)

Le Mans Endurance
Series

2005

John Nielsen
Casper Elgaard
Hayanari
Shimoda

Zytek
Motorsport

Zytek 04S

6:00:48.389

1,000km
(620mi)

Le Mans Endurance
Series

2006

Emmanuel
Collard
Jean-Christophe
Boullion

Pescarolo
Sport

Pescarolo
C60-Judd

6:01:06.782

1,000km
(620mi)

Le Mans Series

2007

Stphane
Sarrazin
Pedro Lamy

Team Peugeot Peugeot 908 HDi 5:47:47.313


Total
FAP
(Diesel)

1,000km
(620mi)

Le Mans Series

2008

Nicolas
Minassian
Marc Gen
Jacques
Villeneuve

Team Peugeot Peugeot 908 HDi 5:17:48.566


Total
FAP
(Diesel)

1,000km
(620mi)

Le Mans Series

2009

Nicolas
Minassian
Simon Pagenaud
Christian Klien

Team Peugeot Peugeot 908 HDi 5:45:35.429


Total
FAP
(Diesel)

1,000km
(620mi)

Le Mans Series

2010

Sbastien
Bourdais
Simon Pagenaud
Pedro Lamy

Team Peugeot Peugeot 908 HDi 6:00:39.012


Total
FAP
(Diesel)

975km
(606mi)D

Le Mans Series

2011

Alexander Wurz
Marc Gen
Anthony
Davidson

Team Peugeot Peugeot 908


Total
(Diesel)

6:02:03.799

1,127.633km
(700.679mi)

Le Mans Series
Intercontinental Le
Mans Cup

2012

Romain Dumas
Loc Duval
Marc Gen

Audi Sport
Team Joest

Audi R18 ultra


(Diesel)

6:00:22.708

1,120.62km
(696.32mi)

FIA World
Endurance
Championship

2013

Andr Lotterer
Benot Trluyer
Marcel Fssler

Audi Sport
Team Joest

Audi R18 e-tron


quattro
(Diesel hybrid)

6:00:55.971

1,176.67km
(731.15mi)

FIA World
Endurance
Championship

^A The 1975 event was originally scheduled for 1000km, but was shortened to 750km the day of the race
due to an approaching storm.
^B The 1985 event was originally scheduled for 1000km, but was shortened to five hours (848km) after the
ensuing 40-minute caution caused by the collision of the Bellof/Boutsen Brun Motorsport Porsche 956 with

1000 km Spa
the Ickx/Jochen Mass Rothmans Porsche 962 at Eau Rouge. Bellof died in the hospital afterwards, and
officials ended the race at the five-hour mark, after 122 of 145 laps.
^C The 2002 event was stopped early due to heavy rain.
^D The 2010 event was red flagged during the race due to electrical outages. The race covered approximately
975km when it on a six hour time limit.

External links
Le Mans Series [1] - 1000km of Spa
1,000 KM of Spa Francorchamps (ILMC/ACO) [2]
Racing Sports Cars: Spa archive [3]

References
[1] http:/ / www. lemans-series. com/ en/ s52_circuits/ s52p01_presentation. php?circuit=4
[2] http:/ / www. lemans. org/ en/ races/ intercontinental-le-mans-cup/ 1000km-spa-francorchamps/ presentation. html
[3] http:/ / www. racingsportscars. com/ track/ archive/ Spa. html

108

1000 km Silverstone

109

1000 km Silverstone
1000 Kilometres of Silverstone

Le Mans Series
Venue

Silverstone Circuit

Corporate sponsor

Autosport

First race

1976

First LMS race

2004

Distance

1000 km (621 mi)

Previous names

6 Hours of Silverstone

Most wins (driver)

Jacky Ickx (4)


Jochen Mass (4)
Allan McNish (4)

Most wins (team)

Silk Cut Jaguar (5)

Most wins (manufacturer) Porsche (7)

The 1000km of Silverstone (also known as the 6 Hours of Silverstone) is an endurance sports car race held at
Silverstone Circuit near the Northamptonshire villages of Silverstone and Whittlebury. First run in 1976 as part of
the World Sportscar Championship, the race continues today with the FIA World Endurance Championship.

History
In 1975, a round of the World Championship of Makes was not held in Britain for one of the first times since 1966.
The 1000 km Brands Hatch which had been run almost consecutively during that period went under hiatus while
track upgrades were carried out. Following upgrades of its own in 1975, plans were made for sportscars to return to
Britain by using Silverstone instead of Brands Hatch. The event was a six hour endurance, part of the Group 5 World
Championship.
The first running consisted of a small field as some season competitors chose not to compete. British drivers John
Fitzpatrick and Tom Walkinshaw managed to upset the factory teams by scoring the inaugural victory in a BMW.
The following year, competition grew as the factory Porsche team, under the guise of Martini Racing, earned their
first of two consecutive victories for drivers Jochen Mass and Jacky Ickx. The Porsche factory team was not able to
continue their streak into 1979 when their lead car crashed, leaving the privateer Gelo Racing Porsche to a dominant
win.
1980 saw the first victory by a sports-prototype. Alain de Cadenet managed to win the home event as a driver, team
owner, as well as a constructor when he and Desir Wilson won by 18 seconds in a car of his own design. A Group 5
car took its final victory in 1981 with the all-German Velga Racing Team before the class was phased out.
1982 was the first year of the Group C category in the World Championship, although the race that year was actually
won by an older Group 6 Lancia. The first Group C victory came in 1983 as Porsche returned to their factory

1000 km Silverstone

110

dominance of the event, going on to win the 1984 and 1985 events as well. Jacky Ickx and Jochen Mass still hold
record of most wins, having won the race four times in 1977, 1978, 1984 and 1985. In 1986 British success returned
as the Jaguar factory team was able to upset Porsche for the first time since the company had returned to racing.
Jaguar then began to dominate in a fashion similar to Porsche, as they too won the next two years. American Eddie
Cheever co-drove in each of the three victories.
No race was held in 1989 as Donington temporarily replaced Silverstone on the schedule, but sportscars returned in
1990 for a shorter 480km event. Jaguar returned to their winning ways straight away before going on to earn a fifth
straight victory in a 430km event in 1991. Only after Jaguar officially retired from the World Championship was
another manufacturer able to once again earn victory at Silverstone, this time being Peugeot. A lack of entrants
however lead to the cancellation of the World Championship, temporarily ending endurance racing at the circuit. The
race did make a one year comeback in 2000 as part of the American Le Mans Series. The race served as a precursor
to the European Le Mans Series that followed in 2001.
In 2004, the new Le Mans Endurance Series was created to resurrect several 1000km endurance races in a modern
era. Among these was Silverstone, running at its original distance. Once again, British success started off the return
of the event as Allan McNish and the British Audi team won the event. Audi and McNish won again the following
year, this time under the control of the French Oreca team, although the race was heavily hampered by rain.
Silverstone took a brief hiatus in 2006 as Donington replaced the event once again, only to return once again in
2007. Peugeot earned their second victory, this time with a diesel-powered Le Mans prototype. The 2010 edition will
be the inaugural race of the Le Mans Intercontinental Cup, as well as the first time the race use the new 5.901km
(3.667mi) "Arena" configuration. The race will continue in 2012 as a part of the FIA World Endurance
Championship.

Winners
Year

Drivers

Team

Car

6 Hour distance
1976

John Fitzpatrick
Tom Walkinshaw

Hermetite BMW

BMW 3.5 CSL

1977

Jochen Mass
Jacky Ickx

Martini Racing

Porsche 935/77

1978

Jochen Mass
Jacky Ickx

Martini Racing

Porsche 935/78

1979

John Fitzpatrick
Hans Heyer
Bob Wollek

Gelo Sportswear Team

Porsche 935/77A

1980

Alain de Cadenet
Desir Wilson

Alain de Cadenet

De Cadenet Lola-Ford

1981

Harald Grohs
Walter Rhrl
Dieter Schornstein

Vegla Racing Team

Porsche 935J

1982

Riccardo Patrese
Michele Alboreto

Martini Racing

Lancia LC1

1000km distance
1983

Derek Bell
Stefan Bellof

Rothmans Porsche

Porsche 956

1984

Jochen Mass
Jacky Ickx

Rothmans Porsche

Porsche 956

1000 km Silverstone

111

1985

Jochen Mass
Jacky Ickx

Rothmans Porsche

Porsche 962C

1986

Derek Warwick
Eddie Cheever

Silk Cut Jaguar

Jaguar XJR-6

1987

Raul Boesel
Eddie Cheever

Silk Cut Jaguar

Jaguar XJR-8

1988

Martin Brundle
Eddie Cheever

Silk Cut Jaguar

Jaguar XJR-9

1989

No race
480km distance

1990

Martin Brundle
Alain Fert

Silk Cut Jaguar

Jaguar XJR-11

430km distance
1991

Derek Warwick
Teo Fabi

Silk Cut Jaguar

Jaguar XJR-14

500km distance
1992

Derek Warwick
Yannick Dalmas

1993
to
1999
2000

Peugeot Talbot Sport

Peugeot 905 Evo 1B

No races

J.J. Lehto
Jrg Mller

2001
to
2003

BMW Motorsport

BMW V12 LMR

No races

1000km distance
2004
2005

Allan McNish
Pierre Kaffer
Allan McNish
Stphane Ortelli

2006

Audi Sport UK Team Veloqx Audi R8


Audi PlayStation Team Oreca Audi R8
No race

2007

Marc Gen
Nicolas Minassian

Team Peugeot Total

Peugeot 908 HDi FAP

2008

Allan McNish
Rinaldo Capello

Audi Sport Team Joest

Audi R10 TDI

2009

Olivier Panis
Nicolas Lapierre

Team Oreca Matmut AIM

Oreca 01-AIM

Team Peugeot Total

Peugeot 908 HDi FAP

2010

Anthony
Davidson
Nicolas Minassian

6 Hour distance
2011

Sbastien
Bourdais
Simon Pagenaud

Peugeot Sport Total

Peugeot 908

1000 km Silverstone

112

2012

Andr Lotterer
Benot Trluyer
Marcel Fssler

Audi Sport Team Joest

Audi R18 e-tron quattro

2013

Allan McNish
Tom Kristensen
Loc Duval

Audi Sport Team Joest

Audi R18 e-tron quattro

- Race went under a 6 hour time limit. Only 776km of the 1000km scheduled were covered.

External links
Le Mans Series [1] - 2007 1000km of Silverstone

References
[1] http:/ / www. lmes. net/ 2007/ uk/ silverstone/ index. asp

Bathurst 1000

113

Bathurst 1000
Venue

Mount Panorama Circuit

''
Race Format
Race 1
- Laps

161

- Distance

1,000 km
Race 2

- Laps
- Distance

km
Last Race (2012)

Winning Driver

Jamie Whincup / Paul Dumbrell

Winning Team

Triple Eight Race Engineering

Winning Manufacturer Holden

|+ style="font-size:larger;" |Supercheap Auto Bathurst 1000


The Bathurst 1000 (currently called the Supercheap Auto Bathurst 1000) is a 1,000-kilometre (620mi) touring
car race held annually at Mount Panorama Circuit in Bathurst, New South Wales, Australia. The race was
traditionally run on the first Sunday in October but in recent years has been held on the second Sunday; the 2012 V8
Supercars race calendar returns the race to its traditional first Sunday of the month. The race traces its lineage to the
1960 Armstrong 500. Since then 52 races have taken place under the combined history of two events at two venues
in two states. It is known among fans and broadcasters as "The Great Race", and is widely regarded as the pinnacle
of Australian motorsport. Since 1999, the race has been run exclusively for V8 Supercars and is now a round of the
V8 Supercar Championship Series.
The race winners receive the Peter Brock Trophy which was introduced at the 2006 race in honour of deceased
nine-time Bathurst winner Peter Brock, most successful driver in the history of the race.

Bathurst 1000

114

Mount Panorama
The start line for the race is located sufficiently far down the start-finish straight (toward the first corner) such that
cars at the rear of the starting grid are not too far around the final corner for the standing start. The finish line is
located further up the straight than the start line so that it is before all of the pit garages, ensuring that all cars that pit
are recorded as having completed that lap.
The first turn, Hell Corner, is a 90 degree left-hander. Mountain Straight, a 255km/h (158mph) gentle climb, leads
into Griffin's Bend, an off-camber right-hander which then leads into The Cutting (a sharp left-handed and steeply
inclined corner). Reid Park follows, a complex corner where a number of drivers have spun after not short shifting at
the apex. The course continues down to Sulman Park and McPhillamy. Drivers are unable to see the descending road
and enter Skyline and the first of The Esses at 220km/h (140mph) before The Dipper, one of the best corners in
Australian motorsport. Cars then negotiate Forrest's Elbow and open out through The Kink before powering down
Conrod Straight, which at 300km/h (190mph) is the fastest section of the track. The Chase is a long sweeping
chicane where cars are on the rev limiter turning at 300 km/h before an intense braking effort to exit at 130km/h
(81mph). Murray's is the 23rd and final turn, and also the slowest part of the circuit, before cars return to the
start-finish straight.

Race history
The race has a long and colourful history, having been conducted for
numerous categories such as Series Production, Group C, Group A,
Super Touring and currently V8 Supercar category.
Although the Bathurst 1000 is today run by just two marques, Ford and
Holden, makes as diverse as Morris, Jaguar, BMW, Nissan and Volvo
have also tasted success at "The Mountain". Holden has the most
victories at Bathurst with 25 wins, while Ford has 17 (or 18 if
including the victory from the 1962 Phillip Island event).
The first corner of Mount Panorama, known as
Hell Corner

Early years
The Armstrong 500, the Hardie Ferodo 500/1000 and later the Bathurst 1000, was first held on 20 November 1960 at
Phillip Island in Victoria over 500-mile (800km) to determine which car had the best combination of speed,
performance and reliability. It was also a tool for Armstrong to promote its products such as shock absorbers. Entry
was limited to standard, unmodified production saloons built or assembled in Australia. The race was won by Frank
Coad and John Roxburgh in a Vauxhall Cresta, the only Vauxhall in a field of 45 cars.
In 1963, the race moved to the 6.2-kilometre (3.9mi) Mount Panorama track at Bathurst in New South Wales
(Australia), after the Phillip Island tracks surface had broken up and became unsuitable for safe production car
racing after only just three years. However the production car endurance event now held at Bathurst kept the
Armstrong 500 name. The race's popularity grew rapidly, as it became a means for car manufacturers to showcase
their products as the cars on the track, which according to the rules, the cars that were raced had to be and thus were
identical to those available in the showrooms of Australia. The first years on Mount Panorama were dominated by
small cars, such as the Ford Cortina GT 500 and Mini Cooper. In 1967 the rules of the race were changed to include
a minimum number of pit stops. This rule took away the advantage of being economical on brakes and fuel that
favoured the smaller cars and seemed designed to favour the larger Fords and Holdens as everyone had to have as

Bathurst 1000
least as many pitstops as the minimum number required by the big cars. The big engines were faster in a straight line
but the Minis handled the corners brilliantly and went all day on a tank of petrol. Later Ford's development and
introduction of the 289 cubic inch V8 Ford Falcon GT signalled the end of these small cars as outright contenders.
The V8 Falcon claimed a surprise victory against the smaller Alfa GTVs and Mini Coopers, as the Falcon GT was
unproven and the Alfas were picking up from where the Minis left off, with the new GTV highly regarded as the
new emerging force in touring cars. The Falcon GT won however due to the fact that the GT's V8 power was well
suited to and second to none on Mount Panorama, particularly on its long uphill and downhill straights. This led to
the birth of the widely accepted adage stating that "there is no substitute for cubic inches on the Mountain", which
would become synonymous and change the face of racing at Bathurst forever.
The popularity of the race continued to grow so rapidly during the 1960s that by 1966 most major manufacturers
operating in the Australian market became heavily involved in what became known as "the Great Race". This is
because an outright win in the long and tough race would add great credibility to the car and its brand, especially in
proving the winning car-brand offered the best overall package in terms of performance, durability, reliability and
image. This proved to be a great marketing opportunity to increase sales and market share in the local market.
Notably, it was during this period that the famous Holden-Ford-Chrysler rivalry originated. This Series Production
battleground between the "Big Three" was fought at Bathurst, and soon spawned the introduction and development
of Australia's most famous muscle cars which became affectingly known as "Bathurst specials". These included
Ford's Falcon GT and later GT-HO, Holden's Monaro and Torana, and Chryslers Pacer and Charger models.
In 1966 and 67 a tobacco company sponsored and gave their name to the "Gallaher 500", then in 1968, sponsorship
was taken over by a brake part manufacturer and the Hardie-Ferodo (H-F) 500 name was coined. In response to
Ford's successful 1967 Bathurst victory in a V8-powered Falcon GT, Holden entered the all new Monaro GTS. It
was based on the HK-model four-door Kingswood family car of the time, yet was developed as a high-performance
two-door, V8 coupe' that was fun and affordable to drive, whilst being engineered with the ability to win Bathurst.
The Bathurst-bound Monaro GTS 327 had a 327 cubic inch Chevrolet-sourced V8 (as the 'GTS 327' name implies)
which enabled the new hi-po coupe' to outperform the updated yet comparatively smaller-engined 302 cubic inch
Falcon GTs, and in the process the Monaro claimed a popular maiden victory on its debut as well as Holden's first
ever Bathurst win.
For the following year, the 1969 H-F 500 saw the first of the three Ford Falcon GT-HOs. This Phase One GT-HO
Bathurst special Falcon was powered with a 351 cubic inch V8 sourced from FoMoCo in the US, and with its 'HO'
option included upgraded suspension and handling including front/rear stabiliser bars and special race tyres. Holden
on the other hand upgraded the GTS 327 Monaro to the GTS 350, which included better race-style handling and a
more powerful Chevrolet V8 engine of 350 cubic inches. The new GTS 350 Monaro, at the hands of Colin Bond,
was once again able to hold out Ford to claim another famous victory for Holden, after the Phase One's special tyres
failed under the Falcon's heavy weight and great V8 power.
The 1969 race also saw the debut of Peter Brock, who would soon forge his own piece of history in the Great Race
as 'King of the Mountain'. Brock and Bond were drivers for the Holden Dealer Team (HDT), which had been formed
earlier in the year to take the fight to the factory Ford Special Vehicles division that was turning out the
ever-evolving, race-ready GT-HO Falcons. The 'Old Fox' Harry Firth was the head of the HDT and would prove to
be just as much as a thorn in Ford's side as he had been the founding father for Ford's Bathurst-bred Cortina/Falcon
program.
1970 saw a change of pace as Holden decided to retire the well-proven V8 powered Monaro in favour of the smaller
and more nimble Torana GTR XU-1, which was a specially developed Bathurst version of the new and popular
six-cylinder LC Torana mid-size car. Rather than continue the V8-power war with Ford, Holden adopted a more
scientific and viable approach that would prove to be safer, cheaper and just as effective and fast as the GT-HO V8
steam roller. With triple carburetors and excellent power-to-weight ratio, the new Torana XU-1 was designed to be
easier on brakes, tyres and fuel to enable it to minimise its required pit stops, whilst also having superior handling

115

Bathurst 1000
and braking to outperform the big and thirsty V8 Falcon GT-HOs. However, Ford refined the GT-HO to Phase Two
specification, which included an even more powerful and better breathing 351 V8 and better-suited tyres. With so
much power and torque, the GT-HO further proved the old "there is no substitute for cubic inches on the Mountain"
saying by winning the 1970 H-F 500 as the small yet mighty Torana just could not compensate for the major power
advantage that the Phase Two's had on the Bathurst straights.
The 1971 was a repeat Ford victory, which notably included the GT-HO development program had reached its peak
with the XY-model Falcon GT-HO Phase Three with further upgrades to engine power and aerodynamics, which
proved to be the worlds fastest four-door production car. Chrysler also introduced its racy new two-door Charger to
raise the stakes in the Great Race, and was powered by a triple Weber-carburetored 265ci inline HEMI six similar to
the engine layout of the Torana XU-1. The Charger however was Australias fastest accelerating car at the time.
1972 was the year of pressure. For one, the media-driven 'Supercar scare' had accumulated enough political
pressure to force Holden to postpone its introduction of the new V8 Torana by two years. Ford abandoned its newly
developed Phase Four GT-HO based on the new XA-model Falcon, while Chrysler also followed suit with its
V8-powered Charger. Secondly, the 1972 H-F 500 was the first Great Race to be run in wet weather. Allan Moffat,
who had won the H-F 500 the previous two years in a row, was unable to withstand the immense pressure placed on
him by Brock in his XU-1, in which the Torana proved more than a match for the ultimate Phase Three GT-HO in
the atrocious conditions. Moffat, unable to fully exploit the Phase Threes V8 power, spun early in the race (and
suffered 2 one minute penalties for starting the engine while refueling) after being challenged furiously by Brocks
superbly handling XU-1, and never really recovered. Brock meanwhile was able to hold off the Phase Three GT-HO
of John French and the E49 Charger of Doug Chivas to win the 1972 H-F 500, thus dispelling the no substitute for
cubic inches theory as a myth. At the wheel of the new, upgraded LJ-model Torana GTR XU-1, Peter Brock had
successfully exploited the car to its maximum effect to claim a victory significant for a number of reasons, the first
being that it proved to be Brocks first of nine Bathurst wins which would enable him to become the King of the
Mountain and become known as Peter Perfect. It also signalled the first Bathurst victory for a six-cylinder-engined
car, an achievement that would not be repeated until the maiden win of the Nissan Skyline GT-R Godzilla much
later in 1991. Finally, it also began the Torana legend which would enable this innovative and unique muscle car to
become one of Australias most successful touring cars ever.

Group C era
In 1973, the race distance was changed from 500 miles (800km) to 1,000 kilometres as Australia shifted towards the
adoption of the metric system. That same year, a new rule was implemented allowing modifications to be made to
the cars, which meant that the Series Production racing category became replaced by the new Group C category.
Holden and Chrysler entered their XU-1 and Charger respectively, while Ford entered its new XA-model two-door,
hard-top Ford Falcon GT. This was not a GT-HO Phase Four officially, yet most hard-top GTs that raced
incorporated many of the Phase Fours components such as the specially built four-bolt 351 V8 engine. Brock and
teammate Chivas were far out front in the lead and on track to score yet another victory for Holdens pocket rocket
Torana XU-1, only to be beaten by Moffats hard-top GT after Chivas at the wheel of the XU-1 ran out of fuel. This
was due to a miscalculation that originated from a broken fuel gauge and the team order to get maximum laps out of
the little XU-1 before pitting. The XU-1 came to a halt just before pit straight, with Chivas pushing the XU-1 into the
pits unable to be assisted by his pit-crew which under the rules would have resulted in the Brock/Chivas XU-1 being
disqualified. By the time the XU-1 was refueled, Moffat had passed the stricken XU-1 and was gaining a sizable
lead. After being released from pitlane, Brock set off in hot pursuit of the Moffat's Falcon GT. But Brocks heroic
effort, equal to that of Chivas pit-lane adventure, proved too little, too late. Brocks XU-1 suffered a deflating tyre,
thus enabling Moffat to hold on and claim yet another Falcon victory, his third in only four years. 1973 would also
be the last competitive appearance for Chrysler, with the marque soon disappearing from the Group C category
almost entirely.

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Bathurst 1000
For the remainder of the 1970s, Holdens new 308 cubic inch V8-powered Toranas would score Bathurst victory
another four times in 197576, and 197879, and Fords venerable 351 V8-powered Falcon GTs taking out the two
remaining Bathurst wins in the rain-soaked 1974 H-F 1000, and its famous 12 form finish in 1977. Group C would
also see in the new decade, but would soon be replaced by the new International Group A Touring car rules in 1985.
Till then, Holden and Ford dominated the Great race and shared victories between them. However, both Australian
manufacturers were facing increased foreign competition, notably from the new Mazda RX-7 that was adopted and
affectionately raced by Moffat, and Kevin Bartlett's 350 V8 powered Chevrolet Camaro. The turbo powered Nissan
Bluebird piloted by George Fury also threatened the V8 'Big Bangers', and signaled a sign of things to come during
the soon-to-be-adopted Group A era. During the 1980s the Group C category was dominated by Peter Brock, having
scored victories in 1980/82/83/84. Dick Johnson was the only winner for Ford during the 1980s Group C, with a
victory in 1981 whilst at the wheel of the all-new XD-model Falcon. Ultimately, Peter Brock would prove to be the
ace of the Group C era, by having achieved an incredible two Bathurst hat-tricks (three consecutive Bathurst wins
twice) while at the wheel of both the Holden Torana and soon-to-be-released all new Commodore, in 19781980 and
again in 19821984.

Group A era
From 1985 to 1992, the Great Race was run under international Group A touring car rules. Imported turbocharged
cars, most notably Ford Sierra RS Cosworths and Nissan Skyline GT-R, dominated the racing during this period,
with the Holden Commodore managing to claim three wins during this era. Under the new Group A rules, local race
teams in Australia could now compete against foreign racing teams and cars, both domestically and overseas.
Holden-based race teams would continue to develop and race the 304 cubic inch V8-powered Commodore, with the
HDT and later the Holden Racing Team (HRT) being at the forefront of the Commodores Group A development and
race program. Ford-based teams had almost no factory support from Ford Australia, and without this vital financial
and technical assistance, the development program of a competitive Group A Ford Falcon never eventuated. As a
result Ford teams, such as Dick Johnson Racing, quickly switched from V8 Falcon to the US-sourced V8 Mustang
for Group A racing. This was later followed by the adoption of the powerful Cosworth-turbo Ford Sierras, which
were race-developed and available directly from Europe.
1985 would be the first year of the Bathurst 1000 being raced under Group A rules. This race was dominated by Tom
Walkinshaw Racing's V12 Jaguar XJ-S, with John Goss and Armin Hahne claiming Jaguar's first and only Bathurst
win. The following year, the Group A VK-model Commodore V8 of privateer racer Allan Grice claimed the
Bathurst honours, after enjoying an exciting racing campaign in Europe, alongside other Commodore drivers Peter
Brock and his newly recruited HDT team mate, Allan Moffat.
In 1987, the race was a round of the short-lived World Touring Car Championship, and competitors in that
championship raced against local teams. The resulting culture clash was considerable; local scrutineers, who had
been applying the Group A regulations as written, repeatedly disagreed with European teams (notably that of Rudi
Eggenberger) and the global organising body (FISA, the ancestor of the FIA) that were considerably more liberal
with their interpretations. With the race run, it was still unclear as to who actually won. Although the Eggenberger's
cars finished first and second, they were soon to be disqualified months later due to bodywork irregularities. The
race win was eventually awarded to third-placed Peter Brock, who drove two of his VL-model Group A
Commodore's in wet conditions to ultimately claim a ninth and final Bathurst victory. During the race, Brock's
number '05' HDT Commodore had broken down during the race, and he switched to his back-up number '10'
Commodore to finish third behind the two Eggenberger Sierras.
Local Sierra teams dominated and won the next two Bathurst 1000s, in 1988 and 1989. In 1990 however, the Sierras
were again looking strong but lost to the HRT Holden Commodore of Allan Grice and Win Percy. The winning
VL-model 'SS Group A SV' Commodore was able to set a fast pace early on in the race which the turbo Sierras could
not maintain, due to the high turbo boost pressures that gave the Sierras their power, but resulted in extreme engine

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Bathurst 1000
heat that hindered engine reliability. The HRT's strategy had claimed a popular and long-awaited Bathurst victory for
Holden, after three seasons of Sierra domination.
However a new and much more fierce opponent was awaiting both cars. Also in 1990, Nissan and team manager
Fred Gibson, had previously been running and developing its Skylines in Australian touring car competition for a
few years, and that year introduced its new R32 four-wheel drive GT-R. While it suffered from mechanical problems
in the 1990 race, the R32 GT-R Skyline went on to win both the 1991 and 1992 races and dominated Group A racing
worldwide, earning its nickname 'Godzilla'. With four-wheel drive, four-wheel steer, and a powerful turbo 2.6-litre
six-cylinder engine producing almost 600 horsepower (450kW), the RWD Sierras and Commodores simply could
not equal or compensate for the Skyline's superior handling and power output.
The Skyline's 1992 victory was particularly controversial. Already disliked by a section of the parochial Bathurst
crowd, who preferred the race to be a contest between the traditional V8 touring car marques of Holden and Ford, the
leading Skyline of Jim Richards and Mark Skaife was awarded victory after the race was stopped following a huge
rainstorm that caused a number of crashes, including that of the winning car. In the event of a red flag results are
declared at the last completed lap. As Richards had been leading the race in that lap his team was declared the
winner. This was an unpopular decision with some race fans, who voiced their opinions loudly. Race winners Mark
Skaife and Jim Richards were met with a large booing crowd on the winner's podium, prompting Richards to
proclaim to the crowd "In all my years racing in Australia I've never seen anything like this. You're a pack of
arseholes".

V8 Supercar/ 2-litre Super Tourer era


Group A as an international formula had ceased to exist at the end of 1988, and over the next few years all the major
national touring car championships had dropped these regulations for something new. CAMS had originally planned
to replace Group A at the end of 1991, but this was pushed back to the end of 1992 as they awaited FISA's new set of
touring car regulations. These were very long in coming, and were unlikely to prove favourable (if they even fell
within the regulations) for big-engined cars, and it was decided that for 1993 Australia would go their own way. A
new set of touring car regulations would be created that would later be renamed to V8Supercar, with entry limited to
only V8-powered Ford Falcons and Holden Commodores (with one exception for 1993 only; weight limited
normally aspirated Group A cars like the BMW M3 run by the works BMW team run by Tony Longhurst and Frank
Gardner. The new set of regulations also featured a second class for 2-litre cars, based on the BTCC's regulations of
the time. This class banned turbocharging along with four-wheel-drive, and effectively banned Nissan's GT-R from
competition. Almost immediately, Nissan pulled out of Australian motorsport for twenty years.
In 1994, the 2-litre Super Touring championship split off from the ATCC, though these cars ran at Bathurst that year
alongside the V8s, with a top placing of 10th outright for the works BMW of Paul Morris/Altfrid Heger. In 1995,
however, due to fears about the speed differences between the V8s and the 2-litre cars, the Bathurst 1000 for the first
time in its history became a one-class race, with just 32 Ford and Holden V8s facing the starter in what was at the
time the smallest grid in the history of the race. This format continued in 1996.
In 1997, TEGA (who had been awarded the rights to market V8 touring cars by CAMS back in 1994) signed a deal
with legendary sports agent Mark McCormack's International Management Group, for marketing the class (newly
renamed as V8Supercars). One of the first steps of the new joint venture company (called AVESCO) was to sign a
new TV deal with the Network Ten for a much expanded coverage of the championship over previous years. This
was fine for the ATCC races, but the Bathurst 1000, run by the ARDC, had a TV deal with Seven Network (who had
televised the race since in its inception at Bathurst in 1963) going forward into the 21st century. It was a stalemate,
Seven was not prepared to lose the race, and AVESCO, with a freshly signed TV deal with the Ten which required a
Bathurst race to be part of the deal, not prepared to go to Bathurst with Ten (a similar dispute has been in effect at
V8 Supercar's round at Albert Park in Melbourne since 2007, where Ten holds rights to the Australian Grand Prix
and Seven has the V8 Supercar rights; that race is non-championship because of the television dispute).

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Bathurst 1000
Despite talks, a resolution was not met, AVESCO announced V8 Supercars would not be competing in the
traditional Bathurst 1000 held on the October long weekend, leaving the organisers without an entry field for the
1997 race. TOCA Australia filled the void with a 2-litre Super Touring field, featuring a number of British Touring
Car Championship drivers including Alain Menu, John Cleland and Rickard Rydell. The race was won by Paul
Morris and Craig Baird in a BMW 320i run by BMW Motorsport Australia, however this team was disqualified as
Baird had violated a race rule prohibiting drivers from driving more than three and a half hours consecutively in any
one stint. The race was awarded to teammates David and Geoff Brabham.
This format continued for 1998, with Jim Richards winning his 7th Bathurst 1000 in a Volvo S40, beating his son
Steven in a Nissan Primera.
In 1997 and 1998, the "Australian 1000 Classic" was run for V8Supercars. The 1997 edition was called the "Primus
1000 Classic" and held two weeks after the traditional race, whilst the 1998 "FAI 1000 Classic" was held in
mid-November. Both races claimed to be the legitimate Bathurst 1000: the V8 Supercars' case was that they were the
only truly Australian class of racing and the more popular of the two, while the Super Touring race was the official
"Bathurst 1000" and was held on the traditional date of the first Sunday in October.
The fans voted with their feet and, due to a reducing number of competitors and spectators, the Super Touring class
disappeared from Bathurst competition in 1999 and the race became exclusively for V8 Supercars.

V8 Supercars-Holden vs Ford era


This era started with Holden domination. From 1999 to 2005, Holden won all the Bathurst 1000s. In 2006, Craig
Lowndes and Jamie Whincup won the first race for Ford in 7 years. They were also the first winners of the Peter
Brock Trophy. Lowndes and Whincup then won the next 2 races to make the first 3-peat since Peter Brock and Larry
Perkins won the Bathurst 1000 from 1982 to 1984 (the 1983 win was with David Parsons). Holden then started a rout
of 4 straight wins (so far) since 2009, that race won by Garth Tander and Will Davison. In 2011, Nick Percat became
the first rookie to win the Bathurst 1000 since Jacky Ickx in 1977. The last winners of this era were Jamie Whincup
and Paul Dumbrell in 2012, in the closest non-formation finish in Bathurst 1000 history, with David Reynolds and
Dean Canto finishing 0.29 seconds behind the Triple Eight Race Engineering Commodore.

Famous winners
The most successful driver at Bathurst is Peter Brock, whose nine victories (1972, 1975, 197880, 198284 and
1987) earned him the nickname King of the Mountain.
Bob Jane won the race four times in succession from 1961 to 1964. Jane's racing exploits assisted in the creation of
his automotive businesses, originally with automotive vehicle dealerships, then later more prominently with a
national chain of tyre retailers.
Jim Richards won the race seven times (197880, 199192, 1998 and 2002) and also holds the record for the most
starts (35) at this event. Larry Perkins is the third most successful driver at Bathurst, with six victories (198284,
1993, 1995 and 1997). Both Richards and Perkins shared some of their victories as co-drivers with Brock.
Mark Skaife has won six times, his first was in 1991, with a Nissan Skyline GT-R. He also won in 1992 in the same
car, and in 2001, 2002, 2005 and 2010 in a Holden Commodore.
Canadian-born Allan Moffat is Ford's most successful Bathurst driver, winning the race four times (1970, 1971, 1973
and 1977). The 1977 race saw Moffat and team-mate Colin Bond cross the finish line side by side after opening up
an indomitable lead in the early laps.
New Zealand-born Greg Murphy has won the race four times (1996, 1999, 2003, 2004).
Dick Johnson first rose to fame during the 1980 race when his privately entered Ford Falcon hit a rock that had fallen
(or been pushed; the subject is still debated to this day) onto the track. Thanks to public donations of over A$70,000
and a matching donation from Ford Motor Company Johnson was able to rebuild his car and win the Bathurst

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Bathurst 1000

120

race the following year. He went on to win twice more, in 1989 and 1994.
In 2008 Craig Lowndes, who in many ways has become Australian touring car racing successor to Brock in terms of
success and popularity, won the race for the fourth time, and with his co-driver Jamie Whincup joined Jane, Harry
Firth, Brock, Richards and Perkins in an elite group of drivers to have won the race in three successive years. Only
Jane went on to win a fourth. Lowndes won the race for the fifth time in 2010.

List of winners
Race winners
Phillip Island (500 Miles)
1960 Armstrong 500

John Roxburgh
Frank Coad

Vauxhall Cresta

167 laps
8h 19m 99.1s

96.56km/h
60.00mph

1961 Armstrong 500

Bob Jane
Harry Firth

Mercedes-Benz 220SE

167 laps
8h 18m 0.0s

96.95km/h
60.24mph

1962 Armstrong 500

Harry Firth
Bob Jane

Ford XL Falcon

167 laps
8h 15m 16.0s

97.48km/h
60.57mph

130 laps
7h 46m 99.1s

103.39km/h
64.24mph

Mount Panorama (500 Miles)


1963 Armstrong 500

Harry Firth
Bob Jane

Ford Cortina Mk.I GT

1964 Armstrong 500

Bob Jane
Ford Cortina Mk.I GT
George Reynolds

130 laps

1965 Armstrong 500

Barry Seton
Midge Bosworth

Ford Cortina Mk.I GT500

130 laps
7h 16m 45.1s

110.54km/h
68.69mph

1966 Gallaher 500

Rauno Aaltonen
Bob Holden

Morris Cooper S

130 laps
7h 11m 29.1s

111.89km/h
69.53mph

1967 Gallaher 500

Harry Firth
Fred Gibson

Ford XR Falcon GT

130 laps
6h 54m 99.1s

116.34km/h
72.29mph

1968 Hardie-Ferodo 500

Bruce McPhee
Holden HK Monaro GTS327
Barry Mulholland

130 laps
6h 44m 7.9s

119.51km/h
74.26mph

1969 Hardie-Ferodo 500

Colin Bond
Tony Roberts

Holden HT Monaro GTS350

130 laps
6h 32m 25s

123.16km/h
76.53mph

1970 Hardie-Ferodo 500

Allan Moffat

Ford XW Falcon GTHO Phase II

130 laps
6h 34m 26s 0.0s

122.85km/h
76.34mph

1971 Hardie-Ferodo 500

Allan Moffat

Ford XY Falcon GTHO Phase III

130 laps
6h 9m 49.5s

130.55km/h
81.12mph

1972 Hardie-Ferodo 500

Peter Brock

Holden LJ Torana GTR XU-1

130 laps
6h 0m 99.1s

133.74km/h
83.10mph

Mount Panorama (1,000 Kilometres)


1973 Hardie-Ferodo 1000

Allan Moffat
Ian Geoghegan

Ford XA Falcon GT

163 laps
7h 20m 6.8s

136.33km/h
84.71mph

1974 Hardie-Ferodo 1000

John Goss
Kevin Bartlett

Ford XA Falcon GT

163 laps
7h 50m 99.1s

127.39km/h
79.16mph

1975 Hardie Ferodo 1000

Peter Brock
Brian Sampson

Holden LH Torana L34

163 laps
7h 19m 11.3s

136.62km/h
84.89mph

1976 Hardie-Ferodo 1000

Bob Morris
John Fitzpatrick

Holden LH Torana L34

163 laps
7h 7m 12.0s

140.45km/h
87.27mph

Bathurst 1000

121

1977 Hardie-Ferodo 1000

Allan Moffat
Jacky Ickx

Ford XC Falcon

163 laps
6h 59m 7.8s

143.15km/h
88.95mph

1978 Hardie-Ferodo 1000

Peter Brock
Jim Richards

Holden LX Torana A9X SS

163 laps
6h 45m 53.9s

147.82km/h
91.85mph

1979 Hardie-Ferodo 1000

Peter Brock
Jim Richards

Holden LX Torana A9X SS

163 laps
6h 38m 15.8s

150.65km/h
93.61mph

1980 Hardie-Ferodo 1000

Peter Brock
Jim Richards

Holden VC Commodore

163 laps
6h 47m 52.7s

147.10km/h
91.41mph

1981 James Hardie 1000

Dick Johnson
John French

Ford XD Falcon

120 laps
4h 53m 52.7s

150.31km/h
93.40mph

1982 James Hardie 1000

Peter Brock
Larry Perkins

Holden VH Commodore

163 laps
6h 32m 3.2s

153.04km/h
95.09mph

1983 James Hardie 1000

John Harvey
Peter Brock
Larry Perkins

Holden VH Commodore

163 laps
6h 28m 31.6s

154.43km/h
95.96mph

1984 James Hardie 1000

Peter Brock
Larry Perkins

Holden VK Commodore

163 laps
6h 23m 13.6s

156.57km/h
97.29mph

1985 James Hardie 1000

John Goss
Armin Hahne

Jaguar XJ-S

163 laps
6h 41m 30.19s

149.44km/h
92.86mph

1986 James Hardie 1000

Allan Grice
Graeme Bailey

Holden VK Commodore SS Group A

163 laps
6h 30m 35.68s

153.61km/h
95.45mph

1987 James Hardie 1000

Peter McLeod
Peter Brock
David Parsons

Holden VL Commodore SS Group A

158 laps
7h 1m 8.4s

139.82km/h
86.88mph

1988 Tooheys 1000

Tony Longhurst
Tomas Mezera

Ford Sierra RS500

161 laps
7h 2m 10.28s

142.12km/h
88.31mph

1989 Tooheys 1000

Dick Johnson
John Bowe

Ford Sierra RS500

161 laps
6h 30m 53.44s

153.50km/h
95.38mph

1990 Tooheys 1000

Win Percy
Allan Grice

Holden VL Commodore SS Group A SV 161 laps


6h 40m 52.64s

149.67km/h
93.00mph

1991 Tooheys 1000

Jim Richards
Mark Skaife

Nissan Skyline BNR32 GT-R

161 laps
6h 19m 14.80s

158.21km/h
98.31mph

1992 Tooheys 1000

Mark Skaife
Jim Richards

Nissan Skyline BNR32 GT-R

143 laps
6h 27m 16.22s

137.61km/h
85.51mph

1993 Tooheys 1000

Larry Perkins
Gregg Hansford

Holden VP Commodore

161 laps
6h 29m 6.69s

154.19km/h
95.81mph

1994 Tooheys 1000

Dick Johnson
John Bowe

Ford EB Falcon

161 laps
7h 3m 45.8425s

141.5882km/h
87.9788mph

1995 Tooheys 1000

Larry Perkins
Russell Ingall

Holden VR Commodore

161 laps
157.6701km/h
6h 20m 32.4766s
97.9717mph

1996 AMP Bathurst 1000

Craig Lowndes
Greg Murphy

Holden VR Commodore

161 laps
7h 9m 28.3584s

139.7062km/h
86.8094mph

1997 AMP Bathurst 1000

Geoff Brabham
David Brabham

BMW 320i

161 laps
149.4681km/h
6h 41m 25.4072s
92.8752mph

Bathurst 1000

122

1997 Primus 1000 Classic

Larry Perkins
Russell Ingall

Holden VS Commodore *

161 laps
157.0986km/h
6h 21m 55.5483s
97.6165mph

1998 AMP Bathurst 1000

Rickard Rydell
Jim Richards

Volvo S40

161 laps
144.7907km/h
6h 54m 23.4756s
89.9688mph

1998 FAI 1000

Jason Bright
Steven Richards

Ford EL Falcon *

161 laps
149.1060km/h
6h 42m 23.9039s
92.6501mph

1999 FAI 1000

Steven Richards
Greg Murphy

Holden VT Commodore

161 laps
145.6969km/h
6h 51m 48.8354s
90.5318mph

2000 FAI 1000

Garth Tander
Holden VT Commodore
Jason Bargwanna

161 laps
135.3259km/h
7h 23m 30.2348s
84.0876mph

2001 V8Supercar 1000

Mark Skaife
Tony Longhurst

Holden VX Commodore

161 laps
146.1872km/h
6h 50m 33.1789s
90.8365mph

2002 Bob Jane T-Marts 1000

Mark Skaife
Jim Richards

Holden VX Commodore

161 laps
143.3482km/h
6h 58m 41.0260s
89.0724mph

2003 Bob Jane T-Marts 1000

Greg Murphy
Rick Kelly

Holden VY Commodore

161 laps
152.7463km/h
6h 32m 55.4044s
94.9121mph

2004 Bob Jane T-Marts 1000

Greg Murphy
Rick Kelly

Holden VY Commodore

161 laps
154.0479km/h
6h 29m 36.2055s
95.7209mph

2005 Supercheap Auto 1000

Mark Skaife
Todd Kelly

Holden VZ Commodore

161 laps
151.0700km/h
6h 37m 17.0012s
93.8705mph

Craig Lowndes
Jamie Whincup

Ford BA Falcon

161 laps
142.9354km/h
6h 59m 53.5852s
88.8159mph

2007 Supercheap Auto


Bathurst 1000

Craig Lowndes
Jamie Whincup

Ford BF Falcon

161 laps
154.2195km/h
6h 29m 10.1985s
95.8275mph

2008 Supercheap Auto


Bathurst 1000

Craig Lowndes
Jamie Whincup

Ford BF Falcon

161 laps
155.4831km/h
6h 26m 00.4291s
96.6127mph

2009 Supercheap Auto


Bathurst 1000

Will Davison
Garth Tander

Holden VE Commodore

161 laps
150.0284km/h
6h 40m 02.4884s
93.2233mph

2010 Supercheap Auto


Bathurst 1000

Craig Lowndes
Mark Skaife

Holden VE Commodore

161 laps
160.9668km/h
6h 12m 51.4153s
100.0201mph

2011 Supercheap Auto


Bathurst 1000

Garth Tander
Nick Percat

Holden VE Commodore

161 laps
155.0904km/h
6h 26m 52.2691s
96.3294mph

2012 Supercheap Auto


Bathurst 1000

Jamie Whincup
Paul Dumbrell

Holden VE Commodore

161 laps
159.6118km/h
6h 16m 01.3304s
99.1782mph

2006 Supercheap Auto Bathurst 1000

[1]

Bathurst 1000

123
* Denotes Australia 1000 races for V8 Supercars category

Multiple race winners


Wins

Driver

Peter Brock

Jim Richards

Larry Perkins
Mark Skaife

Craig Lowndes

Bob Jane
Harry Firth
Allan Moffat
Greg Murphy
Jamie Whincup

Dick Johnson
Garth Tander

John Goss
Allan Grice
John Bowe
Russell Ingall
Steven Richards
Tony Longhurst
Rick Kelly

Number of victories by vehicle brand


Wins Manufacturer
29

Holden

17

Ford

Nissan

Vauxhall
Mercedes-Benz
Morris
Jaguar
BMW
Volvo

Outright race winner was not official recognised until 1965, with official results indicated four or five class races
occurring simultaneously rather than a single race. The first car across the finish line has been retroactively
recognised outright race winner since then.

Bathurst 1000

Records
The lap record for the race is the 2:08.4651 recorded by Jamie Whincup in his Ford BF Falcon in 2007,[2] not to be
confused with the fastest lap ever recorded, a 2:06.8012 set during practice in 2010 by Holden driver Craig
Lowndes.[3]
The shortest race duration, with the full 1000km completed, is 6h 12m 51.4153s, set by Craig Lowndes and Mark
Skaife in their Holden VE Commodore in 2010.
The most number of starts - Jim Richards (27 starts)

Deaths
In the 50 years of racing, three drivers have died while competing in the Bathurst 1000.
In 1986, Sydney accountant and privateer entrant Mike Burgmann became the first fatality in the race's history when
his car (Holden VK Commodore), travelling at 268km/h (167mph), struck the tyre barrier at the base of recently
constructed Bridgestone Bridge (Then called John Player Special) on the high-speed straight known as Conrod
Straight. "The Chase", a large three-corner chicane, added in 1987 to the straight was dedicated to Burgmann with a
plaque embedded in the concrete barriers.
In 1992, former Formula One world champion Denny Hulme, after complaining of blurred vision, suffered a heart
attack at the wheel of his BMW M3 whilst travelling along Conrod Straight. After veering into the wall on the left
side of the track, he managed to bring the car to a relatively controlled stop on the opposite side of the course. When
marshals reached the scene, Hulme was unconscious; he was pronounced dead at Bathurst Hospital after suffering a
second heart attack.
In 1994, Melbourne privateer entrant Don Watson died during practice when his car (Holden VP Commodore) left
the circuit and hit a barrier on Conrod Straight.
Additionally the 2006 event was marred by the death of New Zealand driver Mark Porter in a Fujitsu V8 Supercar
Series support race on the Friday of the meeting. Porter had been scheduled to compete in the 1000 as a driver for the
Brad Jones Racing team.

Peter Brock Trophy


Following Brock's death in an accident during a rally (Targa West Event) in Western Australia, V8 Supercars
Australia announced that from 2006 onwards, the drivers in the Bathurst 1000 would be racing to win the Peter
Brock Trophy.[4] The 2006 race also honoured Brock with special tributes, such as the front row of the starting grid
being left vacant, all cars bearing an '05' number made famous by Brock, and a champions' lap of honour featuring
Brock's past co-drivers parading cars that Brock won Bathurst in.
The trophy is inscribed with the words "King of the Mountain", a long-time nickname of Brock's, weighs 2.5kg
(6lb) and stands 50 centimetres (20in) tall.

124

Bathurst 1000

References
[1] Official 2006 Race Program, Supercheap Auto Bathurst 1000, 5-8 October 2006, front cover
[2] [The Great Race 27]

External links

Supercheap Auto 1000, the official web site for the 2011 Bathurst 1000 (http://bathurst.v8supercars.com.au/)
V8 Supercars Australia (http://www.v8supercars.com.au)
National Motor Racing Museum Bathurst (http://www.bathurstregion.com.au/nmrm/)
All about Bathurst (http://www.bathurst.nsw.gov.au/)
Chequered Flag Motorsport's Virtual Lap of Bathurst (http://cfm.globalf1.net/?page_id=78)

Bol d'Or
Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Dates and numbers#Precise language
The Bol d'or is a motorcycle endurance race, held annually in France.
Originally, it was an automobile as well as motorcycle race. The
automobiles were limited to 1100cc engine capacity until the 1950s
when the limit was raised to 1500cc, and later to 2000cc. The original
organizer was Eugene Mauve.
The race, traditionally taking place on the second weekend of
September, lasts for 24 hours and each motorcycle has a team of 3
riders taking turns. The teams originally comprised just 2 riders, with
each rider having to do an exhausting 12 hours apiece; but sometime
24 hours of endurance racing on a tough track:
after 1977, in the interests of safety, the rules changed to 3 riders per
the 'Bol d'Or'
team. Until 1970 the race was held at various circuits, mainly
Montlhry and Saint-Germain-en-Laye. From 1971-1977 the Bol D'Or was held at Le Mans. For the next 22 years
the event took place at Paul Ricard, after which it moved to Magny-Cours. The Le Mans Bugatti Circuit is
sometimes reckoned finest venue for the Bol D'Or; and after the race moved south, a successor event was
established, the "24 Heures Du Mans". The Bol D'Or has now returned to Le Mans, so there are now two annual
24-hour motorcycle endurance events at Le Mans. The Bol D'Or is now held in the spring, while the 24 Heures Du
Mans is in the early September slot formerly used by the Bol D'Or.
24-hour motorcycle endurance racing has a strong Francophone fan-base, with the three main events held in France
(Le Mans & Magny-Cours) and French-speaking Belgium (Spa-Francorchamps). Not surprisingly, the most
successful teams and riders are French, but there are occasional British successes. In 1992 an all-British team of
riders won the race; and British rider Terry Rymer has had consistent results. In the 1970s Phil Read competed as a
rider, as did Neil Tuxworth, who later headed Honda Racing UK. The Mead & Tomkinson racing team fielded
"Nessie", a revolutionary bike with hub-center steering.

125

Bol d'Or

126

History
1922: clay track located in Vaujours, Clichy-sous-Bois and Livry-Gargan, 5.126km (3.185mi) long. One rider
per motorcycle.
1923-1936: Loges track in Saint-Germain-en-Laye
1927: Fontainebleau
1937-1939: Linas-Montlhry
1938-1946: No race
1947-1948: Saint-Germain-en-Laye
1949-1950: Montlhry
1951: Saint-Germain-en-Laye
1952-1960: Montlhry
1961-1968: No race
1969-1970: Montlhry
1971-1977: Le Mans
1978-1999: Paul Ricard
2000- : Magny-Cours
The race is part of the a part of the Endurance FIM World Championship. The 2006 edition was the 70th edition of
the race.
The race is an opportunity for a giant motorcycle rally, a carnival, a motorcycle show, and other motorcycle related
events.
The 2007 race saw Suzuki's supremacy (with Suzuki GSX-R1000 finishing 1st and 2nd) since 2001 coming to an
end with the victory of GMT94 team with the Yamaha R1 and riders David Checa, Sbastien Gimbert and Olivier
Four.

Results
Year

Riders

1985

Alex Vieira
Grard Coudray
Patrick Igoa

Manufacturer
Honda

1986

Dominique Sarron
Pierre Bolle
Jean-Louis Battistini

Honda

1987

Dominique Sarron
Jean-Michel Mattioli
Jean-Louis Battistini

Honda

1988

Honda
Alex Vieira
Dominique Sarron
Christophe Bouheben

1989

Alex Vieira
Jean-Michel Mattioli
Roger Burnett

Honda

1990

Alex Vieira
Jean-Michel Mattioli
Stphane Mertens

Honda

Bol d'Or

127
1991

Alex Vieira
Miguel Duhamel
Jean-Louis Battistini

Kawasaki

1992

Terry Rymer
Carl Fogarty
Steve Hislop

Kawasaki

1993

Dominique Sarron
Jean-Marc Deletang
Bruno Bonhuil

Suzuki

1994

Dominique Sarron
Christian Sarron
Yasutomo Nagai

Yamaha

1995

Terry Rymer
Jean-Louis Battistini
Jhan D'Orgeix

Kawasaki

1996

Alex Vieira
William Costes
Christian Lavieille

Honda

1997

Terry Rymer
Brian Morrison
Jhan D'Orgeix

Kawasaki

1998

Terry Rymer
Brian Morrison
Peter Goddard

Suzuki

1999

Terry Rymer
Jhan D'Orgeix
Christian Lavieille

Suzuki

2000

Jean-Marc Deletang
Fabien Foret
Mark Willis

Yamaha

2001

Brian Morrison
Christian Lavieille
Laurent Brian

Suzuki

2002

Jean-Michel Bayle
Sbastien Gimbert
Nicolas Dussauge

Suzuki

2003

Jean-Michel Bayle
Sbastien Gimbert
Nicolas Dussauge

Suzuki

2004

Vincent Philippe
Keiichi Kitagawa
Matthieu Lagrive

Suzuki

2005

Vincent Philippe
Keiichi Kitagawa
Matthieu Lagrive

Suzuki

2006

Vincent Philippe
Keiichi Kitagawa
Matthieu Lagrive

Suzuki

2007

David Checa
Sbastien Gimbert
Olivier Four

Yamaha

Bol d'Or

128
2008

Vincent Philippe
Julien Da Costa
Matthieu Lagrive

Suzuki

2009

Vincent Philippe
Freddy Foray
Olivier Four

Suzuki

2010

Vincent Philippe
Freddy Foray
Guillaume Dietrich

Suzuki

2011

Vincent Philippe
Freddy Foray
Anthony Delhalle

Suzuki

Side races
La tasse d'or (the golden cup), reserved for motorcycle of less than 50cc (known as the coffee cup: "tasses
caf")
Le bol d'or classic (the classic golden bowl): reserved for classic motorcycles
Le bol d'argent (the silver bowl): amateur competition taking place before main competition.

External links
boldor.fr [1] Official website (French)
This article incorporates information from the equivalent article on the French Wikipedia.
Coordinates: 465148N 30957E [2]

References
[1] http:/ / www. boldor. fr
[2] http:/ / tools. wmflabs. org/ geohack/ geohack. php?pagename=Bol_d%27Or&
params=46_51_48_N_3_09_57_E_region:FR_type:landmark_source:kolossus-cawiki

Carrera Panamericana

Carrera Panamericana
The Carrera Panamericana is a border-to-border sports car racing event on open roads in Mexico similar to the
Mille Miglia and Targa Florio in Italy. Running for five consecutive years from 1950 to 1954, it was widely held by
contemporaries to be the most dangerous race of any type in the world.[] It has since been resurrected by Pedro
Dvila and Eduardo de Leon as a classic road rally.

1950
After the Mexican section of the Pan-American Highway was completed in 1950, a nine-stage, six-day race across
the country was organized by the Mexican government to celebrate its achievement and to attract international
business. The 1950 race ran almost entirely along the new highway which crossed the country from north to south
for a total distance of over 2,096 miles (3,373 kilometers).
The first of five annual races began in May 1950 and was entered by racers from all over the world representing
virtually every motor sport: Formula One, sports cars, rallying, stock cars, endurance racing, hill climbing, and drag
racing. Because it started at the border with Texas, it was especially attractive to all types of American race drivers
from Indy cars to NASCAR. Bill France, the founder of NASCAR, was there for the first race as well as later races.
The Mexican government's representatives worked closely with the American Automobile Association and other
motorsports groups in the United States to organize and promote the event which was limited to stock sedans with
five seats. Piero Taruffi and Felice Bonetto, both Italian F1 drivers, entered a pair of Alfa Romeo coupes especially
constructed for the event. However, many of the 132 competitors were ordinary unsponsored citizens from the
United States, Mexico, and elsewhere.
The first race ran from north to south beginning in Ciudad Jurez, Chihuahua, across the international border from El
Paso, Texas, and finishing in Ciudad Cuauhtmoc, Chiapas (formerly known as El Ocotal) on the Guatemala-Mexico
border opposite from La Mesilla, Guatemala. At least one stage was run each day for six consecutive days. The
elevation changes were significant: from 328 feet (100m) to 10,482 feet (3,195m) above sea level, requiring among
other modifications the rejetting of carburetors to cope with thinner air. Most of the race was run between 5,000 feet
(1,500m) and 8,000 feet (2,400m).
The first four places were won by American cars and American drivers. The winner, Hershel McGriff, drove an
Oldsmobile 88 at an average speed of 142km/h (88mph). Though less powerful, the car was substantially lighter
than its big Lincoln and Cadillac competitors, meaning that it would eventually pull away from them on the steep,
winding course. The car (which had cost McGriff only $1,900, when the winner's purse was $17,000[]), had another
advantage in its weight - it was much easier to stop, meaning that McGriff finished the race on his original brake
shoes when the big cars were re-shoeing every night. The reason that this was so important was that neither McGriff
nor his co-driver were capable of even the most basic maintenance to the car.[] McGriff also noted that the control
afforded by his manual gearbox gave him a significant advantage the last day on the gravel roads in Chiapas, when
he finally passed the Cadillac leading the race. The best placed European car was an Alfa Romeo sedan driven by
Italian driver, Felice Bonetto.

1951
The following year, the race was run from south to north, starting in Tuxtla Gutirrez, Chiapas and finishing in
Ciudad Jurez, Chihuahua because of the lack of accommodation available for race officials, drivers, crews and press
in El Ocotal and the jungle. This northerly direction also allowed the U.S. drivers to finish at their border. For the
first time, a European manufacturer entered a 'factory' team, Ferrari entering several cars including a 212 Export
LWB Vignale, and although these did not technically satisfy the requirements of the touring car category, the Italians
were permitted to compete anyway.

129

Carrera Panamericana

130

The race would prove to exact a heavy toll upon drivers. At the start of the race, Jos Estrada, a prosperous Mexico
City car dealer and a veteran racer, announced: "I will win, or die trying." On the first stage, his 1951 Packard
skidded off the road and tumbled 630 feet (190m) down into a ravine. Both Estrada and co-driver Miguel Gonzlez
died in an Oaxaca hospital later that afternoon.[] The next day claimed Carlos Panini, Italian in origin, and a pioneer
of Mexican aviation - in 1927 he had established Mexico's first scheduled airline, which he sold in 1951 with plans
for his retirement. He is credited with being the first pilot to fly a light plane around the world. The fatal accident
occurred on the second day, during the second stage from Oaxaca to Puebla. Although the registered driver for the
race was Carlos' daughter Teresa, he was at the wheel of car, despite not having a valid license and being in poor
health. The accident happened while a young Bobby Unser was trying to overtake Panini, as Unser related in his
book "Winners Are Driven: A Champion's Guide to Success in Business & Life":
On the second day, we were in seventeenth and coming up to pass the car of millionaire Carlos Panini and his daughter, Terresita. She was the
registered driver. However, Carlos was behind the wheel instead and was in ill-health. He shouldn't have been driving. He didn't even have a
driver's license. The rules were that the slower car was to allow the faster car to pass if the faster car honked its horn. We were in the
mountains, and I came up to Carlos and honked, but he wouldn't let me pass. This went on through about ten turns, with Carlos blocking me
each time. We were probably doing about 90 miles per hour at this point. The next time I tried to pass him, he bumped my right-front fender,
which almost pushed me off a sheer cliff to the left that was some 500 to 800 feet down. My left front tire went over the edge, but fortunately I
regained control of the car. Carlos over-corrected his car to the right, and went straight into a solid rock wall. The car exploded on impact like
an egg hitting a sidewalk. I didn't know it at the time, but Carlos was killed instantly.

One of the rules of the race was if you stopped to help anyone, you were automatically disqualified... Seeing the explosive impact, I wanted to
stop to help, but daddy told me to keep going. He knew the rules and told me that people were there to help. That was hard for me - I slowed
[1]
down to about 15 or 20 miles per hour. He insisted that I keep going, and grimly, I did.

Unser managed to control his Jaguar, while Panini's 1949 Alfa Romeo 6C 2500 SS collided with the cliff face.
Ricardo Ramrez of Mexico City abandoned the race to rush the Paninis to a hospital in Puebla, but he was
announced dead on arrival. Teresa Panini survived the accident with minor injuries. The deaths of two well-known
Mexican sportsmen in the first two days of the race brought some reactions of horror and indignation. A government
official publicly branded the race "an imitation of North American customs not suited to Mexican characteristics."
The press went off on a crusade; Mexico City's El Universal declared that permitting such dangerous shenanigans
was a "crime."[]
Although the first two places were predictably won by the works Ferraris (driven by Piero Taruffi and Alberto
Ascari respectively), third and fourth places were won by ordinary American cars. Bill Stirling, a salesman from El
Paso, Texas, won third place in a Chrysler Saratoga and well-known race car driver Troy Ruttman won fourth in a
flat-head Mercury which he reportedly had bought for $1,000 in a used car lot in El Monte, California. In spite of
this he was able to defeat several of the factory Lancias and Ferraris.

1952
In 1952 the Carrera Panamericana saw the introduction of two categories - Sports Cars and Stock Cars, dividing
what had previously been a single class, so American heavy saloons did not have to compete directly with the nimble
European sports cars. The major automobile manufacturers had taken notice of the race and Mercedes-Benz sent a
highly organized group of people and cars to the race. First and second places were won by Karl Kling and Herman
Lang, driving the 300SL. This group may well have achieved a 1-2-3 finish had American John Fitch not been
disqualified for permitting a mechanic to touch his 300SL on the penultimate day. American Chuck Stevenson won
the touring car class in a Lincoln Capri.

Carrera Panamericana

Famously, the victory of the Mercedes-Benz 300SL of Kling and Hans


Klenk came despite the car being hit by a vulture in the windscreen.
During a long right-hand bend in the opening stage, taken at almost
200km/h (120mph), Kling failed to spot vultures sitting by the side of
the road. As the birds scattered at the sound of the virtually unsilenced
300SL, one impacted through the windscreen on the passenger side,
briefly knocking co-driver and navigator Klenk unconscious. Despite
bleeding badly from facial injuries from the shattered windscreen,
Klenk ordered Kling to maintain speed, and held on until a tyre change
The Mercedes 300SL of K. Kling & H. Klenk
following the impact of a vulture to the
almost 70km (43mi) later to wash himself and the car of blood, bird
windscreen
and glass. For extra protection, eight vertical steel bars were bolted
over the new windscreen. Kling and Klenk also discussed the species
and size of the dead bird, agreeing that it was a bird with a minimum 115-centimetre (45in) wingspan and weighing
as much as five fattened geese.[]
Less famously, but with far greater implications, was the innovative use of pre-prepared 'pace-notes' which allowed
Klenk to ascertain and communicate upcoming road bends in rapid shorthand to Kling.[] This system proved so
effective that it is used in all motorsports involving a navigator today (such as rallying).

1953
In 1953 the Sports and Stock classes were both subdivided into Large and Small groups, giving four categories in
which to compete. These were split by engine cubic capacity; sports cars under and over 1600 cc were Small and
Large respectively, and stocks cars under and over 3500 cc likewise. This was to accommodate the huge number of
participants and the diverse breeds of cars within the race.[]
Both Lincoln and Lancia came to the race highly organized and both factories swept 1-2-3 finishes in their respective
categories. The Europeans dominated the sports categories, and the Americans the stock. Large Sports Cars was won
by Juan Manuel Fangio of Argentina in a Lancia, Small Sports Cars by Jos Herrarte from Guatemala in a Porsche.
Large Stock Cars was won by Chuck Stevenson of the United States in a Lincoln and Small Stock Cars by C.D.
Evans (again of the U.S.) in an ordinary six cylinder Chevrolet. Stevenson has the distinction of being the only
person to ever win twice in the original race.
However, the race was marred by the death of a number of competitors. The co-driver and pacenote systems
championed by the Mercedes teams of the previous year were vindicated by the failure of an alternative
contemporary system used by some other works drivers, notably those of Lancia who in 1953 year had entered five
cars; three 3.3-litre D24s[] for Felice Bonetto, Juan Manuel Fangio and Piero Taruffi, winner of the 1951 edition of
the race, and two 3-litre versions for Giovanni Bracco and Eugenio Castellotti. During pre-race runs of the route at
much safer speeds, Bonetto and Taruffi painted warning signals on the road to remind themselves of particular
hazards. As the D24 was both open and single-seat, there was no co-driver. This resulted in the death of Bonetto
who, leading the race under pressure from Taruffi, missed his own warning signs. Entering the village of Silao, he
encountered rough pavement at excessive speed and impacted a building, killing him instantly.[]

1954
By 1954 the race had shifted from a largely amateurish basis to become a highly technical exercise. This is reflected
by the winning of the final stage by eventual race winner Italian Umberto Maglioli, in a Ferrari at an amazing
average speed of 222 kilometres per hour (138mph) over the 365 kilometres (227mi) stage. To put this into context,
McGriff had won the 1950 race with a combined time over 27 hours - eight hours longer than even Kling and Klenk
would take just two years later in their 300 SL.[2] Phil Hill won second place in another Ferrari with Ray Crawford

131

Carrera Panamericana
winning the stock car class in a Lincoln. Two new classes were in effect in 1954; the European stock car class was
won by Sanesi, of Italy, in an Alfa Romeo and the small U.S. stock car class was won by Tommy Drisdale in a
Dodge. Californian hot rodder Ak Miller became famous by winning fifth place in his Oldsmobile powered 1927
Ford.

Cancellation
Due to safety concerns, the race was cancelled after the 1955 Le Mans disaster, although the President Adolfo Ruiz
Cortines announced only that the race's original task of publicizing the highway was 'complete'. The cancellation was
unavoidable given that cars of the period were of a high-speed, low-safety design, and drivers of a win-at-all-costs
mentality. Only a third of entrants typically finished the race, and unlike more compact circuits, the long stage
sections were impossible to secure entirely, making it possible for crashes to linger for several hours before being
noticed. 27 people had died during the five years of the Panamericana, giving it one of the highest mortality rates per
race in the history of motorsport, primarily because during the years the race was held, automobile racing had
undergone an amazing technical transformation to emerge as an advanced science. The speeds had almost doubled as
a result, but safety controls remained static and competitors, spectators and safety control personnel alike became
casualties.

Legacy
Despite being abandoned, the race would not be immediately forgotten. Despite their models being small and often
quite underpowered (especially with regard to American and other German opponents) Porsche enjoyed some
success in the race, mainly class wins, which was a testament to the reliability engendered by the Volkswagen Beetle
ancestry of their cars. Famously, a 550 Spyder won the Small Sports Car category in 1953.[] Later, some Porsche
road cars were named Carrera after this race (in the same theme as the Targas named after the Targa Florio), and in
2009 the company shipped the Panamera, a 4 door touring car with a name inspired by Panamerica.
Also, the race saw famous people from different forms of auto racing converge in one event, making for an
interesting mix of competitors. A few of the famous names involved in the race were:

Bill France, Sr., Curtis Turner and Marshall Teague of stock car racing
Mickey Thompson, Clay Smith and Ak Miller,[3] famous hot-rodders
Tony Bettenhausen, Walt Faulkner, and Jerry Unser from open wheel 'Indy' car racing
Alberto Ascari and Juan Manuel Fangio, Formula One champions at the time; and Phil Hill, who would later be a
Formula One champion
Dan Gurney and Richie Ginther, American road racers who would one day drive for Ferrari in Formula One
Jean Trvoux, Robert Manzon, Louis Chiron from France, winners of the 24 Hours of Le Mans as well as major
international rallies
Hermann Lang, Karl Kling and Hans Herrmann from Germany
Piero Taruffi, Umberto Maglioli and Felice Bonetto, all already famous Italian race drivers.

These were the best in the world at that time and even fifty years later it is acknowledged that these are key people in
the formation of modern motor racing.

Revival
The race was resurrected in 1988 by Pedro Dvila and Eduardo de Len Camargo, and runs a 7-day, 2,000-mile
(3,200km) route aping some of the original course. It is run, unusually, with official backing on special closed stages
of the public road network and fast transit sections through central Mexico at speeds approaching 160mph
(260km/h). 80 cars compete in 10 classes, sorted regarding age and authenticity; virtually any car with a classic
bodyshell is eligible. The bulk of entries are provided by 1950s and '60s American stock cars; the most popular

132

Carrera Panamericana

133

shape is the 1953 Studebaker Champion Regal Starliner, designed by Raymond Loewy, because of its exceptional
aerodynamics (this is best proven by the fact that as of 2007, of 20 post-1988 races, 16 have been won by
Studebakers). Other common European entries include Alfa Romeo Giuliettas, Jaguar E-types, Porsche 356s & 911s.
Rarer cars included Saab 96s, Volvo PV544s, and Jaguar MkII saloons.
However, despite the generally aged appearance of the cars, often they conceal underpinnings more closely related to
modern NASCAR entries. Tuned V8 engines of more than 500PS (370kW; 490hp) are common, especially in the
American cars, and the cars are often created especially for the race and ineligible anywhere else. Even less modified
cars often have nonstandard brake and coolant upgrades to help them survive the punishing course. Roll cages are
standard fit, and drivers and navigators are required to label their helmets and respective sides of the roof with their
blood types.[4]
The above is a clue as to what separates the Panamericana from other modern road races; it remains extremely
dangerous. Mechanical attrition for the more classic cars often leads to burst brake lines and overheated engines, but
crashes are also common on the winding roads. In 1999, Bernardo Obregn and his co-driver Arnaud Alda were
killed after their Volvo PV544 left the road during the Mil Cumbres mountain stage. In 2006, a 19-year-old co-driver
was left in a coma after his Jaguar E-Type Roadster crashed more than 100ft (30m) into a pine forest; Rusty Ward,
another competitor, rolled a Studebaker from a bridge into a river, having finished the event in a similar fashion the
previous year. In 2012 there were two more fatalities. It is obvious, therefore, that the race should not be classed with
road-rallies in the style of the recreated Mille Miglia; the race is competitive speed restricted to 145mph on the
closed-road sections.

2006
The 2006 event started in Veracruz on the Gulf of Mexico coast,
pulling in at Mexico City's CP circuit as a curtain raiser for the Champ
Car race, and stayed nights at the old colonial cities of Puebla,
Quertaro, Morelia, Aguascalientes and Zacatecas, with the finish at
Monterrey. It was won by Gabriel Perez and Angelica Fuentes in a
yellow 1959 Ford Coupe, the first win for a woman and a first for the
'Turismo Production' class. Though competed mostly by amateurs, Jo
Ramrez of the McLaren F1 team competed a Volvo P1800 amongst
other star drivers.

End of first day of the Carrera Panamericana in


2006 in the Port of Veracruz Malecon,
Studebaker of Jorge Silva and Horacio Chousal.

In a retro step, Cadillac entered a replica of the 1954 Series 62 coupe


that a Colorado Springs dealer loaned to "five ordinary guys from
Chicago", in order to revive a half-century old duel with Lincoln.[5]
The original rag-tag team won the last two stages, and finished third in class (a Lincoln Capri won the Large Stock
Class). The newer car, built in-house by GM's Performance Division Garage, preproduction trim shop and show-car
paint department, was built from an identical coupe hauled from somewhere within Cadillac's own inventory. The
331-cubic-inch 270hp (200kW) V8 was enlarged to 398-cubic-inches, with higher 10.5:1 compression bringing
output to 375hp (280kW) and 400lbft (540Nm) of torque, and certain safety improvements included. The car was
reunited with Blu Plemons, the co-driver of the original (the driver, Keith Anderson, was killed in practice for the
1957 Indy 500) at the starting line. Among the nine other entries in the "Original Pan-Am" class were four Lincolns,
including a 1949 model that contested the original Pan-Am.
Also importantly, 2006 saw the debut of a 'modern' category, with the sole entry of a Lotus Elise ('Chica Loca') run
by Rachel Larratt. This class, called Unlimited, allows machines manufactured after 1990 to compete in the race.[6]
Controversially, in recognition of the high value of some of the supercars thus allowed to run, organisers of the race
foresee the need to allow case-by-case exceptions from the race's normal safety equipment rules. The class is
intended to raise the race's profile beyond a market elderly enough to recall the original four races, to ensure the

Carrera Panamericana

134

survival of the event. Also, it is a reflection of the increasing scarcity of eligible vehicles, and of the effect of modern
rallies like the Gumball 3000.

2007
The 2007 event, according to Eduardo de Len Camargo (President emeritus of La Carrera Panamericana), was the
largest recreation to date. More than 100 teams (20 more than the usual limit) participated in seven days of racing
from October 26 to November 1 inclusive, with an additional pre-qualifying stage held outside Oaxaca on Thursday
October 25.[] Cars competed in the usual ten classes along a 3,100-kilometre (1,900mi) course starting in Oaxaca.
From there, the route led the convoy in day-long sections consecutively between Tehuacn, Puebla, Quertaro,
Morelia, Aguascalientes, Zacatecas and Nuevo Laredo.
As the 20th anniversary of the race's recreation, 2007 saw Mr. de Len gave thanks to the committee which has for
19 years organised the race, and the presence of President of the Mexican Motorsports Federation, Jos Snchez
Jassen, and President of the Mexican Rally Commission, Rafael Machado.[] During the conference announcing the
route, special mention was reserved for the efforts of Mexican law enforcement in general and of the Highway Patrol
in particular, under the command of Comandante Julio Cesar Tovar, and to thank Mexican Federal, State and
Municipal authorities for collaborating to ensure smooth running of a challenging project.

Winners
Original Carrera Panamericana
Year

Winning Driver(s)

1950

Hershel McGriff
Ray Elliott

1951

Piero Taruffi
Luigi Chinetti

1952

Karl Kling
Hans Klenk

1953

1954

Juan Manuel
Fangio
Gino Bronzoni
Umberto Maglioli

Revival

Entrant
Roy Sundstrom

Car

Time

Route

Report

Oldsmobile 88

27:34:25 Ciudad Jurez-El Ocotal

report

Ferrari 212 Inter Vignale

21:57:52 Tuxtla Gutirrez-Ciudad


Jurez

report

Daimler-Benz AG

Mercedes-Benz 300 SL

18:51:19 Tuxtla Gutirrez-Ciudad


Jurez

report

Scuderia Lancia

Lancia D24 Pinin Farina

18:11:00 Tuxtla Gutirrez-Ciudad


Jurez

report

Erwin Goldschmidt

Ferrari 375 Plus Pinin


Farina

17:40:26 Tuxtla Gutirrez-Ciudad


Jurez

report

Centro Deportivo
Italiano

Carrera Panamericana

Year

135

Route

Driver

Co-driver

Car

1988

Eduardo Morales

Gael Rodriguez

Ford

1989

Guillermo Rojas

Alberto Rojas Jr.

Mercury

1990

Alain de Cadenet

Gordon Currie

Jaguar

1991

Jon Ward

Shirley Ward

Kurtis

1992

Peter Frank

Mark Williams

Mercury

1993

Carlos Anaya

Eduardo Rodriguez

Studebaker

1994

Carlos Anaya (2)

Eduardo Rodriguez

Studebaker

1995

Kevin Ward

Kimberlee Augustine Studebaker

1996

Carlos Anaya (3)

Eduardo Rodriguez

Studebaker

1997

Pierre de Thoisy

Philippe Lemoine

Studebaker

1998

Pierre de Thoisy (2)

Philippe Lemoine

Studebaker

1999

Pierre de Thoisy (3)

Jean-Pierre Gontier

Studebaker

2000 Tuxtla Gutirrez-Nuevo Laredo

Pierre de Thoisy (4)

Jacques Tropenat

Studebaker

2001 Tuxtla Gutirrez-Nuevo Laredo

Pierre de Thoisy (5)

Carlos Macaya

Studebaker

2002 Tuxtla Gutirrez-Nuevo Laredo

Doug Mockett

Alan Baillie

Oldsmobile

2003 Tuxtla Gutirrez-Nuevo Laredo

Pierre de Thoisy (6)

Pierre Schockaert

Studebaker

2004 Tuxtla Gutirrez-Nuevo Laredo

Juan Carlos Sarmiento

Ral Villareal

Studebaker

2005 Tuxtla Gutirrez-Nuevo Laredo

Juan Carlos Sarmiento (2)

Ral Villareal

Studebaker

2006 Veracruz-Monterrey

Gabriel Prez

Angelica Fuentes

Ford

2007 Oaxaca-Nuevo Laredo

Pierre de Thoisy (7)

Frdric Stoesser

Studebaker

2008 Tuxtla Gutirrez-Nuevo Laredo

Bill Beilharz

Jorge Ceballos

Studebaker

2009 Huatulco-Nuevo Laredo

Stig Blomqvist

Ana Goi Boracco

Studebaker

2010 Tuxtla Gutirrez-Zacatecas

Harri Rovanper

Jouni Nrhi

Studebaker

2011 Huatulco-Zacatecas

Ricardo Trivio

Marco Hernndez

Studebaker

2012 Veracruz-Zacatecas

Gabriel Prez

Ignacio Rodrguez

Studebaker

References
Most information has been obtained by personal interviews
Clark, R.M.; The Carrera Panamericana Mexico, Brooklands Books, Ltd. (no publishing date) ISBN
1-85520-412-6

External links
Official site (http://www.lacarrerapanamericana.com.mx) (Spanish)
Official English site (http://www.panamrace.com)
Carrera Panamericana (1950-54) documentary trailer posted here by copyright holder. (http://www.youtube.
com/watch?v=gmgNjpVdXhQ)

Mille Miglia

136

Mille Miglia
Mille Miglia

Mille Miglia road sign


Category

Endurance

Country

Italy

Inaugural season

1927

Folded

1957

Last Drivers' champion

Piero Taruffi

Last Constructors' champion

Ferrari 315 Sport

Official Website

www.1000miglia.eu

[1]

The Mille Miglia (Italian pronunciation:[mille mia], Thousand Miles) was an open-road endurance race which took
place in Italy twenty-four times from 1927 to 1957 (thirteen before the war, eleven from 1947).
Like the older Targa Florio and later the Carrera Panamericana, the MM made Gran Turismo (Grand Touring) sports
cars like Alfa Romeo, BMW, Ferrari, Maserati and Porsche famous. The race brought out an estimated five million
spectators.[]

Car numbering
Unlike modern day rallying where cars are released at one minute intervals with the larger professional class cars
going before the slower cars, in the Mille Miglia the smaller displacement slower cars started first. This made
organisation simpler as marshalls did not have to be on duty for as long a period and it minimised the period that
roads had to be closed. Since 1949 cars were assigned numbers according to their start time. For example, the 1955
Moss/Jenkinson car, #722, left Brescia at 7:22 a.m. (see below), while the first cars had started at 9 p.m. the previous
day. In the early days of the race even winners needed 16 hours or more, so most competitors had to start before
midnight and arrived after dusk - if at all.

Mille Miglia

137

Pre World War II


The race was established by the young count Aymo Maggi and Franco
Mazzotti, apparently in response after the Italian Grand Prix had been
moved from their home town of Brescia to Monza. Together with a
group of wealthy associates, they chose a race from Brescia to Rome
and back, a figure-eight shaped course of roughly 1500km or a
thousand Roman miles. Later races followed twelve other routes with
varying total lengths.
The first race started on 26 March 1927 with seventy-seven starters[]
Alfa Romeo 6C 2300B Mille Miglia Spider, 1938
all Italian of which fifty-one had reached the finishing post at
[]
Brescia by the end of the race. The first Mille Miglia covered
1,618km, corresponding to just over 1,005 modern miles.[] Entry was strictly restricted to unmodified production
cars, and the entrance fee was set at the nominal level of 1 lira.[] The winner, Giuseppe Morandi,[] completed the
course in just under 21 hours 5 minutes, averaging nearly 78km/h (48mph) in his 2-litre OM;[] Brescia based OM
swept the top three places.
Tazio Nuvolari won the 1930 Mille Miglia in an Alfa Romeo 6C. Having started after his team-mate and rival
Achille Varzi, Nuvolari was leading the race but was still behind Varzi (holder of provisional second position) on the
road. In the dim half-light of early dawn Nuvolari tailed Varzi with his headlights off, thereby not being visible in
the latter's rear-view mirrors. He then overtook Varzi on the straight roads approaching the finish at Brescia, by
pulling alongside and flicking his headlights on.
The event was usually dominated by local Italian drivers and
marques, but three races were won by foreign cars. The first one
was in 1931, when German driver Rudolf Caracciola (famous in
Grand Prix racing) and riding mechanic Wilhelm Sebastian won
with their big supercharged Mercedes-Benz SSKL, averaging for
the first time more than 100km/h (63mph)[] in a Mille Miglia.
Caracciola had received very little support from the factory due to
the economic crisis at that time. He did not have enough
mechanics to man all necessary service points. After performing a
pit stop, they had to hurry across Italy, cutting the triangle-shaped
course short in order to arrive in time before the race car.

The Alfa Romeo 8C 2900B MM that won the 1938


Mille Miglia driven by Clemente Biondetti. Simeone
Foundation Automotive Museum, Philadelphia, USA.

The race was briefly stopped by Italian leader Benito Mussolini after an accident in 1938 killed a number of
spectators. When it resumed in 1940 during war time, it was dubbed the Grand Prix of Brescia, and held on a 100km
(62mi) short course in the plains of Northern Italy that was lapped nine times.
This event saw the debut of the first Enzo Ferrari owned marque AAC (Auto Avio Costruzioni) (with the Tipo 815).
Despite being populated (due to the circumstances even more than usual) mainly by Italian makers, it was the
aerodynamically improved BMW 328 driven by Germans Huschke von Hanstein/Walter Bumer that won the
high-speed race at an all-time high average of 166km/h (103mph).

Mille Miglia

Post World War II


The Italians continued to dominate their race after the war, now again on a single big lap through Italy. Mercedes
made another good effort in 1952 with the underpowered Mercedes-Benz 300 SL Gullwing, scoring second with the
German crew Karl Kling/Hans Klenk that later in the year would win the Carrera Panamericana. Caracciola, in a
comeback attempt, was fourth.
Few other non-Italians managed podium finishes in the 1950s, among them Juan Manuel Fangio, Peter Collins and
Wolfgang von Trips. From 1953 until 1957 the Mille Miglia was also a round of the World Sports Car
championship. In 1955, Mercedes made another attempt at winning the MM, this time with careful preparation and a
more powerful car, the Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR which was based on the Formula One car (Mercedes-Benz W196),
entirely different from their sports cars carrying name Mercedes-Benz 300 SL.
Both young German Hans Herrmann (who had a remarkable previous efforts with Porsche) and Briton Stirling Moss
relied on the support of navigators while Juan Manuel Fangio (car #658) preferred to drive alone as usual as he
considered road races dangerous since his co-pilot was killed in South America. Karl Kling also drove alone, in the
fourth Mercedes, #701.
Similar to his teammates, Moss and his navigator, motor race journalist Denis Jenkinson, ran a total of six
reconnaissance laps beforehand, enabling "Jenks" to make course notes (pace notes) on a scroll of paper 18ft
(540cms) long that he read from and gave directions to Moss during the race by a coded system of 15 hand signals.
Although this undoubtedly helped them, Moss's innate ability was clearly the predominant factor. Indeed, it should
be noted that Moss was competing against drivers with a large amount of local knowledge of the route, so the
reconnaissance laps were considered an equaliser, rather than an advantage.
Car #704 with Hans Herrmann and Hermann Eger was said to be fastest in the early stages, though. Herrmann
already had a remarkable race in 1954, when the gate on a railroad crossing were lowered in the last moment before
the fast train to Rome passed. Driving a very low Porsche 550 Spyder, Herrmann decided it was too late for a brake
attempt anyway, knocked on the back of the helmet of his navigator Herbert Linge to make him duck, and they
barely passed below the gates and before the train, to the surprise of the spectators. Herrmann was less lucky in 1955
as he had to abandon the race after a brake failure. Kling crashed also.
After 10 h 07' 48", Moss/Jenkinson arrived in Brescia in their Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR with the now famous #722,
setting the event record at an average of 157.650km/h (97.96mph) which was fastest ever on this 1,597km (992mi)
variant of the course, not to be beaten in the remaining two years. Fangio arrived a few minutes later in the #658 car,
but having started 24 min earlier, it actually took him about 30 minutes longer, having engine problems at Pescara,
through Rome and by the time Fangio reached Florence, a fuel injection pipe had broken and he was running on 7
cylinders.[2]

138

Mille Miglia

139

The end
The race was banned after two fatal crashes. The first was the crash of
a 4.2-litre Ferrari 335 S in 1957 that took the lives of the Spanish
driver Alfonso de Portago, his co-driver/navigator Edmund Nelson,
and nine spectators, at the village of Guidizzolo.[] The car supposedly
landed on top of Portago and Nelson cutting them in half. Five of the
spectators killed were children, all of whom were standing along the
race course. Portago desperately wanted to win this race and waited too
long to make a tire change. The crash was caused by a worn tire. The
manufacturer was blamed and sued for this, as was the Ferrari team.
Memorial to victims of Mille Miglia where the
fatal crash happened

A second car crash in Brescia took the life of Joseph Gttgens. He was
driving a Triumph TR3.

From 1958 to 1961, the event resumed as a rallying-like round trip at legal speeds with a few special stages driven at
full speed, but this was discontinued also.
Since 1977, the name was revived as the Mille Miglia Storica, a parade for pre-1957 cars that takes several days,
which also spawned the 2007 documentary film Mille Miglia - The Spirit of a Legend.
From 1927 to 1957, the race took the lives of a total of 56 people.[3]

Mille Miglia winners


Year

Drivers

Car

1927

Ferdinando Minoia
Giuseppe Morandi

OM 665 S

1928

Giuseppe Campari
Giulio Ramponi

Alfa Romeo 6C 1500 Sport Spider Zagato

1929

Giuseppe Campari
Giulio Ramponi

Alfa Romeo 6C 1750 SS Spider Zagato

1930

Tazio Nuvolari
Battista Guidotti

Alfa Romeo 6C 1750 GS Spider Zagato

1931

Rudolf Caracciola
Wilhelm Sebastian

Mercedes-Benz SSK

1932

Baconin Borzacchini
Amedeo Bignami

Alfa Romeo 8C 2300 Spider Touring

1933

Tazio Nuvolari
Decimo Compagnoni

Alfa Romeo 8C 2300 Spider Zagato

1934

Achille Varzi
Amedeo Bignami

Alfa Romeo 8C 2600 Monza Spider Brianza

1935

Carlo Maria Pintacuda Alfa Romeo 8C 2900 Tipo B


Alessandro Della Stufa

1936

Antonio Brivio
Carlo Ongaro

1937

Carlo Maria Pintacuda Alfa Romeo 8C 2900A


Paride Mambelli

1938

Clemente Biondetti
Aldo Stefani

Alfa Romeo 8C 2900A

Alfa Romeo 8C 2900B Spider MM Touring

Mille Miglia

140
1939
1940

no race held
Huschke von Hanstein BMW 328 Berlinetta Touring
Walter Baumer

1941-46 no races held


1947

Clemente Biondetti
Emilio Romano

Alfa Romeo 8C 2900 B Berlinetta Touring

1948

Clemente Biondetti
Giuseppe Navone

Ferrari 166 S Coupe Allemano

1949

Clemente Biondetti
Ettore Salani

Ferrari 166 MM Barchetta Touring

1950

Giannino Marzotto
Marco Crosara

Ferrari 195 S Berlinetta Touring

1951

Luigi Villoresi
Pasquale Cassani

Ferrari 340 America Berlinetta Vignale

1952

Giovanni Bracco
Alfonso Rolfo

Ferrari 250 S Berlinetta Vignale

1953

Giannino Marzotto
Marco Crosara

Ferrari 340 MM Spider Vignale

1954

Alberto Ascari

Lancia D24 Spider

1955

Stirling Moss
Denis Jenkinson

Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR

1956

Eugenio Castellotti

Ferrari 290 MM Spider Scaglietti

1957

Piero Taruffi

Ferrari 315 Sport

Name usage
Owner of trademark logo of Mille Miglia is the Automobile Club Brescia [4].
Mille Miglia is also the name of Alitalia's frequent flyer program.
Mille Miglia is also the name of a jacket, named after the race, inspired by the 1920s racewear and designed by
Massimo Osti for his CP Company clothing label. The garment features goggles built into the hood and originally
had a small circular window in the sleeve enabling the wearer to see their watch. The jackets have been produced for
a long period and are still popular with British football casuals.
As a sponsor and timekeeper of the Storica event, the event has lent its name and its trademark logo to Chopard for a
series of sport watches. For promotions Chopard uses photographs from the event by photographer Giacomo Bretzel.
Mille Miglia Red is the name for a color used by Chevrolet on its Corvette models. The color was offered between
1972 and 1975.[5]
In 1982 the Mille Miglia endurance race was revived as a road rally event.

Mille Miglia

141

Mille Miglia Storica results


1977 : Hepp / Bauer - Alfa Romeo RLSS - 1927
1982 : Bacchi / Montanari - O.S.C.A MT 4 - 1956
1984 : Palazzani / Campana - Stanguellini 1100 S 1947
1986 : Schildbach / Netzer - Mercedes-Benz SSK 1929
1987 : Nannini / Marin - Maserati 200 SI - 1957
1988 : Rollino / Gaslini - Fiat 1100 S MM - 1948
1989 : Valseriati / Favero - Mercedes-Benz 300 SL 1955
1990 : Agnelli / Cavallari - Cisitalia 202 SC - 1950

Bandini 750 sport siluro in Mille Miglia 2006

1991 : Panizza / Pisanelli - Renault 750 Sport - 1954


1992 :
Can / Galliani - BMW 507 - 1957
1993 : Vesco / Bocelli - Cisitalia 202 SC - 1948
1994 :
Can / Galliani - Lancia Aurelia B 20 1957
1995 : Ferrari / Salza - Abarth 750 Zagato - 1957
1996 :

Can / Galliani - BMW 328 MM - 1937

1997 : Valseriati / Sabbadini - Mercedes-Benz 300


SL Pr - 1952
1998 :
Can / Galliani - BMW 328 MM - 1937
1999 :

Can / Auteri - Ferrari 340 MM - 1953

2000 :

Can / Galliani - BMW 328 MM - 1937

2001 : Sisti / Bernini - Healey Silverstone - 1950


2002 :
1940

Can / Galliani - BMW 328 Touring -

2003 :
1923

Sielecki / Hervas - Bugatti T 23 Brescia -

2004 :
1939

Can / Galliani - BMW 328 MM Coup -

2005 :
S - 1928

Viaro / De Marco - Alfa Romeo 6C 1500

2006 :
1939

Can / Galliani - BMW 328 MM Coup -

2007 :
Viaro / Bergamaschi - Alfa Romeo 6C
1500 Super Sport - 1928

Marx/Don with Alfa Romeo 6C 1750 Gran Sport in 2008 Mille


Miglia.

Mika Hkkinen and Juan Manuel Fangio II in 2011 Mille Miglia.

2008 :
Luciano and Antonio Viaro - Alfa Romeo
6C 1500 Super Sport - 1928
2009 :

Ferrari / Ferrari - Bugatti Type 37 -1927

2010 :

Can / Galliani - BMW 328 MM Coup - 1939

2011 :

Giordano Mozzi / Stefania Biacca - Aston Martin Le Mans -1933

2012 :

Scalise Claudio / Claramunt Daniel - Alfa Romeo 6C 1500 Gran Sport "Testa Fissa" - 1933

Mille Miglia

References
[1] http:/ / www. 1000miglia. eu
[4] http:/ / www. brescia. aci. it

External links
http://www.1000miglia.eu/
Mille Miglia Museum, Brescia (http://www.museomillemiglia.it/defaulten.aspx)

142

Petit Le Mans

143

Petit Le Mans
Petit Le Mans

American Le Mans Series


Venue

Road Atlanta

Corporate sponsor

Mazda

First race

1998

First ALMS race

1999

Distance

1,000mi (1,600km)

Laps

394

Duration

1,000.76 mi. (1,610.57 km) or 10 hrs.

Most wins (driver)

Rinaldo Capello (5)

Most wins (team)

Audi Sport North America (6)

Most wins (manufacturer) Audi (9)

The Petit Le Mans (French for little Le Mans) is a sports car endurance race held annually at Road Atlanta in
Braselton, Georgia, USA. It uses the rules established for the 24 hours of Le Mans by the Automobile Club de
l'Ouest (ACO), which are slightly modified if necessary, mainly to allow additional cars to compete.
The race was founded by Road Atlanta owner Don Panoz and first run on October 10, 1998 as part of the IMSA
season. The 1999 edition was one of the original events of the American Le Mans Series. The 2010 and 2011
editions were also part of the Intercontinental Le Mans Cup, but the 2012 race for the brand-new World Endurance
Championship was dropped in favour of Bahrain. This caused a lot of controversy after the calendar was published.
The Petit Le Mans covers a maximum of 1,000 miles (1,600km) (which is approximately 394 laps) or a maximum
of 10 hours, whichever comes first; only once, in the rain-stopped 2009 race, has the leading team failed to complete
1,000 miles (1,600km). In addition to the overall race, teams of two or three drivers per car compete for class
victories in different categories, divided into Le Mans prototypes and grand tourers. Class winners of this event
receive an automatic invitation to the following year's 24 Hours of Le Mans, however in 2012 this was removed
from the regulations.
Rinaldo Capello holds the record of most race wins, having won in 2000, 2002, 2006, 2007 and 2008.

Petit Le Mans

144

Winners
Year

Class

1998 LMP1
WSC

Winning Drivers

Team

Chassis-Engine

Eric van de Poele


Wayne Taylor
Emmanuel Collard

Doyle-Risi Racing

Ferrari 333 SP

LMGT1
GT1

Thierry Boutsen
Bob Wollek
Ralf Kelleners

Champion Racing

Porsche 911 GT1 Evo

LMGT2
GT2

Michel Ligonnet
Lance Stewart

Freisinger Motorsport

Porsche 911 GT2

GT3

Peter Argetsinger
Richard Polidori
Angelo Cilli

Team A.R.E.

Porsche 911 Carrera RSR

1999 LMP

David Brabham
ric Bernard
Andy Wallace

Panoz Motor Sports

Panoz LMP1-Ford

GTS

Olivier Beretta
Karl Wendlinger
Marc Duez

Viper Team Oreca

Dodge Viper GTS-R

GT

Dirk Mller
Sascha Maassen
Cort Wagner

Manthey Racing

Porsche 911 GT3-R

Allan McNish
Rinaldo Capello
Michele Alboreto

Audi Sport North America

Audi R8

GTS

Andy Pilgrim
Kelly Collins
Franck Fron

Corvette Racing

Chevrolet Corvette C5-R

GT

Sascha Maassen
Bob Wollek

Dick Barbour Racing

Porsche 911 GT3-R

2001 LMP900

Frank Biela
Emanuele Pirro

Audi Sport North America

Audi R8

LMP675

Scott Maxwell
Milka Duno
John Graham

Dick Barbour Racing

Reynard 01Q-Judd

GTS

Andy Pilgrim
Kelly Collins
Franck Fron

Corvette Racing

Chevrolet Corvette C5-R

GT

Hans-Joachim Stuck
Boris Said
Bill Auberlen

Prototype Technology Group

BMW M3 GTR

2000 LMP

Petit Le Mans

145

2002 LMP900

Tom Kristensen
Rinaldo Capello

Audi Sport North America

Audi R8

LMP675

Jon Field
Duncan Dayton
Michael Durand

Intersport Racing

MG-Lola EX257

GTS

Ron Fellows
Johnny O'Connell
Oliver Gavin

Corvette Racing

Chevrolet Corvette C5-R

GT

Lucas Luhr
Sascha Maassen

Alex Job Racing

Porsche 911 GT3-RS

2003 LMP900

JJ Lehto
Johnny Herbert

ADT Champion Racing

Audi R8

Jon Field
Duncan Dayton
Larry Connor

Intersport Racing

Lola B01/60-Judd

Prodrive

Ferrari 550-GTS Maranello

Timo Bernhard
Jrg Bergmeister
Romain Dumas

Alex Job Racing

Porsche 911 GT3-RS

Marco Werner
JJ Lehto

ADT Champion Racing

Audi R8

LMP2

Clint Field
Robin Liddell
Milka Duno

Intersport Racing

Lola B2K/40-Judd

GTS

Olivier Beretta
Oliver Gavin
Jan Magnussen

Corvette Racing

Chevrolet Corvette C5-R

GT

Timo Bernhard
Jrg Bergmeister
Sascha Maassen

Alex Job Racing

Porsche 911 GT3-RSR

Frank Biela
Emanuele Pirro

ADT Champion Racing

Audi R8

LMP2

Jon Field
Clint Field
Liz Halliday

Intersport Racing

Lola B05/40-AER

GT1

Olivier Beretta
Oliver Gavin
Jan Magnussen

Corvette Racing

Chevrolet Corvette C6.R

GT2

Patrick Long
Jrg Bergmeister

Petersen/White Lightning Racing Porsche 911 GT3-RSR

LMP675

GTS

GT

2004 LMP1

2005 LMP1

Alain Menu
Peter Kox
Tom Enge

Petit Le Mans

146

2006 LMP1

Rinaldo Capello
Allan McNish

Audi Sport North America

Audi R10 TDI

LMP2

Sascha Maassen
Timo Bernhard
Emmanuel Collard

Penske Racing

Porsche RS Spyder

GT1

Darren Turner
Tom Enge

Aston Martin Racing

Aston Martin DBR9

GT2

Jrg Bergmeister
Patrick Long
Niclas Jnsson

Petersen/White Lightning Racing Porsche 911 GT3-RSR

Allan McNish
Rinaldo Capello

Audi Sport North America

Audi R10 TDI

LMP2

Timo Bernhard
Romain Dumas
Patrick Long

Penske Racing

Porsche RS Spyder

GT1

Oliver Gavin
Olivier Beretta
Max Papis

Corvette Racing

Chevrolet Corvette C6.R

GT2

Johannes van Overbeek


Jrg Bergmeister
Marc Lieb

Flying Lizard Motorsports

Porsche 911 GT3-RSR

Allan McNish
Rinaldo Capello
Emanuele Pirro

Audi Sport North America

Audi R10 TDI

LMP2

Ryan Briscoe
Hlio Castroneves

Penske Motorsports, Inc

Porsche RS Spyder

GT1

Johnny O'Connell
Jan Magnussen
Ron Fellows

Corvette Racing

Chevrolet Corvette C6.R

GT2

Jaime Melo
Mika Salo

Risi Competizione

Ferrari F430GT

Franck Montagny
Stphane Sarrazin

Team Peugeot Total

Peugeot 908 HDi FAP

LMP2

Butch Leitzinger
Marino Franchitti
Ben Devlin

Dyson Racing Team

Lola B08/86-Mazda

GT2

Jaime Melo
Pierre Kaffer
Mika Salo

Risi Competizione

Ferrari F430GT

2007 LMP1

2008 LMP1

2009 LMP1

Petit Le Mans

147

2010 LMP1

Franck Montagny
Stphane Sarrazin
Pedro Lamy

Team Peugeot Total

Peugeot 908 HDi FAP

LMP2

David Brabham
Simon Pagenaud
Marino Franchitti

Patrn Highcroft Racing

HPD ARX-01C

LMPC

Scott Tucker
Burt Frisselle
Marco Werner

Level 5 Motorsports

Oreca FLM09-Chevrolet

GT2

Oliver Gavin
Jan Magnussen
Emmanuel Collard

Corvette Racing

Chevrolet Corvette C6.R

GTC

Henri Richard
Duncan Ende
Andy Lally

TRG

Porsche 997 GT3 Cup

2011 LMP1

Franck Montagny
Stphane Sarrazin
Alexander Wurz

Peugeot Sport Total

Peugeot 908

LMP2

Scott Tucker
Christophe Bouchut
Joo Barbosa

Level 5 Motorsports

HPD ARX-01g

LMPC

Ken Dobson
Henri Richard
Ryan Lewis

PR1 Mathiasen Motorsports

Oreca FLM09-Chevrolet

GT

Giancarlo Fisichella
Gianmaria Bruni
Pierre Kaffer

AF Corse

Ferrari 458 Italia GTC

GTE
Am

Tracy Krohn
Niclas Jnsson
Michele Rugolo

Krohn Racing

Ferrari F430 GTE

GTC

Tim Pappas
Jeroen Bleekemolen
Sebastiaan Bleekemolen

Black Swan Racing

Porsche 997 GT3 Cup

2012 P1

Neel Jani
Nicolas Prost
Andrea Belicchi

Rebellion Racing

Lola B12/60-Toyota

P2

Scott Tucker
Christophe Bouchut
Luis Daz

Level 5 Motorsports

HPD ARX-03b

PC

Alex Popow
Ryan Dalziel
Mark Wilkins

CORE Autosport

Oreca FLM09-Chevrolet

GT

Scott Sharp
Johannes van Overbeek
Toni Vilander

Extreme Speed Motorsports

Ferrari 458 Italia GT2

GTE Am

Raymond Narac
Nicolas Armindo
Anthony Pons

IMSA Performance Matmut

Porsche 997 GT3-RSR

GTC

Henrique Cisneros
Mario Farnbacher
Jakub Giermaziak

NGT Motorsport

Porsche 997 GT3 Cup

Petit Le Mans

148

Overall winners
Drivers
Rank

Driver

Wins

Years

Rinaldo Capello

2000, 2002, 2006-2008

Allan McNish

2000, 2006-2008

Emanuele Pirro

2001, 2005, 2008

Franck Montagny

2009-2011

Stphane Sarrazin

2009-2011
2

Frank Biela

2001, 2005
2003-2004

JJ Lehto

Makes
Rank

Maker

Wins

Years

Audi

2000-2008

Peugeot 3

2009-2011

Ferrari

1998

Ford

1999

Lola

2012

Series association
Year

Championship

1998 IMSA GT Championship


1999 American Le Mans Series
2000 American Le Mans Series
2001 American Le Mans Series, European Le Mans Series
2002 American Le Mans Series
2003 American Le Mans Series
2004 American Le Mans Series
2005 American Le Mans Series
2006 American Le Mans Series
2007 American Le Mans Series
2008 American Le Mans Series
2010 American Le Mans Series, Intercontinental Le Mans Cup
2011 American Le Mans Series, Intercontinental Le Mans Cup
2012 American Le Mans Series, European Le Mans Series

Petit Le Mans

149
2013 American Le Mans Series

External links
Petit Le Mans [1]
American Le Mans Series Website [2]

References
[1] http:/ / www. roadatlanta. com/ ev_petit. lasso
[2] http:/ / www. americanlemans. com/

Targa Florio

150

Targa Florio
Targa Florio
Category

Endurance

Country

TourofIslandofSicily,Italy

Inaugural season

1906

Folded

1977

Last Drivers' champion

RaffaeleRestivo,
AlfonsoMerendino

Last Constructors' champion

ChevronB36BMW

The Targa Florio was an open road endurance


automobile race held in the mountains of Sicily near
Palermo. Founded in 1906, it was the oldest sports car
racing event, part of the World Sportscar Championship
between 1955 and 1973. While the first races consisted of
a whole tour of the island, the track length in the race's
last decades was limited to the 72 kilometres (45mi) of
the Circuito Piccolo delle Madonie, which was lapped
11 times.
After 1973, it was a national sports car event until it was
discontinued in 1977 due to safety concerns. It has since
been run as a rallying event, and is part of the Italian
Rally Championship.

Alessandro Cagno (1883-1971), winner of first Targa Florio in


1906. Pictured at 1907 event.

History
The race was created in 1906 by the wealthy pioneer race
driver and automobile enthusiast, Vincenzo Florio, who had
started the Coppa Florio race in Brescia, Lombardy in 1900.
One of the toughest competitions in Europe, the first Targa
Florio covered 3 laps equalling 277 miles (446km) through
multiple hairpin curves on treacherous mountain roads, at
heights where severe changes in climate frequently
occurred. Alessandro Cagno won the inaugural 1906 race in
nine hours, averaging 30 miles per hour (50km/h).

Vincenzo Trucco, winner of the 1908 Targa Florio driving an


Isotta Fraschini

today's F1.

By the mid-1920s, the Targa Florio had become one of


Europe's most important races, as neither the 24 Hours of
Le Mans nor the Mille Miglia had been established yet.
Grand Prix races were still isolated events, not a series like

Targa Florio

The wins of Mercedes (not yet merged with Benz) in the


1920s made a big impression in Germany, especially that of
German Christian Werner in 1924, as he was the first
non-Italian winner since 1920. Rudolf Caracciola repeated a
similar upset win at the Mille Miglia a couple of years later.
In 1926, Eliska Junkova, one of the great female drivers in
Grand Prix motor racing history, became the first woman to
ever compete in the race.
In 1953, the FIA World Sportscar Championship was
introduced. The Targa became part of it in 1955, when
Vincenzo Lancia driving a Fiat 50 hp in 1908 Targa Florio,
Mercedes had to win 1-2 with the Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR
finished 2nd.
in order to beat Ferrari for the title. They had missed the
first two of the 6 events, Buenos Aires and the 12 Hours of Sebring, where Ferrari, Jaguar, Maserati and Porsche
scored. Mercedes appeared at and won in the Mille Miglia, then pulled out of Le Mans as a sign of respect for the
victims of the 1955 Le Mans disaster, but won the Tourist Trophy at Dundrod. Stirling Moss/Peter Collins and Juan
Manuel Fangio/Karl Kling finished minutes ahead of the best Ferrari and secured the title.

Course variants
Several versions of the track were used. It started with a single lap of a 148km (92mi) circuit from 1906-1911 and
1931. From 1912 to 1914 a tour around the perimeter of Sicily was used, with a single lap of 975 kilometres
(606mi), lengthened to 1,080 kilometres (670mi) from 1948 to 1950. The 148km "Grande" circuit was then
shortened twice, the first time to 108km (67mi), the version used from 1919-1930, and then to the 72km (45mi)
circuit used from 1932 to 1936 and 1951 to 1977.
The start and finish took place at Cerda. The counter-clockwise lap lead from Caltavuturo and Collesano from an
altitude over 600 metres (1,970ft) down to sea level, where the cars raced from Campofelice di Roccella on the
Buonfornello straight along the coast, a straight over 6km (3.7mi) longer than the Mulsanne straight at the Circuit
de la Sarthe in Le Mans. The longest version of the circuit went south through Caltavuturo (whereas the shortest
version of the open-road circuit went east just before entry into Caltavuturo, through a mountainous section directly
to Collesano) through an extended route through elevation changes, and swept through the nearby towns of
Castellana and Sottana, twisting around mountains up to the town of Castelbuono and rejoined the most recent
version of the track at Collesano. The second version of the track also went south through Caltavuturo and took a
shortcut starting right before Castellana to Collesano via the town of Polizzi Generosa. There was a closed circuit
called Favorita Park used from 1937-1940.

Lap speeds
Like a rally event, the race cars were started one by one every two minutes for a time trial, as a start from a full grid
was not possible on the tight and twisty roads.
Helmut Marko set the lap record in 1972 in an Alfa Romeo 33TT3 at 33 min 41 s at an average of 128.253km/h
(79.693mph) during an epic charge where he made up 2 minutes on Arturo Merzario and his Ferrari 312PB.[] The
fastest ever was Leo Kinnunen in 1970, lapping in the Porsche 908/3 at 128.571km/h (79.890mph) or 33 min 36
seconds flat.[]
Due to the track's length, drivers practised in the week before the race in public traffic, often with their race cars
fitted with license plates. Porsche factory drivers even had to watch onboard videos, a sickening experience for
some. The lap record for the 146km "Grande" circuit was 2 hours 3 min 54.8 seconds set by Achille Varzi in a
Bugatti Type 51 at the 1931 race at an average speed of 70.7km/h (43.931mph).[1] The lap record for the 108km

151

Targa Florio
"Medio" circuit was 1 hour 21 min 21.6 seconds set by Varzi in an Alfa Romeo P2 at an average speed of
79.642km/h (49.487mph) at the 1930 race.[2] The fastest completion around the short version of the island tour was
done by Ernesto Ceirano in a SCAT at the 1914 race, completed in 16 hours, 51 minutes and 31.6 seconds from May
2425, 1914.[3] The fastest completion of the long version of the island tour was by Mario and Franco Bornigia in an
Alfa Romeo 8C 2500, completed in 12 hours, 26 minutes and 33 seconds flat at the 1950 race at an average speed of
86.794km/h (53.931mph).[4]

1970s, Safety and demise


In the late 1960s and early 1970s, race cars with up to 600hp (450kW) such as Nino Vaccarella's Ferrari 512S raced
through small mountain villages while spectators sat or stood right next to, or even on, the road. Porsche, on the
other hand, did not race its big Porsche 917, but rather the nimble Porsche 908/03 Spyders.
Due to safety concerns, especially by Helmut Marko, who called the race "totally insane", the last Targa Florio as a
World Sportscar Championship race was run in 1973; where during this event it became impossible to retain its
international status after a number of horrendous and 2 fatal accidents at the event; one which privateer Charles
Blyth crashed his Lancia Fulvia HF into a trailer at the end of the Buonfornello straight and was killed; and another
where an Italian driver crashed his Alpine-Renault into a group of spectators, killing one. There were several other
accidents during practice for the 1973 event in which a total of seven spectators sustained injuries. In that year, even
a Porsche 911 won as the prototypes such as Jacky Ickx's Ferrari suffered crashes or other troubles. The Targa was
continued as a national event for some years, before a crash in 1977 which killed 2 spectators and seriously injured 5
others (including the driver) sealed its fate. The 1977 race was forcibly taken over by local police and was stopped
on the 4th lap, and it also saw 2 other drivers having serious accidents; one of them was critically injured, but
survived. Since 1978, it has run as a rallying event.
Although the Targa Florio was an open road rally-type race that took place on Sicilian mountain roads with (aside
from straw bales and weak guardrails at some of the turns, the latter were installed by the island's government)
practically no safety features, only 9 people- including spectators- died at the event over the 71 year and 61 race
history using a total of 6 circuit configurations. This amount is relatively small compared to other open road races,
like the Mille Miglia, where over a period of 30 years and 24 races, 56 people lost their lives and the Carrera
Panamericana, where over a period of 5 years and 5 races, 25 people were killed. This is probably due to the fact that
the mountain roads were extremely twisty and average speeds never reached even 80mph even up to the final years
of the race's history, even with the very long straight at the northernmost of the track.

Legacy
After winning the race several times, Porsche named the convertible version of the 911 after the Targa. The name
targa means plaque or plate, see targa top.
The Australian-made Leyland P76 had a special version named Targa Florio named to commemorate victory by
journalist-rallyist Evan Green on a Special Stage of the 1974 London-Sahara-Munich World Cup Rally which was
held on the Targa Florio course.[5]
Since 1992 the event has lent its name to a modern recreation, staged half-a-world away in the form of the famous
road rally Targa Tasmania held on the island state of Tasmania, found off the Southern coast of Australia. There are
also the Targa New Zealand since 1995, and the Targa Newfoundland since 2002.

152

Targa Florio

153

Winners
[6]

A selection of race winners

Jean Porporato finishing fourth at the 1908 race


with Berliet.

Alfa Romeo RL TF - winner in 1923.

Albert Divo at the 1929 Targa Florio with


Bugatti Type 35C.

Targa Florio

154

Alfa Romeo 8C winner in 1931, 1932 et


1933.

Maserati 6CM - winner in 1937-1939

Ferrari 166MM Barchetta, similar to 1948 winner driven by Clemente Biondetti


and Igor Troubetzkoy

Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR similar to the 1955 winner driven by Stirling


Moss and Peter Collins

Targa Florio

155

Porsche 904 similar to 1964 winner of Colin Davis and


Antonio Pucci

Porsche 908/3 similar to the one driven by Jo Siffert and Brian


Redman in 1970

Porsche 911 Carrera RSR driven by Herbert Mller et Gijs van


Lennep in 1973

Lancia Stratos Turbo

Targa Florio

156

Year

Winner

Car

Time

Distance Speed Laps


(km)
(km/h)

Course Variant

1906

Alessandro Cagno

Itala 35/40 HP

9:32:22

446.469 46.80

1907

Felice Nazzaro

Fiat 28/40 HP

8:17:36

446.469 53.83

1908

Vincenzo Trucco

Isotta Fraschini

7:49:26

446.469 57.06

1909

Francesco Ciuppa

SPA

2:43:19

148.823 54.67

1910

Tullio Cariolato

Franco Automobili

6:20:47

297.646 46.90

1911

Ernesto Ceirano

SCAT

9:32:22

446.469 46.80

1912

Cyril Snipe

SCAT 25/35

24:37:19

979.000 41.44

1913

Felice Nazzaro

Nazzaro Tipo 2

19:18:40

979.000 50.70

1914

Ernesto Ceirano

SCAT 22/32

16:51:31

979.000 58.07

1919

Andr Boillot

Peugeot EXS

7:51.01.8

432

55

1920

Guido Meregalli

Nazzaro GP

8:27.23.8

432

50.924

1921

Giulio Masetti

Fiat 451

7:25'05.2

432

58.236

1922

Giulio Masetti

Mercedes GP/14

6:50.50.2

432

63.091

1923

Ugo Sivocci

Alfa Romeo RL Targa Florio

7:18.00.2

432

59.177

1924

Christian Werner

Mercedes PP

6:32.37.2/5 432

66.010

1925

Bartolomeo Costantini Bugatti T35

7:32.27.2

540

71.609

1926

Bartolomeo Costantini Bugatti T35T

7:20.45.0

540

73.507

1927

Emilio Materassi

Bugatti T35C

7:35.55.4

540

71.065

1928

Albert Divo

Bugatti T35B

7:20.56.6

540

73.478

1929

Albert Divo

Bugatti T35C

7:15'41.7

540

74.366

1930

Achille Varzi

Alfa Romeo P2

6:55.16.6

540

78.010

1931

Tazio Nuvolari

Alfa Romeo 8C-2300 Monza

9:00'27.0

584

64.834

Grande Circuit (146km)

1932

Tazio Nuvolari

Alfa Romeo 8C-2300 Monza

7:15.50.6

574

79.296

Piccolo Circuit (72km)

1933

Antonio Brivio

Alfa Romeo 8C-2300 Monza

7:15.50.6

504

76.729

1934

Achille Varzi

Alfa Romeo Tipo-B P3

6:14'26.8

432

69.222

1935

Antonio Brivio

Alfa Romeo Tipo-B P3

2:08.47.2

432

80.010

1936

Constantino Magistri

Lancia Augusta

6:14'26.8

144

67.088

1937

Giulio Severi

Maserati 6CM

2:55'49.0

315.6

107.704 60

1938

Giovanni Rocco

Maserati 6CM

1:30'04.6

171.6

114.303 30

1939

Luigi Villoresi

Maserati 6CM

1:40.15.4

228

136.445 40

1940

Luigi Villoresi

Maserati 4CL

1:36.08.6

228

142.288 40

1948

Clemente Biondetti
Igor Troubetzkoy

Ferrari 166

12:12'00.0

1080

88.866

1949

Clemente Biondetti
Aldo Benedetti

Ferrari 166 SC

13:15.09.4

1080

81.494

1950

Mario Bornigia
Giancarlo Bornigia

Alfa Romeo 6C 2500 Competizione

12:26.33.0

1080

86.794

Grande Circuit (146km)

Island Tour (short) (979km)

Media Circuit (108km)

Favorita Park (5.26km)

Island Tour (long) (1080km)

Targa Florio

157

1951

Franco Cortese

Frazer Nash

7:31.04.8

576

76.631

1952

Felice Bonetto

Lancia Aurelia B20

7:11.58.0

576

76.631

1953

Umberto Maglioli

Lancia D20 3000

7:08.35.8

576

80.635

1954

Piero Taruffi

Lancia D 24

6:24.18.0

576

89.930

1955

Stirling Moss
Peter Collins

Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR

9:43.14.0

936

96.290

13

1956

Porsche 550
Umberto Maglioli
Huschke von Hanstein

7:54.52.6

720

90.770

10

1957

Fabio Colona

Fiat 600

359

1958

Luigi Musso
Olivier Gendebien

Ferrari 250 TR

10:37.58.1

1008

94.801

14

1959

Edgar Barth
Wolfgang Seidel

Porsche RSK

11:02.21.8

1008

91.309

14

1960

Jo Bonnier
Hans Herrmann
Graham Hill

Porsche RS60

7:33.08.2

720

95.320

10

1961

Wolfgang von Trips


Olivier Gendebien

Ferrari Dino 246 SP

6:57.39.4

720

103.433 10

1962

Willy Mairesse
Ricardo Rodriguez
Olivier Gendebien

Ferrari Dino 246 SP

7:02'56.3

720

102.143 10

1963

Jo Bonnier
Carlo Maria Abate

Porsche 718 GTR

6:55.45.1

720

109.908 10

1964

Colin Davis
Antonio Pucci

Porsche 904 GTS

7:10.53.3

720

100.258 10

1965

Nino Vaccarella
Lorenzo Bandini

Ferrari 275 P2

7:01:12.4

720

102.563 10

7:16:32.6

720

98.910

6:37.01.0

720

108.812 10

1966

Willy Mairesse
Herbert Mller

[7]

Porsche Carrera 6
[8]

10

1967

Paul Hawkins
Rolf Stommelen

Porsche 910

1968

Vic Elford
Umberto Maglioli

Porsche 907

6:28:47.9

720

111.112 10

1969

Gerhard Mitter
Udo Schtz

Porsche 908/2

6:07:45.3

720

117.469 10

1970

Jo Siffert
Brian Redman

Porsche 908/3

[9]

6:35.30.0

792

120.152 11

1971

Nino Vaccarella
Toine Hezemans

Alfa Romeo 33/3

6:35:46.2

792

120.070 11

1972

Arturo Merzario
Sandro Munari

Ferrari 312PB

6:27:48.0

792

122.537 11

1973

Herbert Mller
Gijs van Lennep

[10] 6:54:20.1

792

114.691 11

Porsche 911 Carrera RSR

Piccolo Circuit (72km)

Piccolo Circuit (72km)

Targa Florio

158
[11]

1974

Grard Larrousse
Amilcare Ballestrieri

Lancia Stratos

1975

Nino Vaccarella
Arturo Merzario

Alfa Romeo 33TT12

1976

"Amphicar"*
Armando Floridia

Osella PA4-BMW

1977

Raffaele Restivo
Alfonso Merendino

Chevron B36-BMW

[12]

[]

[]

4:35:02.6

576

114.883 8

4:59:16.7

576

120.895 8

5:43:46.0

576

99.090

2:41:17.0

288

107.140 4

Piccolo Circuit (72km)

"Amphicar"'s actual name was Eugenio Renna.


Races between 1955 and 1973 were part of the World Championship, with the 1957 race not a race but a regularity
test, following the Mille Miglia accident.

Wins by make
The list below includes all car manufacturers who have attained a
podium. The table does not include the results of the 1957 edition,
which was held as a regularity race.

Porsche 910 2.0 coup driven by Umberto Maglioli and


Udo Schtz in 1967.

Alfa Romeo RL Targa Florio

Targa Florio

159

Ferrari 275 P2

1927-Bugatti T35c driven by Materassi

Maserati 26MM driven by Luigi Fagioli in 1928

Pos.

Brand

1st
2nd 3rd Fastest
place place place laps

Porsche

11

12

Alfa Romeo

10

13

10

Ferrari

Lancia

Bugatti

Maserati

Mercedes-Benz

SCAT

Fiat

Targa Florio

160
10

Nazzaro

11

Itala

12

Osella

13

Peugeot

14

Chevron

15

SPA

16

Franco

17

Isotta Fraschini

17

Frazer-Nash

19

Ballot

19

Cisitalia

19

De Vecchi

22

Osca

23

Aquila Italiana

23

Sigma

25

Lola

26

Abarth

26

Alfa-Maserati-Prete 0

26

Berliet

26

Darracq

26

Diatto

26

Steyr

32

Aston Martin

Further reading
Valenza, Giuseppe (2007). Targa Florio Il Mito: Legenda Editore (Italy). ISBN 7988888165177 .

References
[9] Race report 54th TARGA FLORIO (http:/ / www. imca-slotracing. com/ AS70LM. htm)
[10] Race report TARGA FLORIO (ROUND #6) (http:/ / www. imca-slotracing. com/ LM73. htm)

External links
Targa Florio History (http://www.targaflorio.info)
Targappassionati (http://www.forum-auto.com/sport-auto/theme40/sujet378358.htm)
Results, reports, photos etc. (http://www.targaflorio.info/veloci.htm)
Track maps (http://www.targaflorio.info/circuiti.htm)
Fast laps (http://www.targaflorio.info/stat1.htm)
Porsche at Targa Florio (http://www.porsche.com/all/targaflorio/flash/default.aspx?language=en-us&
market=PCNA&pool=usa&browser=other&instance=345&variant=&section=&bandwidth=dsl)
Targa Florio memorabilia (http://www.classicrallies.com/view_product/61/Targa-Florio-1966)

Targa Florio
Museo Biblioteca Vincenzo Florio a Campofelice di Roccella - www.targaflorio-1906-1977.it (http://www.
targaflorio-1906-1977.it)
http://www.targapedia.com
The full Targa Florio for GrandPrix Legends (http://gplmz.bcsims.com/sub/targa/tf.html)
http://www.amicidellatargaflorio.com
Le Auto. Targa Florio, 1906 1977, Gallery of winners. (http://www.targaflorio-1906-1977.it/paginesommario/
Leauto.htm)
Sport-auto. Gallery of competitors 1906-1977 (http://www.forum-auto.com/sport-auto/histoire-du-sport-auto/
sujet378358-140.htm)
Coordinates:
375652N
134710E
(http:/ / tools. wmflabs. org/ geohack/ geohack.
php?pagename=Targa_Florio&params=37_56_52_N_13_47_10_E_region:IT_type:landmark_source:dewiki)

161

162

Notable endurance racing venues


Daytona
Daytona International Speedway
The Daytona International Speedway Logo.
Location

1801 West International Speedway Blvd, Daytona Beach, Florida 32114

Time zone

GMT-5

Capacity

167,785

Owner

International Speedway Corporation (Leased from Daytona Beach Racing and Recreational Facilities District)

Operator

International Speedway Corporation

Broke ground

1957

Opened

1959

Construction cost $3 million


Architect

Charles Moneypenny
William France Sr.

Major events

NASCAR Sprint Cup Series


Daytona 500
Coke Zero 400
Sprint Unlimited
Budweiser Duel
NASCAR Nationwide Series
DRIVE4COPD 300
Subway Jalapeno 250
NASCAR Camping World Truck Series
NextEra Energy Resources 250
Grand-American Rolex Sports Car Series
Rolex 24 at Daytona
Paul Revere 250
ARCA RE/MAX Series
Lucas Oil Slick Mist 200
AMA Daytona SportBike
Daytona 200
AMA Motocross
Daytona Supercross by Honda
Tri-Oval

Surface

Asphalt

Length

2.5 mi (4 km)

Turns

Banking

31 Turns
18 Tri-oval
2 Back straightaway

Daytona

163
Lap record

0:42.783 (Bill Elliott, Melling Racing, 1987, NASCAR Sprint Cup Series)
Sports Car Course (1959-1983)

Surface

Asphalt

Length

3.81 mi (6.18 km)

Turns

7
Sports Car Course (1984)

Surface

Asphalt

Length

3.87 mi (6.23 km)


Sports Car Course (1985-Present)

Surface

Asphalt

Length

3.56 mi (5.73 km)

Turns

12

Banking

32 in oval turns
18 in tri-oval

Lap record

1:33.875 (P.J. Jones, Toyota Eagle MkIII, 1993, IMSA GTP)


Motorcycle Course

Surface

Asphalt

Length

2.95 mi (4.75 km)

Turns

12

Banking

32 in oval turns
18 in tri-oval

Lap record

1:37.546 (Ben Spies, Suzuki, 2007, AMA Superbike)


Dirt Flat Track

Surface

Dirt

Length

.25 mi (.40 km)

Turns

Banking

Flat
Short Oval

Surface

Asphalt

Length

.40 mi (.64 km)

Turns

Banking

Flat

Lap record

0:20.129 (Nate Monteith, Monteith Racing, 2013, Whelen All-American Series)

Daytona International Speedway is a race track in Daytona Beach, Florida, United States. Since opening in 1959,
it has been the home of the Daytona 500, the most prestigious race in NASCAR. In addition to NASCAR, the track
also hosts races of ARCA, AMA Superbike, Grand-Am, SCCA, and Motocross. The track features multiple layouts
including the primary 2.5 miles (4.0km) high speed tri-oval, a 3.56 miles (5.73km) sports car course, a 2.95 miles
(4.75km) motorcycle course, and a .25 miles (0.40km) karting and motorcycle flat-track. The track's 180-acre
(73ha) infield includes the 29-acre (12ha) Lake Lloyd, which has hosted powerboat racing. The speedway is owned
and operated by International Speedway Corporation.

Daytona

164

The track was built in 1958 by NASCAR founder William France Sr. to host racing that was being held at the former
Daytona Beach Road Course. His banked design permitted higher speeds and gave fans a better view of the cars.
Lights were installed around the track in 1998, and today it is the third largest single lit outdoor sports facility. The
speedway has been renovated three times, with the infield renovated in 2004, and the track repaved in 1978 and
2010. On January 22, 2013, the track unveiled artist depictions of a renovated speedway with five new entrances,
another pedestrian bridge, and an expanded grandstand.[1]

Track history
Construction
NASCAR founder William France Sr. began planning for the track in 1953 as a way to promote the series, which at
the time was racing on the Daytona Beach Road Course.[] France met with Daytona Beach engineer Charles
Moneypenney to discuss his plans for the speedway. He wanted the track to have the highest banking possible to
allow the cars to reach high speeds and to give fans a better view of the cars on track. Moneypenny traveled to
Detroit, Michigan to visit the Ford Proving Grounds which had a high speed test track with banked corners. Ford
shared their engineering reports of the track with Moneypenney, providing the needed details of how to transition the
pavement from a flat straightaway to a banked corner. France took the plans to the Daytona Beach city commission,
who supported his idea and formed the Daytona Beach Speedway Authority.[]

Daytona International Speedway following the


repaving of the track in 2011

The city commission agreed to lease the 447 acres (181ha) parcel
of land adjacent to Daytona Beach International Airport to
France's corporation for $10,000 a year over a 50 year period.
France then began working on building funding for the project and
found support from a Texas oil millionaire, Clint Murchison.
Murchison loaned France $600,000 along with the construction
equipment necessary to build the track. France was also able to
secure funding from Pepsi-Cola, General Motors designer Harley
Earl, a second mortgage on his home and selling 300,000 stock
shares to local residents. Ground broke on construction of the
2.5-mile (4.0km) speedway on November 25, 1957.[]

To build the high banking, crews had to dig out millions[citation


of tons of soil from the track's infield. Because of the high water table in the area, the hole excavated filled
with water to form what is now known as Lake Lloyd, named after Joseph "Sax" Lloyd, one of the original six
members of the Daytona Beach Speedway Authority. (The lake would be stocked with 65,000 fish, and France
would arrange speedboat races on it.)[2] 22 tons of lime mortar had to be brought in to form the track's binding base,
over which asphalt would be laid. Because of the extreme degree of banking, Moneypenney had to come up with a
way to pave the incline. He connected the paving equipment to bulldozers anchored at the top of the banking. This
would allow the paving equipment to pave the banking without slipping or rolling down the incline. Moneypenney
subsequently patented his construction method and later designed Talladega Superspeedway and Michigan
International Speedway. By December 1958, France had begun to run out of money and started relying on race ticket
sales to complete construction.[]
needed]

The course is remarkable, for at least 90% of it, including the infield road racing section, can be seen from any
seat.[3]
The first practice runs on the new track began on February 6, 1959. On February 22, 1959, 42,000 people attended
the inaugural Daytona 500,[] and its finish was as startling as the track itself: Lee Petty beat Johnny Beauchamp in a
photo finish that took three days to adjudicate.[3] When the track opened it was the fastest race track to ever host a
stock car race, until Talladega Superspeedway opened 10 years later.[citation needed] April 4, it would host a 100mi

Daytona

165

(160km) Champ Car event, also, which saw Jim Rathmann beat Dick Rathmann and Rodger Ward, and, with an
average speed 170.26mph (274.01km/h), was at the time the fastest motor race ever.[3] It was also the occasion of
Daytona's first fatality: George Amick, attempting to overtake for third late in the race, hit a wall and was killed.[3]
April 5, a scheduled 1,000km (620mi) sports car event (shortened to 560mi (900km) by darkness) was won by
Roberto Mieres and Fritz d'Orey, who shared a Porsche RSK, which proved more durable than more potent
competition.[3]
Lights were installed around the track in 1998 to run NASCAR's July race, the Coke Zero 400 at night. The track
was the worlds largest single lighted outdoor sports facility until being surpassed by Losail International Circuit in
2008.[citation needed] Musco Lighting installed the lighting system, which took into account glare and visibility for
aircraft arriving and departing nearby Daytona Beach International Airport, and costs about $240 per hour when in
operation.[]

Layouts
Tri-Oval

Map of the speedway

Daytona's tri-oval is 2.5 miles (4.0km) long with 31 banking in the


turns and 18 banking at the start/finish line. The front straight is 3,800
feet (1,200m) long and the back straight (or "superstretch") is 3,000
feet (910m) long. The tri-oval shape was revolutionary at the time as it
greatly improved sight lines for fans. It is one of the two tracks on the
Sprint Cup Series circuit that uses restrictor plates to slow the cars
down due to the high speeds, the other being Talladega
Superspeedway.[]

On July 15, 2010 repaving of the track began. The repaving came almost a year earlier than planned due to the track
coming apart during the 2010 Daytona 500. The project used an estimated 50,000 tons of asphalt to repave 1,400,000
square feet (130,000m2) including the racing surface, apron, skid pads and pit road. Because of good weather, the
project was completed ahead of schedule.[]
On July 5, 2013, Daytona International Speedway will break ground on a new renovation project which will remove
backstretch seating and completely redevelop the front stretch seating. The project, scheduled to completed in
January 2016, is expected to cost between $375 million to $400 million, and will place emphasis on improving fan
experience with five expanded and redesigned fan entrances, as well as wider and more comfortable seating with
more restrooms and concession stands. After the renovations, the track's grandstands will include 101,000 permanent
seats with the ability to increase permanent seating to 125,000.[]
Road courses
The 3.81 miles (6.13km) road course was built in 1959 and first hosted
a three-hour sports car race called the Daytona Continental in 1962.[4]
The race length became 2,000km (1,200mi) in 1964,[5] and in 1966
was extended to a 24-hour endurance race known as the Rolex 24 at
Daytona. It was shortened again, to six hours, in 1972, and cancelled
entirely in 1974.[5]
In 1984[6] and 1985,[7] the layout was modified, reprofiling turns 1 and
2, moving what is now turn 3 closer to its adjacent turns, and adding
the bus stop chicane on the back stretch, resulting in a final length of 3.81 miles (6.13km) for the complete road
course.
Map of the 24-hour road course configuration

Daytona

166

While the more famous 24 Hours of Le Mans is held near the summer
solstice, Daytona's endurance race is held in winter (meaning more of
the race is run at night). The track's lighting system is limited to 20%
of its maximum output for the race to keep cars dependent on their
headlights.[8]

Start of the 2011 Rolex 24 at Daytona

Map of the Moto-Course

In 2005, a second infield road course configuration was constructed,


primarily for motorcycles. Due to fears of tire wear on the banked oval
sections, oval turns 1 and 2 were bypassed giving the new course a
length of 2.95 miles (4.75km). The Daytona SportBike that runs the
Daytona 200 however, uses the main road course except for the
motorcycle Pedro Rodrguez Hairpin (tighter than the one used for
cars; the car version is used as an acceleration lane for motorcycles).[9]

On September 26 and 27, 2006, the Indycar Series held a compatibility


test on the 10-turn, 2.73-mile (4.39km) modified road course, and the 12-turn 2.95-mile (4.75km) motorcycle road
course with 5 drivers. The drivers who tested at the track were Vitor Meira, Sam Hornish Jr., Tony Kanaan, Scott
Dixon and Dan Wheldon. This marked the first time since 1984 that open wheel cars have taken to the track at
Daytona.[10] On January 31 February 1, 2007, Indycar returned for a full test involving 17 cars.[11]
Supercross
During Daytona Beach Bike Week, a supercross track is built between pit road and the tri-oval section of the track.
Historically the track has used more sand than dirt, providing unique challenges to riders.[citation needed] The
2008-2013 track configurations were designed by former champion, Ricky Carmichael.[12]
Daytona Flat Track and Infield Kart Track
Popular dirt-track races in karting and flat-track motorcycle racing had been held at Daytona Beach Municipal
Stadium, but in 2009, the city announced the stadium was replacing its entire surface with FieldTurf, and thereby
eliminating the flat-track racing at the stadium. To continue racing, speedway officials built the Daytona Flat Track,
a new quarter-mile dirt track outside of Turns 1 and 2 of the main superspeedway. It seats 5,000 in temporary
grandstands and opened in December 2009 for WKA KartWeek.[13]
There is also a short paved kart/autocross track in the infield just inside of turn 3. The SCCA holds autocross on this
track.

Daytona

167

Short track
In February 2012, it was announced that a 0.4 miles (0.64km) short track would be constructed along the
backstretch of the Speedway's main course, for NASCAR's lower-tier series to compete at during Speedweeks in
events similar to the Toyota All-Star Showdown, formerly held at Irwindale Speedway.[14] The first races were held
on that track in February 2013.

Fatalities
A total of 34 people have been fatally injured in the track, with most during auto, motorcycle, and powerboat racing
events. Arguably the most notable was Dale Earnhardt, who died February 18, 2001.[15]
Driver

Date

Event

Cause

References

Marshall
Teague

February
11, 1959

Testing

Test runs preparing for speed-record attempt in reconfigured Indycar with


canopy, high-speed aerodynamic lift caused crash.

[16][17]

George
Amick

April 4,
1959

USAC 100-mile race

Crash at the exit of turn 2 and backstrech

[16][17]

Dr. Bernie
Taylor

June 14,
1959

Powerboat race in infield


lake

[17]

Harold
Haberling

February
21, 1961

Daytona 500 practice

[17]

Billy Wade

January 5,
1965

NASCAR Grand National


tire test

Died of internal injuries suffered in a crash during a tire test session for
Goodyear. The crash happened on the west turn caused by the bursting of
one of the tires he was testing. Goodyear was testing inner liners at the
time.

[16][17]

Don
MacTavish

February
21, 1969

Permatex 300

Killed when his car hit the outside wall on the frontstretch, tearing the
motor out of the car, then was hit by Stan Sommers. He was killed
instantly.

[17]

Wayne Harris March 12,


Bartz
1969

Lightweight motorcycle
race

Talmadge
"Tab" Prince

February
19, 1970

Twin 125s

Joe "Rusty"
Bradley

March 14,
1971

Daytona 200

[17]

David Pearl

July 30,
1971

Central Florida SCCA


meet - Paul Whiteman
Trophy Race

[17]

Friday
Hassler

February
17, 1972

Twin 125s

Killed in a crash on Lap 19 after tyre failure on another car

[17][18]

Ricky Knotts

February
14, 1980

Twin 125s

Lap 15 two-car crash with Wangerin.

[16][17][18]

Francis
Affleck

February 7,
1985

ARCA 200 practice

Dr. Charles
Ogle

December
26, 1985

Charlotte-Daytona Dash
Series testing

Tire failure during Charlotte-Daytona Dash series test on December 15 led [17]
to car digging into the chicane and car overturning in crash. Was
hospitalised and succumbed 11 days later.

Bruce Jacobi

February 4,
1987

UNO Twin 125s

Car tumbled violently in Lap 6 crash on backstretch during 1983 UNO


Twin 125 Race One, and driver was in a coma which he never recovered.

Joe Young

February
13, 1987

Charlotte-Daytona Dash
Series race

[17]
Engine failed in Turn 1, spun and was t-boned by Bill Siefert

[17][18]

[17]

[17]

[17]

Daytona

168

James
Kolman

December
27, 1987

Daytona KartWeek race

Randy Glenn

February
26, 1988

Don
Williams

May 21,
1989

Permatex 300

Dale
Robertson

December
27, 1989

WKA Daytona Kart Week


race

Julius
Johnson

February
11, 1990

ARCA 200 race

Part of seven-car Turn 4 crash on Lap 78 of the 80-lap race that also
injured a track worker when Bob Keselowski (father of 2012 NASCAR
Sprint Cup champion Brad, crashed into safety worker assisting with
another car). Johnson died three days later on February 14, 1990

Joe Booher

February
12, 1993

Florida 200 Dash Series


race

Crash on Lap 2.

James
Adamo

March 7,
1993

Daytona 200

Crash caused by front brake failure, causing bike and rider to strike
trackside barrier

[17]

Neil Bonnett

February
11, 1994

Daytona 500 practice

Crash in turn 4

[16][17][20]

Rodney Orr

February
14, 1994

Daytona 500 practice

Reigning NASCAR Goody's Dash Series champion's Cup car flipped over [17][20]
at exit of turn 2, roof caved in, killing the driver instantly. Hoosier Tire
withdrew from the race immediately, after two fatal crashes from Hoosier
drivers.

Michael
Himes

January 31,
1997

IMSA Showroom Stock

During the Friday two-hour Showroom Stock event, Himes' Honda del Sol
had a failure and hit the tyre wall guarding around the bus stop chicane.

Roger
Reiman

March 4,
1997

Daytona 200 Week

Killed in vintage motorcycle event during Daytona 200 Week.

Dale
Earnhardt

February
18, 2001

Daytona 500

Basilar skull fracture suffered from crash in turn 4 on the final lap of the
Daytona 500

[16][17][21]

Dirk Piz

March 11,
2001

Daytona 200 Week Buell


Pro Thunder

Crashed with Kiyoshige Watanabe in a two-bike crash in the bus stop


during the Buell Pro Thunder race. Watanbe was treated and released, but
Piz died at Halifax.

[21]

Stuart
Stratton

October 19, Fall Cycle Scene


2001
motorcycle event

[21]

Michael
Davis Jr.

December
30, 2001

[21]

Bryan
Cassell

October 18, Motorcycle practice,


2003
CCS/FUSA Fall Cycle
Scene

Died in crash on turn 4.

[17]

Roy H.
Weaver III

February 8,
2004

IPOWER Dash Series 150

Track worker; struck and killed by driver Ray Paprota

[21]

Robert
Boswell

February 3,
2008

Richard Petty Driving


Experience

Heart attack when driving

[]

[17]

[17]
Died of injuries suffered in a February 1979 crash.

[17]

[17]

Daytona Kart Week race

[17][19]

Daytona

169

Fan amenities
Sprint Fanzone
The Sprint Fanzone is an access package similar to pit passes for fans
to get closer to drivers and race teams. The fanzone was built in 2004
as part of a renovation of the track's infield.[22] Fans are able to walk
on top of the garages, known as the "fandeck", and view track and
garage activity. Fans can also view race teams working in the garage,
including NASCAR technical inspection, through windows. The
garage windows also include slots for fans to hand merchandise to
drivers for autographs. The fanzone also includes a live entertainment
stage, additional food and drink areas and various other activities and
displays.[23]

The Earnhardt Grandstand at Daytona


International Speedway

The 2004 renovation of the infield, headed by design firm HNTB,[24] was the first major renovation of the infield in
the history of the track.[] In addition to the fanzone, a new vehicle and pedestrian tunnel was built under turn 1. The
tunnel posed a challenge to engineers because it was to be built under the water table. Another challenge came
during construction when three named hurricanes passed by the track, flooding much of the excavation work. The
infield renovation involved landscaping and hardscaping, such as a new walkway along the shore of Lake Lloyd, and
the construction of 34 new buildings, including garages and fueling stations, offices and inspection facilities, and a
club. The renovation project received a 2005 Award for Excellence from Design-Build Institute of America.[]
Following the success of the Sprint Fanzone at Daytona, Las Vegas Motor Speedway and Kansas Speedway each
built a similar infield fanzone.[citation needed]

Budweiser Party Porch


The Budweiser Party Porch is a 46 feet (14m) high porch located along the backstretch of the track. It is built on top
of a portion of the backstretch grandstands and includes a 277 feet (84m) wide, 33 feet (10m) tall sign, the largest
sign in motorsports.[citation needed] The porch features tables, food and drinks, offering fans a "fun-filled" atmosphere
that breaks fans away from the confines of grandstand seating without sacrificing on the view. Below the porch is an
interactive fan zone featuring amusement rides, a go-kart track, show cars and merchandise trailers.[25]

Events
NASCAR Sprint Cup Series:[][]
Races: Daytona 500, Coke Zero 400
Exhibition: Sprint Unlimited
Qualifying: Budweiser Duel
NASCAR Nationwide Series:[][]
DRIVE4COPD 300, Subway Firecracker 250
NASCAR Camping World Truck Series:[]
NextEra Energy Resources 250
Grand-American Rolex Sports Car Series:[26]
Rolex 24 at Daytona
ARCA RE/MAX Series: Lucas Oil Slick Mist 200[27]
AMA Daytona SportBike: Daytona 200[]

Daytona

170

AMA Motocross: Daytona Supercross by Honda[28]

Track records
As of November 2010, track records on the 2.5 miles (4.0km) tri-oval are as follows.[29]
Record

Year

Date

Driver

Car Make

Time

Speed/Avg Speed

NASCAR Sprint Cup Series


Qualifying

1987 February 9

Bill Elliott

Race (500 miles) 1980 February 17 Buddy Baker


Race (400 miles)

July 4

Race (250 miles) 1961

Ford

42.783 210.364mph (338.548km/h)

Oldsmobile 2:48:55 177.602mph (285.823km/h)

Bobby Allison
David Pearson

2:18:21 173.473mph (279.178km/h)


Pontiac

1:37:13 154.294mph (248.312km/h)

NASCAR Nationwide Series


Qualifying

1987

Tommy Houston

Race (300 miles) 1985 February 16 Geoff Bodine


Race (250 miles) 2003 July 4

Buick

46.299 194.389mph (312.839km/h)

Pontiac

1:54:33 157.137mph (252.887km/h)

Dale Earnhardt Jr. Chevrolet

1:37:35 153.715mph (247.380km/h)

NASCAR Camping World Truck Series


Qualifying

2000 February 17 Joe Ruttman

Race (250 miles) 2006

Mark Martin

Dodge
Ford

47.984 187.563mph (301.853km/h)


1:42:18 146.622mph (235.965km/h)

Photos

Main Entrance at night

Cars practicing in 2004

Old Flagstand

Grandstand

Paul Revere 250 restart after a


caution

View from the backstretch at


night

Endurance kart race

Racetrack skidmarks and view of


grandstand

View of Lake Lloyd

Infield garages

Infield view from


President's Row

Daytona

171

View of Victory Lane from a


skybox

References
[2] Kettlewell, Mike. "Daytona", in Northey, Tom, ed. World of Automobiles (London: Orbis, 1974), Volume 5, p.503.
[3] Kettlewell, p.503.
[4] (http:/ / www. na-motorsports. com/ Tracks/ FL/ Daytona. html)
[5] Kettlewell, p.503.
[6] (http:/ / wsrp. ic. cz/ imsa1984. html#1)
[7] (http:/ / wsrp. ic. cz/ imsa1985. html#1)
[16] Daytona: From the Birth of Speed to the Death of the Man in Black. Hinton, Ed. Warner Books, 2001. ISBN 0-446-52677-0.
[17] Time (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20091026011757/ http:/ / us. 1. p5. geocities. com/ racndeb/ Stats. html) Magazine article "The Last
Lap", March 5, 2001
[18] Bill Fleischman/Al Pearce The Unauthorized NASCAR Fan Guide (1998-99), page 237. Visible Ink Press, 1999 ISBN 1-57859-111-2
[19] http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=mMf3NQc8FxM
[20] Father of NASCAR crash victim Rodney Orr sues Web site over autopsy photos (http:/ / www. news-journalonline. com/ special/ earnhardt/
052401. htm) at Daytona Beach News-Journal
[21] Racing Related Deaths at Daytona (http:/ / www. orlandosentinel. com/ sports/ motorracing/ orl-spt-daytonadeaths,1,2936997. htmlstory) at
Orlando Sentinel website, complete through 2006

External links
Official Site (http://www.daytonainternationalspeedway.com/)
Speedway Page (http://www.nascar.com/races/tracks/dis/index.html) on NASCAR.com (http://www.
nascar.com)
Jayski's Daytona International Speedway Page (http://jayski.com/pages/tracks/daytona.htm)
Trackpedia guide to driving this track (http://www.trackpedia.com/wiki/Daytona_International_Speedway)
Satellite picture by Google Maps (http://maps.google.com/maps?f=q&hl=en&q=Daytona+Beach,+Florida&
layer=&ie=UTF8&z=15&ll=29.185025,-81.06833&spn=0.017048,0.043259&t=k&om=1)
VisitingFan.com: Reviews of Daytona International Speedway (http://www.visitingfan.com/index.
php?option=com_content&view=article&catid=44:superspeedway&
id=144:daytona-international-speedway-daytona-fl&Itemid=71)
Deaths at Daytona (http://www2.foxsports.com/obits/earnhardt/daytona_deaths.sml) at Fox Sports' website
Auto-racing Fatalities list (http://www.usatoday.com/sports/motor/earnhardt/list.htm) at USA Today website
Daytona Deaths Chart (http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/motorsports/2001/daytona500/news/2001/02/18/
daytona_deaths_chart/) at Sports Illustrated's website
Coordinates:
29118N
81410W
(http:/ / tools. wmflabs. org/
php?pagename=Daytona_International_Speedway&params=29_11_8_N_81_4_10_W_)

geohack/

geohack.

La Sarthe

172

La Sarthe
For the French road bicycle racing stage race, see Circuit de la Sarthe (cycling)

Circuit des 24 Heures

Circuit de la Sarthe

Location
Coordinates

Le Mans, France
475615.7N 01332.2E

[1]

Owner

Automobile Club de l'Ouest


Ville du Mans

Operator

Automobile Club de l'Ouest

Opened

1923

Coordinates: 475615.7N 01332.2E [1]

Major events ACO / FIA WEC


24 Hours of Le Mans
FIM MotoGP
French Grand Prix
24 Hours of Le Mans Moto
Circuit de la Sarthe
Surface

Tarmac

Length

13.629 km (8.469 mi)

Turns

38

Lap record

3:19.074 (Loc Duval, Team Oreca Matmut Peugeot 908 HDi FAP, 2010, LMP1)
Bugatti Circuit

Surface

Tarmac

Length

4.273 km (2.655 mi)

Turns

10

The Circuit des 24 Heures, also known as Circuit de la Sarthe,[] located near Le Mans, France, is a
semi-permanent race course most famous as the venue for the 24 Hours of Le Mans auto race. The track uses local
roads that remain open to the public most of the year. The circuit, in its present configuration, is 13.629km
(8.469mi) long, making it one of the longest circuits in the world.
Le Mans is a race where up to 85% of the time is spent on full throttle, meaning immense stress on engine and
drivetrain components. However, the times spent reaching maximum speed also mean tremendous wear on the
brakes and suspension as cars must slow from over 200mph (322km/h) to around 65mph (105km/h) for the end of
Mulsanne in a short distance. Downforce in the era of Group C cars helped braking to some degree but presently cars
are tending towards low downforce to seek higher speeds in the face of power limiting regulations.

La Sarthe

Track modifications
The track, which basically was a triangle from Le Mans down south to Mulsanne, northwest to Arnage, and back
north to Le Mans, has undergone many modifications over the years, with CIRCUIT N 14 being in use since 2007.
Even with the modifications put in place over the years, the Sarthe circuit is still known for being very fast; with
average speeds of 145+ mph (233km/h) being achieved by the prototypes.
In the 1920s, the cars drove from the present pits on Rue de Laign straight into the city, and after a tight
right-hander near the river Sarthe Pontlieue bridge (a hairpin permanently removed from the circuit in 1929), left the
city again on the rather straight street now named Avenue Georges Durand after the race's founder. Then 17.261
kilometres (10.725mi) long and unpaved, a bypass within the city shortened the track in 1929, but only in 1932 the
city was bypassed when the section from the pits via the Dunlop Bridge and the Esses to Tertre Rouge was added.
This classic configuration was 8.369 miles (13.469km) long and remained almost unaltered even after the 1955
tragedy. Its frighteningly narrow pit straight was narrowed off to make room for the pits and was part of the road
itself, without the road becoming wider just for the pits. The pit straight was about 12 feet (3.7m) wide (the pit
straight was widened in 1956) and the race track and pits were not separated for another 15 years. The pit area was
modified at a cost of 300 million francs, the signalling area was even moved to the exit of the slow Mulsanne corner,
and the track was resurfaced.
With cars getting ever faster in the 1960s, criticism rose, especially when several drivers were killed, often in the
testing session in April. Since 1965, a smaller but permanent Bugatti Circuit was added which shares the pit lane
facilities and the first corner (including the famous Dunlop bridge) with the longer version. For the 1968 race, the
Ford chicane was added before the pits to slow down the cars. The circuit was fitted with Armco for the 1969 race.
The Maison Blanche kink was prone to criticism, a number of nasty accidents happened at the very fast kink over the
years, such as John Woolfe being killed there in his Porsche 917 in 1969 and 3 Ferrari 512s (including 2 works cars)
were involved in a pile-up there in 1970, with the latter shunt sealing the very fast classic circuit's fate. The circuit
was modified 9 more times- in 1971 (a year where the prototypes were averaging 150+ mph (240+ km/h), which was
also the last year the classic circuit was used) Armco was added to the pit straight to separate the track from the pits,
and in 1972, the last part of the race track was revamped considerably- with the quick Porsche curves bypassing
Maison Blanche and part of the first straight and all of the second straight between the pits and Maison Blanche. One
of the Porsche Curves was affectionately named "Maison Blanche" and a short straight with a slight kink and 2
chicanes before the pits named the Ford chicanes were all added.
In 1979, due to the construction of a new public road, the profile of Tertre Rouge had to be changed. This redesign
led to a faster double-apex corner as well as requiring the removal of the second Dunlop Bridge. In 1986, because of
construction of a new roundabout at the Mulsanne corner, a new portion of track had to be built in order to avoid the
roundabout. This created a right hand kink prior to Mulsanne corner. In 1987, a chicane was added to the very fast
Dunlop curve where cars would go under the Dunlop bridge at 180mph (290km/h), now they would be slowed to
110mph (180km/h).
In 1990, two chicanes were added onto the Mulsanne straight (explained in more detail below), and in 1994, the
Dunlop chicane was tightened, in 2002, the run to the Esses was revamped because of a reconstruction of the Bugatti
Circuit. The Le Mans circuit was changed between the Dunlop Bridge and Esses, with the straight now becoming a
set of fast sweeping turns. This layout allowed for a better transition from the Le Mans circuit to the Bugatti circuit.
This layout change would also require the track's infamous carnival to be relocated because the area it had once
occupied became runoff. The carnival was relocated to the Porsche curves, and in 2006, the ACO redeveloped the
area around the Dunlop Curve and Dunlop Chicane, moving the Dunlop Curve in tighter to create more run-off area,
while also turning the Dunlop Chicane into a larger set of turns. As part of the development, a new extended pit lane
exit was created for motorcycles running the Bugatti Circuit. This second pit exit re-enters the track just beyond the
Dunlop Chicane and before the Dunlop Bridge.

173

La Sarthe

174

Le Mans was most famous for its 6km (3.7mi) long straight, called Ligne Droite des Hunaudires, a part of the
route dpartementale (for the Sarthe dpartement) D338 (formerly Route Nationale N138). The Targa Florio
featured the even longer Buonfornello straight along the coast, though. As the Hunaudires leads to the village of
Mulsanne, it is often called the Mulsanne Straight in English, even though the proper Route du Mulsanne is the one
to Arnage. The Porsche 917 long tail had reached 380km/h (236mph), but after engine size was limited, the top
speed dropped until the Group C allowed powerful turbo engines. Speeds on the straight by the Group C prototypes
reached over 400km/h (250mph) during the late 1980s, and the combination of high speed and high downforce
caused tyre and engine failures, as this circuit was extremely hard on both tyres and engines before 1990, less so in
1990 and beyond. Due to safety concerns after the extremely high speeds reached at the end of the straight and a
number of hideously violent, sometimes fatal accidents in the 1980s (Jean-Louis Lafosse in 1981 and Jo Gartner in
1986) two roughly equally spaced chicanes were consequently added to the straight before the 1990 race to limit the
achievable maximum speed. The chicanes were added in 1990 also because the FIA decreed it would no longer
sanction a circuit which had a straight longer than 2 kilometres (1.2mi). These were named after sponsors
PlayStation and Michelin. The fastest qualifying lap average speed dropped only from 249 to 243km/h (151mph) in
1993, and it rose up to 247 in 2008, not far from the all time best of 250 and 251 set by the Porsche 917 and 956.
Regarding the lap record in the race itself, 2008 saw the fastest ever.

Circuit location between Le Mans and Mulsanne, France

Years

Record
year

Distance
record

Average race Lap record (in


speed
race)

Driver car

Circuit N1 17.262km
19231928 1928

2,669.27km
Bentley

111.219km/h
(69mph)

8:07
H.Birkin
(127.604km/h) Bentley
in 1928

Circuit N2 16.340km
19291931 1931

3,017.654km
Alfa Romeo

125.735km/h
(78mph)

6:48
H.Birkin
(144.362km/h) Bentley
in 1930

Circuit N3 13.492km

Lap record
(qualifying)

Driver car

La Sarthe

175

19321955 1955

4,135.38km
Jaguar D

172.308km/h
(107mph)

4:06.6
M.Hawthorn
(196.963km/h) Jaguar D
in 1955

Circuit N4 13.461km
19561967 1967

5,232.90km
Ford Mk IV

218.038km/h
(135mph)

3:23.6
M.Andretti &
(238.014km/h) D.Hulme
in 1967
Ford Mk IV

3:24.04
(236.082km/h)
in 1967

B.McLaren
Ford Mk IV

3:13.6
(250.457km/h)
in 1971
(practice)

J.Oliver
Porsche 917

3:34.2
J.P.Jabouille
3:27.6
(229.244km/h) Alpine-Renault (236.531km/h)
in 1978
A443
in 1978

J.Ickx
Porsche 936

Circuit N5 13.469km
19681971 1971

5,335.31km
Porsche 917

222.304km/h
(138mph)

3:18.4
J.Oliver
(244.387km/h) Porsche 917
in 1971

Circuit N6 13.640km
19721978 1978

5,044.53km
210.189km/h
Alpine-Renault (131mph)
A442 B

Circuit N7 13.626km
19791985 1985

5,088.51km
Porsche 956

212.021km/h
(132mph)

3:25.1
J.Ickx
(239.169km/h) Porsche 962
in 1985

3:14.80
(251.815km/h)
in 1985

H.Stuck
Porsche 962

3:15.99
(243.486km/h)
in 1986

J.Mass
Porsche 962
C

3:15.04
(249.826km/h)
in 1989

J.L.Schlesser
Sauber
Mercedes C9

3:21.209
(243.329km/h)
in 1992

Ph.Alliot
Peugeot 905

Circuit N8 13.528km
1986

1986

4,972.73km
Porsche 962 C

207.197km/h
(129mph)

3:23.3
K.Ludwig
(239.551km/h) Porsche 956
in 1986

Circuit N9 13.535km
19871989 1988

5,332.79km
Jaguar XJR9

221.665km/h
(138mph)

3:21.27
A.Fert
(242.093km/h) Jaguar XJR9
in 1989

Circuit N10 13.600km


19901996 1993

5,100.00km
Peugeot 905

213.358km/h
(133mph)

3:27.47
E.Irvine
(235.986km/h) Toyota TS010
in 1993

Circuit N11 13.605km


19972001 2000

5,007.98km
Audi R8

208.666km/h
(130mph)

3:35.032
U.Katayama
3:29.930
(227.771km/h) Toyota GT-One (233.306km/h)
in 1999
in 1999

M.Brundle
Toyota
GT-One

Circuit N12 13.650km


20022005 2004

5,169.97km
Audi R8

215.415km/h
(134mph)

3:33.483
T.Kristensen
(230.182km/h) Audi R8
in 2002

3:29.905
(234.106km/h)
in 2002

R.Capello
Audi R8

3:30.466
(233,482)
in 2006

R.Capello
Audi R10
TDI

3:18.513
(247.160km/h)
in 2008

S.Sarrazin
Peugeot 908
HDi FAP

Circuit N13 13.650km


2006

2006

5,187.00km
Audi R10 TDI

215.409km/h
(134mph)

3:31.211
T.Kristensen
(232.658km/h) Audi R10 TDI
in 2006

Circuit N14 13.629km


Since 2007 2010

5,410.71km
Audi R15 TDI
plus

225.228km/h
(140mph)

3:19.074
L.Duval
(246.463km/h) Peugeot 908
in 2010
HDi FAP

La Sarthe

176

Bugatti Circuit
Bugatti Circuit is a permanent race track located within
Circuit des 24 Heures, named after Ettore Bugatti. The
circuit uses a part of the larger circuit and a separate,
purpose-built section. The sections of track on the
Bugatti Circuit that are on the Circuit des 24 Heures
include the Ford Chicane at the end of the lap, the pit
complex, and the straight where the Dunlop Tyres
bridge is located. At this point in the overlapping
section of the tracks there is a left right sweep that was
added for motorcycle safety in 2002. Vehicles turning to the left continue onto the Circuit des 24 Heures, toward
Tertre Rouge and Mulsanne, vehicles turning to the right will continue the Bugatti Circuit.
The track is home base for Pescarolo Sport, founded by famous French driver Henri Pescarolo. The circuit also hosts
the 24 Hours of Le Mans motorcycle race, and a round of the MotoGP Championship. The circuit also holds French
motor club races and in the past has hosted rounds of the International Formula 3000 Championship and DTM
(German Touring Car series).
As well as motor racing it is the venue for the 24 rollers [2], a 24h race on inline skates or quads.
The track was used for the 1967 French Grand Prix.

An on site map of the


circuit.

The area before the


Dunlop bridge,
modified for 2006.

The Ford Chicanes.

A large portion of the


track still consists of
Sarthe Route
Dpartementale D338.

Speed record
In 1988, Team WM Peugeot knew they had no chance of winning the 24 hour endurance race, but they also knew
that their Welter Racing designed car had very good aerodynamics. Thus they nicknamed their 1988 entry "Project
400" (aiming to be the first car to achieve a speed of 400km/h on the famous straight), although the official team
entry was named WM Secateva. Roger Dorchy, Claude Haldi and Jean-Daniel Raulet would be the three drivers that
year.
The Peugeot 2.8L V6 turbo charged PRV engine had its air intakes taped over to improve aerodynamics, and they
also equipped the car with special narrow Michelin tires. The plan worked: on June 11, 1988, with Roger Dorchy
behind the wheel, the WM P87 achieved the speed of 405km/h (251.7mph).
Taping over the air intakes obviously impedes engine cooling and the Peugeot retired after 59 laps with an
overheating engine (though it outlasted two other Group C1 entrants).

La Sarthe

References
[1] http:/ / tools. wmflabs. org/ geohack/ geohack. php?pagename=Circuit_de_la_Sarthe& params=47_56_15. 7_N_0_13_32.
2_E_type:landmark_region:FR_dim:5km
[2] http:/ / www. 24rollers. com

External links
Official website (http://www.lemans.org/accueil/index_gb.html)
Trackpedia's guide to driving Le Mans (http://www.trackpedia.com/wiki/Le_Mans_Circuit_des_24_Heures)
Satellite Picture by Google Maps (http://maps.google.com/maps?f=q&hl=en&q=Le+Mans,+France&
om=1&ie=UTF8&z=15&ll=47.953547,0.211058&spn=0.012158,0.043259&t=k)
History and track maps 19212006 (http://www.virtua-lm.com/lemans/history.php)
Trackpedia's guide to Le Mans Bugatti (http://www.trackpedia.com/wiki/Le_Mans_Bugatti)
Track Reviewers reviews of Le Mans (http://trackreviewers.com/reviews/le-mans/)

177

Mount Panorama

178

Mount Panorama
Mount Panorama

The Mountain

Location

Bathurst, New South Wales

Time zone

GMT +10

Coordinates
Opened

332651S 1493323E

[1]

Coordinates: 332651S 1493323E [1]

17 April 1938

Major events Bathurst 1000


Bathurst 12 Hour
Aust. Touring Car Champ.
Australian Grand Prix
Australian motorcycle Grand Prix
Australian Tourist Trophy
Australian Drivers' Champ.
Current Circuit
Length

6.213 km (3.861 mi)

Turns

23

Lap record

2:04.6187 (Chris Gilmour, Dallara F307 Mercedes-Benz, 2012, Formula 3)


Original Circuit

Length

6.172 km (3.835 mi)

Turns

20

Lap record

2:09.7 (Niel Allen, McLaren M10B-Chevrolet, 1970, Formula 5000)

Mount Panorama

Mount Panorama, Motor Racing Circuit


Bathurst (or often simply Bathurst) is a motor
racing track located in Bathurst, New South
Wales, Australia. It is the home of the Bathurst
12 Hour motor race, held each February, and the
Bathurst 1000 motor race, held each October.
The track is 6.213km (4mi) long, and is
technically a street circuit, as the circuit is a
public road when no racing events are being run,
and there are many residences which can only be
accessed from the circuit.
The track is an unusual design by modern
standards, with a 174 metre (570 foot) vertical
The public entrance to the Circuit at Murray's Corner
difference between its highest and lowest points,
and grades as steep as 1:6.13. From the
start-finish line, the track can be viewed in three sections; the short pit straight and then a tight left turn into the long,
steep Mountain straight; the tight, narrow section across the top of the mountain itself; and then the long, downhill
section of Conrod Straight, with the very fast Chase and the turn back onto pit straight to complete the lap.
Historically, the racetrack has been used for a wide variety of racing categories, including everything from
open-wheel racers to motorcycles. However, the factors that make the track so unusual, and tighter contemporary
safety standards, make it unlikely that major race meetings in these categories will be held there again, and as such it
has become the near-exclusive province of closed-bodied automobile racing cars.
As a public road, on non-race days and when it is not closed off during the day as part of a racing event, Mount
Panorama is open to the public. Cars can drive in both directions around the circuit for no charge. However, a strict
speed limit of 60km/h (37mph) is enforced, and police regularly patrol the circuit.

The Circuit
The Mount Panorama circuit is knownWikipedia:Avoid weasel words as one of the most fearsome circuits in the
World. It also has the fastest corner in Touring car racing[citation needed], in turn 20 (the Chase). French sportscar
driver Alexandre Premat, who later raced as a V8 Supercar regular, once described the circuit as "A mix of the [
(Nrburgring) Nordschleife, Petit Le Mans (Road Atlanta) and Laguna Seca".

The Pit Straight


The Pit straight of Mount Panorama, which is adjacent to the pit complex, has a different start line and finish line.
For the standing start only, the start line is 143m closer to Hell Corner so that all the pit bays are located after the
finish line for lap counting purposes. The start line is located where it is so that traffic does not go too far around
Murray's Corner when the start grid is formed.

179

Mount Panorama

Hell Corner
The common misperception of nomenclature due to the accidents that happen at this turn are widespread. Hell
Corner was so named after the tree stump that existed on the apex of turn one, it was believed that any motor bike
riders who hit the stump would die in an act of folly and thereby be doomed to an eternity of death having no time to
repent of their sin.[citation needed]

Mountain Straight
Mountain Straight is a long straight that begins the climb up the mountain towards Griffins Bend. V8 Supercars
reach speeds up to 250km/h (155mph) as drivers race over the crest immediately prior to braking for Griffins Bend.
In the days before modern aerodynamics, drivers would have to lift off the throttle to prevent becoming airborne
over the crest halfway up the straight.

Griffins Bend
Also known as GTX Bend (the corner's first sponsor), Griffins Bend was named after the Mayor of Bathurst whose
vision it was to create the scenic road/race-track. Drivers heading around this right-hander have to be careful not to
drift too far out of this negatively-cambered turn and hit the wall upon exit.

The Cutting
Referred to for many years as "BP Cutting", this is a pair of left hand corners, leading into a steep 1:6 grade exit.
Overtaking is virtually impossible here, and it is very hard to recover from a spin here because of the narrow room
and steep gradient. This corner was the location of the infamous 'race rage' incident between Marcos Ambrose and
Greg Murphy, after Murphy and Ambrose collided when both drivers refused to give the other "racing room" during
the 2005 Supercheap Auto 1000, Ambrose's last before he moved to the United States for racing. Murphy then
disappeared into a resident's house to view the replays on TV before returning to the pits.[citation needed]

Reid Park
After exiting the Cutting, drivers have a right hand turn, heading up, then into a left hand turn. This is Reid Park.
One of the most famous incidents in the history of the Bathurst 1000 occurred here when Dick Johnson crashed his
Ford XD Falcon out of the lead on lap 18 of the 1980 Hardie-Ferodo 1000. Johnson was unable to avoid a large rock
that had fallen from the spectator area as he was passing a quick-lift tow truck at the time and had no where else to
go. The car was destroyed, taking with it Johnson's means of supporting his racing ambitions. An emotional public
appeal followed during the race's telecast which re-launched Johnson's career.

Sulman Park
After Reid Park, drivers brave a steep drop, flowing into a climbing left hand turn, heading back towards the highest
point of Mount Panorama. This is also the location of Sulman Park and its Nature Park. Jason Bright crashed here in
his Ford Falcon in practice during the 1998 FAI 1000, then saw the car rebuilt in time to scrape into qualifying in the
dying minutes before Bright and Steven Richards went on to victory. This corner was also the scene of a shocking
crash in a support race in 2006 that claimed the life of Mark Porter.

180

Mount Panorama

181

McPhillamy Park
McPhillamy Park is a downhill, deceptively fast left hand turn which is guarded by a crest prior to turn-in, rendering
the corner blind to approaching drivers. Drivers have to stay close to the wall while turning so as not to go out wide
upon exit. To go too close however may cause the car to clip the inside kerbing, which Allan Moffat famously did in
practice for the 1986 James Hardie 1000, crashing heavily, head on to the concrete. McPhillamy Park is the location
of longest running campsite for those who camp at the track for sometimes over a week ahead of the race.

Brock's Skyline
A short straight connects McPhillamy to the next corner. Now named 'Brock's Skyline' after the legendary Peter
Brock, Skyline is a sharply descending right hand corner which signifies the beginning of the descent from the top of
the Mountain. The corner acquired the name from the visual effect of looking upwards at the corner from below,
such is the sharpness of that initial plunge. During the 1970 Hardie-Ferodo 500 Tony Roberts launched over Skyline
backwards after losing control of his Ford Falcon, before tumbling down the hillside.

The Esses
The Esses are the series of corners which begin at Skyline and stretch down the Mountain towards Forrests Elbow.
There have been many notable accidents at this part of the circuit, including a blockage of the track in 2003 when
Jason Bargwanna made contact with David Brabham.

The Dipper
The most famous of the Esses, the Dipper, the fourth in the sequence, is a sharp left hand corner, so named because,
before safety changes, there was quite a dip in the road surface and then a steep drop not far from the edge of the
road. Many cars used to get two wheels off the ground, sometimes

Forrest's Elbow
'The Elbow' named after Jack Forrest, a motorcycle racer who
scraped his elbow away after laying down his bike is a slow,
descending left-hand turn that leads on to the long Conrod
Straight. The corner's line drifts towards the outside wall on exit
and drivers have to be careful of getting too close. It was just past
here, at the kink, during the pole qualifying session (the top ten
drivers from Friday's qualifying session participate in a final
session to determine the top ten starting positions for the race) for
to the 1983 James Hardie 1000, that Dick Johnson clipped a tyre
barrier just after exiting the corner which resulted in the breaking
of the car's steering, which sent his Ford Falcon careening into a
grove of trees, demolishing the car.

The summit, looking from Forrest's Elbow to Skyline


and beyond.

Conrod Straight
Formerly known as Main Straight, Conrod Straight was so named because of a con-rod failure that ended the 1939
Easter race of Frank Kleinig in his Kleinig/Hudson race-car. Conrod Straight is the fastest section of Mount
Panorama, with today's V8 Supercars just reaching 300km/h (186mph). The straight is a roller-coaster ride
featuring two distinct crests, the second of which was rebuilt in 1987. It has been on Conrod where five of the six
car-racing deaths on the circuit have occurred Bevan Gibson, Tom Sulman, Mike Burgmann, Denny Hulme and
Don Watson. All except Hulme (heart attack) died in high-speed accidents. However, the chicane introduced into

Mount Panorama

182

Conrod Straight has made it one of the fastest turns in the world. Most drivers arrive at the initial part of the chicane
at over 290km/h (180mph).

The Chase
Known for many years as 'Caltex Chase', this three turn sequence
was added in preparation for the World Touring Car
Championship round in 1987. The section was dedicated to Mike
Burgmann who had died in an accident at the chicane's spot the
previous year. It interrupts Con-Rod Straight with Australia's
fastest right hand bend, descending to the right away from the
dangerous crest prior to the spectator bridge, before a sharp
120km/h (75mph) left hand bend then second right hand corner
returns the competitors to Con-Rod Straight for the blast down to
Murray's Corner. This corner was the scene of Peter Brock's only
rollover in his motor racing career when he rolled his Vauxhall
Vectra during practice for the 1997 AMP Bathurst 1000.

The Chase, Murray's corner and the home straight

Murray's Corner
Murray's Corner is the final corner before Pit Straight and the lowest point of the circuit. It is a 90 degree left hand
turn, and is a favourite overtaking spot as drivers hold braking duels for the corner. It was previously called Pit
Corner before Bill Murray crashed his Hudson racing car there in 1946.

Lap records
The fastest lap ever recorded at Mount Panorama was achieved in March 2011. As part of a publicity exercise for the
2011 Australian Grand Prix and for the team's sponsors Vodafone, McLaren brought an MP4-26 Formula One car
for Jenson Button and Craig Lowndes to drive around the track. The fastest lap was recorded by Button at 1:48.88,
but as it was not recorded during an official race it does not count as the official lap record.[2] Similarly Allan
Simonsen recorded a 2:04.9560 driving a GT3 specification Ferrari 458 at Sprint Bathurst in 2011,[3] an event
classified by CAMS under NCR 22 as a Speed event[4] rather than a race.
Lap records for the various racing classes are:
Class
Outright

Driver
Chris Gilmour

Vehicle
Dallara F307-Mercedes-Benz

Time

Date
[5]

2:04.6187

8 April 2012

Racing Cars
Formula Three

Chris Gilmour

Dallara F307-Mercedes-Benz

2:04.6187

8 April 2012

Formula 5000

Niel Allen

McLaren M10B-Chevrolet

2:09.7

1970

Formula Ford

Anton De Pasquale

Mygale SJ08a-Ford

2:17.9144

5 October 2012

Formula Vee

Benjamin Porter

Checkmate JP02

2:43.2401

[6]

5 February 2012

[7]

26 February 2012

[8]

Sports Cars
GT Sports Cars

Allan Simonsen

Ferrari 458 GT3

2:06.3311

Carrera Cup

Craig Baird

Porsche 997 GT3 Cup

2:09.4010

7 October 2012

Nations Cup

Garth Tander

Holden Monaro 427C

2:14.3267

17 November 2002

Mount Panorama

183
[9]

23 April 2011

2:32.5206

[10]

23 April 2011

Production Sports

Scott Bargwanna

Lotus Elise HPE

2:15.5791

Aussie Racing Cars

Peter Carr

Aurion-Yamaha
Historic Sports Cars

Group Sc

Geoff Morgan

Porsche 911 Carrera

2:37.3053

11 April 2009

Group Sb

G. Williams

Morgan Plus 8

2:45.4592

11 April 2009

Group Sa

Peter Jackson

Austin-Healey 3000 MkI

2:49.8157

12 April 2009

Touring Cars
[11]

V8 Supercar

Jamie Whincup

Ford BF Falcon

2:08.4651

7 October 2007

Dunlop V8 Supercar

Jonathon Webb

Ford BF Falcon

2:09.1614

9 October 2010

Sports Sedan

Keith Carling

Nissan 300ZX-Chevrolet

2:13.8300

Group A

Mark Skaife

Nissan Skyline GT-R R32

2:14.50

Group C

Peter Brock

Holden VK Commodore

2:15.13

Super Touring

Jason Plato

Renault Laguna

2:16.8034

NASCAR

Jim Richards

Chevrolet Lumina

2:18.1027

Improved Production

Ray Hislop

Ford BF Falcon

2:22.4885

9 February 2013

GT Production

Neil Crompton

Ferrari F355

2:24.6065

14 November 1998

Mini Challenge

Jason Bargwanna

Mini Cooper S

2:30.2732

Commodore Cup

Steve Owen

Holden VS Commodore

2:30.7639

V8 Utes

David Sieders

Ford Falcon XR8

2:32.8379

Saloon Cars

Shawn Jamieson

Holden VT Commodore

2:35.9685

Group E Series Production

Allan Moffat

Ford Falcon XY GTHO Phase III 2:36.5[21]

HQ Holden

Peter Holmes

HQ Holden

[12]

[13]
[14]
[15]

2 October 1992
6 October 1991
30 September 1984
5 October 1997

[16] 24 February 1996

[17]

11 October 2008

[18]

24 April 2011

[19]

7 October 2012

[20]

23 April 2011
1 October 1972

[22]

19 October 1997

[23]

2:56.0330

Historic Touring Cars


Touring Car Masters

Jason Richards

Holden HQ Monaro

2:22.6622

9 October 2011

Group Nc

Paul Stubber

Chevrolet Camaro

2:28.1630

6 October 2006

Group Nb

Jervis Ward

Ford Mustang

2:37.4101

7 October 2005

Group Na

K. Smith

MG ZA Magnette

3:21.3310

11 April 2009

Motorcycles
Superbike

Michael Dowson

Sidecar

G. Biggs/

Yamaha FZR1000

L. Genova LCR Krauser

- time was set on the original 6.172km (3.835mi) layout.

2:18.48
2:30.28

10 April 1993

Mount Panorama

Upgrades
In 2012, the New South Wales state government announced that the circuit would receive debris fencing to the pit
wall to comply with FIA rules for 2013. The circuit will also have two new grandstands for 2012 at the Chase
(grandstand will be called 'The Chase') and at Murrays Corner (grandstand will be called 'The Museum'). These
grandstands are being built specifically for the predicted record crowds to attend the 50th running of the Supercheap
Auto Bathurst 1000 in 2012.

Notable races
The very first race held at the Mount Panorama circuit was the 1938 Australian Grand Prix. Since that historic
meeting 'the Mountain' has attracted some of the biggest races in the country. The Australian Grand Prix was held
here four times (1938, 1947, 1952 and 1958) and the circuit also played host to the Australian motorcycle Grand Prix
for a significant portion of pre-world championship life (198487). The Australian Tourist Trophy and the
Australian Touring Car Championship also visited sporadically as well as numerous other Australian
Championships. The circuit has been home to one of the world's classic endurance events, the Bathurst 1000 since
1963 after the race was moved from the Phillip Island Circuit in Victoria (the race was 500 miles between its start at
Phillip Island in 1960, and from 1963 to 1972 at Bathurst before being changed to its current 1000km format in
1973), as well as other races inspired by it, the Bathurst 12 Hour and now defunct Bathurst 24 Hour.
The first Motorsport event was a speed hillclimb held from Mountain Straight up to Reid Park. This event is still
held today as a round of the NSW Hillclimb Championship.
In 2008, the circuit hosted the IGSA Gravity Sports World Championships: skateboard downhill and street luge
downhill. The race began at Skyline and ended at Conrod Straight.

Racing deaths at Mount Panorama


Sixteen competitors have died during racing associated with Mount Panorama, including 1967 World Drivers'
Champion Denny Hulme who died after suffering a fatal heart attack while at the wheel of his car. Two spectators
were also killed in 1955 after being struck by a crashing car.

17 April 1949 Jack Johnson, MG TC, Easter Races


5 April 1958 Barry Halliday, Motorcycle, Bathurst Tourist Trophy
2 October 1960 Reg Smith, Porsche, Australian GT Championship
7 April 1969 Bevan Gibson, Elfin 400 Repco, Mount Panorama Trophy
30 March 1970 Tom Sulman, Lotus Eleven Climax, Sir Joseph Banks Trophy
2 April 1972 Lan Hog, sidecar, bathurst tt race
17 April 1976 Ross Barelli, Suzuki RG500, Easter Races
15 April 1979 Ron Toombs, Yamaha TZ 350F, Easter Races
Easter 1980 Rob Moorhouse, Easter motorcycle races
Easter 1980 Alec Dick, Easter motorcycle races
5 October 1986 Mike Burgmann, Holden Commodore VK SS Group A, James Hardie 1000
4 October 1992 Denny Hulme, BMW M3 Evolution, Tooheys 1000
April 1994 Jim Colligan, Sidecar, Australian Tourist Trophy
April 1994 Ian Thornton, Sidecar, Australian Tourist Trophy
30 September 1994 Don Watson, Holden Commodore VP, Tooheys 1000
8 October 2006 Mark Porter, Holden Commodore VZ, Fujitsu V8 Supercar Series

184

Mount Panorama

Footnotes
[1] http:/ / tools. wmflabs. org/ geohack/ geohack. php?pagename=Mount_Panorama_Circuit& params=33_26_51_S_149_33_23_E_
[6] NATSOFT Race Result (http:/ / www. natsoft. com. au/ cgi-bin/ results. cgi?06/ 02/ 2011. MOUN. R12)
[16] NATSOFT Race Result (http:/ / racing. natsoft. com. au/ 635963704/ object_10105920. 91U/ View?23) Retrieved on 7 April 2013
[19] NATSOFT Race Result (http:/ / www. natsoft. com. au/ cgi-bin/ results. cgi?11/ 10/ 2009. MOUN. R4)
[23] NATSOFT Race Result (http:/ / www. natsoft. com. au/ cgi-bin/ results. cgi?09/ 10/ 2011. MOUN. R11)

External links
Official Website (http://www.mount-panorama.com/)
Trackpedia's guide to racing at Bathurst (http://www.trackpedia.com/wiki/Mount_Panorama_(Bathurst))
Circuit info from official V8 Supercar Site (http://www.v8supercar.com.au/circuits/circuitmfcts.
asp?vid=128&ind=M)Wikipedia:Link rot
V8 Champ Garth Tander's personal tour of Mount Panorama (http://www.news.com.au/heraldsun/video/
?Channel=Herald+Sun+Sport&ClipId=1396_tander&bitrate=300&Format=flash)Wikipedia:Link rot
Skateboard downhill World Championship in Mount Panorama (http://www.igsaworldcup.com/index.
php?option=com_content&task=view&id=393&Itemid=9)Wikipedia:Link rot
Take a drive around Mt Panorama Circuit (http://www.bathurst-nsw.com/MtPanoramaStatistics.html)

185

Nrburgring

186

Nrburgring
Nrburgring
Formula One Layout GP-Strecke

Location

Nrburg, Germany Coordinates:

Time zone

GMT +1 (DST: +2)

FIA Grade

502008N 65651E [1]

Major events FIA Formula One


German Grand Prix
European Grand Prix
Luxembourg Grand Prix
Superbike World Championship, DTM, 24 Hours Nrburgring, 1000km Nrburgring, VLN
GP-Strecke (19842001)
Surface

Asphalt

Length

4.556 km (2.831 mi)

Turns

12

Lap record

1:18.354 (minutes) (

Juan Pablo Montoya, Williams-BMW, 2001, Formula One)


GP-Strecke (2002present)

Length

5.148 km (3.199 mi)

Turns

16

Lap record

1:29.468 (minutes) (

Michael Schumacher, Ferrari, 2004, Formula One)


Nordschleife (1983present)

Surface

Asphalt/concrete

Length

20.81 km (12.93 mi)

Turns

154

Lap record

6:11.13 (minutes) (

Stefan Bellof, Porsche (956), 1983, WSC)


Combined circuit (1984present)

Surface

Asphalt/concrete

Length

25.947 km (16.123 mi)

Turns

170

Lap record

8:18.832 (minutes) (

Uwe Alzen, BMW Z4 GT3, 2012 24 Hours Nrburgring, FIA GT3)


Nordschleife (19271982)

Nrburgring

187
Surface

Asphalt/Concrete

Length

22.8 km (14.2 mi)

Turns

160

Lap record

6:58.6 (minutes) (

Niki Lauda, Ferrari, 1975, Formula One)


Sdschleife (19271973)

Surface

Asphalt

Length

7.747 km (4.814 mi)

Turns

27

Lap record

2:44.0 (minutes) (

Jacky Ickx, Ferrari, 1968, Formula Two)


Gesamtstrecke (19271982)

Surface

Asphalt

Length

28.265 km (17.563 mi)

Turns

187

Lap record

15:06.1 (minutes) (

Louis Chiron, Bugatti, 1929, Grand Prix)

The Nrburgring is a motorsports complex around the village of Nrburg, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It is
located about 70km (43mi) south of Cologne, and 120km (75mi) northwest of Frankfurt. It features a Grand Prix
race track built in 1984, and a much longer old "North loop" track which was built in the 1920s around the village
and medieval castle of Nrburg in the Eifel mountains. The north loop is 12.8 miles (20.8km) long and has more
than 300 meters (1,000 feet) of elevation change from its lowest to highest points. Jackie Stewart nicknamed the old
track "The Green Hell," and it is widely considered to be the most demanding and difficult purpose-built racing
circuit in the world.[2]
Originally, the track featured four configurations: the 28.265km (17.563mi)-long Gesamtstrecke ("Whole Course"),
which in turn consisted of the 22.810km (14.173mi) Nordschleife ("North Loop"), and the 7.747km (4.814mi)
Sdschleife ("South Loop"). There also was a 2.281km (1.417mi) warm-up loop called Zielschleife ("Finish Loop")
or Betonschleife ("Concrete Loop"), around the pit area.[3]
Between 1982 and 1983 the start/finish area was demolished to create a new GP-Strecke, and this is used for all
major and international racing events. However, the shortened Nordschleife is still in use for racing, testing and
public access.

History
19271939: The beginning of the "Nrburg-Ring"
In the early 1920s, ADAC Eifelrennen races were held on public roads in the Eifel mountains. This was soon
recognized as impractical and dangerous. The construction of a dedicated race track was proposed, following the
examples of Italy's Monza and Berlin's AVUS, yet with a different character. The layout of the circuit in the
mountains was similar to the Targa Florio event, one of the most important motor races at that time. The original
Nrburgring was to be a showcase for German automotive engineering and racing talent. Construction of the track,
designed by the Eichler Architekturbro from Ravensburg (led by architect Gustav Eichler), began in September
1925.
The track was completed in spring of 1927, and the ADAC Eifelrennen races were continued there. The first races to
take place on 18 June 1927 showed motorcycles and sidecars. The first motorcycle race was won by Toni Ulmen on
an English 350 cc Velocette. The cars followed a day later, and Rudolf Caracciola was the winner of the over 5000
cc class in a Mercedes Compressor. In addition, the track was opened to the public in the evenings and on weekends,

Nrburgring

188

as a one-way toll road. The whole track consisted of 174 bends (prior to 1971 changes), and averaged 8 to 9 metres
(26 to 30 ft) in width. The fastest time ever around the full Gesamtstrecke was by Louis Chiron, at an average speed
of 112.31km/h (72mph) in his Bugatti.
In 1939 the full 'Ring was used for the last time in major racing events, as future Grands Prix would be held only on
the Nordschleife. Motorcycles and minor races primarily used the shorter and safer Sdschleife. Memorable pre-war
races at the circuit featured the talents of early Ringmeister (Ringmasters) such as Rudolf Caracciola, Tazio Nuvolari
and Bernd Rosemeyer.

19471970: The Green Hell


After World War II, racing recommenced in 1947 and the Nordschleife
of the Nrburgring again became the main venue for the German
Grand Prix as part of the Formula One World Championship (with the
exception of 1959, when it was held on the AVUS in Berlin). A new
group of Ringmeister arose to dominate the race Alberto Ascari, Juan
Manuel Fangio, Stirling Moss, Jim Clark, John Surtees, Jackie Stewart
and Jacky Ickx.

Nrburgring circuit map, taken at German


Grand Prix 1964; the legend advises "No driving
in the Eifel (mountains) without a lap on the
Nrburgring"

The Nordschleife from 1967-1982

On 5 August 1961, during practice for the 1961 German Grand Prix,
Phil Hill became the first person to complete a lap of the Nordschleife
in under 9 minutes, with a lap of 8 minutes 55.2 seconds (153.4km/h
or 95.3mph) in the Ferrari 156 "Sharknose" Formula One car. Over
half a century later, the highest-performing road cars have difficulty
breaking 8 minutes without a professional race driver or one very
familiar with the track. Also, several rounds of the German motorcycle
Grand Prix were held, mostly on the 7.7km (4.8mi) Sdschleife, but
the Hockenheimring and the Solitudering were the main sites for
Grand Prix motorcycle racing.
In 1953, the ADAC 1000 km Nrburgring race was introduced, an
Endurance race and Sports car racing event that counted towards the
World Sportscar Championship for decades. The 24 Hours
Nrburgring for touring car racing was added in 1970.
By the late 1960s, the Nordschleife and many other tracks were
becoming increasingly dangerous for the latest generation of F1 cars.
In 1967, a chicane was added before the start/finish straight, called
Hohenrain, in order to reduce speeds at the pit lane entry. This made
the track 25m (82ft) longer. In 1970, after the fatal crash of Piers
Courage at Zandvoort, the F1 drivers decided at the French Grand Prix
to boycott the 'Ring unless major changes were made, as they did at
Spa the year before. The changes were not possible on short notice,
and the German GP was moved to the Hockenheimring, which already
had been modified.

Nrburgring

189

The Sdschleife (1927-1982); abandoned after


1973

19711983: Changes
In accordance with the demands of the F1 drivers the Nordschleife was
reconstructed by taking out some bumps, smoothing out some sudden
jumps (particularly at Brnnchen), and installing Armco safety
barriers. The track was made straighter, following the race line, which
reduced the number of corners. The German GP could be hosted at the
'Ring again, and was for another three years from 1971 to 1973.

Relative location of the Nrburgring. (around


Nrburg, not to scale).

In 1973 the entrance into the dangerous and bumpy Kallenhard corner
was made slower by adding another left-hand corner after the fast
Metzgesfeld sweeping corner. Safety was improved again later on, e.g.
by removing the jumps on the long main straight and widening it, and
taking away the bushes right next to the track at the main straight,
which made that section of the 'Ring dangerously narrow. A second
series of three more F1 races was held until 1976, but even higher
demands by the F1 drivers and the FIA's CSI commission were too
expensive or impossible to meet, so the 1976 race was deemed the last
ever, even before it was held.

Primarily due to its length of over 22 kilometres (14mi), and the lack
of space due to its situation on the sides of the mountains, the 'Ring was unable to meet the safety requirements, and
was also unsuitable for the burgeoning television market. Niki Lauda, the reigning world champion and only person
ever to lap the full 22,835-metre (14.189mi) Nordschleife in under 7 minutes (6:58.6, 1975), proposed to the other
drivers that they boycott the circuit in 1976 because of the safety arrangements. The other drivers voted against the
idea and the race went ahead. Lauda crashed in his Ferrari coming out of the left-hand kink before Bergwerk, for
causes that were never established. He was badly burned as his car was still loaded with fuel in lap 2. Lauda was
saved by the combined actions of fellow drivers Arturo Merzario, Guy Edwards, Brett Lunger, and Harald Ertl,
rather than by the ill-equipped track marshals.
The crash also showed that the track's distances were too long for regular fire engines and ambulances, even though
the "ONS-Staffel" was equipped with a Porsche 911 rescue car, marked (R). This crash marked the end of the old
Nrburgring for Formula One. It never hosted another F1 race again, as the German Grand Prix was moved to the
Hockenheimring for 1977.

Nrburgring
The German motorcycle Grand Prix was held for the last time on the old 'Ring in 1980, also permanently moving to
Hockenheim. A year later, in 1981, work began on a 4.5km (2.8mi)-long new circuit, which was built on and
around the old pit area. At the same time, a bypass shortened the Nordschleife to 20,832m (12.944mi), and with an
additional small pit lane, this version was used for races in 1983, e.g. the 1000km Nrburgring endurance race, while
construction work was going on nearby. In training for that race, the late Stefan Bellof set the all-time lap record for
the 20.8km (12.9mi) Nordschleife in his Porsche 956, which is still unbeaten at 6:11.13, or over 200km/h
(120mph) on average (partially because no major racing has taken place there since 1984).
The Nordschleife was re-built yet again in 19821983, adding more run-off areas at corners like Aremberg and
Brnnchen, where originally there were just embankments protected by Armco barriers. The track surface was made
safer in some spots where there had been nasty bumps and jumps. Racing line markers were added to the corners all
around the track as well. Also, bushes and hedges at the edges of corners were taken out and replaced with Armco
and grass.
The former Sdschleife had not been modified in 1970/71 and was abandoned a few years later in favour of the
improved Nordschleife. It is now mostly gone (in part due to the construction of the new circuit) or converted to a
normal public road, but since 2005 a vintage car event has been hosted on the old track layout, including part of the
parking area.[4]

1984: The new Grand Prix track


The new Nrburgring was completed in 1984 and called GP-Strecke
(German: Groer Preis-Strecke: literally, "Grand Prix Course"). It was
built to meet the highest safety standards, but was considered in
character a mere shadow of its older sibling. Some fans, who had to sit
much farther away from the track, called it Eifelring, Ersatzring, Green
Party Ring or similar, believing it did not deserve to be called
Nrburgring.
The new circuit also had a characteristic of many of the circuits at the
time, in that it offered few overtaking opportunities.
To celebrate its opening, an exhibition race was held, on 12 May,
Complete distance of 2002 in comparison with
featuring an array of notable drivers. Driving identical Mercedes 190E
the track of 1927.
2.316's, the line-up was Elio de Angelis, Jack Brabham (Formula 1
World Champion 1959, 1960, 1966), Phil Hill (1961), Denis Hulme
(1967), James Hunt (1976), Alan Jones (1980), Jacques Laffite, Niki Lauda (1975, 1977)*, Stirling Moss, Alain
Prost*, Carlos Reutemann, Keke Rosberg (1982), Jody Scheckter (1979), Ayrton Senna*, John Surtees (1964) and
John Watson. Senna won ahead of Lauda, Reutemann, Rosberg, Watson, Hulme and Jody Scheckter, being the only
one to resist Lauda's overwhelming performance who - having missed the qualifying - had to start from the last row
and overtook all the others except Senna.[5][] The * in the previous paragraph indicate that titles which were not yet
won at the time of the race are not mentioned here, so there were nine former and two future Formula 1 World
Champions competing, quite a good rate in a field of 20 cars with 16 Formula 1 drivers; the other four were rather
local drivers: Klaus Ludwig, Manfred Schurti, Udo Schtz and Hans Herrmann.
Besides other major international events, the Nrburgring has seen the brief return of Formula One racing, as the
1984 European Grand Prix was held at the track, followed by the 1985 German Grand Prix. As F1 did not stay, other
events were the highlights at the new 'Ring, 1000km Nrburgring, DTM, motorcycles, and newer types of events,
like Truck Racing, Vintage car racing at the AvD "Oldtimer Grand Prix", and even the "Rock am Ring" concerts.
Following the success and first world championship of Michael Schumacher, a second German F1 race was held at
the 'Ring between 1995 and 2006, called the European Grand Prix, or in 1997 and 1998, the Luxembourg Grand

190

Nrburgring

191

Prix.
For 2002, the track was changed, by replacing the former "Castrol-chicane" at the end of the start/finish straight with
a sharp right-hander (nicknamed "Haug-Hook"), in order to create an overtaking opportunity. Also, a slow
Omega-shaped section was inserted, on the site of the former kart track. This extended the GP track from 4,500 to
5,200 m (2.80 to 3.23 mi), while at the same time, the Hockenheimring was shortened from 6,800 to 4,500 m (4.23
to 2.80 mi).
Both the 'Ring and the Hockenheimring events have been losing money due to high and rising license fees charged
by Bernie Ecclestone and low attendance due to high ticket prices[citation needed]; starting with the 2007 Formula One
season, Hockenheim and Nrburgring will alternate for hosting of the German GP.
In F1 racing, Ralf Schumacher hit his brother in 1997, which may have cost Michael the championship. In 1999, in
changing conditions, Johnny Herbert managed to score the only win for the team of former Ringmeister Jackie
Stewart. One of the highlights of the 2005 season was Kimi Rikknen's spectacular exit while in the last lap of the
race, when his suspension gave way after being rattled lap after lap by a flat-spotted tire that was not changed due to
the short-lived "One set of tires" rule.
Prior to the 2007 European Grand Prix, the Audi S (turns 8 and 9) was renamed Michael Schumacher S after Michael
Schumacher. Schumacher had retired from Formula One the year before, but returned in 2010, and in 2011 became
the second Formula One driver to drive through a turn named after them (after Ayrton Senna driving his "S for
Senna" at Autdromo Jos Carlos Pace).

Alternation with Hockenheim


In 2007, the FIA announced that Hockenheimring and Nrburgring would alternate with the German Grand Prix
with Nrburgring hosting in 2007. Due to name-licensing problems, it was held as the European Grand Prix that
year. However, in 2008 the European Grand Prix was held at Valencia Street Circuit, Eastern Spain.

Panorama main entrance of Nrburgring

Fatal accidents
While it is unusual for deaths to occur during sanctioned races, there are many accidents and several deaths each year
during public sessions. It is common for the track to be closed several times a day for cleanup, repair, and medical
intervention. While track management does not publish any official figures, several regular visitors to the track have
used police reports to estimate the number of fatalities at somewhere between 3 and 12 in a full year.[] Jeremy
Clarkson noted in Top Gear in 2004 that "over the years this track has claimed over 200 lives".[6]

Nrburgring

192

Nordschleife racing today


Several touring car series still compete on the Nordschleife, using either only the simple 20.8km (12.9mi) version
with its separate small pit lane, or a combined 24.4km (15.2mi)-long track that uses a part of the original modern F1
track (without the Mercedes Arena section, which is often used for support pits) plus its huge pit facilities.
Entry-level competition requires a regularity test (GLP) for street-legal cars. Two racing series (RCN/CHC and
VLN) compete on 15 Saturdays each year, for several hours.
The annual highlight is the 24 Hours Nrburgring weekend, held usually in mid-May, featuring 220 cars (from small
100hp (75kW) cars to 700hp (520kW) Turbo Porsches or 500hp (370kW) factory race cars built by BMW, Opel,
Audi, Mercedes-Benz), over 700 drivers (amateurs and professionals), and up to 290,000 spectators.
Automotive media outlets and manufacturers use the Nordschleife as a standard to publish their lap times achieved
with production vehicles.
BMW Saubers Nick Heidfeld made history on 28 April 2007 as the first driver in over 30 years to tackle the
Nrburgring Nordschleife track in a contemporary Formula One car. Heidfelds 3 demonstration laps round the
German circuit in an F1.06 were the highlight of festivities celebrating BMWs contribution to motorsport. About
45,000 spectators showed up for the main event, the third four-hour VLN race of the season, and the subsequent
show by Heidfeld. Conceived largely as a photo opportunity, the lap times were not as high as the car was capable
of, BMW instead choosing to run the chassis at a particularly high ride height to allow for the Nordschleife's abrupt
gradient changes and to limit maximum speeds accordingly. Former F1 driver Hans-Joachim Stuck was injured
during the race when he crashed his BMW Z4.

Nordschleife public access


The Nordschleife has remained a public one-way toll road for nearly 80 years except when it is closed off for testing
purposes, training lessons, or racing events. Since its opening in 1927, the track has been used by the public for the
so-called "Touristenfahrten," i.e. anyone with a road-legal car or motorcycle, as well as tour buses, motor homes, or
cars with trailers. It is opened mainly on Sundays, but also many Saturdays and weekday evenings. The track may be
closed for weeks during the winter months, depending on weather conditions and maintenance work.
German road law applies during Touristenfahrten sessions. There is no
general speed limit, although speed limits exist in certain areas in order
to reduce noise and risks. Passing on the right is prohibited, and the
police prosecute poor driving with the aid of helicopters.

Nordschleife is often open to the public. Three


Caterhams are entering Brnnchen, a spectator
vantage point.

This Nrburgring version is a popular attraction for many driving


enthusiasts and riders from all over the world, partly because of its
history and the challenge it provides. The lack of oncoming traffic and
intersections sets it apart from regular roads, and the absence of a
blanket speed limit is a further attraction.

Normal ticket buyers on these tourist days cannot quite complete a full
lap of the 20.8km (12.9mi) Nordschleife, which bypasses the modern
GP-Strecke, as they are required to slow down and pass through a
200-metre (220yd) "pit lane" section where the toll gates are installed. On busier days, a mobile ticket barrier is
installed on the main straight in order to reduce the length of queues at the fixed barriers. This is open to all ticket
holders. On rare occasions, it is possible to drive both the Nordschleife and the Grand Prix circuit combined.

Nrburgring

Drivers interested in lap times often time themselves from the first
bridge after the barriers to the last gantry (aka Bridge-to-Gantry or
BTG time) before the exit.[7] In the event of an accident, the local
police are known to make note of any timing devices present
(stopwatches, etc.) in the police report.[citation needed] The driver's
insurance coverage may consequently be voided, leaving the driver
fully liable for damage. Normal, non-racing, non-timed driving
accidents should be covered by driver's insurance,[8] but it is
increasingly common for UK insurers especially to insert exclusion
clauses that mean drivers and riders on the Nrburgring have
third-party coverage only[citation needed] or none at all.[9]

193

Porsche GT3 RS approaching Adenauer Forst, a


blind chicane on the Nordschleife.

Drivers who do crash have a responsibility to warn following vehicles


that there has been an incident. If an accident occurs, the typical
response passer-by procedure [10] is to stop only if necessary (needs
include stopping to render first aid or to warn incoming traffic).
"Follow-up" accidents are frequent, but the less chaos at a scene, the
less chance for another follow-up accident to occur. The 'Ring,
although for all intents and purposes a race track when used for racing,
still remains a public road when opened to the public and is policed as
such. Anyone caught or reported as driving dangerously can be fined
Crashed BMW Z3 M coup on the recovery truck
or banned by the authorities. The costs can also be prohibitive with
vehicle recovery, track closure penalties, and Armco repairs costing up to 15,000 out of pocket.[citation needed]

Commercial aspects
One of the original purposes of the Nordschleife was as a test track for auto manufacturers, and its demanding layout
had been traditionally used as a proving ground. Weekdays are often booked for so-called Industriefahrten for auto
makers and the media. With the advent of the Internet, awareness of the Nordschleife has risen in Germany and
abroad, in addition to publicity in print media. In 1999, Porsche reported that their new 996 GT3 had lapped the
'Ring in under eight minutes, and in subsequent years, manufacturers from overseas also showed up to test cars.
Some high-performance models are promoted with videotaped laps published on the web, and the claimed lap times
are generating discussion. Few of these supercars are actually entered in racing where the claims could be backed
up.
The TV Series Top Gear has also used the Nordschleife for its challenges, often involving Sabine Schmitz. In
addition, during series 17 (summer 2011) of Top Gear, James May was very critical of the ride quality of cars whose
development processes included testing on the Nordschleife.
Other pastimes are hosted at the 'Ring, such as the "Rock am Ring", Germany's biggest rock festival, attracting close
to 100,000 rock fans each year since 1985. Since 1978 the Nordschleife is also the venue of a major running event
(Nrburgring-Lauf/Run am Ring). In 2003 a major cycling event (Rad am Ring) was added and it became the multi
sports event Rad & Run am Ring.
In 2009, new commercial areas opened, including a hotel and shopping mall. In the summer of 2009 ETF Ride
Systems opened a new interactive dark ride application called "Motor Mania" at the racetrack, in collaboration with
Lagotronics B.V.[11] The roller coaster "ringracer" was scheduled to open in 2011 but never started its operations
due to technical failures.
In 2012, the track was preparing to file for bankruptcy as a result of nearly $500 million in debts and the inability to
secure financing.[12] On August 1, 2012, the government of Rheinland-Pfalz guaranteed $312 million to allow the

Nrburgring
track to meet its debt obligations.[13]
As of 2013, the Nrburgring is currently up for sale for US$165 million(127.3 million).[14] The sale process will be
by sealed-bid auction with an expected completion date of "Late Summer". This means there will be a new owner in
2013, and as they will be unencumbered by the debts of the previous operation the circuit is expected to return to
profitability.[15]

Nordschleife map
Locations of note
Flugplatz ("Airport")
The Nordschleife was formerly known for its abundance of sharp crests, causing fast-moving, firmly-sprung racing
cars to jump clear off the track surface at many locations. Although by no means the most fearsome, Flugplatz is
perhaps the most aptly (although coincidentally) named and widely remembered. The name of this part of the track
comes from a small airfield, which in the early years was located close to the track in this area. The track features a
very short straight that climbs sharply uphill for a short time, then suddenly drops slightly downhill, and this is
immediately followed by two very fast right-hand kinks. Chris Irwin's career was ended following a massive
accident at Flugplatz, in a Ford 3L GT sports car in 1968. Manfred Winkelhock flipped his March F2 car at the same
corner in 1980.
Right before Flugplatz is Quiddelbacher Hhe, where the track crosses a bridge over the Bundesstrae 257.
Bergwerk ("The Mine")
Perhaps the most notorious corner on the long circuit, Bergwerk has been responsible for some serious and
sometimes fatal accidents. A tight right-hand corner, coming just after a long, fast section and a left-hand kink on a
small crest, was where Carel Godin de Beaufort fatally crashed. The fast kink was also the scene of Niki Lauda's
infamous fiery accident during the 1976 German Grand Prix. This left kink is often referred to as the Lauda Links
(Lauda left).
Caracciola Karussell ("The Caracciola Carousel")
Although being one of the slower corners on the Nordschleife, the Karussell is perhaps one of its most iconic, one of
two berm-style, banked corners. The entrance to the corner is blind, although Juan Manuel Fangio is reputed to have
advised a young driver to "aim for the tallest tree," a feature that was also built into the rendering of the circuit in the
Gran Turismo 4 and Grand Prix Legends video games. The combination of a recognisable corner, slow-moving cars,
and the variation in viewing angle as cars rotate around the banking, means that this is one of the circuit's most
popular locations for photographers. It is named for Rudolf Caracciola, who reportedly made the corner his own by
hooking the inside tires into a drainage ditch to help his car "hug" the curve. As more concrete was uncovered and
more competitors copied him, the trend took hold. At a later reconstruction, the corner was remade with real concrete
banking, as it remains to this day.
Shortly after the Karussell is a steep section, with gradients in excess of 16%, leading to a right-hander called Hohe
Acht, which is some 300 m higher in altitude than Breidscheid.[16]

194

Nrburgring
Brnnchen ("Small Fountain")
A favorite spectator vantage point, the Brnnchen section is composed of two right-hand corners and a very short
straight. The first corner goes sharply downhill and the next, after the very short downhill straight, goes uphill
slightly. This is a section of the track where on public days, accidents happen particularly at the blind uphill
right-hand corner. Like almost every corner at the Nrburgring, both right-handers are blind. The short straight used
to have a steep and sudden drop-off that caused cars to take off; this was taken out and smoothed over when the
circuit was rebuilt in 1970 and 1971.

Lap times
Lap times recorded on the Nrburgring Nordschleife are published by several manufacturers. They are published and
discussed in print media, and online.
For lap times from various sources, see Nrburgring lap times
For lap times in official racing events, on several track variants from 20,8km up to 26km, see List of
Nordschleife lap times (racing)
For lap times of the Sport Auto Supertest, on an incomplete 20,6km lap, see List of Nordschleife lap times (sport
auto)

References
[1]
[3]
[4]
[6]
[7]
[8]
[9]

http:/ / tools. wmflabs. org/ geohack/ geohack. php?pagename=N%C3%BCrburgring& params=50_20_08_N_6_56_51_E_type:landmark


Maps of Nrburgring configurations (http:/ / www. the-fastlane. co. uk/ racingcircuits/ Germany/ NurburgringBetonschliefe. html)
Vintage Nrburgring (http:/ / www. vintage-nuerburgring. de) vintage-nuerburgring.de. Retrieved 2007-10-18.
Top Gear Series 5, Episode 5
Bridge-to-Gantry. Retrieved 2013-04-15 (http:/ / bridgetogantry. com/ )
Nrburgring insurance legal information (http:/ / www. leeds-solicitors. com/ nurburgring_insurance. html)
Admiral insurance policy (http:/ / www. admiral. com/ policyDocs/ AD116 _policybook_0110. pdf), page 20: "We will not cover you or be
liable for [...] Any accident, injury, loss, theft, or damage which takes place while your car is: [...] used on the Nurburgring Nordschleife [...]"
[10] http:/ / www. nurburgring. org. uk/ accidentproc. html
[16] http:/ / www. nurburgring. org. uk/ altitude-profile. jpg

External links

Official website: German (http://www.nuerburgring.de) | English (http://www.nuerburgring.de/en/)


Ben Lovejoy's Nrburgring website (http://www.nurburgring.org.uk/index.html)
Nurburgring Webcam 24 hours (http://autoya.info/nurburgring_track_webcam_24_hours/)
Nrburgring Explorer website (http://nurburgringexplorer.com/)
One full Nordschleife lap with an on-board camera (http://www.kinomap.com/#!kms-xnjcpd) on Kinomap
One lap GP track with on-board camera (http://www.fastvoice.de/Nuerburgring.mp4)

195

Paul Ricard

196

Paul Ricard
Paul Ricard High Tech Test Track

Location

Le Castellet, France

Time zone

GMT +1 (DST: +2)

Coordinates

43152N 54730E

[1]

Coordinates: 43152N 54730E [1]

Major events French Grand Prix, MotoGP, FIA GT


Long Circuit (1970-1999)
Length

5.809 km (3.610 mi)

Turns

14

Lap record

1:39.914 (Keke Rosberg, Williams Honda, 1985)


Club Circuit (1986-1999)

Length

3.812 km (2.369 mi)

Turns

Lap record

1:08.012 (Nigel Mansell, Ferrari, 1990)

The Paul Ricard Circuit is a motorsport race track built in 1969 at Le Castellet, near Marseille, in France, with
finance from the eccentric pastis magnate Paul Ricard. Ricard wanted to experience the challenge of building a
highway.

History
Its innovative facilities made it one of the safest motor racing circuits in the world at the time of its opening[citation
needed]
. The circuit had three track layout permutations, a large industrial park and an airstrip. The combination of
modern facilities, mild winter weather and an airstrip made it popular amongst racing teams for car testing during the
annual winter off-season. [citation needed]
The original track was dominated by the 1.8km long Mistral Straight that is followed by the high-speed right hand
Signes corner. The long main straight and other fast sections made the track very hard on engines as they ran at full
revs for extended spells. Engine failures were common, such as Ayrton Senna's huge crash during the 1985 French
Grand Prix after the Renault engine in his Lotus failed and he went off backwards at Signes and crashed heavily,
fortunately with only light bruising to the driver. Nigel Mansell crashed at the same place in the same weekend
during practice and suffered concussion which kept him out of the race. Mansell's crash was the result of a slow
puncture in his left rear tyre causing it to explode at over 200mph, which detached his Williams FW10's rear wing.
The Honda powered FW10 holds the race lap record for the original circuit when Mansell's team mate Keke Rosberg
recorded a time of 1:39.914 during the 1985 French Grand Prix.

Paul Ricard
It opened in 1970 with a 2-litre sports car race.[citation needed] During the 1970s and the 1980s the track developed
some of the best French drivers of the time, and hosted the Formula One French Grand Prix on many occasions, the
first of which was the 1971 French Grand Prix.
In 1986 Formula One driver Elio de Angelis was killed in a testing accident at the fast first turn, and the circuit was
modified in order to make it safer. The length of the Mistral Straight was reduced and the fast sweeping curves
where de Angelis had crashed were bypassed.
The last French Grand Prix held at the circuit was in 1990; the event then moved to Magny-Cours where it ran until
2008. Since then there have been discussions towards reviving the French Grand Prix.
In the 1990s the circuit's use was limited to motorcycle racing and French national racing, most notably until 1999,
the Bol d'or motorcycle endurance race. The track was also the home of the Oreca F3000 team.
After Ricard's death, the track was sold to Excelis, a company owned by Formula One promoter Bernie Ecclestone,
in 1999. The track has since been rebuilt into an advanced test track. It is now known as the Paul Ricard High Tech
Test Track (Paul Ricard HTTT).
An aircraft landing strip suitable for private jets is amongst the circuit's facilities. There is a Karting Test Track
(KTT) that features the same type of abrasive safety zones as the car track. The track has also hosted some races,
including the 2006 Paul Ricard 500km, a round of the FIA GT Championship. Other GT championships have run
races here, most notably the Ferrari Challenge and races organized by Porsche clubs of France and Italy.
Ecclestone has expressed an intention to return Formula One racing to the circuit by hosting a biennial French Grand
Prix at the circuit beginning in 2013 (with a Belgian Grand Prix at Spa-Francorchamps in the alternate years). [2]

The track
The track is characterised by its long Mistral straight (1.8km) and elongated track design. The track is also unusual
in that it is built on a plateau, and is very flat. The length of the full track is around 3.610miles (5.8km). In 1986 the
track was modified to shorten the circuit. This shorter circuit is known as the GP short circuit and is 2.369miles
(3.8km) long. The track offers 167 possible configurations from 826 to 5,861 metres.[3] Its flexibility and mild
winter weather mean that it is used for testing by several motorsport teams, including Formula One teams.
The track is known for its distinctive black and blue runoff areas known as the Blue Zone. The runoff surface
consists of a mixture of asphalt and tungsten, used instead of gravel traps, as common at other circuits.[4] A second,
deeper run-off area is the Red Zone, with a more abrasive surface designed to maximize tyre grip and hence
minimize braking distance, although at the cost of intense tyre wear. The final safeguard consists of Tecpro barriers,
a modern improvement on tyre barriers.[4]

References
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]

http:/ / tools. wmflabs. org/ geohack/ geohack. php?pagename=Circuit_Paul_Ricard& params=43_15_2_N_5_47_30_E_type:landmark


http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ sport/ 0/ formula1/ 17738493
Tracks and facilities (http:/ / www. circuitpaulricard. com/ les-pistes-p-155. html?language=en) - Official website
Paul Ricard High Tech Test Track, The Marshal: Incorporating Rescue & Resuscitation, April 2007 (Issue 21)

External links
Official website (http://www.circuitpaulricard.com/)

197

Sebring

198

Sebring
Sebring International Raceway

Location

Highlands County, east of Sebring, Florida, USA

Time zone

UTC -5 (UTC-4 DST)

Capacity

open seating without capacity limitation

Owner

Panoz Motor Sports Group

Operator

Panoz Motor Sports Group

Opened

1950

Major events American Le Mans Series


12 Hours of Sebring
GP Road Course (6th variation) (1999-present)
Surface

Asphalt/Concrete

Length

3.74 mi (6.02 km)

Turns

17

Lap record

1:43.886

[1]

(Marcel Fssler, Audi Sport Team Joest, 2013, LMP1)


Club Road Course

Length

1.7 mi (2.74 km)


5th variation (1991-1998)

Length

3.724 mi (5.99 km)

Turns

18

Lap record

1:49.425 (Stefan Johansson, Yannick Dalmas, Ferrari, 1997, LMP1)


4th variation (1987-1990)

Length

4.109 mi (6.612 km)

Turns

17

Lap record

1:55.767 (Derek Daly, Nissan, 1990, IMSA)


3rd variation (1983-1986)

Length

4.80 mi (7.821 km)

Sebring

199
Turns

17

Lap record

2:11.416 (Ken Madren, March, 1986, IMSA)


2nd variation (1967-1982)

Length

5.382 mi (8.36 km)

Turns

17

Lap record

2:27.067 (Bobby Rahal, March, 1982, IMSA)


1st variation (1952-1966)

Length

5.38 mi (8.356 km)

Turns

17

Lap record

2:54.6 (Dan Gurney, Ford, 1966, WSC)

Sebring International Raceway is a road course auto racing facility located near Sebring, Florida.
Sebring (pronounced "sea bring") Raceway is one of the oldest continuously-operating race tracks in the United
States, its first race being run in 1950. Sebring is one of the classic race tracks in North American sports car
racing[citation needed], and plays host to the 12 Hours of Sebring, one of the legs of the unofficial triple crown of
endurance racing.
The raceway occupies a portion of Sebring Regional Airport, an active airport for private and commercial traffic that
was originally built as Hendricks Army Airfield, a World War II training base for the U.S. Army Air Forces.

History
Sebring started life as a United States Army Air Forces training base. From 1941 to 1946, pilots learned to fly the
B-17 Flying Fortress. This lineage was commemorated by a special livery on Gunnar Racing's Panoz in the 2002 12
Hours of Sebring resembling a World War II-era B-17.[2]
After the war, aeronautical engineer Alec Ulmann,[3] seeking sites to restore military aircraft for civilian use, saw
potential in Hendricks' runways to stage a sports car endurance race, similar to the 24 Hours of Le Mans. Sebring's
first race was held on New Year's Eve of 1950. The Sam Collier 6 Hour Memorial race was won by Fritz Koster and
Ralph Deshon in a Crosley Hot Shot that had been driven to the track by Victor Sharpe. This first race attracted
thirty racecars from across North America.[4]
The first 12 Hours of Sebring was held on March 15, 1952, and would grow to be a major international race. In
1959, the racetrack hosted the first Formula One Grand Prix in the United States. Due to the poor attendance and
high costs, the next United States Grand Prix was held at Riverside.[5]
For much of Sebring's history, the track followed a 5.2 miles (8.4km)
layout. In 1967, the Webster Turn right between the hairpin and the top
of the track was removed and replaced with the faster Green Park
Chicane, which was closer to the hairpin and allowed a flat-out run
through a very fast corner to the top of the track and the runway, which
made the circuit 50 yards longer. The circuit was also widened, and all
these things were done after the 1966 12 Hours because 5 people were
killed during the race, and the Warehouse straight was a dangerous
Press box
section that ran right past buildings and warehouses, and a crash where
a Porsche went into one of the warehouses and into a crowd led the
organizers installing the chicane to move the Warehouse straight further away from the warehouses and buildings. In
1983, the track was changed to allow simultaneous use of the track and one of the runways. In 1987, more changes
allowed use of another runway. Further changes in 1991 accommodated expansion of the airport's facilities, and

Sebring

200

brought the track close to its current configuration. The entire track could now be used without interfering with
normal airport operations. In 1997, the hairpin was removed due to a lack of run-off, and replaced with what became
known as the "safety pin". Gendebien Bend was also re-profiled to slow the cars' entry to the Ullman straight.[6]
The track now is leased by the Panoz Motor Sports Group, who
acquired the facility from Andy Evans in 1997.[7]
The track will often be recognized for its famous, high-speed "Turn
17", a long, bumpy, fast right hander that can make or break a car's
speed down the front straight. The corner can fit up to 3 cars wide.
Skip Barber Racing School holds numerous programs at the facility,
including a Scholarship opportunity for young racers.

Final Hours of Sebring 2011

Track configuration
Sebring International Raceway consist of three tracks:
the Full Circuit, the Short Circuit, and the Club Circuit.
The course of the track itself is 3.74 miles (6.02km)
long. It is a seventeen-turn road course with long
straights, several high-speed corners, and very technical
slower corners. Many of the turns and points along the
track are named for the early teams and drivers. There
is very little elevation change around the track and little
camber on the surface, providing a challenging track
for drivers, especially when it rains.

Track map.

Sebring is renowned for its rough surface. The course


still runs on old sections of World War II-era landing
fields that were constructed of concrete sections with
large seams. The transitions between sections are quite
rough and often, sparks fly from the undercarriages of
the cars as they traverse them. Much of the track has
intentionally been left with its original concrete runway
surface. The track surface has 3.04 miles (4.89km) of
asphalt and 0.7 miles (1.1km) of concrete. Mario
Andretti, a 3-time 12 Hours winner, said that one of the
hardest parts about the original Sebring track was
finding the track to begin with! There had been many
accounts of drivers retiring due to accidents at night,
quite simply because they got lost on the runway
sections and couldn't find the track again. Some drivers
got lost even during the day, mostly because the track
was poorly marked down with white lines and cones.[8]

The track layout from 1952 to 1966 (1st variation). Length: 5.38 mi
(8.356 km) Lap record: Dan Gurney, Ford GT40, 2:54.6, 1966

Sebring

201

Events
Sebring is most notable for hosting the 12 Hours of Sebring, sanctioned at various times by the FIA, IMSA, and
now, the ALMS. The track also hosts the Legends of Motorsport and Historic Sportscar Racing series, and is the
winter home of the Skip Barber Racing School. Many IndyCar, sports prototype, and Grand Touring teams use
Sebring for winter testing due to the warm climate.

Sebring in pop culture


Sebring Raceway is featured in the video games iRacing, Forza
Motorsport 2, Forza Motorsport 3, Forza Motorsport 4, Total
Immersion Racing, and Sports Car GT. There are also end-user created
Audi R15 at Sebring 2011
versions for GTR2, GTR Evolution, GT Legends, rFactor, Grand Prix
Legends and NASCAR Racing 2003 Season. It is speculated to appear
in Gran Turismo 6. In board gaming, Sebring was also featured in the first expansion for the Formula D board game
by Asmodee games.

References
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]

(http:/ / www. audiworld. com/ news/ 13/ sebring-qual/ )


Gunnar Racing (http:/ / www. gunnarracing. com/ team/ 962. com/ panoz/ panoz/ sebring. htm)
(http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 1986/ 04/ 26/ obituaries/ alec-ulmann-is-dead-at-82-pioneer-in-sports-car-racing. html)
http:/ / www. ggw. org/ ~cac/ Sebring/ Sebring. html
The United States Grand Prix (http:/ / www. ddavid. com/ formula1/ usgp. htm)
12 Hours of Sebring (http:/ / www. sebringraceway. com/ history_evolution. lasso)
The TACH Report: USRRC Announces '98 Sched, Panoz Buys Sebring From Andy Evans, GM Has New Longer Range Battery For EVs
(http:/ / www. theautochannel. com/ news/ date/ 19980113/ news009158. html)
[8] About Sebring Raceway (http:/ / www. sebringraceway. com/ track_test. lasso)

External links
Official website (http://www.sebringraceway.com/)
A drivers description of the various track configurations (http://www.na-motorsports.com/Tracks/FL/Sebring.
html)
Trackpedia guide to Sebring (http://www.trackpedia.com/wiki/Sebring_International_Raceway)
Audio walk-through of the track, for use with games (http://www.AudioTrackGuides.co.uk)
Coordinates: 27.454741N 81.348267W (http:/
php?pagename=Sebring_International_Raceway&
348267_E_region:US_type:landmark)

tools. wmflabs.
params=27.

org/

geohack/ geohack.
454741_N_-81.

Silverstone

202

Silverstone
Silverstone Circuit

"Home of British Motor Racing"[]

Silverstone Circuit 2010 Onwards


Location

Silverstone, Northamptonshire (part) and Buckinghamshire (part), England, UK

Time zone

GMT

Coordinates

52443N 111W

FIA Grade

Architect

Populous

[1]

Coordinates: 52443N 111W [1]

Major events FIA Formula One : British Grand Prix


FIM MotoGP : British Grand Prix
FIM Superbike World Championship
FIA GT1 World Championship
Le Mans Series
European Formula Two Championship
FIA International Formula 3000
British Touring Car Championship
British F3 International Series
British GT
British Superbike Championship
FIA World Endurance Championship
Silverstone Classic
[2]

Arena Grand Prix Circuit


Length

5.901 km (3.667 mi)

Turns

18

Lap record

1:30.874 (

Fernando Alonso, Ferrari, 2010, F1)


Bridge Grand Prix Circuit

Length

5.141 km (3.194 mi)

Turns

17

Lap record

1:18.739 (

Michael Schumacher, Ferrari, 2004, F1)


International Circuit

Length

3.619 km (2.249 mi)

Turns

10
National Circuit

Length

2.638 km (1.639 mi)

Silverstone

203
Turns

6
Stowe Circuit

Length

1.281 km (0.796 mi)

Turns

Silverstone Circuit is a British motor racing circuit next to the Northamptonshire villages of Silverstone and
Whittlebury. The circuit straddles the Northamptonshire and Buckinghamshire border, with the current main circuit
entry on the Buckinghamshire side. The Northamptonshire towns of Towcester (5 miles) and Brackley (7 miles) and
Buckinghamshire town of Buckingham (6 miles) are close by, and the nearest large towns are Northampton and
Milton Keynes.
Silverstone is the current home of the British Grand Prix, which it first hosted in 1948. The 1950 British Grand Prix
at Silverstone was the first race in the newly created Formula One World Championship. The race rotated between
Silverstone, Aintree and Brands Hatch from 1955 to 1986, but relocated permanently to Silverstone in 1987.
On 30 September 2004 British Racing Drivers' Club president Jackie Stewart announced that the British Grand Prix
would not be included on the 2005 provisional race calendar, and if it were, would probably not occur at
Silverstone.[3] However on 9 December an agreement was reached with Formula One rights holder Bernie
Ecclestone ensuring that the track would host the British Grand Prix until 2009 after which Donington Park would
become the new host of the British Grand Prix. However, the Donington Park leaseholders suffered economic
problems resulting in the BRDC signing a 17 year deal with Ecclestone to hold the British Grand Prix at
Silverstone.[4]

The Circuit
Silverstone is built on the site of a World War II Royal Air Force bomber station, RAF Silverstone, which opened in
1943. The airfield's three runways, in classic WWII triangle format, lie within the outline of the present track.
Silverstone was first used for motorsport by an ad hoc group of friends who set up an impromptu race in September
1947. One of their members, Maurice Geoghegan, lived in nearby Silverstone village and was aware that the airfield
was deserted. He and eleven other drivers raced over a two mile circuit, during the course of which Geoghegan
himself ran over a sheep that had wandered onto the airfield. The sheep was killed and the car written off, and in the
aftermath of this event the informal race became known as the Mutton Grand Prix.[5]
The next year the Royal Automobile Club took a lease on the airfield and set out a more formal racing circuit. Their
first two races were held on the runways themselves, with long straights separated by tight hairpin corners, the track
demarcated by hay bales. However, for the 1949 International Trophy meeting, it was decided to switch to the
perimeter track. This arrangement was used for the 1950 and 1951 Grands Prix. In 1952 the start line was moved
from the Farm Straight to the straight linking Woodcote and Copse corners, and this layout remained largely
unaltered for the following 38 years. For the 1975 meeting a chicane was introduced to try to tame speeds through
the mighty Woodcote Corner (although MotoGP would still use the circuit without the chicane up until 1986), and
Bridge Corner was subtly rerouted in 1987.
The track underwent a major redesign between the 1990 and 1991 races, transforming the ultra-fast track (where in
its last years, every corner was taken in no lower than 4th or 5th gear (depending on the transmission of the car)
except for the Bridge chicane, which was usually taken in 2nd gear) into a more technical track. The reshaped track's
first F1 race was perhaps the most memorable of recent years, with Nigel Mansell coming home first in front of his
home crowd. On his victory lap back to the pits Mansell even found time to pick up stranded rival Ayrton Senna and
give him a lift on his side-pod, after Senna's McLaren had run out of fuel on the final lap of the race.
Following the deaths of Senna and fellow Grand Prix driver Roland Ratzenberger at Imola in 1994, many Grand Prix
circuits were modified in order to reduce speed and increase driver safety. As a consequence of this the entry from

Silverstone
Hangar Straight into Stowe Corner was modified in 1995 so as to make its entry less dangerous and, as a result, less
challenging, and the flat-out Abbey kink was modified to a chicane in just 19 days before the 1994 GP.

History
Origins 1940s
Silverstone claims to be the Home of British Motor Racing; over the years much energy has been put into the circuit
and it is hard to refute the claim. [][6]
With the termination of hostilities in Europe in 1945, the first motorsport event on English soil was held at Gransden
Lodge in 1946 and the next on the Isle of Man, but there was nowhere permanent on the mainland which was
suitable.[6]
In 1948, Royal Automobile Club (RAC) set its mind upon running a Grand Prix and started to cast around public
roads on the mainland. There was, of course, no possibility of closing the public highway as could happen on the Isle
of Man, or the Channel Islands; it was a time of austerity and there was no question of building a new circuit from
scratch so some viable alternative has to be found.[6]
What was available? There was a considerable number of ex-RAF airfields and it was to these the RAC turned their
attention to with particular interest being paid to two near the centre of England Smitterfield near
Stratford-upon-Avon and one behind the village of Silverstone. The latter was still under the control of the Air
Ministry, but a lease was arranged in August 1948 and plans put into place to run the first British Grand Prix since
the RAC last ran one at Brooklands in 1927 (those held at Donington Park in the late 1930s had the title of
Donington Grand Prix).[6]
In August 1948, the RAC employed one James Brown on the three-month contact to create the Grand Prix circuit in
less than two months. Nearly 40 years later, Brown died virtually in harness.[6]
The prospect of running a Grand Prix in England as late as October is one which would be countenanced today but
the idea was relished in 1948, for it was, after all only continuing the tradition handed down from Brooklands and
Donington Park. So it was that on Thursday 30th September, Silverstone first reverberated to the sound of Formula
One motor racing engines, with the race on the 2nd October.[6]
The new circuit was marked out with oil drums and straw bales and consisted of the perimeter road and the runaways
running into the centre of the airfield from two directions. Spectators were contained behind rope barriers and the
officials were housed in tents. An estimated 100,000 people arrived to witness the first post-war Grand Prix on
English soil.[6]
There were no factory entries but Scuderia Ambrosiana sent two Maserati 4CLT/48s for Luigi Villoresi and Alberto
Ascari who finished in that order (notwithstanding having started from the back of the grid of 25 cars) ahead of Bob
Gerard in his ERA R14B/C. The race was 239 miles long and was run at an average speed of 72.28mph. Fourth
place went to Louis Rosiers Talbot-Lago T26 , followed home by Biba in an another Maserati 4CLT/48.[6][7]
The second Grand Prix at Silverstone was scheduled for May 1949 and was officially designated the British Grand
Prix. it was to use the full perimeter track with a chicane inserted at Club Corner. The length of the second circuit
was exactly three miles and the race run over 100 laps, making it the longest post-war Grand Prix held in England.
There were again 25 starters and victory went to a San Remo Maserati 4CLT/48, this time in the hands of Toulo de
Graffenried from Bob Gerard in his familiar ERA, and Louis Rosier in a 4-litre Talbot-Lago. The race average
speed had risen to 77.31mph. The attendance was estimated at anything up to 120,000.[6][8]
Also in 1949, the first running took place of what was to become an institution at Silverstone, the International
Trophy sponsored by the Daily Express and which become virtually a second Grand Prix. The first International
Trophy was run on 20 August in two heats and a final; victory in heat one went to Prince Birabongse (Bira) and the
second to Giuseppe Farina both driving Maserati 4CLT/48s, but the final went to a Ferrari Tipo 125 driven by

204

Silverstone
Alberto Ascari from Farina, with Luigi Villoresi third in another Ferrari. For this meeting, the chicane at Club
Corner was dispensed with and the circuit took up a shape that was to last for 25 years.[6][9][10]

1950s
The 1950 British Grand Prix was a significant occasion on for two reasons; one, it was the first ever World
Championship Grand Prix, carrying the title of the European Grand Prix; and the event was graced by the presence
of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth the first and only time a reigning monarch has attended a motor race in
Britain.[6][]
The year was the institution of the World Championship for Driver, and Silverstone witnessed the first time that Alfa
Romeo 158 Alfettas had been seen in England, and they took the first three places in the hands of Giuseppe Farina,
Luigi Fagioli and Reg Parnell, with the race average having increased to 90.96mph, however the race distance had
been reduced to 205 miles. [6][]
1951 was memorable for it saw the defeat of the Alfas ,with victory going to the popular Argentinian driver, Froiln
Gonzlez driving the Ferrari 375. His fellow countryman, Juan Manuel Fangio was second in an Alfa Romeo 159B
and Luigi Villoresi in another Ferrari 375. The race distance had increased to 263 miles, and the race average speed
was now 96.11mph.[6][]
1951 also saw the British Racing Drivers' Club (BRDC) took over the lease from the RAC, and set about making the
circuit into something more permanent. []
The International Trophy attracted the cream of Formula One, including the invincible Alfas, driven by Fangio and
Farina. However, the heavens opened for the final and visibility was almost nil, and in those conditions the Alfettas
with their Supercharged engines were at a distinct disadvantage. When the race was abandoned after only six laps,
Reg Parnell was in the lead in the Thinwall Special; no official winner was declared.[6]
In 1952, the RAC decided it no longer wished to run the circuit, and on 1 January the lease was taken on by the
BRDC, with James Brown continuing as track manager. The lease covered only the perimeter track and other areas
at specific times. Coinciding with the BRDC taking over the running of the Grand Prix, there was a little unrest
within the sport which led to the downgrading of Grand Prix racing to Formula Two, which was won by Alberto
Ascari at 90.9mph from his Ferrari team-mate Piero Taruffi both driving the Tipo 500. The podium was completed
by Mike Hawthorn driving a Cooper-Bristol T12.[6]
The International Trophy was notable in 1952, in that it saw an all-too-rare victory for Hersham and Walton Motors
when Lance Macklin had a superb win.[6]
The same situation continued into 1953 with the World Championship being run for Formula Two cars. The race
was a straight fight between the Maserati and Ferrari teams, with victory going to Ascari at 92.9mph abroad a Ferrari
Tipo 500 from the Maserati A6GCM of Fangio and another Tipo 500 of Farina. The racecard included a Formula
Libre race which really put the Grand Prix into perspective; Farina drove the Thinwall Special to victory at a higher
speed than the actual GP, setting the first lap record at over 100mph, at 100.16mph.[6]
The 1954 Grand Prix season was the new 2.5-litre Formula One and had attracted interest from some major players.
Lancia had joined the fray with their D50 and Daimler-Benz were back; the appearance of Lancia meant that there
were no fewer than three Italian teams completing at the highest level. The others being Ferrari and Maserati. The
British were catered for by the Owen Racing Organisation with their BRMs, the Vanwall of Tony Vandervell and
Connaught still fighting the good fight, while Cooper-Bristol were not to be forgotten. At the start of the season,
Mercedes-Benz had swept all before them, but Silverstone was a dbcle for the team which returned to
Untertrkheim with their tails between their legs. The 263-mile race was won by Gonzlez from Hawthorn in the
works 625s with Onofre Marimn third in the works Maserati 250F. The best Mercedes driver was poleman Fangio
in his W196.[6]

205

Silverstone

206

From 1955, the Grand Prix was alternated between Aintree and Silverstone, until 1964 when Brands Hatch took over
as venue alternative.[]
By the time the Grand Prix returned to Silverstone in 1956, Mercedes-Benz had gone, as had Lancia as an
independent entrant, the cars having been handed to Scuderia Ferrari, who ran them as Lancia-Ferraris. The great
Fangio scored his only British Grand Prix win in one of these cars. Second was another Lancia-Ferrari which had
started the race in the hands of Alfonso de Portago, but was taken over by Peter Collins at half-distance and third
place was Jean Behra in a Maserati 250F.[6]
Matters were somewhat happier for the British enthusiast at the International Trophy; a quality field had been
attracted including Fangio and Collins in their Lancia-Ferraris, but the 13 laps of the race were led by the new BRM
P25 driven by Hawthorn. When the engine of the BRM expired, Stirling Moss in the Vanwall took over, going on to
win. With the Lancias broken by the Brit, the rest of the podium was taken by the Connaughts of Archie Scott
Brown and Desmond Titterington.[6]
For 1958 drastic rule changes introduced into Formula One, Fangio had retired and Maserati had withdrawn due to
financial difficulties. Throughout the season the battles was between Ferrari and Vanwall and it was fervently hoped
that Vandervell would success at home but it was not to be; the green cars fell apart, Stuart Lewis-Evans the best
placed finisher in fourth. Victory went to Collins from Hawthorn, both driving Ferrari Dino 246s. The crowd of
120,000 did witness at hat-trick of English drivers on the podium with Roy Salvadori coming home third in one of
John Coopers Coventry-Climax rear-engined powered cars.[6]

1960s
At the British Grand Prix of 1960, the front-engined cars were
completely
outclassed,
the
podium
going
to
the
Coventry-Climax-powered cars, with victory going to Jack Brabham in
the works Cooper T53 from John Surtees and Innes Ireland in their
Lotus 18s. Although the race is remembered as the race lost by Graham
Hill lost, rather than won by Brabham. Hill stalled his BRM on the
grid, left the line in last place, then proceeded to carve through the
whole field. Once in the lead, the BRM was troubled by fading brakes
which led to Hill spinning off at Copse Corner.[6][]

Piers Courage on his way to 5th place in the 1969


British Grand Prix, aboard Frank Williams
Racing Carss Brabham-Cosworth BT26A

1961 was the year of the new 1.5 litre Formula One introduced by the
governing body on safety grounds it met with strong opposition in
Britain which gave birth to the short-lived Inter-Continental Formula,
which extended the life of the now-obsolete Formula One cars. The International Trophy was run to this Formula
and produced a notable first and last the first and only appearance of the American Scarab and the last appearance
of the Vanwall, in the hands of Surtees. The race was wet and Moss demonstrated his supreme prowess in Rob
Walkers Cooper by lapping all but Brabham twice.[6]
In 1962, the second year of the Formula, the International Trophy was run for the 1.5 litre cars. This was the classic
occasion when Hill in the BRM crossed the finishing line almost sideways to snatch victory from Jim Clarks Lotus
24; both drivers were credited with the same race time.[6][]
Clark was to win the British Grand Prix when it returned to Silverstone in 1963, driving the Lotus-Climax 25. By
now, even Ferrari had succumbed to the rear-engined layout, but sent only one to Northamptonshire for Surtees
(Ferrari 156). He finished second, ahead of three BRM P57s of Hill, Richie Ginther and Lorenzo Bandini.[6][]
For the 1965 season, BRM had taken a chance of signed Scottish driven straight from Formula Three; the
International Trophy was only his fourth Formula One race, but despite this he won handsomely from Surtees in the
Ferrari. The newcomer was Jackie Stewart. When the Formula One returned for the British Grand Prix later that

Silverstone
year, Stewart finished a creditable fifth. Fellow Scot, Clark won the race in his Lotus-Climax 33 from the BRM P261
of Hill and the Ferrari of Surtees.[6]
The following year, the new 3-litre Formula One was heralded as the Return of Power, however the first Grand Prix
under these regulations was held at Brands Hatch. It was not until 1967, that the big-engined cars came to
Northamptionshire. The result remained unchanged with Clark winning in the Lotus-Cosworth 49, at a race average
speed of 117.6mph. Second was Kiwi Denny Hulme abroad the Brabham-Repco from the Ferrari 312 of his fellow
countrymen Chris Amon.[6]
There was a frightening increase in race average speed in 1969, for it rose by 10mph, to 127.2mph when Stewart
won in his Matra-Cosworth MS80 from Jacky Ickx (Brabham-Cosworth BT26) and Bruce McLaren driving one of
his own Cosworth-powered M7Cs.[6]

1970s
By 1971, the 3-litre era was now into its fifth season; it was also the
year when sponsorship came to the fore. Ken Tyrrell became a
constructor and Jackie Stewart won at Silverstone driving the Tyrrell
003 on his way to a second World Championship. Ronnie Peterson was
second in March 711 from Emerson Fittipaldi in Lotus 72D; all were
Cosworth-powered in what fast becoming Formula Super Ford; the
race average was 130.5mph.[6]
1973 was the year that Jody Scheckter lost control of his McLaren at
Niki Lauda taking the Ferrari 312T through
the completion of the first lap, spinning into the pit wall and setting in
Maggotts Copse during 1975 John Player Grand
motion the biggest accident ever seen on a British motor racing circuit.
Prix, Silverstone
The race was stopped on lap two and the carnage cleared away; it
speaks highly for the construction of the cars that only one driver was
injured. The race was won Scheckters team-mate, Peter Revson (McLaren M23-Cosworth) from Peterson (Lotus
72E) and Denny Hulme (McLaren M23). The race average speed had risen again to 131.75mph.[6]
The 1973 dbcle wrought changes upon Silverstone as it was deemed necessary to slow these cars through
Woodcote, therefore, a chicane was inserted. Formula Super Ford reached its peak in 1975, when 26 of the 28
entries were Cosworth-powered, there being just two Ferraris to challenge them. Tom Pryce placed his Shadow DN5
on pole for the 1975 Grand Prix, but an accident destroyed his chances as the race was run in appalling weather and
it stopped at two-thirds distance. Victory went to Fittipaldi (McLaren M23) from Carlos Pace (Brabham BT44B) and
Scheckter (Tyrrell 007).[6]
International motor racing at Silverstone is not concerned solely to Formula One, however, and 1976 saw one of the
closest finished in endurance racing during the Silverstone Six-Hour race, which was a round of the World
Championship for Makes. The series was almost a German benefit that season as the main contenders were the
Porsche 935s and BMW 3-litre CSLs (common known as the Batmobiles). Porsche had had the upper hand in the
opening rounds of the series, but at Silverstone things were diffierent. John Fitzpatrick and Tom Walkinshaw kept
their BMW ahead to win by 197 yards (1.18secs) from the Bob Wollek/Hans Heyer Porsche 935 Turbo. Third was a
Porsche 934 Turbo in the hands of Leo Kinnunen and Egon Evertz.[6]
The 1977 British Grand Prix saw the beginning of a revolution in Formula One, for towards the back of the grid was
the product of Rgie Renault which was exploiting a rule in F1 regulations that allowed the use of 1.5-litre
turbocharged engines. The Renault RS01 expired early in the race. Ulsterman John Watson had an early battle with
James Hunt, but the fuel system in Watsons Brabham-Alfa Romeo let him down and the winner Hunt (McLaren
M26) won at a speed of 130.36, with Niki Lauda second for Ferrari from Gunnar Nilsson in a Lotus.[6]

207

Silverstone

208

Once the most prestigious race of the motorcycle calendar, the Isle of Man TT had been increasingly boycotted by
the top riders, and finally succumbed to pressure and was dropped. This replaced by the British Motorcycle Grand
Prix. 1977 marked the beginning of this era, and Silverstone was the chosen venue. It took place on 14 August, with
Pat Hennen riding a Suzuki RG500 to victory from Steve Baker (Yamaha). [11]
The International Trophy attracted World Championship contenders for the last time in 1978 but the race witnessed
the debut of the epoch-making Lotus 79 in the hands of Mario Andretti. Such events as this, gave the Formula One
also-rans a chance to start which they were normally denied in Grand Prixs; two such were the Theodore and
Fittipaldi. Keke Rosberg won the former in atrocious conditions from Fittipaldi in his namesake car.[6]
14 May witnessed the running of the Silverstone Six-Hours, a round of
the World Championship for Makes. A 3.2-litre Porsche 935 won in
the hands of Jacky Ickx and Jochen Mass from a 3.0-litre version
driven by Wollek and Henri Pescarolo; third and fourth were BMW
320s handled by Harald Grohs/Eddy Joosen and Freddy
Kottulinsky/Markus Hotz. The race was run over 235 laps of the Grand
Prix circuit to make a total of a little over 689 miles which the winning
car covered at 114.914mph.[6][12]

Jochen Mass (Martini Racing Porsche 935)


during the 1976 Silverstone Six-Hours

Come the 1979 Grand Prix and the passage of two years had made a
great difference to the performance of the turbocharged Renaults; the
car which qualified on the last row in 1977 was now on the front row beside Alan Jones in the Williams FW07.
When Joness Cosworth expired, his team-mate Clay Regazzoni moved into the lead, going on to win from Ren
Arnoux in the Renault RS10 with Jean-Pierre Jarier third in the Tyrrell 009. The winners average speed was
138.80mph.[6]
The 1979 British Motorcycle Grand Prix was again held at Silverstone and would be one of the closet races in the
history of Motorcycle Grand Prix racing. The 1978 winner Kenny Roberts and the pair of works Suzuki riders, Barry
Sheene and Wil Hartog broke away from the rest of the field. After a few laps, Hartog fell off the pace as Sheene and
Roberts continued to swap the lead throughout the 28-lap event, the American winning for the second time ahead of
Sheene by a narrow margin of just three-hundreds of a second. [13]

1980s
In May 1980, World Championship for Makes sports cars, in other
words returned in form of the Silverstone Six-Hours, which was won
by Alain de Cadenet, driving a car bearing his own name, partnered by
Desir Wilson, the 235 laps (687 miles) being completed at
114.602mph. The only other to complete the full race distance was the
Siegfried Brunn/Jrgen Barth (Porsche 908/3), with a Porsche 935K
Turbo driven by John Paul and Brian Redman third, a lap down.[6][14]
The passage of a further two years saw the arrival of the one-one-one
John Watsons 1982 British Grand Prix race
grid in 1981, albeit staggered in two rows. The turbocharged era had
winning McLaren, during the 2011 Silverstone
Classic meeting
arrived for not only Renault occupy the front row of the grid, but
turbo-engined Ferrari were fourth and eighth. The Renaults dominated
the race, but total reliability was still lacking and the day went to John Watson in a McLaren MP4/1. Second place
went to Carlos Reutemann in the Williams FW07C from the Talbot-Ligier JS17 of Jacques Laffite, a lap down; the
race speed was down a little at 137.64mph.[6]
For 1982 endurance sport car racing entered a rejuvenated phrase with the coming of Group C; the BRDC and
lAutomobile Club de lOuest instituted a joint Silverstone/Le Mans Challenge Trophy. The trophy was eventually

Silverstone

209

went to Jacky Ickx and Derek Bell in a Porsche 956, but at Silverstone they could not make maximum use of the fuel
allowance and victory went to the Lancia LC1 of Riccardo Patrese and Michele Alboreto. The winning car
completed the 240 laps at a speed of 128.5mph, with the second-place car three laps adrift, that of Ickx/Bell. The
final podium place went to the Joest Racing Porsche 936C Turbo of Bob Wollek/Jean-Michel Martin/Philippe
Martin.[6][15]
The big sports cars returned to Northamptonshire on 8 May 1983, to contest the Silverstone 1000 kilometres which
was a round of the newly instigated World Endurance Championship. It was a Porsche benefit with Derek Bell and
Stefan Bellof bringing their 956 home ahead of Wollek and Stefan Johansson in an identical car in fact 956s filled
the first five places.[6]
In the 1983 British Grand Prix, the first Cosworth-powered car was in 13th place on the grid, all the cars ahead of it
were being powered by turbocharged engines. Fuel consumption of the turbos was heavy and refuelling mid-race had
became de rigueur, the mechanics now playing as important part as the drivers. With the ever-increasing power,
speeds were continually on the up and in practise Ren Arnoux put in a lap at over 150mph in his Ferrari. In the race,
the lap record was raised to over 140mph by a relative newcomer from France, Alain Prost who won the race in the
Renault RE40, at an average speed of 139.218mph, from Nelson Piquet in the Brabham-BMW BT52B and Patrick
Tambay in a Ferrari 126C3. Finishing fourth, also using Renault power, was the Lotus 94T of future British hero,
Nigel Mansell.[6][]
In 1985 International Trophy (run 24th March) saw the race again make history, as it was the inaugural event, under
the regulations for the new International Formula 3000. Kiwi racer, Mike Thackwell wrote himself into the record
books by winning the International Trophy for the third time, and the first F3000 race in the process, driving a Ralt
RT20 from John Nielsen in a similar car. The lower step on the podium went a March 85B driven by Michel Fert.[6]
Six weeks later, the big sports cars returned for the Silverstone 1000kms. This turned out to be a Porsche benefit, the
Stuttgart cars taking the five of the top six placings in the shape of four 962Cs and a 956. The winners were the work
pairing of Ickx/Mass from their team-mates Bell and Hans Stuck but third was the Lancia-Martini of Patrese and
Alessandro Nannini.
The 1985 British Grand Prix saw Keke Rosberg set a qualifying lap at
over 160mph. Three others clocked an average lap speed of over
159mph. The turbo era had reached its zenith. Its worth remembering
that Rosberg achieved that speed with an slow puncture. The actual
was a peak in the history of Silverstone and while Prost put the new lap
record up to 150.035mph it was something of an economy run as the
FIA had limited fuel capacities. Prost went on the win in the race, in
the McLaren MP4/2B, at an average of 146.246mph from the Ferrari
156/85 of Alboreto and the Ligier JS25 of Laffite.[6][]

Keke Rosberg driving the car which he lapped


Silverstone at over 160mph, during the 1985
German GP

The International season opened on 13 April with the first round of the
Intercontinental F3000 Championship. The first home was Pascal
Fabr with a Lola T86/50 from Emanuele Pirro (March) and Nielsen (Ralt).[6]

In 1986, the Silverstone 1000kms run on 5 May, was a round of the World Endurance Championship, which Silk Cut
Jaguar (Tom Walkinshaw Racing) won in a year when everything did not exactly go their way. However, the Derek
Warwick/Eddie CheeverXJR9 was the only car to complete the distance of 212 laps, at a speed of 129.05mph. The
Stuck/Bell Porsche 962C was two laps down in second place, with a 962C a further three laps adrift in the hands of
Jo Gartner and Tiff Needell.[6]
Someone had become rather more than than a little concerned over the 160mph lap in 1985, for by the time the
Grand Prix returned in Silverstone in 1987, a new corner was inserted before Woodcote which changed the character
of the circuit. However, the first International meeting in 1987 was the initial round of the Intercontinental F3000

Silverstone
Championship on 12 April. The race was run at 103.96mph, the winner being Mauricio Gugelmin in a Ralt from
Michel Troll in a Lola and Roberto Moreno aboard another Ralt.[6]
Things went somewhat better for Jaguar in 1987 for they the Silverstone 1000kms, their fourth successive win the
World Sports Car Championship. The XJR8s putting on a truly impressive demonstration to take a one-two finish.
The first car home was that of Cheever and Raul Boesel, followed by Jan Lammers and Watson, with the Porsche
962C of Stuck and Bell third; these three crews covered the whole lap distance of 210 laps of the full GP circuit, the
winning radio averaging 123.42mph.[6]
And so to the 1987 British Grand Prix, the event now firmly established at Silverstone. The first two placing were a
repeat the of 1986 race at Brands Hatch, Mansell winning from his Williams-Honda team-mate Piquet at
146.208mph and Ayrton Senna in the Lotus-Honda. The race will always be remembered the inter-team rivalry of
the Williams pairing. Following a late pit stop in a bid to cure a vibration in the car, Mansell find himself 16.8secs
behind Piquet with only 17 laps to go. But Mansell proceeded to eat into Piquets lead more than a second per lap
until with five laps to go the gap was only 1.6 seconds. With two laps to go Mansell slipstreamed Piquet down the
Hanger Straight, jinked left and then dived right to pass Piquet Sr., into Stowe Circuit. To a tumultuous reception,
Mansell went on to win the race.[6][]
1987 saw the inaugural World Touring Car Championship arrive at Silverstone. Luis Prez-Sala had a meeting no
one would believe; he led the race until the penultimate lap, with nearly one minute lead, but then his Bigazzi
entered BMW M3 retired. He wasnt even sure that the car would start the race after Olivier Grouillard rolled the car
in practise. However, the Munich marque still took victory when the CiBiEmme Sports M3 finished first, in the
hands of Enzo Calderari and Fabio Mancini. The Schnitzer M3 of Roberto Ravaglia, Roland Ratzenberger and Pirro
managed to finished second, ahead of the Alfa Romeo 75 Turbo of Giorgio Francia and Nicola Larini. [16]
The 1988 race was won at 124.142mph, the dramatic reduction in race speed is attributable to the monsoon-like
conditions, the entire race being run in pouring rain. Senna splashed his way to victory abroad his McLaren from
Mansell (Williams) and Nannini (Benetton).[6][]
The 1988 Silverstone 1000kms saw Cheever take a hat-trick of victories for Jaguar, this time partnered by Martin
Brundle. The XJR9 won at 128.02mph from the Sauber-Mercedes C9 driven by Jean-Louis Schlesser and Mass. The
second Sauber driven by Mauro Baldi and James Weaver, was third, two laps down, while third on the road was the
Porsche 962C of Bell and Needell which was disqualified for an oversize fuel tank.[6]
April at Silverstone is not the warmest place to be but none the less F3000 contingent contested the first round of the
1989 International F3000 Championship. Thomas Danielsson won at the wheel of a Reynard 89D, at a speed of
131.56mph. Second by 0.5secs was Philippe Favre in a Lola T89/50 from Mark Blundell and Jean Alesi in
Reynards.[6]
Mid-July is the traditional time for the British Grand Prix and on the 16th, over 90,000 spectators converged upon
the circuit to see Prost score his 38th GP win in the McLaren-Honda MP4/5, at 143.694mph. Mansell brought the
Ferrari 641 into second place from Nanninis Benetton.

210

Silverstone

211

1990s
The weekend of 19/20 May 1990 was a busy one at Silvestone, for on
the Saturday, a round of the FIA F3000 Championship was run on the
Grand Prix circuit, and on the Sunday the contenders in the World
Sports-Prototype Championship had their turn. In the F3000 race,
Scotlands Allan McNish led rik Comas home from Marco Apicella.
The first two were Lola-Mugen T90/50 mounted, while the
third-placed car was a Reynard-Mugen 90D. The sports cars again ran
over 300 miles, contesting the Shell BRDC Empire Trophy. The first
three places went to British cars, with Jaguar first and second from a
Spice-Cosworth in the hands of Fermn Vlez and Bruno Giacomelli.
The winning Jaguar XJR11 of Martin Brundle and Michel Fert was
the only to run the full distance of 101 laps, lapping even the
second-placed XJR11 of Jan Lammers and Andy Wallace.[6]

Nigel Mansell gives Ayrton Senna a lift back to


the pits on the sidepod of his Williams FW14

And so to July, and the British Grand Prix; once again it was over 190 miles and was won at 145.253mph; Alain
Prost was now driving for Ferrari and his victory from Thierry Boutsen in the Williams and Ayrton Sennas
McLaren.[6]
When the Group C cars returned in 1991, they raced for the World Sports Car Championship, but the race distance
was reduced to 269 miles (83 laps of the GP circuit) and it was a straight battle Jaguar and Mercedes-Benz, with
victory going to the Jaguar XJR14 of Teo Fabi and Derek Warwick, at a speed of 122.048mph. In second place, four
laps behind came the Mercedes C291 of Michael Schumacher and Karl Wendlinger, followed by the singleton driver
XJR14 of Brundle.[6]
July came, of course with it the Grand Prix. The almost unbelievably popular victory was Nigel Mansells 18th
Grand Prix win, making him the most successful English driver ever. Only two other drivers completed the full race
distance; Gerhard Berger for McLaren and Prost for Ferrari.[6]
1992 was once more a very busy International season for Silverstone with a round of the International F3000
Championship, the World Sports Car Championship, and of course, the Grand Prix. The first two were run on the
same day, 10 May. Although the practice was spoilt by hailstorm, but the races were run in bright weather The
F3000 victor was Jordi Gen who completed the 37 laps at a speed of 121.145mph in a Reynard-Mugen 92D, from a
similar Judd-engined example in the hands of Rubens Barrichello. Lola-Cosworth were third and fourth, driven by
Olivier Panis and Emanuele Naspetti.[6]
The sports car race was a sad affair with but a handful of cars coming to the grid; there were 11 starters and just five
finishers. The race was won by the Peugeot 905 of Warwick and Yannick Dalmas at 122.661mph, two laps ahead of
the Maurizio Sandro Sala/Johnny Herbert Mazda MXR-01 which was four laps of the Lola-Judd T92/10 driven by
Jsus Pareja and Stefan Johansson. At the end of the season, the World Sports Car Championship was no more.[6]
The Grand Prix was a happier affair with Williams-Renaults of Mansell and Riccardo Patrese taking top honours
from the Benettons of Brundle and Schumacher. Mansell dominated practice and the race, winning at 133.772mph.[6]
Six days after completing at Donington Park, the F3000 guys were at Silverstone for the second round of the 1993
International F3000 Championship. Gil de Ferran won at 119.462mph from David Coulthard and Michael Bartels all were driving Cosworth powered Reynard 93Ds.[6]
Despite back-to-back Grand Prix victories for Williams, Mansell would not be back in 1993 to try for a famous
hat-trick as he was racing in the States. However, things looked good his replacement, Damon Hill after he set fastest
time in practice, but Prost (now at Williams) pipped him to pole by just 0.128secs and he went on to win the race
after Hills engine exploded 18 laps from home. Second and third were the Benettons of Schumacher and
Patrese.[6][17]

Silverstone
A year later, the Grand Prix was a race of controversy which rumbled on for most of the season; Hill was barely
ahead of Schumacher on the grid and on the green flag lap the young German sprinted ahead of the Englishmen
which is not allowed under the rules, cars being required to maintain station during the green flag lap. The race
authorities informed Benetton that their man had been penalised 5sec for his transgression but they did not realise
that it was a stop/go penalty and did not call Schumacher in, so he was black-flagged; which he ignored for six laps.
For failing to respond to the black flag, Schumacher was disqualified, having finished second on the road. Hill won
the race at 125.609mph from Jean Alesi in the Ferrari and Mika Hkkinen (McLaren).[6]
The 1994 F3000 race was an all Reynard 94D affair. The 38-lap race was won by Franck Lagorce winning at
119.512mph, from Coulthard and de Ferran. The race distance for the following season had increased by two.
Victorious on this occasion was Riccardo Rosset driving Super Novas Reynard-Cosworth AC 95D from his
team-mate Vincenzo Sospiri; Allan McNish was third in a Zytek-Judd KV-engined 95D.[6]
Hill and Schumacher were not having a happy 1995 and managed to
take each other off after the final pit stops, leaving Coulthard in the
lead which he lost when he had to take a 10 sec stop/go penalty for
speeding in the pit lane. All of this left Herbert to take his maiden
Grand Prix win he was euphoric and was held shoulder high on the
podium by the second and third-placed men, Coulthard and Alesi.[6]
Johnny Herbert winning the 1995 British Grand
On 12 May 1996, the Northamptonshire circuit hosted a round of the
Prix, driving the Benetton-Ford B195
International BPR series which was very a British affair. First was the
McLaren F1 GTR of Andy Wallace and Olivier Grouillard followed by
the Jan Lammers/Perry McCarthy Lotus Esprit and another McLaren in the hands of James Weaver and Ray
Bellm.[6]

At the Grand Prix on the 14th July, the pressures on Hill as national favourite and son of a famous father (Graham
Hill) were not inconsiderable but he responded well, setting pole. Unfortunately, he muffed the start and late spun
out of contention when a front wheel nut became loose, and his team-mate Jacques Villeneuve went on to win at a
fraction over 124mph, from Bergers Benetton and the McLaren of Hkkinen.[6]
The 1997 Grand Prix was again won by Villeneuve at the wheel of a Williams-Renault at a speed of 128.443mph
from the Benettons of Alesi and Alexander Wurz.[6]
From the start of 1998, the FIA decreed that all Formula One grids must be straight: in order to comply with this the
RAC moved the start line forward at Silverstone but not, significantly, the finish line. This led to some confusion at
the end of the Grand Prix, which was scheduled for 60 laps, but was effectively 59.95 laps: it was more than a little
fortunate that the timing was being taken from the finish line and not the start line as the winning car was in the pits
at the end of the race and the Ferrari pit was situated between the two lines. The chequered flag is supposed to be
waved at the winning car and then showed to the other competitors, but it was waved at the second man who thought
that he had won![6]
Victory went to Schumacher at the wheel of a Ferrari in appalling conditions. It was something of a farce, for in
addition to the pit lane confusion, he was penalised 10sec for passing another racer under a yellow flag. The stewards
failed to inform the teams of their decision in the proper manner so Schumacher took his stop go penalty in the pits,
after the race was over! McLaren appealed to the FIA, but the appeal was rejected and the results were confirmed,
with Hkkinen second in the McLaren and Eddie Irvine third in the second Ferrari.[6]
Victory in the 1999 British Grand Prix went to Coulthard at the wheel of a McLaren-Mercedes with an average
speed of 124.256mph from Irvine's Ferrari and the othr Schumacher, Ralf.[6]

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Silverstone

2000s
For Silverstones first Grand Prix of the 21st Century, the FIA decreed
that the race should be moved to April, and the event took place over
Easter, with the GP itself run on Easter Sunday. As it transpired, it was
not the wisest decision ever made, the English spring weather taking a
hand. It rained for almost continually for the best part of three weeks
before the event and most of Good Friday; by Easter Saturday the car
parks had virtually collapsed and were completely closed. Most of the
Easter Day 2000 was fine, but the damage was done and many
Fernando Alonso dominating the 2005 British
thousands of spectators were unable to get to Silverstone to witness
Grand Prix in his Renault
David Coulthard usher in the new century in the same his finished the
last in Northamptonshire. His second straight victory in the event, from
his McLaren team-mate Mika Hkkinen, with Michael Schumacher third for Ferrari.[6][18]
On the 14 May, the FIA GT Championship came to Northants, in slightly more clement conditions and victory went
to Julian Bailey and Jamie Campbell-Walter driving a Lister Storm GT from no fewer than four Chrysler Viper
GTS-Rs.[6]
The 2000 Silverstone 500 USA Challenge was the first American Le Mans Series race to be held outside of North
America. It served as a precursor to the creation of the European Le Mans Series by gauging the willingness of
European teams from the FIA Sportscar Championship and FIA GT Championship to participate in a series identical
to the American Le Mans Series. This event also shared the weekend at Silverstone with an FIA GT round, with
some GT teams running both events. The race was won by the Schnitzer Motorsports BMW V12 LMP of Jrg
Mller and JJ Lehto. [19]
Formula One returned for the 2001 British Grand Prix in July to see Hkkinen triumph having managing to overtake
the driver in pole, Schumacher. Schumacher, driving for Ferrari finished second while team-mate Barrichello gained
the final spot in the podium. [20]
The 2002 British Grand Prix saw Ferrari return to the top two steps of the podium with Schumacher beating
Barrichello, while polesitter and Williams driver Juan Pablo Montoya finished in third. These three drivers, as well
as gaining the top three qualifying places, were the only drivers to finish on the lead lap.
Although the 2003 Grand Prix was won by polesitter Barrichello for Ferrari, the race is probably most remember for
a track invasion by the defrocked priest, Neil Horan, who ran along Hanger Straight, head-on to the 175mph train of
cars, wearing a saffron kilt and waving religious banners. Kimi Rikknen (McLaren) was pressured by Barrichello
into losing the lead, unforced error later on allowed Montoya to seize second. [21]
Neil Hodgson had a brilliant World Superbike meeting in 2003. The Fila Ducati rider withstood the attention of
James Toseland in the first race and then fellow Ducati pilot, Gregorio Lavilla in the second, just 0.493secs ahead of
the Spaniard. Ruben Xaus claimed two third place finishes. [22]
Schumacher celebrated his 80th Grand Prix victory of his career at the 2004 event after taking the lead from
Rikknen during the first round of pit stops. Ferraris strategy won day with Shumcacher two stops to Rikknens
three. Barrichello completed the podium in third, and the coming home in fourth was BARs Jenson Button [23]
A crowd of 68,000 saw Renegade Ducatis Noriyuki Haga and Ten Kate Hondas Chris Vermeulen take a win each
in the 2004 World Superbike event. Haga pulled off a close finished in race one just beating Vermeulen. In race two,
the roles were reversed with the Honda beating the Ducati. [24]
When the Le Mans Prototypes returned in 2004, they raced for the Le Mans Series over a distance of 1000kms, t was
a straight battle between the pair of Audi R8s of Audi Sport UK Team Veloqx and Team Gohs singleton R8, with
victory going to the Veloqx pair of Allan McNish and Pierre Kaffer. In second place, one lap behind was Rinaldo
Capello and Seiji Ara for Team Goh, followed by the all English pair of Johnny Herbert and Jamie Davies for

213

Silverstone

214

Veloqx. []
A crowd of 27,000, welcomed back the World Touring Car Championship. The Alfa Romeo drivers dominated the
first race, on a sunny 15 May 2005. Gabriele Tarquini scored a lights to flag victory, leading home an Alfa quartet.
Behind the Italian, a tough fight for second between James Thompson and Fabrizio Giovanardi, with a number of
overtaking and paint swapping, also involving the BMW 320i of Andy Priaulx. Augusto Farfus completed the
quartet, with Priaulx dropping back to fifth. After a superb start, Priaulx led most of race two, until side-lined with
puncture. This enabled the SEAT duo of Rickard Rydell and Jason Plato to take the win for the Spanish
manufacturer, with Tarquini in third. [25]
Ducati took both legs of the 2005 World Superbike double-header. Regis Laconi scored the first win and Toseland
doubled Ducatis pleasure. Laconi beat Troy Corser to the finishing line by 0.096secs. Toseland claimed third on the
podium. Toseland turn came to Race 2, when he passed Croser and Haga. [26]
Fernando Alonso and Montoya fought a cat-and-mouse battle for the victory in the 2005 British Grand Prix, with the
deciding factor being the back-markers. In a straight line the McLaren of Montoya was probably quicker than
Alonsos Renault, but in the heat of battle, with different strategies going and different computer projections.
Montoya came through to win the race from Alonso, with Rikknen driving for McLaren in third. [27]
The 2005 Le Mans Series race was the Team ORECA Audi R8 scored a prestigious victory, with McNish, this time
paired with Stphane Ortelli after a thrilling race-long battle with the Creation Autosportifs DBA 03S of Nicolas
Minassian and Campbell-Walter, a car that provided much of the seasons excitement. []
Alonso would see the chequered flag first as he wins again at Silverstone in 2006, in doing so, the Spanish became
the youngest driver to get the hat-trick (pole position, winning and faster). Alonso won by nearly 14 seconds from
Schumacher and Rikknen took third again. [28]
A pair of wins for Troy Bayliss in the 2006 World Superbike, abroad his Xerox Ducati. Haga (Yamaha) and
Toseland (Honda) joined Bayliss on the podium in both race. [29]
Following Hamiltons victory in the 2007 Canadian Grand Prix,
Silverstone reported that ticket sales had gone through the roof,
circuit director Ian Phillips added, we havent seen this level of
interest since Mansell-mania in the late 80s and early 90s. Hamilton
did not disappointed on the Saturday and qualified his McLaren on
pole. However, race day saw Rikknen move ahead during the first
round of pit stops. The another McLaren driver, Alonso also finished
ahead in second. [30][31]
Kimi Rikknen piloting his Ferrari to victory in

Bayliss (Ducati) took the chequered flag in a solitary 2011 World


the 2007 British Grand Prix
Superbike race, with heavy downpour causing the first race to be run in
the wet, with the Race 2 to be cancelled altogether. Naga and Corser completed the podium line-up. [32]

After a one year hiatus, the Le Mans Series returned to the Silverstone. At the head of the field, the Team Peugeot
908 HDis lead was unchallenged and Minassian achieved his goal to do one better, partnered by Marc Gen.
Emmanuel Collard/Jean-Christophe Boullion finished two laps down in second. Third place on the podium was for
the Rollcentre Pescarolo, piloted by Stuart Hall and Joao Barbosa. [33]
Hamilton made amends in the 2008 British Grand Prix, when he crossed the line to win by 68secs, from Nick
Heidfeld (BMW-Sauber). The margin of victory was the largest in Formula One since 1995. Once again, Barrichello
finished on the podium, this time in a Honda. [34]

Silverstone

215

A spirited drive from the 2008 Le Mans winners Rinaldo Capello and
McNish saw their Audi R10 TDI progress through the field after a trip
in the gravel early in the race, all the way up to second behind their
sister car. When the leading Audi came in for an unplanned pit stop
and was pulled into the pit for some rear suspension repairs. This
handed the lead to McNish and Capello, who took a well deserved win.
The Charouz Lola-Aston Martin B08/60 was second, driven by Jan
Charouz and Stefan Mcke. The Pescarolo of Romain Dumas and
Boullion got a well deserved podium finish. [35]
Allan McNish driving the Audi R10 during the

The 2009 British Grand Prix at Silverstone was due to the last in
2008 Le Mans Series race
Northamptonshire, as the event was moving to Donington Park from
2010 season. The race was won by Sebastian Vettel for Red Bull Racing, 15.1secs ahead of his team-mate Mark
Webber. A further 25.9secs behind was that regular visitor to the podium, Barrichello in his Brawn. However, due to
Donington Park has funding issues, the Grand Prix would remain at Silverstone until at least 2027. [36]
The 2009 1000kms of Silverstone saw Oreca take the chequered flag with the aid of their drivers, Olivier Panis and
Nicolas Lapierre. The next three cars home were also the lead lap after 195 laps of racing, with second going to the
Speedy Racings Lola-Aston Martin B08/60 of Marcel Fssler, Andrea Belicchi and Nicolas Prost. The newer
Lola-Aston Martin B09/60 of Aston Martin Racing took the next two places, with partnership of Tom Enge,
Charouz and Mcke claiming the final step on the podium. [37]

2010s
Mark Webber (Red Bull) claimed the silverware in the 2010 British
Grand Prix, just over a second ahead of McLarens Hamilton. Nico
Rosberg claimed third place for Mercedes team. [38]
The FIM World Superbike Championship round at Silverstone in 2010,
will go down in history as being totally dominated by British riders. In
both races, the top step was the property of Yamaha Sterilgardas Cal
Crutchlow. Also second in both races was Jonathan Rea. Alstare
Suzukis Leon Haslam and Aprillas Leon Camier made apperances in
the top-three, giving Britain a complete podium sweep of the event. [39]

Alonso`sFerrari F150 Italia in the pit-lane 2011


British GP

The 2010 British motorcycle Grand Prix returned to Silverstone for the
first time since 1986, although the category had evolved into MotoGP.
Jorge Lorenzo dominated the event for Fiat Yamaha, finishing nearly
seven seconds clear of a battle for second place. Andrea Dovizioso
winning the battle for second for Repsol Honda, with the Tech 3
Yamaha of Ben Spies third, after passing fellow American Nicky
Hayden on the last lap. [40]
The victory for Anthony Davidson and Minassian for Peugoet in the
2010 1000kms of Silverstone was but a small consolation for the
disastrous Le Mans race but did wipe away the bad memories of
Silverstone in 2008. The second place was enough for the Oreca team

Cal Crutchlow on his way to a double win, in the


2010 World Superbike event

to be crowned as the 2010 champions, who were using a Peugeot instead their own race winning chassis from 2009
event. This time Lapierre was co-driven by Stphane Sarrazin. Audi were third with the R15 TDI of Capello and

Silverstone
Timo Bernhard. [41]
The 2011 British Grand Prix, was Alonso return to the top step for Ferrari sixteen seconds ahead of the Red Bull
pairing of Vettel and Webber. [42]
The Althea Racing Ducati of Carlos Checa robbed Yamahas Eugene Laverty from taking victory in both races of the
2011 World Superbike meeting, with Lavertys team-mate Marco Melandri finishing on the podium, again in both
races. [43]
The MotoGP guys returned in June 2011 only to find conditions less than ideal, but the rain didnt stop the Repsol
Hondas totally dominating the race with poleman Casey Stoner beating his team-mate Dovizioso by more than
15sec. The Tech 3 Yamaha of Colin Edwards completed the podium. [44]
The 2011 6 Hours of Silverstone, witnessed a nose-to-tail fight between the Audi R18 of Bernhard and Fssler and
the Peugeot 908 of Sbastien Bourdais and Simon Pagenaud, but was temporarily finished after a spin by Bernhard.
A conservative drive from Pagenaud saw Fssler close the gap right down again and in fact jump into the lead.
Pagenaud picked up the pace and the two cars were on each other's tails until the end of the fourth hour when
damaged rear bodywork needed replacing on the Audi. This gave the Peugeot a one-minute advantage that it did not
give up. Third was the OAK Racings Pescarolo 01 piloted by Olivier Pla and Alexandre Prmat. [45]
The F1 cars returned in Silverstone on 8th July 2012, for the Grand Prix. The race was won for the second time by
Webber, with polesitter, Alonso second for Ferrari fininshing 3secs behind. Red Bull Racing and Webbers
team-mate, Vettel rounded off the podium. [46]
Silverstone is often the site of unpredictable weather, the 2012 World Superbike event proved to be no exception.
Due to fluctuating weather, the riders were greeted with a track in-between wet and dry for Race 1. Kawasaki
Racings Loris Baz posted an astonishing finish to win from the BMWs of Michel Fabrizio and Ayrton Badovini.
Baz then took second behind PATA Racings Ducati, piloted by Sylvain Guintoli in a shortened Race2. Jakub Smrz
took third, as nine riders went down before the official called an early end after eight laps. [47]
The 2012 British MotoGP went the way of the Yamaha factory rider, Lorenzo. He crossed the line 3.313secs ahead
of the Respol Honda of Stoner, with Dani Pedrosa third on the other Honda. [48]
The 2012 Le Mans 24 Hours winners Benot Trluyer, Andr Lotterer and Fssler steered their Audi R18 e-tron
Quattro hybrid car to victory in the 6 Hours of Silverstone on 26th August 2012. The win, added to third place for
the sister car of Allan McNish, Rinaldo Capello and Tom Kristensen, also enabled Audi both their cars finished on
the podium. Audi didnt have everything its own way though as Toyota TS030 hybrid of Alex Wurz, Kazuki
Nakajima and Nicolas Lapierre challenged hard, leading early on, to finish a richly deserved second. [49]
The opening round of the 2013 World Endurance Championship saw
Audi Sport Team Joest dominated. The race soon developed into a
pattern of 2 Audi R18 e-tron quattros is followed by 2 Toyota TS030
Hybrids and backed up 2 Rebellion Lola B12/60s. Audis had better
early stage of the race when Toyota tyres did not work well and by the
middle of the race they were securely leading the race by one lap.
Toyota also did not manage to go through a middle race rain shower so
well as Audi did. Despite that the race was still very interesting until
Toyota TS 030 Hybrid on its way the third place
the end, when McNish was behind Trluyer by more than 20 seconds
in the 2013 WEC race
with some 15 laps to go. But McNish (partnered by Kristensen and
Loc Duval) and was motivated to win the RAC Tourist Trophy award
for the race and very quickly ate the gap and finally manage to overtake Trluyer (supported by Lotterer and Fssler)
some two laps before the finish. The podium was completed the Toyota of Davidson/Sarrazin/Sbastien Buemi. [50]
In 2013 Silverstone hosts the following major race championships:
British Grand Prix

216

Silverstone

217

British motorcycle Grand Prix


FIA World Endurance Championship
GP2 Series
Formula 3 Euro Series
British Formula 3
British Touring Car Championship
FIM World Superbike Championship
British Superbike Championship

Other competitions
Silverstone also hosts many club racing series and the world's largest
historics race meeting, the Silverstone Classic. It is also host to one of
the UK's only 24-hour car races, the Britcar 24, which is gaining in
popularity, having run between 2005 and 2012.
It has in the past hosted exhibition rounds of the D1 Grand Prix both in
2005 and 2006. The course, starting from the main straight used in club
races, makes use of both Brooklands and Luffield corners to form an
S-bend a requirement in drifting and is regarded by its judge,
Keiichi Tsuchiya, as one of the most technical drifting courses of
all.[51] The section, used in drifting events since 2002, is currently used
to host a European Drift Championship round. The Course also hosts
the Formula Student Competition by the iMeche yearly.

Formation lap around Brooklands corner at the


2010 Superleague Formula round

In 2010 Silverstone hosted its very first Superleague Formula event.[52]

Records
Fernando Alonso's lap of 1:30.874 in the 2010 British Grand Prix is the outright lap record for the current Grand Prix
configuration, which has only been in existence since 2010. For details of this and previous configurations, see
Circuit Developments Official lap records are set in a race, although qualifying laps are often faster.
Layout used for Fastest Qualifying Lap

Fastest Race Lap

1948

1948 British Grand Prix


Louis Chiron
Talbot-Lago
2:51.0
77.263mph

1948 British Grand Prix


Luigi Villoresi
Ferrari
2:52.0
76.814mph

1949 to 1951

1951 British Grand Prix


Jos Froiln
Gonzlez
Ferrari
1:43.4
100.549mph

1951 British Grand Prix


Guiseppe Farina
Ferrari
1:44.0
99.969mph

1952 to 1974

1973 British Grand Prix


Ronnie Peterson
Lotus-Cosworth
1:16.3
138.904mph

1973 British Grand Prix


James Hunt
March-Cosworth
1:18.6
134.839mph

Silverstone

[53]

218
1975 to 1986

1985 British Grand Prix


Keke Rosberg
Williams-Honda
1:05.591
160.924mph

1985 British Grand Prix


Alain Prost
McLaren-TAG
1:09.886
151.034mph

1987 to 1990

1987 British Grand Prix


Nelson Piquet
Williams-Honda
1:07.110
159.266mph

1987 British Grand Prix


Nigel Mansell
Williams-Honda
1:09.832
153.058mph

1991 to 1993

1992 British Grand Prix


Nigel Mansell
Williams-Renault
1:18.965
148.622mph

1993 British Grand Prix


Damon Hill
Williams-Renault
1:22.515
142.228mph

1994 and 1995 1994 British Grand Prix


Damon Hill
Williams-Renault
1:24.960
133.898mph

1994 British Grand Prix


Damon Hill
Williams-Renault
1:27.100
130.608mph

1996

1996 British Grand Prix


Damon Hill
Williams-Renault
1:26.875
130.615mph

1996 British Grand Prix


Jacques Villeneuve
Williams-Renault
1:29.288
127.085mph

1997 to 1999

1997 British Grand Prix


Jacques Villeneuve
Williams-Renault
1:21.598
140.915mph

1997 British Grand Prix


Michael
Schumacher
Ferrari
1:24.475
136.116mph

2000 to 2009

2004 British Grand Prix


Kimi Rikknen
McLaren-Mercedes
1:18.233
139.827mph

2004 British Grand Prix


Michael
Schumacher
Ferrari
1:18.739
136.116mph

2010 to date

2010 British Grand Prix


Sebastian Vettel
Red Bull-Renault
1:29.615
147.310mph

2010 British Grand Prix


Fernando Alonso
Ferrari
1:30.874
145.269mph

Silverstone

Major race results


Further information, see Silverstone race results

Further reading
Chas Parker. Silverstone: The Home of British Motor Racing (2013). J H Haynes & Co Ltd. ISBN
978-0857330727.
Anthony Meredith & Gordon Blackwell. Silverstone Circuit Through Time (2013). Amberley Publishing. ISBN
978-1445606361
Bryan Apps. Silvestone Shadows: Close to the Action in the 80s & 90s (2010). Halsgrove. ISBN
978-0857040626

References
[1] http:/ / tools. wmflabs. org/ geohack/ geohack. php?pagename=Silverstone_Circuit&
params=52_4_43_N_1_1_1_W_type:landmark_region:GB
[6] Peter Swinger, Motor Racing Circuits in England : Then & Now" (Ian Allan Publishing, ISBN 0 7110 3104 5, 2008)
[9] http:/ / www. silverstonr. co. uk/ about/ history/ overview/
[11] Chris Carter, Motocourse 1977-1979 (Hazleton Securities Ltd, ISBN 0 905138-04-X, 1979)
[12]
[14]
[15]
[19]
[21]
[22]
[24]
[25]
[26]
[27]
[28]
[29]
[30]
[32]
[36]
[37]
[38]
[39]
[40]
[41]
[42]
[43]
[44]
[45]
[46]
[47]
[48]
[49]
[50]
[51]
[53]

http:/ / www. racingsportscars. com/ results/ Silverstone-1978-05-14. html


http:/ / www. racingsportscars. com/ results/ Silverstone-1980-05-11. html
http:/ / www. racingsportscars. com/ results/ Silverstone-1982-05-16. html
http:/ / www. imsaracing. net/ archives/ 2000silverstone. pdf
http:news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/motorsport/formula_one/3082529.stm
http:/ / www. motorcycle-usa. com/ 464/ 5995/ Motorcycle-Article/ 2003-WSB-Silverstone-Results. aspx
http:/ / www. motorcycle-usa. com/ 463/ 5972/ Motorcycle-Article/ 2004-WSB-Silverstone-Results. aspx
http:/ / www. cdn. fiawtcc. com/ uploads/ files/ eventdetails/ 140/ silverstone_race_report. pdf
(http:/ / www. motorcyle-usa. com/ 462/ 5963/ Motorcycle-Article/ 2005-WSB-Silverstone-Result. aspx)
>http:/ / www. grandprix. com/ race/ r742racereport. html
(http:/ / www. formula1. com/ news/ 4485. html)
http:/ / www. motorcycle-usa. com/ 461/ 5951/ Motocyle-Article/ 2006-WSB-Silverstone-Results. aspx
(http:/ / www. formula1. com/ results/ season/ 2007/ 778/ 642/ )
http:/ / www. motorcycle-usa. com/ 460/ 5932/ Motocyle-Article/ 2007-WSB-Silverstone-Results. aspx
http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ sport1/ hi/ motorsport/ formula_one/ 8111672. stm
http:/ / www. ultimatecarpage. com/ event/ 204/ 2009-Le-Mans-Series-Silverstone-1000-km. html
http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ sport1/ hi/ motorsport/ formula_one/ 8808586. stm
http:/ / www. motorcycle-usa. com/ 746/ 7627/ Motorcycle-Article/ 2010-World-Superbike-Silverstone-Results. aspx
http:/ / www. motogp. com/ en/ events/ Great+ Britain/ 2010
http:/ / www. ultimatecarpage. com/ event/ 248/ 2010-Le-Mans-Series-Silverstone-1000-km-ILMC. html
http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ sport/ 0/ formula1/ 14099304
http:/ / www. motorcycle-usa. com/ 786/ 10688/ Motorcycle-Article/ Silverstone-World-Superbike-Results-2011. aspx
http:/ / www. motogp. com/ en/ events/ Great+ Britain/ 2011
http:/ / www. ultimatecarpage. com/ event/ 282/ 2011-Le-Mans-Series-6-Hours-of-Silverstone-ILMC. html
http:/ / autosport. com/ news/ report. php/ id/ 101064
http:/ / www. motorcycle-usa. com/ 838/ 13935/ Motorcycle-Article/ World-Superbike-Silverstone-Results-2012. aspx
http:/ / www. motogp. com/ en/ events/ Great+ Britain/ 2012
http:/ / motorsport. michelin. co. uk/ motorsport-news/ world-endurance/ audi-wins-six-hours-of-silverstone
http:/ / www. racingsportscars. com/ news. html
JDM Option Volume 29 2006 D1GP Silverstone UK
http:/ / www. chicanef1. com/ indiv. pl?name=British%20GP& type=O

219

Silverstone

External links
Silverstone Circuit (http://www.silverstone-circuit.co.uk)
Formula One circuits (http://www.dmoz.org//Sports/Motorsports/Auto_Racing/Formula_One/Circuits//) at
the Open Directory Project

220

Spa-Francorchamps

221

Spa-Francorchamps
Circuit de Spa-Francorchamps
Formula One Layout

Location

Francorchamps, Spa, Belgium

Time zone

GMT +1 (DST: GMT +2)

Coordinates

502614N 55817E

[1]

Coordinates: 502614N 55817E [1]

Major events FIA Formula One


Belgian Grand Prix
Spa 24 Hours,
Spa 1000km, DTM
Modern Circuit With New Pit Lane And Bus Stop Chicane (2007present)
Length

7.004 km (4.352 mi)

Turns

20

Lap record

1:47.263 (

Sebastian Vettel, Red Bull, 2009)

Modern Circuit With Modified Bus Stop Chicane (20042006)


Length

6.976 km (4.335 mi)

Turns

19

Lap record

1:45.108 (

Kimi Rikknen, McLaren, 2004)

Modern Circuit With Chicane at Eau Rouge (1994)


Length

7.001 km (4.350 mi)

Turns

19

Lap record

1:57.117 (

Damon Hill, Williams, 1994)

Modern Circuit With Original Bus Stop Chicane (19811993, 19952003)


Length

6.968 km (4.330 mi)

Turns

19

Lap record

1:47.176 (

Michael Schumacher, Ferrari, 2002)


Old Circuit (19471978)

Length

14.1 km (8.761 mi)

Turns

21

Lap record

3:13.4 (

Henri Pescarolo, Matra, 1973 WSC)


Original pre-War Circuit (19211939)

Length

14.9 km (9.31 mi)

Spa-Francorchamps

222
Turns

25

Lap record

5:04.1 (

Hermann Lang, Daimler Benz, 1937)

The Circuit de Spa-Francorchamps motor-racing circuit is the venue of the Formula One Belgian Grand Prix, and
of the Spa 24 Hours and 1000 km Spa endurance races.
It is also home to the all Volkswagen club event, 25 Hours of Spa, run by the Uniroyal Fun Cup. It is one of the most
challenging race tracks in the world, mainly due to its fast, hilly and twisty nature. Spa is a favourite circuit of many
racing drivers and fans.[2]

The track
The triangle
Designed in 1920 by Jules de Their and Henri Langlois Van Ophem,[]
the original triangle-shaped course used public roads between the
Belgian towns of Spa, Malmedy, and Stavelot. The track was intended
to have hosted its inaugural race in August 1921, however this event
had to be cancelled as there was only one entrant.[] The first car race
was held at the circuit in 1922, and two years later saw the first running
of the now famous 24 Hours of Francorchamps race.[] The circuit was
first used for Grand Prix racing in 1925.[]

The original 15 km track layout

The old Spa circuit was essentially a speed course with drivers
managing much higher average speeds than on other race tracks, a
factor that made Spa very popular from its inception. Back then, the
Belgians took pride in having a very fast circuit, and to improve
average speeds, the former slow uphill U-turn at the bottom of the Eau
Rouge creek valley, called the Ancienne Douane (until 1920, there was
a German Empire customs office here[3]), was cut short with a faster
sweep straight up the hill, called the Raidillon. Until 2000[citation
needed]
, it was possible to travel over the race track when it was still a
public road. At Eau Rouge, southbound traffic was allowed to use the
famous uphill corner, while the opposite downhill traffic had to use the
old road and U-turn behind the grand stands, rejoining the race track at
the bottom of Eau Rouge.

The old race track continued through the now-straightened Kemmel


curves to the highest part of the track, then went downhill into Les
Combes, a fast, slightly banked downhill left-hander towards
Burnenville, passing this village in a fast right hand sweep. Near
The quicker 14 km track layout
Malmedy, the Masta straight began, which was only interrupted by the
fast Masta Kink between farm houses before arriving at the town of
Stavelot. Then the track blasted through an uphill straight section with a few kinks called La Carriere, going through
2 ultra-fast turns (an unnamed right-hand turn and then Blanchimont) before braking very hard for the La Source
hairpin, and that rejoined the downhill start finish section as opposed to today where the start-finish section is before
La Source.

Spa-Francorchamps

Spa is located in the Belgian Ardennes countryside, and the old circuit
was (and still is) used as everyday public road, and there were houses,
trees, electric poles, barnyards, fields and other obstacles located right
next to the track. Before 1970, there were no safety modifications of
any kind done to the circuit and the conditions of the circuit were,
aside from a few straw bales, virtually identical to everyday civilian
use. Former Formula One racing driver and team owner Jackie Oliver
was quoted as saying "if you went off the road, you didn't know what
you were going to hit".[4]

223

Eau Rouge & Raidillon in 1997

Like the Nrburgring and Le Mans circuits, Spa became notorious for fatal accidents, as there were many deaths
each year at the ultra-fast track, especially at the 1960 Belgian Grand Prix where 2 drivers, Chris Bristow and Alan
Stacey were both killed within 15 minutes (although Stacey's accident was caused by a bird hitting him in the face)
and Stirling Moss had crashed at Burnenville during practice and was severely injured. When Armco crash barriers
were added to the track in 1970, deaths became less frequent there but the track was still notorious for other factors.
The Ardennes Forest had very unpredictable weather and there were parts where it was raining and the track was
wet, and other parts where the sun was shining and the track was completely dry. This factor was a commonality on
long circuits, but the weather at Spa was always more unpredictable than other long circuits, combined with the fact
that it was an ultra-high speed track with all but 1 corner (La Source) being extremely high speed made it one of, if
not the most dangerous race track in the world. Multiple fatalities during the 1973 and 1975 24 Hours of Spa touring
car races more or less sealed the old circuit's fate, and by 1978, the last year Spa was in its original form, the only
major races held there were the Belgian motorcycle Grand Prix and the Spa 24 Hours touring car race; the 1000km
World Sportscar Championship race no longer took place after 1975 and did not come back until 1982. [citation needed]
In 1969, the Belgian Grand Prix was boycotted by F1 because of the extreme danger of Spa. There had been 10
racing fatalities in total at the track in the 1960s, including 5 in the 2 years previous. The drivers demanded changes
made to Spa which were not possible on short notice, so the Belgian Grand Prix was dropped that year. Armco was
added to the track and sections of it were improved (especially the Stavelot and Holowell sections), just like Armco
had been added for the 1969 Le Mans race. One last race there the following year on the improved track was still not
satisfactory enough (even after a temporary chicane was added at Malmedy just for that race) for the drivers in terms
of safety, and even with the chicane, the drivers averaged 150+ mph (240km/h) during the race. For the 1971 race,
the track owners and authorities had not brought the track up to date with mandatory safety measures, and the race
was cancelled. Formula One would not return to Spa until 1983 on the modern track.

Spa-Francorchamps
Masta Kink
The Masta Kink was one of the most fearsome sections
on any race track in the world, requiring skill and
bravery in equal measure to get it right. After a long
run from Malmedy, the cars would reach top speed
before having to negotiate Masta, a high speed
left-right chicane, and a good exit speed was vital as it
was followed by another long straight run to Stavelot.
This was a very fast and very dangerous corner because
it was situated right in the middle of 2 very long
unbroken straights both about 1 miles long (2.4km).
Masta was lost to F1 racing after the 1970 race. Jackie
Stewart's crusade to improve safety in racing was set in
Map of the old and new Spa circuits, overlaid
motion by his crash there in 1966, when his BRM
ended upside-down in the cellar of the farmhouse on
the outside of the corner, with fuel gushing out of the tank onto Stewart, who had broken ribs to add to his misery. At
this point, many of the Formula One drivers disliked Spa (including Stewart and Jim Clark, who had some of his
greatest wins there) because of the immense speeds that were constant on the track. While he was spectating at the
1972 12 Hours of Sebring, Stewart attempted to organise a boycott of the Spa 1000km race that year, a move that
was not respected by many of the drivers, because Spa was still popular with racing drivers outside of Formula One.
Stewart later compared the old Spa circuit in 1986 as being as ferocious as a tiger,[5] and he later described Masta in
an interview in 2011 as perhaps the hardest corner on any racetrack he raced on in his career; even more so than Eau
Rouge.[6]
Another particularly gruesome story comes from the 1972[7] 24-hour touring car race. During one of his pitstops at
night, Hans-Joachim Stuck shouted to his co-driver Jochen Mass over the noise that he should "look out for body
parts at the Masta Kink". Mass arrived there expecting to see bits of car all over the road but was appalled to
discover it was in fact the remains of a marshal.[8]
After Masta, and at the end of the subsequent Holowell Straight, there used to be a sharp hairpin at the entrance to
the town itself, which was later bypassed by a quicker, banked right hand corner. Another fast section of road in the
forest leads to Blanchimont. Here, the new short Grand Prix track of 1979 joins the old layout.
Eighteen Formula One World Championship Grands Prix were run on the Spa-Francorchamps circuit's original
configuration, which was boycotted by F1 in 1969,[9] before the revised circuit banished it to the history books in
1979. The lap record of the old triangle-shaped track is 3 minutes and 13.4 seconds, held by the French driver Henri
Pescarolo, driving a Matra at the 1973 Spa 1000km World Sportscar Championship race at an average speed of 262
kilometres per hour (163mph), but the fastest ever recorded time of the old Spa circuit was the pole position time for
the very same race3 minutes and 12.7 seconds by Jacky Ickx in a Ferrari 312PB.

224

Spa-Francorchamps

New layout
[10]

Over the years, the Spa course has been modified several times. The
track was originally 15 kilometres (9mi) long, but after World War II,
the track had some changes. In 1930 the chicane at Malmedy was
eliminated and bypassed, making the course even faster, but the
chicane was re-installed in 1935, albeit slightly different. In 1939,
"Virage de Ancienne Douane" was eliminated and cut short, thus
giving birth to the Eau Rouge/Radillon uphill sweeping corner. In
1947, the chicane at Malmedy was again eliminated and bypassed, and
The modern circuit as seen from the air
was made part of the Masta Straight. The slight right-hander that was
originally Holowell (the corner before Stavelot after the second Masta
Straight) was eliminated. And finally, instead of going through a slight left-hander that went into the town of
Stavelot and a sharp right-hander at a road junction in Stavelot, a shortcut was built that became a very fast, very
wide right-handed turn that bypassed Stavelot. All these changes made the final configuration of the old Spa circuit
14km (9mi) long. All these changes made Spa the fastest open road circuit in the world, and in the final years of the
old circuit, drivers could average 150mph (241km/h) on the circuit. The biggest change, however, saw the circuit
being shortened from 14km (9mi) to 7km (4mi) in 1979. The start/finish line, which was originally on the
downhill straight before Eau Rouge, was moved to the straight before the La Source hairpin in 1981. Like its
predecessor the new layout still is a fast and hilly route through the Ardennes where speeds in excess of 330km/h
(205mph) can be reached. Since inception, the place has been famous for its unpredictable weather. Frequently
drivers are confronted with one part of the course being clear and bright while another stretch is rainy and slippery.
The circuit probably demonstrates the importance of driver skill more than any other in the world. This is largely due
to the Eau Rouge and Blanchimont corners, both which need to be taken flat out to achieve a fast run onto the
straights after them, which aids a driver in both a fast lap and in overtaking.
Eau Rouge
The most famous part of the circuit is the Eau Rouge / Raidillon
combination. Having negotiated the La Source hairpin, drivers race
down a straight to the point where the track crosses the Eau Rouge
stream for the first time, before being launched steeply uphill into a
sweeping left-right-left collection of corners with a blind summit.
Properly speaking, the Eau Rouge corner is only the left-hander at the
bottom. The following right-hander that leads steeply uphill, which
was introduced in 1939 to shortcut the original hairpin "Ancienne
The "Raidillon" in the Eau Rouge valley
Douane", is called "Raidillon". The corner requires a large amount of
skill from the driver to negotiate well and the long straight ahead often produces good overtaking opportunities for
the best drivers at the following "Les Combes" corner. The corner was tighter and narrower (it was made wider in
1970, when the circuit was updated) on the old circuit than it is today on the current circuit, which made it
considerably slower.

225

Spa-Francorchamps

The 2005 and 2006 F1 World Champion Fernando Alonso explains:


"You come into the corner downhill, have a sudden change [of
direction] at the bottom and then go very steep uphill. From the
cockpit, you cannot see the exit and as you come over the crest, you
don't know where you will land. It is a crucial corner for the timed lap,
and also in the race, because you have a long uphill straight afterwards
where you can lose a lot of time if you make a mistake. But it is also an
important corner for the driver's feeling. It makes a special impression
every lap, because you also have a compression in your body as you go
through the bottom of the corner. It is very strange but good fun as
well."[11]

226

Red water ("Eau rouge" in French) on the banks


of the river close to the circuit

The challenge for drivers has always been to take Eau Rouge-Raidillon flat out. Regular touring cars can take the
corner at 160180km/h, Formula One at over 300km/h.[12] This is due to the huge amount of downforce on the
cars. World Champion Jacques Villeneuve once spoke of the effects of downforce saying that to get through the
corner they have to go faster as the faster the car is going the more downward force there is, thus explaining the
phenomenon of Eau Rouge flat out.
Still, a loss of control in this section often leads to very heavy shunt as usually the rear-end of the car is lost and the
impact is most of the times lateral. Eau Rouge has claimed several victims over the years, including Stefan Bellof in
a Porsche sportscar, Guy Renard during the 24h of Spa-Francorchamps in 1990 in a Toyota Corolla GT and also
caused Alex Zanardi's in 1993 and Jacques Villeneuve's spectacular off in qualifying in 1999, which he described as
"My best-ever crash", followed by his team-mate Ricardo Zonta's similar accident, leading cartoonist Jim Bamber to
show BAR boss Craig Pollock telling Zonta: "Jacques is the quickest through Eau Rouge, so go out there and do
exactly what Jacques does"
Following the deaths of Roland Ratzenberger and Ayrton Senna at Imola in 1994, the following F1 races saw the
introduction of chicanes made up from stacked tyres. The entry to Eau Rouge was obstructed in such a way in 1994,
although it was returned to its previous glory the following year. The corner was slightly modified for 2002, but still
retains its character.
Testimony to the fame and beloved character of the Eau Rouge corner can be found in fan reaction to the Istanbul
Park circuit in Istanbul, Turkey. When fans first got to see the course configuration at the start of the weekend of the
2005 Turkish Grand Prix, many noted that an uphill kink on the back straight was very similar to Eau Rouge; many
jokingly dubbed the kink "Faux Rouge" (a pun on the name of the original Spa corner using the French word "faux",
meaning "false").

Spa-Francorchamps

Blanchimont
The Blanchimont turn is one of the
most fearsome turns in Formula One.
This high-speed left-hand turn, present
in both the old 14km circuit and the
new, shorter, 7km track, is the final
sweeping corner of the track before the
Bus Stop chicane, which leads to the pit
straight.
This turn and the approach to it have
caused serious accidents over time, the
most recent being in 2001, when
Spa Francorchamps Kemmel Straight
Luciano Burti lost the front wing of his
Prost due to a clash with Eddie Irvine's Jaguar, losing front downforce and steering, leaving the track at 185mph
(298km/h) and piling into the tyre wall, the impact knocking him out and burying the car into a mound of tyres.
Problems have also occurred in lower classes of racing with Tom Kristensen having a very violent crash in a
Formula 3000 car in 1997 after running wide on the entry to the Blanchimont turn and subsequently hitting the wall
effectively throwing the monocoque back out in the middle of the track, where it was hit by numerous cars before
coming to a complete halt.[13]
The run-off area is narrower than in other turns taken at this speed, plus the fact that behind the protective barriers
there is a 78 meter drop. This is the first turn taken by the cars after the new track rejoins the route of the old 14km
track. Blanchimont was also the scene where in 1992 after Erik Comas had crashed heavily during Friday's session,
Ayrton Senna stopped, disembarked his car and sprinted to help the injured driver, with other cars driving past at
racing speeds.

Recent problems
Due to the introduction of a new legislative order in Europe, new bans in tobacco advertising have been imposed,
and as a special case, Formula One is facing a major threat regarding this point. Due to these political and legislative
circumstances, Grand Prix in this circuit was left out of the 2003 calendar as a response to the internal tobacco
legislation in Belgium. The event was tagged as a World Class event within the national senate, and thus it was
saved for the 2004 Formula One season. The section known as the Bus Stop chicane was reprofiled for 2004 with an
additional sweep to the right.
Spa was dropped from the Formula One calendar in 2006. The organiser of the event went bankrupt in late 2005, and
therefore the planned improvements to the race track and paddock had not yet been made. The Wallonia government
stepped in and provided the necessary funds, but too late for the 2006 race to take place.
As of 2007, tobacco advertising bans limited the number of sponsors from the industry finding the sport appealing.
As of 2010, only the Scuderia Ferrari Marlboro still had tobacco branding, however the team recently dropped the
Marlboro "stripes" from their race cars after accusations of it being linked to subliminal advertising. In comparison,
in 2003 five teams (half of the teams competing) had tobacco branding on their cars.

227

Spa-Francorchamps

228

Redevelopment for 2007 season


With a new financial backer, the renovation started on 6 November 2006 and finished in May 2007, costing around
19 million.[14]
Formula 1 returned to Spa for 2007, with a modified track layout. The Bus Stop chicane was moved back towards
Blanchimont and the La Source hairpin moved forward. This allowed more space for the new pit lane. The
modifications gave a longer start/finish straight

Modifications for 2010 season


New tarmac runoff was added to the inside and outside of Les Combes for the 2010 race, in line with the prevailing
trends at other Formula One circuits.

Other racing series


Besides Formula 1 other races in different motorsports classes are hosted at Spa-Francorchamps. The most notable
ones are the Blancpain Endurance Series, the Formula 3, the RCN, the Motorbike Endurance, the ADAC GT
Masters, and previously the DTM and the WTCC. The most famous long-distance and sports car races are the Spa 24
Hours and the 1000 km Spa.

Sample lap times


Event

Class

Time

2011 25 Hours of Spa

Fun Cup

2011 6 Heures Moto

ONK Superbike 2:25.629 BMW S1000RR

2010 Mobil1 Supercup

Porsche Cup

2:25.583 Porsche 911 GT3

2011 24 Hours of Spa

GT3 Pro

2:24.488 BMW Z4 GT3

2011 GT4 European Cup season

GT4

2:23.479 McLaren MP4-12C

2010 24 Hours of Spa

GT

2:22.403 Ferrari F430

2010 1000 km of Spa

GT2

2:20.336 Ferrari F430 GT2

2010 FIA GT1 Spa-Francorchamps round

GT1

2:17.605 Corvette C6.R

FLM

2:13.592 Oreca FLM09

[]

[]

2011 24 Hours of Spa

3:00.41

Car/bike
Volkswagen Beetle TDI

2011 Spa-Francorchamps GP2 Series round GP3

2:12.498 ART Grand Prix

2010 24 Hours of Spa

LMP2

2:03.135 HPD ARX-01C

LMP1

1:57.884 Peugeot 908 HDi FAP

[]

2010 1000 km of Spa

2009 Spa-Francorchamps GP2 Series round GP2

1:54.970 Ocean Racing Technology

2010 Belgian Grand Prix

1:45.778 Red Bull RB6

F1

Spa-Francorchamps

In popular culture
As the long-time home of the Belgian Grand Prix and its location within the Ardennes forests it has been a popular
backdrop for all kinds of fictional media, from appearances in comics and multiple motion pictures,[15] to regular
appearances in dozens of video games across almost all formats going back into the 1980s.

References
[1] http:/ / tools. wmflabs. org/ geohack/ geohack. php?pagename=Circuit_de_Spa-Francorchamps&
params=50_26_14_N_5_58_17_E_type:landmark_region:BE
[3] Deutsche Topographische Karte 5501 Brnenville, Ausgabe 1893 (http:/ / greif. uni-greifswald. de/ geogreif/ geogreif-content/ upload/
mtbl/ 5501Buernenville1893Kopie. jpg)
[4] http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=_VtQ9Uc062M
[6] http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=ISOEXQG5vOo 19:04
[7] Lon Grisard (http:/ / www. motorsportmemorial. org/ focus. php?db=ct& n=3586) Motorsport Memorial
[8] GP Encyclopedia > Circuits > Spa-Francorchamps (http:/ / www. grandprix. com/ gpe/ cir-070. html) Grandprix.com
[10] http:/ / theracingline. net/ racingcircuits/
[11] 2004 Belgium Grand Prix Selected driver quotes (http:/ / www. formula1. com/ news/ headlines/ 2004/ 8/ 2097. html) The Official
Formula One Website
[12] F1 performance map at Spa-Francorchamps (http:/ / atlasf1. autosport. com/ 2000/ bel/ preview/ bellap. jpg)
[13] The Official Tom Kristensen Website (http:/ / www. tomkristensen. com/ karriere. aspx?yearID=d3f50014-55c6-4e1a-b8a0-8712121e9969)
[14] Renovation of Francorchamps-circuit starts in November (http:/ / www. f1technical. net/ news/ 3515) F1Technical.net, July 2006

External links
Circuit de Spa-Francorchamps (http://www.spa-francorchamps.be/)
One lap at Spa Classic 2011 (http://kinomap.com/#!km-agkxc9) on Kinomap
BBC guide to the track (http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/motorsport/formula_one/circuit_guide/4250441.
stm)
BBC Belgian GP circuit guide (http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/motorsport/636741.stm)
Circuit de Spa-Francorchamps History and Statistics (http://www.f1db.com/f1/page/
Circuit_National_de_Francorchamps)
Satellite picture by Google Maps (http://maps.google.com/maps?f=q&hl=en&q=Spa, Belgium&ie=UTF8&
om=1&z=13&ll=50.424378,5.971584&spn=0.046261,0.173035&t=k) showing both old and new layout
Satellite picture by Google Maps (http://maps.google.co.uk/maps?f=d&hl=en&
geocode=10823160676200214313,50.429060,5.977450;13040135868525020935,50.407936,5.
965528;4870981229736577332,50.430270,5.958080&saddr=Route+des+Combes+@50.429060,+5.
977450&daddr=50.428643,5.99287+to:Rue+de+Chefosse/N68+@50.407936,+5.965528+to:N640/
Route+de+l'Eau+Rouge+@50.430270,+5.958080&mra=dpe&mrcr=0&mrsp=1&sz=14&via=1,2&sll=50.
421097,5.985575&sspn=0.036476,0.072269&ie=UTF8&ll=50.426347,5.983086&spn=0.072943,0.
144539&t=h&z=13) with the old layout highlighted
Spa Upgrade Work Begins (http://www.forumula1.net/2006/f1/f1-news/spa-upgrade-work-begins/)
Spectator testimonial of visiting Spa-Francorchamps (http://www.f1fanatic.co.uk/f1-information/
going-to-a-race/spa-francorchamps-belgium/)
Circuit info from official F1 site (http://www.formula1.com/races/in_detail/belgium_799/)

229

Suzuka

230

Suzuka
Suzuka International Racing Course

Location

Suzuka, Mie Prefecture, Japan

Time zone

GMT +9

Coordinates

345035N 1363226E

Owner

Honda Motor Co., Ltd.

Operator

Mobilityland Corporation

[1]

Coordinates: 345035N 1363226E [1]

Major events Japanese Grand Prix


Suzuka 8 Hours
WTCC
Super GT
Super Formula
MJF Superbike
D1 Grand Prix
Super Taikyu
Grand Prix Circuit (2003)
Length

5.807 km (3.609 mi)

Turns

17

Lap record

1:31.540 (

Kimi Rikknen, McLaren MP4-20, 2005)


Motorcycle Grand Prix Circuit (2004)

Length

5.821 km (3.617 mi)

Turns

17

Lap record

[2]

2:07.110

Kousuke Akiyoshi, F.C.C. TSR Honda CBR1000RR, 2009)


East Circuit

Length

2.243 km (1.394 mi)

Turns

Lap record

0:54.116 (

Robert Dahlgren, Polestar Racing, 2011)


West Circuit

Length

3.466 km (2.154 mi)

Turns

9
Original circuit (19621982) (without final chicane)

Length

6.004 km (3.728 mi)

Suzuka

231
Turns

17

Lap record

1:34.247 (

Aguri Suzuki, Ralt Formula 3 car, 1982)

Suzuka International Racing Course, Suzuka Circuit ( Suzuka Skitto) for short, is a
motorsport race track located in Ino, Suzuka City, Mie Prefecture, Japan and operated by Mobilityland Corporation,
a subsidiary of Honda Motor Co., Ltd..

Introduction
Designed as a Honda test track in 1962 by Dutchman John "Hans" Hugenholtz, Suzuka is one of few circuits in the
world to have a "figure 8" layout, with the back straight passing over the front section by means of an overpass.
The circuit has been modified three times:
In 1983 a chicane was put at the last curve to slow the cars into the pit straight and the Degner curve was made into
two corners instead of one long curve; the circuit was also made considerably safer in 1983 by adding more crash
barriers, more run-off areas and removing straw bales leading into vegetation;
In 2002, the chicane was slightly modified, 130R (marked as 15 on the diagram) was also modified and some of the
Snake curves were made a bit straighter and faster;
In 2003, the chicane was made slightly faster and closer to the 130R.[3]
The circuit can be used in three configurations; the full circuit, the "Suzuka East" and "Suzuka West" configuration.
The "East" portion of the course consists of the pit straight to the first half of the Dunlop curve (turn 7), before
leading back to the pit straight via a tight right-hander. The "West" course is made up of the other part of the full
circuit, including the crossover bridge.
The Degner-curve was named in honour of Ernst Degner.

Motorsport events
Suzuka, openly touted by F1 drivers and fans as one of the most enjoyed, is also one of the oldest remaining tracks
of the Formula One World Championship, and so has a long history of races as venue of the Japanese Grand Prix. Its
traditional role as one of the last Grands Prix of the season means numerous World Championships have been
decided at the track.
Suzuka was dropped from the Formula One calendar for the 2007 and
2008 seasons in favour of the Toyota-owned Fuji Speedway, after the
latter underwent a transformation and redesign by circuit designer
Hermann Tilke. Suzuka and Fuji were to alternate hosting the Japanese
Grand Prix from 2009. However, after Fuji announced on July 2009
that it would no longer be part of the F1 calendar,[4][5] Suzuka signed a
deal to host the Japanese Grand Prix in 2009, 2010 and 2011.[6]

Michael Schumacher's car being carried after


retiring from the 2006 Japanese Grand Prix

The circuit closed for a year in order for the renovation to make it
F1-compliant for 2009, with the last major event held on November 18,
2007,[7] although some annual events (for instance, the Suzuka 8 Hours
and Suzuka 1000km) were still held. The track held a re-opening day

on April 12, 2009.


Suzuka also hosts other motorsport events including the Suzuka 1000km endurance race. Previously a part of
multiple GT racing series including the now defunct Group C class of the All Japan Sports Prototype Championship,
the Suzuka 1000km as of 2006 is now a points round of the Super GT series, and is the only race of such length in
that series. In 2010, the GT500 pole position time was 1:55.237. In 2007, the GT300 pole position time was

Suzuka

232

2:06.838.
Another major motorsport event is the Suzuka 8 Hours for motorcycles, which has been run since 1978. This event
usually attracts big name riders and with the exception of 2005, due to the importance of the big name manufacturers
involvement, the FIM ensures that no motorcycle races clash on the date.
NASCAR organized the NASCAR Thunder 100, a pair of exhibition 100-lap races on the East Circuit, a 1.4 miles
(2.3km) layout which utilizes the pit straight and esses, before rejoining the main circuit near the Casio Triangle.
The cars were Sprint Cup Series and Camping World West Series cars and the field was by invitation for the two
races, run after the 1996 and 1997 seasons. The 1996 event was marred by tragedy when during practice, pace car
driver Elmo Langley died of a heart attack in the Chevrolet Corvette Pace Car at the esses during an evaluation run.
The pole position speed was 83.079 miles per hour (133.703km/h).[8] During qualifying for the 1997 race, rain
caused Goodyear to use rain tires on Sprint Cup cars for the first time in the modern era.
It was announced on June 21, 2010 that the East section of Suzuka Circuit would host the Japan round of the 2011
WTCC season instead of the Okayama International Circuit.[9] At the 2012 event, the pole position time was 52.885
seconds, for a speed of 94.875 miles per hour (152.687km/h).[10]

130R
Following two tremendous accidents in 2002 and 2003, safety has been a concern at the circuit's 130R, a 130 metres
(427ft) radius turn starting past the Crossover which has been compared to Spa's Blanchimont. In 2002, Toyota F1
driver Allan McNish suffered a high-speed crash through the bump, which sent him through a metal fence;
fortunately, he was not seriously injured.
Track officials revised the 130R, redesigning it as a double-apex
section, one with an 85 metres (279ft) radius, and then a second
featuring a 340 metres (1,115ft) radius, leading to a much closer Casio
Triangle (chicane), with the chicane becoming a "bus stop" type for
motorcycles.

Suzuka Circuit seen in 2006

However, the problem continued for the new revised section. During
the 2003 MotoGP Grand Prix of Japan, the track's first major event
since the revisions, MotoGP rider Daijiro Kato was killed when he
crashed in the new section, on his way to the braking zone for the
Casio Triangle. MotoGP has not returned to Suzuka since the incident.

Popular culture
Along with Fuji Speedway, Suzuka Circuit was one of the four tracks featured in the video game Pole Position II
(the first game featured only the Fuji track). "Suzuka 8 hours" was released on Super Nintendo in 1993; the
motorcycle variant of the race. The Suzuka Circuit was also featured in the Final Lap and the Ferrari F355
Challenge arcade games and video games like Forza Motorsport 2, Forza Motorsport 3, Forza Motorsport 4, Gran
Turismo 4, Gran Turismo 5 Prologue, Gran Turismo 5, iRacing, R: Racing Evolution, Shift 2 Unleashed, Le Mans
24 Hours, The Cycles, MotoGP 3, MotoGP 4, Tourist Trophy, Auto Modellista, Racing Battle: C1 Grand Prix, Real
Racing 3, and as the final race in Taito's racing game Continental Circus. The circuit appears in most F1 games that
have been published since 1987. The East Course was featured in NASCAR 98.
Presumably due to licensing issues on Pole Position II, the track is referred to in the Namco Museum versions as the
"Wonder" Circuit ("Orange Circuit" in Namco Museum: Virtual Arcade), after Namco's "Wonder" series of
amusement parks, despite its logo appearing on the starter's box since 1983. Under the same issue the open source
game TORCS also has the track renamed as "Wheel 2".

Suzuka

References
[1] http:/ / tools. wmflabs. org/ geohack/ geohack. php?pagename=Suzuka_Circuit&
params=34_50_35_N_136_32_26_E_region:JP-24_type:landmark
[8] http:/ / racing-reference. info/ race/ 1996-01/ X

External links

Suzuka Circuit (http://www.suzukacircuit.com/)


Suzuka at the Formula 1 site (http://www.formula1.com/races/in_detail/japan_878/circuit_diagram.html)
Suzuka Circuit History and Statistics (http://www.f1db.com/f1/page/Suzuka_International_Racing_Course)
Satellite picture by Google Maps (http://maps.google.com/maps?f=q&hl=en&q=Suzuka, Japan&om=1&
ie=UTF8&z=15&ll=34.84424,136.532936&spn=0.015497,0.043259&t=k)
Audio walkthrough of the track, for use with games (http://www.AudioTrackGuides.co.uk)
BBC Sport Suzuka Circuit Guide (http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/motorsport/formula_one/circuit_guide/
default.stm#top)

233

Watkins Glen

234

Watkins Glen
Watkins Glen International

The Glen

Location
Coordinates

Watkins Glen, New York, United States


422013N 765538W

[1]

Coordinates: 422013N 765538W [1]

Capacity

41,000

Owner

International Speedway Corporation

Operator

International Speedway Corporation

Opened

permanent circuit in 1956

Major events NASCAR Sprint Cup Series


Cheez-It 355 at The Glen
NASCAR Nationwide Series
Zippo 200 at the Glen
Grand-Am Rolex Sports Car Series
Six Hours of The Glen
Crown Royal 200 at the Glen
Grand Prix Course (with Inner Loop) (1992-present)
Surface

Asphalt and concrete

Length

3.40 mi (5.43 km)

Turns

11

Lap record

1:29.1919 (Hlio Castroneves, Dallara IR-05-Honda, 2007, IndyCar Series)


Short Course (with Inner Loop) (1992-present)

Surface

Asphalt

Length

2.454 mi (4.06 km)

Turns

Lap record

1:07.020 (Jon Fogarty, Riley Mk XI-Pontiac, 2007, DP)


Grand Prix course (1971-1974, 1986-present)

Surface

Asphalt

Length

3.4 mi (5.4 km)

Turns

11

Lap record

1:34.161 (Drake Olson, Eagle HF-89, 1990, IMSA)


Grand Prix course (with Esses Chicane) (1975-1985)

Surface

Asphalt

Length

3.4 mi (5.4 km)

Watkins Glen

235
Turns

11

Lap record

1:33.291 (Bruno Giacomelli, Alfa Romeo 179, 1980, F1)


First permanent course (1956-1970)

Surface

Asphalt

Length

2.35 mi (3.78 km)

Turns

Lap record

1:03.07 (Jacky Ickx, Ferrari 312B, 1970, F1)


Original public road course (1948-1952)

Surface

Asphalt, cobbles, concrete, wood, dirt, steel

Length

6.6 mi (10.622 km)

Turns

28 (approximately)

Watkins Glen International (nicknamed "The Glen") is an automobile race track located near Watkins Glen, New
York, at the southern tip of Seneca Lake. The sports car racing facility is owned by International Speedway
Corporation. It was long known around the world as the home of the United States Grand Prix, which it hosted for
twenty consecutive years (19611980), but since 1948 the site has been home to road racing of nearly every class,
including Formula One, the World Sportscar Championship, Trans-Am, Can-Am, NASCAR Sprint Cup Series, and
the IndyCar Series. Initially, public roads in the village were used for the race course. In 1956 a permanent circuit for
the race was built. In 1968 the race was extended to six hours, becoming, the Six Hours of Watkins Glen. The
circuit's current layout has more or less been the same since 1971, although a chicane was installed at the uphill
Esses in 1975 to slow cars through these corners, where there was a fatality during practice at the 1973 United States
Grand Prix. The chicane was removed in 1985, but another chicane called the "Inner Loop" was installed in 1992
after a fatal accident during the previous year's NASCAR Winston Cup event. The circuit is known as the Mecca of
North American road racing and is a very popular venue among fans and drivers.
The circuit also has been the site of two concerts: the 1973 Summer Jam, attended by 600,000 fans,[2] and Phish's
Super Ball IX in 2011.

Layouts
The Watkins Glen International race course has undergone several changes over the years, with five general layouts
widely recognized over its history. Currently, two distinct layouts are usedThe "Boot" layout (long course) and the
"1971 Six Hours" layout (short course).

Public roads
The first races in Watkins Glen were initiated by Cameron Argetsinger, whose family had a summer home in the
area. With Chamber of Commerce approval and SCCA sanction, the first Watkins Glen Grand Prix took place in
1948 on a 6.6-mile (10.6km) course [3] over local public roads. For the first few years, the races passed through the
heart of the town with spectators lining the sidewalks, but after a car left the road in the 1952 race, killing one
spectator and injuring several others, the race was moved to a new location on a wooded hilltop southwest of town.
The original 6.6-mile (10.6km) course is listed in the New York State register and National Register of Historic
Places as the Watkins Glen Grand Prix Course, 1948-1952.[]
The second layout 4.6-mile (7.4km) began use in 1953 and also used existing roads. The Watkins Glen Grand Prix
Corporation was formed to manage spectators, parking, and concessions. This arrangement lasted three years.

Watkins Glen

236

Grand Prix Course


The first permanent course was constructed on 550 acres, overlapping
part of the previous street course. It was designed by Bill Milliken, and
engineering professors from Cornell University. The layout measured
2.35-mile (3.78km). This course was used from 1956-1970. In 1968
the race was extended to six hours.
Watkins Glen from 1956-1970

Short Course
The circuit underwent a major overhaul for the 1971 season. When the
1971 Six Hours of Watkins Glen arrived in the summer of 1971, the
circuit was unfinished. The short course had been finished, but the boot
was unfinished, so the 1971 Six Hours was run on the short course
layout. The "Big Bend" and the turns leading up to it were eliminated,
and replaced with a new pit straight. The new pit straight was not ready
at the time, so the cars used the old pit straight just past The 90. For the
The full Long Course including the "Boot"; the
1971 Six Hours layout is illustrated with the gray
1971 Six Hours only, the start-finish line remained on the old pit
connection after the Outer Loop
straight, as the new pits were not finished in time, nor was the new
section of track past the Loop-Chute ready for the 1971 Six Hours. In
1972 the Six Hours event that year used the Watkins Glen long course for the first time.
When NASCAR returned to the track in 1986, they chose to use the short course layout. IMSA originally used the
"Boot," but eventually, that series also began using the shorter 1971 layout.
The short course was slightly lengthened in 1992 (see "Inner Loop" below).

Long Course (The "Boot")


The most significant change to the track had not been completed for the 1971 Six Hours, but was finished in time for
the Formula One race that autumn. The start-finish line was relocated to the new pit straight as planned. The new
segment known as "The Boot" was completed in time for the race. At the end of the backstretch, after the
Loop-Chute, cars swept left into a new four-turn complex that departed from the old layout, curling downhill through
the woods. The track followed the edge of the hillside to two consecutive right-hand turns, over an exciting blind
crest, to a left-hand turn, and re-joining the old track. Its unique foot-like shape gave it the nickname the "Boot."
The new layout including the "Boot" measured 3.377 miles (5.435km).
In 1975, a fast right-left chicane was added in the turn 3-4 Esses section (called the "Scheckter Chicane") to slow
speeds through the series of corners. This chicane was eliminated in the 1980s.
The "Long/Boot" course was slightly lengthened in 1992 (see "Inner Loop" below).

Inner Loop
After a pair of serious crashes took place in 1991 at the "Loop" at the end of the backstretch, a major change was
made to the track's layout. During the 1991 IMSA Camel Continental VIII, Tommy Kendall's Intrepid RM-1
prototype crashed in the Loop, severely injuring his legs. Seven weeks later, NASCAR driver J. D. McDuffie died in
an accident at the same site. These crashes followed another serious wreck that saw Geoff Bodine blow a tire, sail
straight off the track at the Loop, and crash head-on into the barrier.

Watkins Glen

237

For 1992, track officials constructed a bus stop chicane to the back straight just before arriving at the Loop. Dubbed
the "Inner Loop," it led into what was now being called, the "Outer Loop." This addition slightly increased the lap
distance for both layouts.

History
Watkins Glen Grand Prix
Along with the annual SCCA race, the track hosted its first professional race (NASCAR Grand National Division) in
1957. It hosted its first international event with the Formula Libre races from 1958-1960. Among the drivers
participating were Jack Brabham, Stirling Moss, Phil Hill, and Dan Gurney.

United States Grand Prix


After two editions of the Formula One U.S. Grand Prix
that were deemed less-than-successful (Sebring in
1959, and Riverside in 1960), promoters were looking
for a new venue to become the permanent home for the
American Grand Prix.
In 1961, just six weeks before the scheduled date for
another Formula Libre race that fall, Argetsinger was
tapped to prepare Watkins Glen for the final round of
the Formula One World Championship. While many of
the necessary preparations had already been made, new
pits were constructed to satisfy European standards of
pit boxes with overhead cover.
Seven American drivers participated, and the race was
won by British driver Innes Ireland in a Lotus-Climax
1973 United States Grand Prix ticket
with American Dan Gurney driving a Porsche 714
coming in second. Having already won both Driver's
and Constructor's World Championships and still mourning the death of Wolfgang von Trips at Monza, Ferrari
decided not to compete in the United States GP. Ferrari's decision not to travel to America for the season's final
round deprived Hill of the opportunity to participate in his home race as the newly-crowned World Champion, and
Hill appeared only as the event's Grand Marshal.
The United States Grand Prix at The Glen quickly became an autumnal tradition as huge crowds of knowledgeable
racing fans flocked to Upstate New York each year amid the spectacular autumn colors of the region. The race was
also among the most popular on the global Grand Prix calendar with the teams and drivers because its starting and
prize money often exceeded those of the other races combined. The race received the Grand Prix Drivers'
Association award for the best organized and best staged GP of the season in 1965, 1970, and 1972.

Watkins Glen

One fixture of the USGP at The Glen was the starter for
the races, Richard Norman "Tex" Hopkins. Wearing a
lavender suit, clenching a big cigar in his mouth, and
giving the job everything he had, Hopkins was the most
recognizable starter in Grand Prix racing. Once the cars
had taken their places, Hopkins strode across the front
of the grid with his back to the field, turned, and
jumped into the air while waving the national flag to
start the race. At the finish, he would meet the winner
in similar fashion, this time waving the checkered flag
as the car crossed the line.

238

Tom Pryce at the 1975 United States Grand Prix

Before the 1971 race, the course underwent its most


significant changes of the Grand Prix era, as it was extended from 2.35 miles (3.78km) to 3.377 miles (5.435km) by
the addition of four corners in a new section called the 'Boot' or 'Anvil'. The new layout departed from the old course
near the south end into a curling downhill left-hand turn through the woods. The track followed the edge of the
hillside to two consecutive right-hand turns, over an exciting blind crest to a left-hand turn, and back onto the old
track. In addition, the circuit was widened and resurfaced, and both the pits and start-finish line were moved back
before the northwest right-angle corner known as "The 90" and in 1975, a fast right-left chicane was added in the
Esses section to slow speeds through the series of corners.
Despite the improvements, the circuit became unsafe for the increasingly faster and stiffer ground effect cars of the
late 1970s and a few horrendous, sometimes fatal accidents (such as those that claimed the lives of Helmut Koinigg
and Franois Cevert). Increasingly rowdy segments of the crowd began to tarnish its image as well. Finally, in May,
1981, several months after Alan Jones had won the 1980 race for Williams, the International Auto Sports Federation
removed the race from its schedule because the track had failed to pay its $800,000 debt to the teams.[4]

American road-racing Mecca


The Glen hosted a variety of other events throughout the Grand Prix years: from Can-Am, Trans-Am, IROC, and
Endurance Sports car racing, to Formula 5000 and the CART series, these races strengthened the circuit's reputation
as the premier road racing facility in the United States. From 1968 through 1981, the "Six Hours at The Glen"
endurance race featured top drivers such as Mario Andretti, Jacky Ickx, Pedro Rodrguez, and Derek Bell. Different
races were sometimes featured together on the same weekend (e.g., Six Hours and Can-Am) and drew sizable
crowds, but without a Formula One race, the circuit struggled to survive. It finally declared bankruptcy and closed in
1981.

Reincarnation
For two years, the track was not well maintained and hosted only a few SCCA meets without spectators. In 1983,
Corning Enterprises, a subsidiary of nearby Corning, partnered with International Speedway Corporation to purchase
the track and rename it, Watkins Glen International.
The renovated track, with the chicane at the bottom of the Esses removed, reopened in 1984 with the return of IMSA
with the Camel Continental I, which would be conducted until 1995, with the last two years under the name "The
Glen Continental" after Camel's withdrawal from IMSA. (The event was numbered with Roman numerals.)
In 1986, the top NASCAR series returned to Watkins Glen after a long layoff, holding one of only three road races
on its schedule (two beginning in 1988), using the 1971 Six Hours course, raced when the new section off the
Loop-Chute was not finished in time. As the cars come off the Loop-Chute, instead of making the downhill left into
Turn 6, the cars shot straight through the straight, and headed toward Turn 10, as was the case from 1961 until 1970.

Watkins Glen
NASCAR Busch Series (Now Called Nationwide Series) action would arrive in 1991 with a 150-mile (240km) race
on the weekend of the Camel Continental, won by Terry Labonte, who would be a master of the circuit during its
Busch Series races, winning the inaugural race, and winning three consecutive races from 1995 until 1997. The 1995
race would be the first conducted as a 200-mile (320km) race, and became the first Busch Series race to be televised
on broadcast network television, as CBS broadcast the race live until TNN took over in 1997.
Only twice1998 and 1999did a Busch Series regular driver win the race. The first seven races were won by
Winston Cup Series (Now Sprint Cup Series) regular drivers, sometimes referred as "Buschwhackers," during their
off-week. In 1998, the race went against the Cup race in Sonoma, California, eliminating the idea, and stayed that
way until 2000. In 2001, the race was run the day after the first Saturday in July.
The race was eliminated from the schedule after the 2001 season, however, only to return in 2005 as an undercard to
the Nextel Cup (now Sprint Cup Series) race.
A pair of incidents took place in 1991 resulted in a massive overhaul of the circuit's safety. During the IMSA Camel
Continental VIII, Tommy Kendall's prototype crashed in Turn 5, severely injuring his legs. Seven weeks later,
NASCAR driver J. D. McDuffie died in an accident at the same site. Track officials added a bus stop chicane to the
back straight in Spring 1992.
In 1996, the Glen Continental reverted to a six-hour format, and was once again called the Six Hours At The Glen
with the IMSA format, and stayed there until a split in American sports car racing. In 1998, the race became an event
sanctioned by the Sports Car Club of America under their United States Road Racing Championship. In 1999, the
FIA GT series staged a 500km race of three hours with some USRRC entrants after USRRC canceled the last two
rounds of their season before their six-hour event at the track. The following year, the six-hour race returned once
again with the newly-founded Grand American Road Racing Association (Grand-Am) sanctioning the event.
In 1997, International Speedway Corporation became the sole owner of the historic road course, as Corning
Enterprises believed they had completed their intended goals to rebuild the race track and increase tourism in the
southern Finger Lakes region of New York State.
The circuit annually hosts one of the nation's premier vintage events, the Zippo U.S. Vintage Grand Prix. When the
fiftieth anniversary of road racing in Watkins Glen was celebrated during the 1998 racing season, this event was the
climax, returning many original cars and drivers to the original 6.6-mile (10.6km) street circuit through the village
during the Grand Prix Festival Race Reenactment.
After a 25year layoff, major-league open wheel racing returned to the track as one of three road courses on the 2005
Indy Racing League schedule. In preparation, the circuit was overhauled again. Grandstands from Pennsylvania's
Nazareth Speedway, which had closed, were installed, the gravel in The 90 was removed and replaced with a paved
runoff area, and curbing was cut down for the Indy Racing League event. Previously, the high curbing in the chicane
had become a place where NASCAR Sprint Cup Series cars would bounce high off the curbing, creating an ideal
opportunity for cars to lose control, and to slow cars. Other areas of the track received improvements as well: the
exits of turn 2 (the bottom of the esses), the chicane, turn 6 (the entrance to the boot), turn 9, and turn 11 all had
additional runoff areas created and safety barrier upgrades. The carousel run off was paved, as well as turn 1 (the 90)
and the esses were paved in the winter of 06-07. Augmenting what was already in place along the front stretch,
additional high safety fences were installed on the overpasses crossing the service roads at the top of the esses and
just out of the boot immediately after the exit of turn 9.
Another overhaul for 2006 made fundamental changes to the circuit for the first time since 1992. Officials installed a
new control tower, which includes booths for the officials, timing and scoring, television and radio (the new position
allows broadcasters to see more action from Turn 10 through the foot of the Esses), and the public address announcer
on top of the new front stretch grandstand, moving the start-finish line farther ahead of the Sprint bridge, as the
start-finish line is moved 380 feet (120m) farther toward The 90 in order to accommodate the new timing and
scoring post. The new start-finish line also means the starting lights used for club races were moved farther ahead,
creating more action off Turn 11 as tactics will change with the later finish line, where slingshot moves could

239

Watkins Glen
become paramount to the finish. Other changes to the infrastructure include the purchase of adjoining property. Most
of Bronson Hill Road is now incorporated as a service road to the facility. A new section of Bronson Hill leading up
from NY 414 has been built as the main ingress road to the facility, bending south at Gate 6 and continuing to
County Road 16, just south of the credentials and sheriff's office buildings.
Track safety also is changing always and constant training is needed. Race Services Inc. provides the track with
volunteers to work Fire-Rescue, Medical, Grid personnel, and Corner workers to help keep both the drivers and
spectators safe.
The Argetsinger family is an advisor to the circuit, and the track named the trophy for the inaugural Watkins Glen
Indy Grand Prix presented by Argent in honour of the late patriarch, Cameron.
On March 6, 2007 just before 9 p.m., fire destroyed the recently remodeled Glen Club situated on top of the esses.
Originally called the Onyx Club (named for the sponsor, Onyx Cologne), the Glen Club was used primarily as an
upscale venue for race fans. After being recently remodeled, it was being advertised as a social venue for locals to
use for weddings, business meetings, etc. No cause could be determined and the building was a total loss. The loss
included irreplaceable, unique original motorsport artwork donated to the facility by several artists along with other
racing memorabilia. Glen officials were quoted in local media stories as being adamant that the loss of the Glen Club
would not affect the 2007 racing schedule.
For 2007, Watkins Glen International again made improvements to the facility, specifically the track surface. All of
turns 1 (the "90"), 5 (the "Loop-Chute") and 6 (entry turn into the "Boot") have been repaved. A temporary "Glen
Club" replaced the permanent structure destroyed by fire at the races in 2007 with plans in the works to replace it
with another permanent building. New sponsors for both the INDY and NASCAR weekends were signed to
multi-year deals. Camping World is now the sponsor of the "Camping World Grand Prix" INDY weekend at the
Glen through 2010. NASCAR weekend at the Glen received a double shotZippo Manufacturing announced a
three-year extension of the Busch-Nationwide Series race, the "Zippo 200". The Sprint Cup series is now known as
"The Heluva Good! Sour Cream dips at the Glen". Additionally, Brad Penn lubricants of Pennsylvania (former
Kendall Oil refinery) was announced as the sponsor of the annual vintage sports car weekend for 2007 and 2008.
A new media center was constructed to replace the former building, which also had been the control tower with the
1971 improvements. The aging structure had been the bane of many professional media members during those years
with many uncomplimentary things published and broadcast about its inadequacies, especially the lack of insulation,
air conditioning, few (if any) amenities that other facilities had, which resulted in race control moving to the new
control tower at the start-finish line in 2006. Plans were made to move the new media centre back in order to allow a
full 43-car NASCAR grid.
In June 2011, Tony Stewart and Lewis Hamilton participated in the Mobil 1 Seat Swap. Stewart drove his No. 14
Mobil 1 Chevy for four laps around the circuit while Hamilton drove the MP4-23, Vodafone McLaren Mercedes's
entry in the 2008 Formula One season. After some time, both drivers swapped cars and drove more laps around the
circuit. The event was open to the public and it was hoped that it would renew interest in the track. Before this event
the curves on some of the turns were changed, the white rumble strips being replaced by the more common,
red-white designs seen on most road courses around the world.
In July 2011, WGI hosted a Phish concert. This is the first concert that WGI has held since the Summer Jam.
In October 2012, the track suffered damage from Hurricane Sandy, with damage reported to be up to $50,000.[5]

240

Watkins Glen

241

Records
FIA Formula One Qualifying (GP Course): Bruno Giacomelli, 93.291 sec. (130.315mph/209.722km/h), 1980
FIA Formula One Race (199.24mi/318.784km): Alan Jones, 1 hr 34min 36 sec (126.367mph/203.368km/h),
1980
FIA Formula One Qualifying (2.35mi course): Jacky Ickx, 63.07 (134.136mph/214.617km/h), 1970
FIA Formula One Race (253.8mi/408.2km): Emerson Fittipaldi 1 hr 57min 33.2sec
(129.541mph/207.265km/h), 1970
NASCAR Sprint Cup Series Qualifying: Juan Pablo Montoya, 69.438 sec. (127.020mph/204.419km/h), 2012
NASCAR Sprint Cup Series Race (220.5miles): Mark Martin, 2 hrs 26min 17 sec (100.300mph/160.48km/h),
1995
NASCAR Nationwide Series Qualifying: Kurt Busch, 71.567 sec. (123.241mph/197.000km/h), 2011
NASCAR Nationwide Series Race (200.9miles): Terry Labonte, 2 hrs 11min 47
sec.(91.468mph/146.348km/h), 1996
IndyCar Series Qualifying: Ryan Briscoe, 88.1322 sec. (137.657mph/221.537km/h), 2009
Grand Am Rolex Sports Car Series (NASCAR Course) Qualifying: Jon Fogarty, 67.020 sec.
(131.603mph/211.794km/h), 2007
Crown Royal 200 at the Glen, Brian Frisselle 65.243 sec, 2008[6]

NASCAR Sprint Cup Series Records


(As of 8/8/2010)

Most Wins

Tony Stewart

Most Top 5s

12

Mark Martin

Most Top 10s

16

Starts

22

Michael Waltrip

Poles

Dale Earnhardt, Mark Martin

Most Laps Completed 1873 Michael Waltrip


Most Laps Led

227

Jeff Gordon

Avg. Start*

6.2

Tony Stewart

Avg. Finish*

5.4

* from minimum 10 starts.

References
[1] http:/ / tools. wmflabs. org/ geohack/ geohack. php?pagename=Watkins_Glen_International&
params=42_20_13_N_76_55_38_W_region:US_type:landmark
[2] , cited in
[3] http:/ / www. grandprixfestival. com/ map. html
[6] http:/ / www. theglen. com/ articles/ 2008/ 08/ frisselle-aim-autosport-to-start-from-pole-in-crown-royal-200. aspx

External links

Watkins Glen International (http://www.theglen.com/)


Short History of Road Racing at Watkins Glen (http://www.silhouet.com/motorsport/tracks/wat.html)
GP Encyclopedia, Circuits: Watkins Glen (http://www.grandprix.com/gpe/cir-074.html)
Trackpedia guide to driving this track (http://www.trackpedia.com/wiki/Watkins_Glen)

Watkins Glen
Watkins Glen International Page (http://www.nascar.com/races/tracks/wgi/index.html) on NASCAR.com
(http://www.nascar.com)
Watkins Glen Grand Prix Fest (http://www.watkinsglen.com/gpfest/)
Track history and other info (http://www.na-motorsports.com/Tracks/NY/WatkinsGlen.html)
1948-1952 Watkins Glen Grand Prix Circuit Map (http://grandprixfestival.com/map.html)
Photos from past and present events at Watkins Glen International (http://www.glenphotos.com/)

242

243

Notable endurance car drivers


Derek Bell
Derek Bell

Bell in 2008
Born

31 October 1941
Pinner, Middlesex, England, UK

Formula One World Championship career


Nationality

British

Active years

19681972, 1974

Teams

Ferrari, McLaren, Surtees, Tecno

Races

16 (9 starts)

Championships 0
Wins

Podiums

Career points

Pole positions

Fastest laps

First race

1968 Italian Grand Prix

Last race

1974 Canadian Grand Prix

Derek Reginald Bell MBE (born 31 October 1941 in Pinner, Middlesex) is a British racing driver from England
who was extremely successful in sportscar racing, winning Le Mans five times, the Daytona 24 three times and the
World Sportscar Championship twice. He also raced in Formula One for the Ferrari, McLaren, Surtees and Tecno
teams. He has been described by fellow racer Hans-Joachim Stuck as one of the most liked drivers of his

Derek Bell

244

generation.[1]

Derek Bell in August 1970 at


Nrburgring on the occasion of a formula
2 race there.

24 Hours of Le Mans career


Participating years 19701983, 19851996
Teams

Scuderia Ferrari
John Wyer Automotive
Ecurie Francorchamps
Gulf Racing
Grand Touring Cars
Renault Sport
Porsche System
Rothmans Porsche
Richard Lloyd Racing
Joest Porsche Racing
ADA Engineering
Courage Comptition
Gulf Oil Racing
David Price Racing

Best finish

1st (1975, 1981, 1982, 1986, 1987)

Class wins

5 (1975, 1981, 1982, 1986, 1987)

Career
Bell grew up on a farm and helped to run a caravan site near Pagham Harbour before being encouraged by his
stepfather Bernard Hender to take up racing in 1964 with Lotus Seven. He graduated to Formula Three in the
following year in a Lotus 31 and in 1966 switched to a Lotus 41 scoring his first victory at Goodwood. In 1967 he
enjoyed seven wins. He entered Formula Two in a privateer Brabham BT23C fielded by his stepfather's Church
Farm Racing team and had several promising performances, which caught Ferrari's eye and made his Grand Prix
debut at Monza. In 1969 he raced at Silverstone with Ferrari and also raced the four-wheel-drive McLaren M9A in
its only race in the British Grand Prix.

Derek Bell

245
Bell took part in the filming of Le Mans (1970) starring Steve
McQueen, and he and his family lived with the McQueen family
during the filming, the two becoming friends. Bell had a lucky escape
during the making of the film. The Ferrari 512 he was driving suddenly
caught fire whilst getting into position for a take. He managed to get
out of the car just before it was engulfed in flames and suffered minor
burns. The car was badly damaged but later rebuilt.

Bell also finished second in the 1970 European Formula Two


Championship, driving a Brabham. In 1972 he got the drive in the
Tecno Formula One team, along with Nanni Galli. He later raced a
number of times for the Surtees team, it was to be in sports car racing that he built a strong reputation as a world
class and championship winning racer.
Derek Bell in the Wheatcroft Racing Brabham
BT26 at the Nrburgring in 1970.

He won two World Sportscar Championship titles in 198586, the 24 Hours of Daytona three times in 198687 and
1989 and Le Mans five times in 1975, 1981, 1982, 1986 and 1987, mostly teamed with Jacky Ickx in one of the
Porsche 936 and Porsche 956/Porsche 962 models. The Ickx/Bell partnership is considered as one of the most
famous pairings in motorsport history.
Bell was hired as chairman for the failed Spectre R42 project between 1996 to its demise in 1997. In 2001 he was
hired to consult for the Bentley Speed 8 programme, helping Bentley to win Le Mans two years later. He now splits
his time between the United States and Bognor Regis, commentates on Formula One races and races in historic
events, as well as performing a global ambassadorial role for Bentley. Bell is currently an operating partner of
Bentley Naples in Naples, Florida.
His son, Justin Bell is also a racer. The two raced together in the 1991
24 Hours of Daytona, and the 1992 24 Hours of Le Mans. Bell was to
race in the 2008 Daytona 24 hours with Justin, however the car
dropped out of the race early and Derek did not get to run in the race.
Aside from winning at Le Mans five times, his proudest moment was
coming third with his son Justin racing the McLaren F1 GTR in the
1995 Le Mans.
Bell demonstrating the Ferrari 312B3
"Spazzaneve" test car at the 2008 Goodwood
Festival of Speed.

Bell returned to Le Mans to race a Porsche 962 for the first time in 20
years in the Group C race at Le Mans on the morning on 16 June 2012.
Bell was awarded the MBE in 1986 for services to motorsport.

Complete World Championship Formula One


results
(key)

Derek Bell

Year

246

Entrant

Chassis

Engine

1968 Scuderia
Ferrari

Ferrari
312/68

Ferrari
V12

10

11

12

13

14

15 WDC Pts

RSA ESP MON BEL NED FRA GBR GER ITA CAN USA MEX
Ret
Ret

NC

1969

Bruce McLaren Cosworth RSA ESP MON NED FRA GBR GER ITA CAN USA MEX
McLaren M9A
V8
Ret
Motor
Racing

NC

1970

Tom
Brabham Cosworth RSA ESP MON BEL NED FRA GBR GER AUT ITA CAN
Wheatcroft BT26A
V8
Ret
Racing

22nd

USA MEX
6

Team
Surtees

Surtees
TS7

1971

Team
Surtees

Surtees Cosworth RSA ESP MON NED FRA GBR GER AUT ITA CAN USA
TS9
V8
Ret

NC

1972

Martini
Racing
Team

Tecno
PA123

NC

1974

Bang &
Olufsen
Team
Surtees

Surtees Cosworth ARG BRA RSA ESP BEL MON SWE NED FRA GBR GER
TS16
V8
DNQ 11

NC

Tecno
Flat-12

ARG RSA ESP MON BEL FRA GBR GER AUT ITA CAN USA
DNQ
Ret
DNQ DNS Ret

Team
Surtees

AUT ITA CAN USA


DNQ DNQ DNQ

References
[1] AUSringers.com - Hans-Joachim Stuck speaks to AUSringers (http:/ / www. ausringers. com/ 2009/ 04/ 03/
hans-joachim-stuck-talks-to-ausringers. html) Retrieved 2009-04-04

External links
Derek Bell MBE Official Web Site (http://www.derekbell.com)
Sporting positions
Precededby
Henri Pescarolo
Grard Larrousse

Winner of the 24 Hours of Le Mans


1975 with:
Jacky Ickx

Succeededby
Jacky Ickx
Gijs van Lennep

Precededby
Jean Rondeau
Jean-Pierre Jaussaud

Winner of the 24 Hours of Le Mans


1981 with:
Jacky Ickx

Succeededby
Jacky Ickx
Derek Bell

Precededby
Jacky Ickx
Derek Bell

Winner of the 24 Hours of Le Mans


1982 with:
Jacky Ickx

Succeededby
Vern Schuppan
Al Holbert
Hurley Haywood

Precededby
Klaus Ludwig
Paolo Barilla
Louis Krages

Winner of the 24 Hours of Le Mans


1986 with:
Hans-Joachim Stuck
Al Holbert

Succeededby
Derek Bell
Hans-Joachim
Stuck
Al Holbert

Derek Bell

247
Precededby
Derek Bell
Hans-Joachim Stuck
Al Holbert

Winner of the 24 Hours of Le Mans


1987 with:
Hans-Joachim Stuck
Al Holbert

Succeededby
Jan Lammers
Johnny Dumfries
Andy Wallace

Precededby
Stefan Bellof

World Sportscar Championship


Champion
1985-1986,
1985: with Hans-Joachim Stuck

Succeededby
Raul Boesel

Awards
Precededby
Jonathan Palmer

Autosport
British Competition Driver of the Year
1984

Succeededby
Nigel Mansell

Frank Biela

248

Frank Biela
Frank Biela

Nationality

German
24 Hours of Le Mans career

Participating years 1999 - 2008


Teams

Audi Sport Joest, Audi Sport UK, Champion Racing

Best finish

1st (2000, 2001, 2002, 2006, 2007)

Class wins

5 (2000, 2001, 2002, 2006, 2007)

Frank Biela (born 2 August 1964 in Neuss, Germany) is an auto racing driver, mainly competing in touring cars and
sportscar racing. He has raced exclusively in cars manufactured by the Audi marque since 1990.
Biela started his career in 1983 in karting before joining the Ford Youngster Team programme in 1987 alongside
Manuel Reuter and Bernd Schneider. He drove for the team in Formula Ford and the Deutsche Tourenwagen
Meisterschaft (the German touring car championship), where he won the race at AVUS in 1987. Biela continued to
compete in the DTM in 1988, and also raced a limited season in German Formula Three, scoring two wins.
In 1990, he moved to Audi, winning the DTM race at the Nrburgring
and the DTM championship in 1991 before Audi left the DTM in
mid-season of 1992. Biela stayed with the company, and with the rise
of the two-litre Class 2 (Super Touring) rules in other series across
Europe, he was entered in various European touring car series over the
following few seasons such as the French Supertouring Championship
in 1993 driving the Audi 80 (in which he won the championship in)
Biela driving an Audi R10 in the 2006 Le Mans
entered by Audi into the championship pairing alongside Marc Sourd.
24 Hours.
Since his French Supertouring Championship victory in 1993, he is the
only standing non-French driver to win it. In 1995, he won the Touring
Car World Cup race at Paul Ricard in the new Audi A4, which quickly became one of the dominant touring cars of
the mid-1990s.
During the AVUS Berlin race in September 1995, Biela's Audi struck Kieth O'dor's already accident-stranded Nissan
Primera squarely on the driver's side, fatally injuring O'dor, who died later that day in a Berlin hospital.
For 1996, Audi decided to enter a works team of two A4s in the BTCC. Biela was selected to lead the team;
alongside team-mate John Bintcliffe, the new Audi team dominated the competition. Biela comfortably won the title,
finishing every single race and being classified in the top ten in all but two races (an 11th place finish and a
disqualification). He also capped an astonishing season by taking first place in the Guia Race of Macau.

Frank Biela

249

Because of the Audis' dominance in 1996, the BTCC organisers imposed a heavy ballast weight "penalty" on all
four-wheel-drive cars for the 1997 season. With his Audi badly handicapped by the penalty, Biela initially struggled
to make a serious impact. The weight penalty was halved at the midpoint of the season, and results immediately
improved to the point where Biela finished second overall to eventual champion Alain Menu. Biela then left Britain
to return to the German Super Tourenwagen Cup for 1998, but was largely ineffective. He finished a lowly 14th in
the final standings as the A4 (in a new two-wheel-drive racing configuration) became outclassed by rival
manufacturers.
In 1999, Biela abandoned touring cars in favour of joining the Audi R8 sports car project, racing under the Audi
Sport Team Joest name. It was a good match, and Biela excelled in sportscar racing over the next few seasons,
winning several classic events at the wheel of the R8 as well as three ALMS races. The highlight of Biela's time with
the R8 team was three successive victories (2000-2002) in the 24 Hours of Le Mans alongside Emanuele Pirro and
Tom Kristensen. Audi began to scale back support for the R8 programme after the 2002 season. After winning the
ALMS series in 2003, Biela returned to the revamped German touring car series, driving an Audi for Joest Racing
(the team which had run Biela's R8 for his three Le Mans wins); the season was not a success.
Biela continued to race an R8 at Le Mans each year with mixed results. In 2003, he missed the pit lane after just 15
laps and ran out of fuel.[1] He finished 5th and 3rd in 2004 and 2005, respectively. In December 2005 he participated
in the first runs of the new Audi R10 diesel sportscar, the R8's successor. Driving an R10 (again for Team Joest) in
the 2006 24 Hours of Le Mans, alongside Pirro and new team-mate Marco Werner, Biela took his fourth victory to
date in the classic race. He repeated the victory with the same car and team in 2007.
His greatest achievements include winning:
1991 Deutsche Tourenwagen Meisterschaft German Touring Car Championship with an Audi V8 (he has also
finished 2nd and 3rd in DTM)
1993 French Touring Car Championship
1995 short-lived Touring Car World Cup one-off race
1996 BTCC in 1996 (finishing as runner-up the year after)
1996 Macau Grand Prix Guia Race
2000, 2001, 2002 24 Hours of Le Mans with an Audi R8
2006, 2007 24 Hours of Le Mans with an Audi R10

Racing record
Complete British Touring Car Championship results
(key) (Races in bold indicate pole position - 1 point awarded all races) (Races in italics indicate fastest lap)
Year

Team

Car

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

Pos Pts

1996 Audi Sport UK Audi A4 quattro DON DON BRH BRH THR THR SIL SIL OUL OUL SNE SNE BRH BRH SIL SIL KNO KNO OUL OUL THR THR DON DON BRH BRH 1st 289
1

11

DSQ

1997 Audi Sport UK Audi A4 quattro DON DON SIL SIL THR THR BRH BRH OUL OUL DON DON CRO CRO KNO KNO SNE SNE THR THR BRH BRH SIL SIL
1

Ret

Ret

Ret

Ret

17

15

2nd 171

Frank Biela

250

Complete Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters results


(key) (Races in bold indicate pole position) (Races in italics indicate fastest lap)
Year

Team

Car

2004

Audi Sport
Team Joist

Audi A4
DTM 2004

HOC1 EST ADR LAU NOR SHA NR OSC ZAN BRN HOC2 17th
16
15 Ret
12
11
Ret
13
9
14
11
13

2007

Abt Sportsline

Audi A4
DTM 2007

HOC1 OSC LAU BRH NOR MUG ZAN NR CAT HOC2


18

Non-championship race

Complete 24 Hours of Le Mans results


Year Result

Team

Car

Class

1999 3

Audi Sport Team Joest

Audi R8R LMP

2000 1

Audi Sport Team Joest

Audi R8

LMP900

2001 1

Audi Sport Team Joest

Audi R8

LMP900

2002 1

Audi Sport Team Joest

Audi R8

LMP900

2003 Ret

Audi Sport UK / Arena Motorsport Audi R8

LMP900

2004 5

Audi Sport UK Team Veloqx

Audi R8

LMP1

2005 3

ADT Champion Racing

Audi R8

LMP1

2006 1

Audi Sport Team Joest

Audi R10 LMP1

2007 1

Audi Sport North America

Audi R10 LMP1

2008 6

Audi Sport North America

Audi R10 LMP1

References
External links
Official Website (http://www.frank-biela.de/) (German)
Awards and achievements
Precededby
John Cleland

Autosport
National Racing Driver of the Year
1996

Succeededby
Alain Menu

Sporting positions
Precededby
Hans-Joachim Stuck

German Touring Car Champion


1991

Succeededby
Klaus Ludwig

Precededby
Marc Sourd

French Touring Car Champion


1993

Succeededby
Laurent Aello

Precededby
John Cleland

British Touring Car Champion


1996

Succeededby
Alain Menu

Precededby
Kelvin Burt

Guia Race winner


1996

Succeededby
Steve Soper

10

11

Pos Pts

23rd

Frank Biela

251
Precededby
Winner of the 24 Hours of Le Mans
Succeededby
Pierluigi Martini
2000 with:
Frank Biela
Yannick Dalmas
Tom Kristensen
Tom Kristensen
Joachim Winkelhock
Emanuele Pirro
Emanuele Pirro
Precededby
Frank Biela
Tom Kristensen
Emanuele Pirro

Winner of the 24 Hours of Le Mans


Succeededby
2001 with:
Frank Biela
Tom Kristensen
Tom Kristensen
Emanuele Pirro
Emanuele Pirro

Precededby
Frank Biela
Tom Kristensen
Emanuele Pirro

Winner of the 24 Hours of Le Mans


Succeededby
2002 with:
Tom Kristensen
Tom Kristensen
Rinaldo Capello
Emanuele Pirro
Guy Smith

Precededby
Tom Kristensen

American Le Mans Series


champion
2003
with Marco Werner

Succeededby
Marco Werner
J.J. Lehto

Precededby
Marco Werner
J.J. Lehto

American Le Mans Series


champion
2005
with Emanuele Pirro

Succeededby
Allan McNish
Rinaldo Capello

Precededby
J.J. Lehto
Marco Werner
Tom Kristensen

Winner of the 24 Hours of Le Mans


Succeededby
2006 with:
Frank Biela
Emanuele Pirro
Emanuele Pirro
Marco Werner
Marco Werner

Precededby
Frank Biela
Emanuele Pirro
Marco Werner

Winner of the 24 Hours of Le Mans


Succeededby
2007 with:
Allan McNish
Emanuele Pirro
Rinaldo Capello
Marco Werner
Tom Kristensen

Rinaldo Capello

252

Rinaldo Capello
Rinaldo Capello

Nationality

Italian
24 Hours of Le Mans career

Participating years 1998 - 2004, 2006 Teams

GTC Competition, Audi Sport Joest, Team Bentley, Audi Sport Goh

Best finish

1st (2003, 2004, 2008)

Class wins

3 (2003, 2004, 2008)

Rinaldo "Dindo" Capello (born 17 June 1964 in Asti, Italy) is an Italian endurance racing driver.

Career
Dindo started his racing career in 1976, driving go-karts, but didn't move into single-seaters until 1983, starting in
Formula Fiat Abarth. 1990 saw Dindo's first major championship victory, winning the Italian Supertourismo
Championship in a Volkswagen Golf. He won the championship again in 1996, but in an Audi A4 this time.[1]
1997 saw Capello's first major endurance victory, at Vallelunga, in the Vallelunga 6 Hours, driving a Volkswagen
Golf again. Capello was selected for the 2000 Le Mans race by the Audi Sport Joest team, driving the Audi R8 - the
team finished in third place.
Capello was on the winning team in both the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 2003 and 2004, driving a Bentley Speed 8 and
an Audi R8 respectively, and has also finished on the podium on three other occasions.
Capello also won the 12 Hours of Sebring in 2002 and 2012. He holds
the record of most Petit Le Mans victories, having won in 2000, 2002,
2006, 2007 and 2008.
Dindo was vice-champion of the 2000 American Le Mans Series,
winning 6 races. In both 2006 and 2007 Dindo finished as champion
alongside Britain's Allan McNish in the Audi Sport North America run
R10.

Capello driving the Audi R10 TDI at the 2008


1000km of Silverstone

Capello crashed the Audi R10 TDI at the 2007 Le Mans, after losing a
rear tire.[2] The Audi nr. 2 was leading the race comfortably at the time,
and the crash ended the cars quest for another Le Mans win. However
he returned to the race in 2008 to win again.[]

Rinaldo Capello

253

Rinaldo officially retired from prototype racing on 23/07/2012 after hinting that he may not return to Le Mans in
2013.[3] Audi's statement confirmed that Capello would continue to race in GT3 with the Audi R8 LMS Ultra.

Racing record
Complete 24 Hours of Le Mans results
Year

Team

Co-Drivers

Car

Class

Laps Pos. Class


Pos.

1998

Gulf Team Davidoff


GTC Competition

Thomas Bscher
Emanuele Pirro

McLaren F1 GTR

GT1

228 DNF DNF

1999

Audi Sport Team Joest

Michele Alboreto
Laurent Aello

Audi R8R

LMP

346

4th

3rd

2000

Audi Sport Team Joest

Christian Abt
Michele Alboreto

Audi R8

LMP900 365

3rd

3rd

2001

Audi Sport North America

Audi R8
Laurent Aello
Christian Pescatori

LMP900 320

2nd

2nd

2002

Audi Sport North America

Johnny Herbert
Audi R8
Christian Pescatori

LMP900 374

2nd

2nd

2003

Team Bentley

Tom Kristensen
Guy Smith

Bentley Speed 8

LMGTP

377

1st

1st

2004

Audi Sport Japan Team Goh

Seiji Ara
Tom Kristensen

Audi R8

LMP1

379

1st

1st

2006

Audi Sport Team Joest

Tom Kristensen
Allan McNish

Audi R10 TDI

LMP1

367

3rd

3rd

2007

Audi Sport North America

Tom Kristensen
Allan McNish

Audi R10 TDI

LMP1

262 DNF DNF

2008

Audi Sport North America

Tom Kristensen
Allan McNish

Audi R10 TDI

LMP1

381

1st

1st

2009

Audi Sport Team Joest

Tom Kristensen
Allan McNish

Audi R15 TDI

LMP1

376

3rd

3rd

2010

Audi Sport Team Joest

Tom Kristensen
Allan McNish

Audi R15 TDI plus

LMP1

394

3rd

3rd

2011

Audi Sport North America

Tom Kristensen
Allan McNish

Audi R18 TDI

LMP1

14

DNF DNF

2012

Audi Sport Team Joest

Allan McNish
Tom Kristensen

Audi R18 e-tron quattro

LMP1

377

2nd

Complete DTM results


(key)

2nd

Rinaldo Capello

254

Year

Team

Car

2004

Audi Sport
Team Joest

Audi A4
DTM 2004

HOC1

EST

ADR LAU NOR SHA1 NR OSC ZAN BRN HOC2 NC


5

2005

Audi Sport
Team Joest

Audi A4
DTM 2004

HOC1 LAU1 SPA BRN OSC NOR NR ZAN LAU2 IST HOC2 20th
Ret
11
13
10
10
Ret
19
Ret
11
Ret
16

10

11

- A non-championship one-off race was held in 2004 at the streets of Shanghai, China.

References
[1] Capello's official website (http:/ / www. dindocapello. com/ dindo/ driver/ driver. htm)
[2] H17: Capello crashes, Biela leads (http:/ / www. autosport. com/ news/ report. php/ id/ 59888)
[3] "Dindo Hangs Up Helmet">

External links
Dindo's official website (http://www.dindocapello.com/index.htm)
Interview with Dindo Capello (http://www.connectingrod.it/Interviews/Capello/capello_eng.html)
Interview: Dindo Capello (http://www.fitnesschic.it/interview/dindo_capello.html)
Sporting positions
Precededby
Emanuele Pirro

Italian Touring Car Champion


1996

Precededby
Winner of the 24 Hours of Le Mans
Frank Biela
2003 with:
Tom
Tom Kristensen
Kristensen
Guy Smith
Emanuele Pirro

Succeededby
Emanuele Naspetti
Succeededby
Seiji Ara
Tom Kristensen
Rinaldo Capello

Precededby
Tom
Kristensen
Rinaldo
Capello
Guy Smith

Winner of the 24 Hours of Le Mans


2004 with:
Seiji Ara
Tom Kristensen

Succeededby
J.J. Lehto
Marco Werner
Tom Kristensen

Precededby
Frank Biela
Emanuele Pirro

American Le Mans Series


champion
2006-2007
with Allan McNish

Succeededby
Lucas Luhr
Marco Werner

Precededby
Winner of the 24 Hours of Le Mans
Frank Biela
2008 with:
Emanuele Pirro
Allan McNish
Marco Werner
Tom Kristensen

Succeededby
David Brabham
Marc Gen
Alexander Wurz

Pos Points

Yannick Dalmas

255

Yannick Dalmas
Yannick Dalmas
Born

28 July 1961

Formula One World Championship career


Nationality

French

Active years

19871990, 1994

Teams

Larrousse, AGS

Races

49 (24 starts)

Championships 0
Wins

Podiums

Career points

Pole positions

Fastest laps

First race

1987 Mexican Grand Prix

Last race

1994 Portuguese Grand Prix

Yannick Dalmas (born 28 July 1961 in Le Beausset, Var) is a former racing driver from France. He participated in
49 Formula One Grands Prix, debuting on 18 October 1987, but qualified for only 24 of them. His best result in F1
was a 5th place at the 1987 Australian Grand Prix, but he was not eligible for World Championship points at that
race. His F1 career was blighted by his health issues, towards the end of 1988, Dalmas was diagnosed with
Legionellosis which caused him to miss the final two races. He recovered before the start of 1989 but his illness had
clearly affected him.
After the 1990 Formula One Season, Dalmas left the series and began racing in Le Mans Prototypes. There he found
much more success, winning the 24 Hours of Le Mans four times (in 1992, 1994, 1995 and 1999), each with
different teams.
In 1994, Dalmas made a brief return to Formula One with cash-strapped Larrousse, but only entered two races. He
crashed in Italy, and finished two laps off the lead in Portugal.
Dalmas was French Formula Three champion in 1986.

Racing record
Complete Formula One results
(key)

Yannick Dalmas

256

Year

Entrant

Chassis

Engine

1987

Larrousse

Lola

Ford

Calmels

LC87

BRA SMR

BEL

MON

DET

FRA

GBR GER

10

11

12

13

14

15

HUN

AUT

ITA

POR

ESP

MEX

JPN

14

JPN

AUS

Cosworth

16

WDC Pts

AUS

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

DFZ 3.5 V8
1988

Larrousse

Lola

Ford

Calmels

LC88

Cosworth

BRA SMR MON


Ret

12

MEX

CAN

DET

FRA

GBR

GER

HUN

BEL

ITA

POR

ESP

DNQ

13

13

19

Ret

Ret

Ret

11

DFZ 3.5 V8
1989

Equipe
Larrousse

Lola
LC88C

Lamborghini BRA
3512 3.5

DNQ

V12

SMR MON

Lola

Ret

LC89
Automobiles
Gonfaronnaises

AGS
JH23C

Sportives
AGS

DNQ

MEX

USA

CAN FRA

DNQ

DNQ

DNQ
GBR

Ford

GER

HUN

DNPQ DNPQ DNPQ

Cosworth
DFR 3.5 V8

BEL

1990

Automobiles
Gonfaronnaises

AGS
JH24

Sportives
AGS

Ford

POR

ESP

JPN

AUS

Cosworth

USA

BRA SMR

DNPQ Ret DNPQ

DFR 3.5 V8

MON

CAN

MEX FRA

DNPQ DNPQ DNPQ

JH25
1994

ITA

DNPQ DNPQ DNPQ DNPQ DNPQ DNPQ

JH24

Tourtel

Larrousse

Ford

Larrousse F1

LH94

HBF7/8 3.5

BRA

PAC

SMR

MON

ESP

17

CAN FRA

GER

HUN

BEL

ITA

POR

ESP

JPN

AUS

DNPQ DNQ

GBR

DNQ

DNQ

NC

Ret

DNQ

DNQ

HUN

BEL

ITA

POR

EUR

JPN

AUS

Ret

14

GBR

GER

V8

Dalmas was ineligible to score points in 1987 as he was running in the second Larrousse, and the team had only
entered one car for the championship

24 Hours of Le Mans results


Year

Team

Co-Drivers

Car

Class

Laps Pos. Class


Pos.

1991

Peugeot Talbot Sport

Keke Rosberg
Peugeot 905
Pierre-Henri Raphanel

C1

68

DNF DNF

1992

Peugeot Talbot Sport

Derek Warwick
Mark Blundell

Peugeot 905 Evo 1B

C1

352

1st

1st

1993

Peugeot Talbot Sport

Thierry Boutsen
Teo Fabi

Peugeot 905 Evo 1B

C1

374

2nd

2nd

1994

Le Mans Porsche Team


Joest Racing

Hurley Haywood
Mauro Baldi

Dauer 962 Le Mans

GT1

344

1st

1st

1995

Kokusai Kaihatsu Racing

Masanori Sekiya
JJ Lehto

McLaren F1 GTR

GT1

298

1st

1st

1996

Porsche AG

Karl Wendlinger
Scott Goodyear

Porsche 911 GT1

GT1

341

3rd

2nd

1997

Porsche AG

Emmanuel Collard
Ralf Kelleners

Porsche 911 GT1

GT1

327 DNF DNF

1998

Porsche AG
Joest Racing

Michele Alboreto
Stefan Johansson

Porsche LMP1-98

LMP1

107 DNF DNF

1999

BMW Motorsport

Joachim Winkelhock
Pierluigi Martini

BMW V12 LMR

LMP

365

1st

1st

Yannick Dalmas

257

2000

Mopar Team Oreca

Nicolas Minassian
Jean-Philippe Belloc

Reynard 2KQ-LM-Mopar LMP900

2001

Viper Team Oreca

Stphane Sarrazin
Franck Montagny

Chrysler LMP

LMP900 126 DNF DNF

2002

Audi Sport Japan Team Goh

Hiroki Katoh
Seiji Ara

Audi R8

LMP900 358

References
Profile at grandprix.com [1]
Sporting positions
Precededby
Pierre-Henri Raphanel

Monaco Formula Three


Race Winner
1986

Succeededby
Didier Artzet

Precededby
Pierre-Henri Raphanel

French Formula Three


Champion
1986

Succeededby
Jean Alesi

Precededby
Teo Fabi

World Sportscar Champion


1992,
with Derek Warwick

Succeededby
None

Precededby
Volker Weidler
Johnny Herbert
Bertrand Gachot

Winner of the 24 Hours of Le


Mans
1992 with:
Derek Warwick
Mark Blundell

Succeededby
Geoff Brabham
Christophe
Bouchut
Eric Hlary

Precededby
Geoff Brabham
Christophe Bouchut
Eric Hlary

Winner of the 24 Hours of Le


Mans
1994 with:
Hurley Haywood
Mauro Baldi

Succeededby
Yannick Dalmas
JJ Lehto
Masanori Sekiya

Precededby
Yannick Dalmas
Hurley Haywood
Mauro Baldi

Winner of the 24 Hours of Le


Mans
1995 with:
JJ Lehto
Masanori Sekiya

Succeededby
Manuel Reuter
Davy Jones
Alexander Wurz

Precededby
Laurent Aello
Allan McNish
Stphane Ortelli

Winner of the 24 Hours of Le


Mans
1999 with:
Pierluigi Martini
Joachim Winkelhock

Succeededby
Frank Biela
Tom Kristensen
Emanuele Pirro

References
[1] http:/ / www. grandprix. com/ gpe/ drv-dalyan. html

DNF DNF

7th

6th

Jacky Ickx

258

Jacky Ickx
Jacky Ickx

Jacky Ickx in 2007.


Born

1 January 1945
Formula One World Championship career

Nationality

Belgian

Active years

1967 1979

Teams

Cooper Ferrari Brabham McLaren Williams Lotus Wolf Ensign Ligier

Races

122 (116 starts)

Championships 0
Wins

Podiums

25

Career points

181

Pole positions

13

Fastest laps

14

First race

1966 German Grand Prix

First win

1968 French Grand Prix

Last win

1972 German Grand Prix

Last race

1979 United States Grand Prix

Jacky Ickx

259

24 Hours of Le Mans career


Participating years 1966-1967, 1969-1970, 1973, 1975-1983, 1985
Teams

Essex Wire Corporation


John Wyer Automotive
Scuderia Ferrari
Gulf Research Racing
Martini Racing Porsche System
Essex Motorsport Porsche
Equipe Liqui Moly - Martini Racing
Porsche System
Rothmans Porsche

Best finish

1st (1969, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1981, 1982)

Class wins

6 (1969, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1981, 1982)

Jacques Bernard "Jacky" Ickx (last name pronounced "Ix" or "Icks") (born 1 January 1945 in Brussels) is a
Belgian former racing driver who achieved 25 podium finishes in Formula One and six wins in the 24 hours of Le
Mans.

Racing career

Jacky Ickx driving a Ferrari 312PB at the


Nrburgring in 1973

Jacky Ickx was introduced to the sport when he was taken by his
father, motoring journalist Jacques Ickx, to races which he covered.
Despite this family background, Jacky had limited interest in the sport
until his father bought him a 50 cc Zundapp motorcycle. Soon
afterwards, Ickx won 8 of 13 races at the first season and the European
50 cc trials title. He took another two titles before he moved to racing a
Lotus Cortina in touring car racing, taking his national saloon car
championship in 1965. He also competed in sports car races where he
had already significant experience from taking part in the 1000km
races at the Nrburgring.

Formula One
Ickx entered his first Grand Prix at the Nrburgring in 1967, driving a Matra Formula Two (F2) car. Despite the
greater power of the Formula One (F1) cars, only two F1 drivers qualified with a faster time than he did: Denny
Hulme and Jim Clark. As Ickx was racing in the separate F2 class, he started the race behind all of the F1 cars, but
within four laps of the 28km circuit he was up to fifth place, having overtaken 12 F1 cars. His front suspension
broke and he was forced to retire after 12 laps, but he had made a strong impression on the F1 team managers.[citation
needed]

At Monza, he made his F1 debut in a Cooper-Maserati, finishing sixth. In 1968 Ickx drove an F1 car for Ferrari. He
retired from his first two races, but at his home race at Spa-Francorchamps he started from the front row and finished
3rd. At the French Grand Prix at Rouen he took his first win, in heavy rain. Ickx also finished third at Brands Hatch
and fourth at the Nrburgring after driving almost the entire race in heavy rain without his helmet visor. At Monza
he finished the race in third position. In Canada he crashed and broke his left leg, which meant he could not compete
for the two following Grand Prix.
In 1969, Ickx chose to drive for the Brabham team. His first results were poor, but after Brabham broke his foot in a
testing accident, Ickx's results improved: Alan Henry suggests that Ickx performed better with the whole team

Jacky Ickx

260

focussed on him.[1] Ickx finished third in France, second in Great Britain and won in Canada and in Germany at the
Nrburgring, the last Formula One race there before 'The Ring' was made less bumpy and dangerous. In the 1969
Mexican Grand Prix Ickx finished second and became runner-up in the drivers' world championship. He returned to
the Ferrari team for the 1970 season, a move he had been considering since the Italian Grand Prix.[2]
As in 1969, he had a weak start to the 1970 season. During the 1970 Spanish Grand Prix he had a crash and his car
caught fire. It took at least 20 seconds for him to leave the burning car and was hospitalized with severe burns. After
17 days he was back in his car at the Monaco Grand Prix, where he ran fifth before retiring with a driveshaft failure.
The car started to improve and at the German Grand Prix (held at Hockenheimring as his favourite Nrburgring was
boycotted for safety reasons) he fought with Jochen Rindt for the win, but finished a close second. At the Austrian
Grand Prix it was Ickx that took the win. At Monza fate struck and Rindt lost his life during free practice. Ickx was
the only driver with a chance to take the championship from Rindt who had already won five of nine races in that
season, with four more to go. Monza saw a win by Ferrari team-mate Clay Regazzoni while Ickx's car broke down.
The Belgian took the win at Canada but in the US Grand Prix at Watkins Glen he only finished fourth, with Emerson
Fittipaldi scoring his first win for Lotus as well as the Championships for the team and his late team-mate. Despite
winning the last race in Mexico, Ickx could not beat Rindt's points total. Ickx later stated in a 2010 article in the
British magazine Motor Sport, that he was glad he didn't win the 1970 World Championship. He did not want to win
against a man who could not defend his chances, referring to the stricken Rindt.
In 1971, Ickx and Ferrari started as favourites, but the championship
went to Jackie Stewart with the new Tyrrell. Ferrari traditionally
started the season with its full attention on the sports car championship
rather than Formula One, a fact that had already caused John Surtees to
leave in the middle of the 1966 season. Ickx won at Zandvoort in the
rain with Firestone wet tyres, while Stewart had no chance with his
Goodyear rubber. After that, he had a lot of retirements, while Stewart
took one win after the other, despite Ickx giving him a good challenge
on the Nrburgring once again, where both drivers shared victories
from 1968 to 1973. That long and very challenging track was the
favourite of Ickx, while Stewart had called it the 'Green Hell' as well as
being a driving force behind the driver boycott of 1970 that urged the
Germans to rework the layout of the track, which had been built in
1927. Stewart said the only thing that had changed since then were the
Jacky Ickx' Ferrari 312B2
trees growing bigger. As requested, those near the track were cut and
replaced with a small run-off areas plus armco. So, the Scot and the Belgian not only fought on the track, but also off
the track. Stewart was constantly fighting for more safety in Formula One, while Ickx thought by doing that the
challenge was taken out of the sport.
In 1972, Ickx stayed at Ferrari and finished second in Spain and
Monaco. After that the Ferrari only got noticed for its retirements. Yet,
once again it was the Nrburgring where Ickx was eager to show it was
his track, giving his great rival Stewart no chance at all. As for Stewart
one year later, and other champions such as Juan Manuel Fangio in
1957, it turned out that the last Formula One win for Ickx came at
Nrburgring, where superior driving skill could beat superior
machinery.
Ickx in 1971, in his Ferrari

Jacky Ickx
In 1973, the Ferrari 312B3 was no longer competitive, and Ickx only managed one fourth place during the opening
Grand Prix of the season. While being successful with their sports cars, which were driven to several wins by Ickx
himself, the Formula One programme of the Italians was outclassed, and they even had to skip some races, notably at
the Nrburgring. This was not acceptable to Ickx, who left the team halfway through the season. Instead, he raced
the German Grand Prix at the Nrburgring in a McLaren, and scored a sterling third place behind the all-conquering
Tyrrells of Stewart and Franois Cevert.
When Ickx signed with Team Lotus in 1974, a difficult period awaited. Lotus had problems replacing the successful
but aging Lotus 72 (which debuted in 1970) with the troublesome Lotus 76 and, during the opening races of the
championship, Ickx only managed a solitary third place in Brazil. Ickx demonstrated that he was still the Rain
Master when he won the non-championship Race of Champions at Brands Hatch after having passed Niki Lauda by
the outside at Paddock Bend. After the Brazilian Grand Prix his season went downwards with the results of the
Lotus-Ford. However mid season Ickx, recovered some form, rising through the field in the British Grand Prix to
finish a strong third. Even better was his drive in the German Grand Prix. For most of the race Ickx dueled for fourth
place with his teammate Ronnie Peterson who was using a Lotus 76, which had been grafted to the back end of a
Lotus 72, Mike Hailwood in an M23 McLaren and tyro Jochen Mass in a Surtees running on his home circuit on
Firestone tyres well suited to the circuit. It was a classic duel on the daunting circuit, which still lacked armco around
half the track in 1974. Two laps from the end Hailwood crashed badly ending his F1 career. On the last two laps Ickx
was getting close to 3rd place Carlos Reutemann, but on the final lap, Ronnie Peterson slipstreamed past to claim
4th. In Austria, Ickx, this time in the Lotus 76, moved up the field but went off while attempting to take Depallier for
second. In the last races of the year, tyre issues with Goodyears unsuitable for the Lotus 72 and 76 rendered Lotus
hopelessly off the pace.
1975 was even more disastrous for Lotus and Ickx left the team halfway through the season, even though he
managed a second place in the chaotic Grand Prix of Spain which was overshadowed by accidents and stopped
before half distance. Ickx was generally qualifying about 0.8 seconds slower than the ultra-quick Peterson (Ickx was
not the only driver to suffer from Peterson's blinding pace: Mario Andretti, running with just a four lap fuel load,
could not get within 2 seconds of Peterson on a full tank in the same car(!) during practice for the British GP in
1978). Ickx was stood down after the 1975 French GP with the promise that Chapman might reemply him when a
competitive new Lotus was ready to race.
It seemed however if the end of his career was near. After Fittipaldi left McLaren, Ickx was favoured to get the drive,
but tobacco company promoter John Hogan preferred Hunt. In 1976 Ickx signed with the new teams of Walter Wolf
Racing, which had substantial financial backing from Wolf. Unfortunately, the car, esentially a re-badged Hesketh
308C, was awful, but at the Race of Champions, Ickx was challenging Hunt and Alan Jones for the lead, when Ickx's
visor ripped off. Usually in the world championship races he failed to qualify, achieving a degree of respectability
only with a 7th in Spain and a good drive to 10th out of 19 finishers in the French GP in a car which, in the estimate
of James Hunt and Chris Amon, was worse than useless. Nevertheless for a large payment from Wolf, Amon agreed
to swap drives with Ickx and Ickx raced the rest of the season in the fast and fragile Lotus styled Ensign N22, which
Amon had suffered horrific breakages at Zolder and in the Swedish Gp Ensign. For most of the Dutch GP, Ickx
moved through the field, running the third fastest lap and on most laps was the fastest car in the race. With a newer
Cosworth, Ickx probably would have won, but the under-maintained engine expired ten laps from the end. In the
Italian GP, Ickx drove at competitive pace in F1 for the last time, when he finished tenth, only 30 seconds behind
winner Ronnie Peterson, hard on the tail of Carlos Reutemann in a works Ferrari 312T2 in ninth. After a bad crash in
the US GP, Ickx never really tried again in F1, only competing sporadically. In 1979 he ended his career as a Grand
Prix driver at Ligier, gaining a fifth and sixth, but finding the ground effect cars dangerous and disconcerting, ill
suited to his precise style. Outside of Formula One, Ickx continued to win races in various sports car series, which he
had decided to concentrate on exclusively.

261

Jacky Ickx

262

In 1979, in the newly-reborn Can-Am series for rebodied covered wheel F5000 cars, Ickx won against strong
opposition from Keke Rosberg, Elliot Forbes Robinson and Bobby Rahal. Formula One fledgling Rosberg drove his
Can Am car with ferocity, but often went off the road trying to match the pace of Ickx, who won the series decisively
at the season finale at Riverside. The previous weekend, on the dangerous and undulating Laguna Seca circuit at
Monterey, Ickx elected to race conservatively rather than going after leaders Forbes Robertson and Rosberg, but film
of the race indicates the brutal nature of this late generation of Can Am racing. Ickx did not return to defend his title
the following season.

Endurance racing
In 1966, Ickx teamed up with Hubert Hahne in a BMW 2000TI to win
the Spa 24 Hours endurance race in his native Belgium.

Ickx's Gulf Ford GT40

In 1969 Jacky Ickx raced in the 24 hours of Le Mans for the first time.
This race also saw the first appearance of the Porsche 917 in Le Mans,
which was regarded by far as the favourite. The Ford GT40 that Ickx
drove with Jackie Oliver appeared at that time was an obsolete car,
outperformed by the new Porsche 917 but also by the older Porsche
908 and the new generation of 3-litre prototypes from Ferrari, Matra
and Alfa Romeo.

Ferrari 512S: Ickx drove the car during the 1970


24 Hours of Le Mans.

Jacky Ickx

263
As Ickx was opposed to the traditional Le Mans start which he
considered to be dangerous, he slowly walked across the track to his
machine, instead of running. He locked the safety belt carefully and
thus was the last to start the race, chasing the field. On lap one, a tragic
event proved that Ickx was right: private driver John Woolfe had a
fatal accident in his new and powerful 917 and fellow countryman
Willy Mairesse had an accident which ended his career. Neither of
them had taken time to belt himself in.

During the race the Porsche 917 proved unreliable, and none was to
finish. The last four hours of the race turned into a duel between the
Porsche 908 of Hans Herrmann/Grard Larrousse and the Ford GT-40
of Ickx/Oliver. In the last hour, Ickx and Herrmann continually
leapfrogged each other, the Porsche being faster on the straights owing
to having less aerodynamic drag, while being passed again under
braking as the brake pads were worn and the team reckoned there was
Ickx in 1975 at Spa
not enough time left to change them. Ickx won the race by the smallest
of competitive margins ever, with less than 120 yards (110m) between the two cars, despite having lost a bigger
distance intentionally at the start. He also won his case for safety: from 1970, all drivers could start the race sitting in
their cars with the belts tightened properly.
In later years, Ickx won a record six times at the 24h race at Le Mans, becoming known as "Monsieur Le Mans".
Three of the wins were with Derek Bell: this would become one of the most legendary partnerships. In 2005, Tom
Kristensen surpassed Ickx's record and as of 2008 has eight victories.
From 1976 on, he was a factory driver for Porsche and their new
turbocharged race cars, the 935 and especially the 936 sports car,
which he drove to wins in Le Mans three times. These drives, as well
as the losing effort in 1978, often in the rain and at night, were some of
the finest ever. Jacky Ickx considers the 1977 24 Hours of Le Mans
race to be his favourite win of all time. Retiring earlier on in another
Porsche 936, which he shared with Henri Pescarolo, the team
transferred him to the car of Jrgen Barth and Hurley Haywood which
Ickx's Rothmans Porsche 956
was in 42nd place. Ickx made up for lost laps to lead the race by early
morning, but suffered a mechanical problem which forced the car to pit. The mechanics resolved the issue by
switching off one cylinder, and Ickx went on to win the race. The win in 1982 came with the new and superior 956
model, though, which carried him to two titles as world champion of endurance racing, in 1982 and 1983.
In 1983, Ickx was the team leader at Porsche, but a new teammate was faster than he was: young German Stefan
Bellof set new lap records at the Nrburgring in the last ever sports car race held on the original configuration of
Ickx's favourite track. As it turned out, Ickx and Bellof would become involved in controversial events later on.
In 1984, Ickx acted as Formula One race director in Monaco, and red-flagged the race because of rain, just as leader
Alain Prost in a Porsche-powered McLaren was caught by a young Ayrton Senna. Also, Stefan Bellof had started
from the back of the grid, as his underpowered Tyrrell-Cosworth could not provide extra boost in qualifying like the
turbos of all others. Yet, in the wet race, he managed to pass many others and was on pace for catching both Senna
and Prost when Ickx decided to stop the race. That saved the win for Prost, but owing to the short distance covered
overall, only half the points for the win were awarded (4.5), less than for a second place in a full race (6). Prost
subsequently lost the 1984 championship to Lauda by half a point.

Jacky Ickx
In 1985, Ickx was involved with Bellof again, but with tragic consequences. Bellof raced a privateer Porsche while
waiting to join the Ferrari F1 team in 1986, which had promised him a seat after his performance in Monaco, similar
to what they had done for Lauda after he outclassed Ickx there in 1973. At Spa, Ickx's home track, the young
German in the private Porsche 956 of Walter Brun tried to pass the experienced Belgian in the factory Porsche 962
for 1st place after being held up by Ickx for 3 laps. At Eau Rouge corner, Bellof attempted the pass with disastrous
consequences, as Ickx closed the door and the cars collided and crashed, Bellof tragically dying an hour later, while
Ickx was shaken but unharmed. He retired from professional circuit racing at the end of the season.
24 hours of Le Mans victories

1969 - Jacky Ickx / Jackie Oliver (Ford GT-40)


1975 - Jacky Ickx / Derek Bell (Mirage GR8)
1976 - Jacky Ickx / Gijs van Lennep (Porsche 936)
1977 - Jacky Ickx / Hurley Haywood / Jrgen Barth (Porsche 936)
1981 - Jacky Ickx / Derek Bell (Porsche 936)
1982 - Jacky Ickx / Derek Bell (Porsche 956)

Other races
Ickx also co-drove to victory with Allan Moffat at the 1977 Hardie-Ferodo 1000 in Australia, becoming the last
debutant to win the race until 2011, when Nick Percat matched this feat parterning two time winner Garth Tander,
became champion of Can-Am in 1979, and won the Rally Paris-Dakar in 1983 in a Mercedes-Benz G-Class.[3] The
victory at the Bathurst 1000 was in a Ford XC Falcon Group C Touring Car manufactured in Australia with limited
modifications for racing. After only days practice in a car he had never driven before he was doing lap times the
same or quicker than drivers who drove nothing else and who were familiar with the circuit.
One of his other Le Mans 24 hour victories in a non-driving capacity was when he consulted for the Oreca team who
were running a Mazda 787B for Mazdaspeed in 1991. Ickx was also selected to participate in the 1978 and 1984
editions of the International Race of Champions.
After he retired from his professional racing career, he continued to compete in the Paris-Dakar Rally, even
competing with daughter Vanina in recent years. Nowadays, he appears in historic events as a driver, such as the
Goodwood Festival of Speed and the Monterey Historics, usually on behalf of Porsche and Ferrari. He still acts as
the Clerk of the Course for the Monaco Grand Prix and is still a resident of Brussels.

Awards
Awarded the Honorary Citizen of Le Mans [4] prior to the 2000 race, the first sports person to do so.
Inducted into the International Motorsports Hall of Fame in 2002.

In popular culture
Jacky Ickx, Gilles Villeneuve or Jacques Laffite had been believed to be the unidentified driver in the 1976 short
film C'tait un rendez-vous, yet it turned out that director Claude Lelouch himself drove through Paris.[citation
needed]

Jacky often appears in the famous Belgian Comics Michel Vaillant, as one of the main characters
The Chopard Company developed three limited edition Chopard Mille Miglia Jacky Ickx Men's watches
dedicated to the legendary racer. The fourth Chopard watch honouring Jacky Ickx was designed with cooperation
of the champion.[5]

264

Jacky Ickx

265

Racing record
Complete Formula One World Championship results
(key) (Races in bold indicate pole position; results in italics indicate fastest lap)
Year

Entrant

1966 Ken Tyrrell


Racing
1967 Ken Tyrrell
Racing

Chassis
Matra MS5
F2
Matra MS7
F2

Engine

Cosworth MON BEL

FRA GBR NED GER

Str-4

7
ITA

1968

Scuderia

Ferrari 312

1969

Motor

Brabham

Racing

BT26A

11

12

13

14

15

16

USA MEX

Cosworth RSA MON NED BEL

FRA GBR GER CAN

Str-4

17 WDC Points
NC

20th

4th

27

2nd

37

2nd

40

4th

19

4th

27

9th

12

10th

12

16th

NC

Ret
ITA USA MEX
6

V12

Ferrari

10

Ret

Cooper Car Cooper T81B Maserati


Company

Ret

Ferrari

RSA

ESP MON BEL NED FRA GBR GER ITA CAN USA MEX

V12

Ret

Ret

Ford V8 RSA
Ret

DNS

Ret

ESP MON NED FRA GBR GER ITA CAN USA MEX
6

Ret

10

Ret

Developments
1970

Scuderia

Ferrari 312B

Ferrari
1971

Scuderia

Ferrari 312B

Ferrari
Ferrari 312B2

Ferrari

RSA

ESP MON BEL NED FRA GBR GER AUT ITA CAN USA MEX

F12

Ret

Ret

Ferrari

RSA

ESP

ITA

F12

Ret

Scuderia

Ferrari 312B2

Ferrari
1973

Scuderia

Ferrari
F12

Ferrari 312B2

Ferrari

Ferrari
F12

Ferrari 312B3

Yardley

McLaren

Team

M23

Ret

Ret

MON NED FRA GBR GER AUT

Ferrari

F12
1972

Ret

ARG RSA
3

Ret

ESP MON BEL


2

Ret

Ret

Ret

Ret

CAN USA

Ret

NC

FRA GBR GER AUT ITA CAN USA


11

Ret

Ret

Ret

12

ARG BRA RSA


4

Ret

Ferrari

ESP

F12

12

BEL MON SWE FRA GBR NED


Ret

Ret

ITA CAN

8
GER AUT

Ford V8

McLaren
Frank

Iso Marlboro

Williams

IR

USA

Ford V8

Racing Cars
1974 John Player

Lotus 72E

Ford V8 ARG BRA


Ret

Team Lotus
Lotus 76

1975 John Player

Lotus 72E

Ford V8

Frank
Williams

Ret
RSA

ESP

BEL

Ret

Ret

Ret

Ford V8 ARG BRA RSA


8

Team Lotus
1976

MON SWE NED FRA GBR GER

12

Ret

11

CAN USA

13

Ret

AUT ITA
Ret

Ret

ESP MON BEL SWE NED FRA GBR GER AUT ITA USA
2

Ret

15

Ret

Ret

Wolf-Williams Ford V8 BRA RSA USW


FW05

16

DNQ

Racing Cars
Walter Wolf Wolf-Williams Ford V8
Racing

FW05

Team

Ensign N176

Ensign

ESP
7

Ford V8

BEL MON SWE FRA GBR GER AUT


DNQ DNQ

10

DNQ
NED ITA CAN USA JPN
Ret

10

13

Ret

Jacky Ickx

1977 Team Tissot

266
Ensign N177

Ford V8 ARG BRA RSA USW ESP MON BEL SWE FRA GBR GER AUT NED ITA USA CAN JPN

NC

NC

16th

10

Ensign with
Castrol
1978 Team Tissot

Ensign N177

Ford V8 ARG BRA RSA USW MON BEL


Ret

Ensign
1979

Ligier

Ligier JS11

Ford V8 ARG BRA RSA USW ESP

ESP SWE FRA GBR GER AUT NED ITA USA CAN

12

Ret

DNQ

BEL MON FRA GBR GER AUT NED ITA CAN USA
Ret

Gitanes

Ret

Ret

Ret

Ret

Ret

Complete 24 Hours of Le Mans results


Year Result

Team

Car

Class

1966 Ret

Essex Wire Corporation

Ford GT40 Mk.I S 5.0

1967 Ret

John Wyer Automotive Engineering Mirage M1

1969 1

John Wyer Automotive Engineering Ford GT40 Mk.I S 5.0

1970 Ret

SpA Ferrari SEFAC

Ferrari 512S

S 5.0

1973 Ret

SpA Ferrari SEFAC

Ferrari 312PB

S 3.0

1975 1

Gulf Research Racing Co.

Mirage GR8

S 3.0

1976 1

Martini Racing Porsche System

Porsche 936

S 3.0

1977 1

Martini Racing Porsche System

Porsche 936/77

S +2.0

1978 2

Martini Racing Porsche System

Porsche 936/78

S +2.0

1979 Ret

Essex Motorsport Porsche

Porsche 936

S +2.0

1980 2

Equipe Liqui Moly - Martini Racing Porsche 908/80

S +2.0

1981 1

Porsche System

Porsche 936

S +2.0

1982 1

Rothmans Porsche System

Porsche 956

1983 2

Rothmans Porsche

Porsche 956

1985 10

Rothmans Porsche

Porsche 962C

C1

P +5.0

References
[1] Henry (1985) p.85 "Interestingly, the somewhat unpredictable Belgian rose to the occasion in superb fashion and seemed able to produce
more impressive form when the effort was concentrated on him exclusively rather than being shared with the boss."
[2] Henry (1985) p.89
[4] http:/ / www. maisonblanche. co. uk/ 00ickxhc. html
[5] Chopard Company to Honor Jacky Ickx (http:/ / watches. infoniac. com/ index. php?page=articles& catid=2& id=10)

"DRIVER: Ickx, Jacky" (http://web.archive.org/web/20071222120229/http://www.autocoursegpa.com/


season_driver~season~1970~driver_id~11824.htm). Autocourse Grand prix Archive. Archived from the original
(http://www.autocoursegpa.com/season_driver~season~1970~driver_id~11824.htm) on 2007-12-22.
Retrieved 2007-09-12.
"Europes Mr Versatility" (http://www.forix.com/8w/ickx.html). 8W. Retrieved 2007-09-12.
"Tribute to Jacky Ickx" (http://www.jacky-ickx-fan.net/english/home.php). Jacky-Ickx-Fan.net. Retrieved
2007-09-12.
"Drivers: Jacky Ickx" (http://www.grandprix.com/gpe/drv-ickjac.html). GrandPrix.com. Retrieved
2007-09-12.
"Jacky Ickx" (http://www.gpracing.net192.com/drivers/careers/290.cfm). Grand Prix Racing. Retrieved
2007-09-12.

Jacky Ickx

267

"Chopard Company to Honor Jacky Ickx" (http://watches.infoniac.com/index.php?page=articles&catid=2&


id=10). Watches Channel Infoniac. Retrieved 2007-12-12.
Books
Henry, Alan (1985). Brabham, the Grand Prix Cars. Osprey. ISBN0-905138-36-8.

External links
Official Jacky Ickx Website (http://www.jacky-ickx-fan.net)
http://www.lemans.org (http://www.lemans.org)
Jacky Ickx miniature book (http://digital.library.unt.edu/permalink/meta-dc-649), hosted by the University of
North Texas Libraries Digital Collections (http://digital.library.unt.edu/)
Sporting positions
Precededby
Warwick Banks

European Touring Car Champion


(Div.3)
1965

Succeededby
Hubert Hahne

Precededby
None

European Formula Two


Champion
1967

Succeededby
Jean-Pierre Beltoise

Precededby
Peter Gethin

Brands Hatch Race of Champions


winner
1974

Succeededby
Tom Pryce

Precededby
Pedro Rodriguez
Lucien Bianchi

Winner of the 24 Hours of Le Mans


1969 with:
Jackie Oliver

Succeededby
Hans Herrmann
Richard Attwood

Precededby
Henri Pescarolo
Grard Larrousse

Winner of the 24 Hours of Le Mans


1975 with:
Derek Bell

Succeededby
Jacky Ickx
Gijs van Lennep

Precededby
Jacky Ickx
Derek Bell

Winner of the 24 Hours of Le Mans


1976 with:
Gijs van Lennep

Succeededby
Jacky Ickx
Hurley Haywood
Jrgen Barth

Precededby
Jacky Ickx
Gijs van Lennep

Winner of the 24 Hours of Le Mans


1977 with:
Hurley Haywood
Jrgen Barth

Succeededby
Jean-Pierre Jaussaud
Didier Pironi

Precededby
Bob Morris
John Fitzpatrick

Winner of the Bathurst 1000


1977
(with Allan Moffat)

Succeededby
Peter Brock
Jim Richards

Precededby
Alan Jones

Can-Am
Champion
1979

Succeededby
Patrick Tambay

Precededby
Jean Rondeau
Jean-Pierre Jaussaud

Winner of the 24 Hours of Le Mans


1981 with:
Derek Bell

Succeededby
Jacky Ickx
Derek Bell

Precededby
Jacky Ickx
Derek Bell

Winner of the 24 Hours of Le Mans


1982 with:
Derek Bell

Succeededby
Vern Schuppan
Al Holbert
Hurley Haywood

Jacky Ickx

268
Precededby
Claude Marreau

Dakar Rally
Car Winner
1983

Succeededby
Ren Metge

Precededby
Bob Garretson

World Endurance Champion


19821983

Succeededby
Stefan Bellof

Records
Precededby
Eugenio Castellotti
24 years, 238 days
(1955 Belgian GP)

Youngest Grand Prix Polesitter


23 years, 216 days
(1968 German Grand Prix)

Succeededby
Andrea de Cesaris
22 years, 308 days
(1982 United States GP West)

Tom Kristensen
Tom Kristensen

In 2008, as a DTM driver.


Nationality
Born

Danish
7 July 1967
Hobro (Denmark)
2013 WEC

Debut season

2012

Current team

Audi Sport Team Joest

Car no.

Starts

Wins

Poles

Best finish

2nd in 2012
Previous series

2004-2011
2001-2002
2000
1998-1999
1996-1997
1994-1995
1994-1995
1992-1993
1989, 1991

DTM
American Le Mans Series
BTCC
German Supertouring
International Formula
3000
Japanese Formula 3000
JTCC
Japanese Formula Three
German Formula Three
Championship titles

Tom Kristensen

269
2001
1993
1991

American Le Mans Series


Japanese Formula Three
German Formula Three

Tom Kristensen (born 7 July 1967) is a Danish racing driver. He has won many championships in auto racing but
his most famous achievement is being the only person to win the prestigious 24 Hours of Le Mans eight times, six of
which were consecutive (from 20002005). In 1997, he won the race with the Joest Racing team, driving a Tom
Walkinshaw Racing-designed and Porsche-powered WSC95, after being a late inclusion in the team following Davy
Jones' accident that eventually ruled him out of the race. All of his wins since then have come driving an Audi
prototype, except in 2003, when he drove a Bentley prototype. In both 1999 and 2007 Kristensen's team crashed out
of a comfortable lead in the closing hours of the race.

Career
Tom was born in Hobro. His career began in 1984, winning several karting titles. He raced in Japan in the early
1990s, concurrently in Formula 3 and Touring Cars. He was German Formula 3 Champion in 1991, Japanese
Formula 3 champion in 1993, and runner-up in the Japanese Touring Car Championship (JTCC) in 1992 and 1994.
He was 6th in Formula 3000 in both 1996 and 1997, and test driver for Tyrrell in their final Formula One season in
1998, and for Michelin as they prepared their F1 tyres using an older Williams car in 2000. He was 3rd in the STW
Cup in Germany in 1999, 7th in the British Touring Car Championship in 2000, and winner of the 12 Hours of
Sebring in both those years.
On 22 April 2007, Kristensen was involved in an accident while racing
on the Hockenheimring race course in Hockenheim, Germany.[1] The
crash resulted in a long break from training for Kristensen, and his
participation in the 2007 Le Mans race was in jeopardy. However,
Kristensen recuperated quickly, and was cleared by the Le Mans
doctors to start the race. It was reported that a new type of collar may
have prevented him suffering a broken neck in the crash.[2]
Kristensen driving for Audi (Abt) at the
Hockenheimring in the 2008 Deutsche
Tourenwagen Masters season.

24 Hours of Le Mans

In 2000, 2001, and 2002 he won the 24 Hours at Le Mans race with the
powerful Audi R8 along with Frank Biela and Emanuele Pirro,
becoming the first three drivers since Jacky Ickx in 1977 to win the race on three straight occasions. In 2003, he won
the race with Bentley. In 2004, he equaled Ickx's record of six Le Mans victories in Team Goh's Audi R8. 2005 saw
Kristensen win a seventh time with an American R8 entry, making him the most successful driver at the Le Mans 24
hour race. The 2006 race saw Kristensen finishing in third place in the new diesel-powered Audi R10. Kristensen
didn't finish the 2007 race following Rinaldo Capello's crash while the car was leading the race by four laps.
Kristensen returned in 2008 to claim an eighth victory and extend the record for most wins.[]

Racing record
Complete 24 Hours of Le Mans results

Tom Kristensen

270

24 Hours of Le Mans career


Participating years 1997 -

Year

Teams

Joest Racing, BMW Motorsport, Audi Sport Joest, Team Bentley, Audi Sport Goh, Champion Racing

Best finish

1st (1997, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2008)

Class wins

8 (1997, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2008)

Team

Co-Drivers

Car

Class

Laps Pos. Class


Pos.

TWR Porsche WSC-95

LMP

361

BMW V12 LM

LMP1

60

LMP

304 DNF DNF

1997

Joest Racing

1998

Team BMW Motorsport

1999

Team BMW Motorsport

JJ Lehto
Jrg Mller

BMW V12 LMR

2000

Audi Sport Team Joest

Frank Biela
Emanuele Pirro

Audi R8

LMP900 368

1st

1st

2001

Audi Sport Team Joest

Frank Biela
Emanuele Pirro

Audi R8

LMP900 321

1st

1st

2002

Audi Sport Team Joest

Frank Biela
Emanuele Pirro

Audi R8

LMP900 375

1st

1st

2003

Team Bentley

Rinaldo Capello
Guy Smith

Bentley Speed 8

LMGTP

377

1st

1st

2004

Audi Sport Japan Team Goh

Seiji Ara
Rinaldo Capello

Audi R8

LMP1

379

1st

1st

2005

ADT Champion Racing

JJ Lehto
Marco Werner

Audi R8

LMP1

370

1st

1st

2006

Audi Sport Team Joest

Rinaldo Capello
Allan McNish

Audi R10 TDI

LMP1

367

3rd

3rd

2007

Audi Sport North America

Rinaldo Capello
Allan McNish

Audi R10 TDI

LMP1

262 DNF DNF

2008

Audi Sport North America

Rinaldo Capello
Allan McNish

Audi R10 TDI

LMP1

381

1st

1st

2009

Audi Sport Team Joest

Rinaldo Capello
Allan McNish

Audi R15 TDI

LMP1

376

3rd

3rd

2010

Audi Sport Team Joest

Rinaldo Capello
Allan McNish

Audi R15 TDI plus

LMP1

394

3rd

3rd

2011

Audi Sport North America

Rinaldo Capello
Allan McNish

Audi R18 TDI

LMP1

14

DNF DNF

2012

Audi Sport Team Joest

Allan McNish
Rinaldo Capello

Audi R18 e-tron quattro

LMP1

377

2nd

Michele Alboreto
Stefan Johansson
Hans Joachim
Stuck
Steve Soper

1st

1st

DNF DNF

2nd

Tom Kristensen

271

Complete 12 Hours of Sebring results

Kristensen driving the Audi R15 TDI which led


him to a fifth win at Sebring.

Year Result

Team

Car

Class

1999 1

Team BMW Motorsport / Schnitzer Motorsport BMW V12 LMR

LMP

2000 1

Audi Sport Team Joest

Audi R8

LMP900

2001 2

Audi Sport Team Joest

Audi R8

LMP900

2002 5

Audi Sport Team Joest

Audi R8

LMP900

2003 4

Team Bentley

Bentley Speed 8

LMGTP

2005 1

ADT Champion Racing

Audi R8

LMP1

2006 1

Audi Sport Team Joest

Audi R10

LMP1

2007 4

Audi Sport North America

Audi R10

LMP1

2008 3

Audi Sport North America

Audi R10

LMP1

2009 1

Audi Sport Team Joest

Audi R15 TDI

LMP1

2011 4

Audi Sport Team Joest

Audi R15 TDI plus LMP1

2012 1

Audi Sport Team Joest

Audi R18 TDI

2004 DNP

Complete Petit Le Mans results


Year Result

Team

Car

Class

2000 2

Audi Sport North America Audi R8

LMP

2001 Ret

Audi Sport North America Audi R8

LMP900

2002 1

Audi Sport North America Audi R8

LMP900

2010 3

Audi Sport Team Joest

Audi R15 TDI plus LMP1

2011 DNF

Audi Sport Team Joest

Audi R18

LMP1

LMP1

Tom Kristensen

272

Complete International Formula 3000 results


(key) (Races in bold indicate pole position) (Races in italics indicate fastest lap)
Year

Entrant

10

DC Points

1996 Edenbridge Racing NR PAU PER HOC SIL SPA MAG EST MUG HOC 7th
4
Ret
5
2
3
4
Ret

18

1997 Auto Sport Racing SIL PAU HEL NR PER HOC A1R SPA MUG JER 6th
1
2
Ret
3 Ret Ret
6
Ret EX Ret

19

Complete Japanese Formula 3000 results


(key) (Races in bold indicate pole position) (Races in italics indicate fastest lap)
Year

Entrant

10

DC Points

1994 Navi Connection Racing SUZ FUJ MIN SUZ SUG FUJ SUZ FUJ FUJ SUZ 9th
8
9
9
6
11
9
6 Ret 12 4

1995

29

Team Cerumo

SUZ MIN SUZ SUG FUJ TOK FUJ SUZ


4
1
2 Ret
4
3 Ret 5

3rd

Complete British Touring Car Championship results


(key) (Races in bold indicate pole position - 1 point awarded all races) (Races in italics indicate fastest lap - 1 point
awarded all races) (* signifies that driver lead feature races for at least one lap - 1 point awarded)
YearTeamCar

Class

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24 Pos Pts

2000
Redstone
HondaTouring BRH BRH DON DON THR THR KNO KNO OUL OUL SIL SIL CRO CRO SNE SNE DON DON BRH BRH OUL OUL SIL SIL 7th 143
Team
Accord

Honda

Ret

Ret

Ret

1*

6*

Ret

10

Ret

Ret

1*

Complete DTM results


(key)
Year

Team

Car

2004

Abt
Sportsline

Audi A4
DTM 2004

HOC1 EST
4
4

2005

Abt
Sportsline

Audi A4
DTM 2005

HOC1 LAU1 SPA BRN OSC NOR NR ZAN LAU2


Ret
2
3
2
5
7
2
4
3

2006

Abt
Sportsline

Audi A4
DTM 2006

2007

Abt
Sportsline

2008

ADR LAU NOR SHA1 NR OSC ZAN


10
10
6
5
1
6
Ret

10

11

Pos Points

BRN HOC2 4th


2
4

43

IST
5

HOC2 3rd
4

56

HOC1 LAU OSC BRH NOR NR ZAN CAT BUG HOC2


2
2
1
Ret
5
5
1
9
3
3

3rd

56

Audi A4
DTM 2007

HOC1 OSC LAU BRH NOR MUG ZAN NR CAT HOC2


Ret
5
8
18
8
9
6

14th

Abt
Sportsline

Audi A4
DTM 2008

HOC1 OSC MUG LAU NOR ZAN NR BRH CAT


3
Ret
3
16
7
3
Ret
7
13

BUG HOC2 8th


8
5

27

2009

Abt
Sportsline

Audi A4
DTM 2009

HOC1 LAU NOR ZAN OSC NR BRH CAT


1
12
8
8
8
Ret Ret
2

HOC2
15

8th

21

2011

Abt
Sportsline

Audi A4
DTM 2009

HOC1 ZAN

SPL LAU NOR NR BRH OSC VAL HOC2


7

15th

DIJ
18

Tom Kristensen
1

273

- A non-championship one-off race was held in 2004 at the streets of Shanghai, China.

Complete FIA World Endurance Championship results


Year

Entrant

Class

Chassis

Engine

2012

Audi Sport
Team Joest

LMP1

Audi R18
e-tron
quattro

Audi TDI
3.7L Turbo
V6
(Hybrid
Diesel)

SEB SPA LMN SIL SO BHR FUJ SHA


1
3
2
3
3
2
3
2

2nd

159

2013

Audi Sport
Team Joest

LMP1

Audi R18
e-tron
quattro

Audi TDI
3.7L Turbo
V6
(Hybrid
Diesel)

SIL SPA LMN SO COA FUJ SHA BHR 2nd*


1
2

43*

*Season in progress

Notes
[1] http:/ / politiken. dk/ sport/ article288794. ece
[2] http:/ / politiken. dk/ sport/ article288849. ece

External links
Official Tom Kristensen website (http://tomkristensen.com)
Sporting positions
Precededby
German Formula Three champion
Michael Schumacher
1991

Succeededby
Pedro Lamy

Precededby
Anthony Reid

All-Japan Formula Three


Champion
1993

Succeededby
Michael Krumm

Precededby
Manuel Reuter
Davy Jones
Alexander Wurz

Winner of the 24 Hours of Le Mans


1997 with:
Michele Alboreto
Stefan Johansson

Succeededby
Laurent Aello
Allan McNish
Stphane Ortelli

Precededby
Winner of the 24 Hours of Le Mans
Pierluigi Martini
2000, 2001, and 2002 with:
Yannick Dalmas
Frank Biela
Joachim Winkelhock
Emanuele Pirro

Succeededby
Tom Kristensen
Rinaldo Capello
Guy Smith

Precededby
Emanuele Pirro

American Le Mans Series


champion
2002

Succeededby
Frank Biela
Marco Werner

Precededby
Frank Biela
Tom Kristensen
Emanuele Pirro

Winner of the 24 Hours of Le Mans


2003 with:
Rinaldo Capello
Guy Smith

Succeededby
Seiji Ara
Tom Kristensen
Rinaldo Capello

Precededby
Tom Kristensen
Rinaldo Capello
Guy Smith

Winner of the 24 Hours of Le Mans


2004 with:
Seiji Ara
Rinaldo Capello

Succeededby
J.J. Lehto
Marco Werner
Tom Kristensen

Rank Points

Tom Kristensen

274
Precededby
Seiji Ara
Tom Kristensen
Rinaldo Capello

Winner of the 24 Hours of Le Mans


2005 with:
J.J. Lehto
Marco Werner

Succeededby
Frank Biela
Emanuele Pirro
Marco Werner

Precededby
Jean Alesi
Sbastien Loeb

Race of Champions
Nations' Cup
2005 with:
Mattias Ekstrm

Succeededby
Marcus Grnholm
Heikki Kovalainen

Precededby
Frank Biela
Emanuele Pirro
Marco Werner

Winner of the 24 Hours of Le Mans


2008 with:
Rinaldo Capello
Allan McNish

Succeededby
David Brabham
Marc Gen
Alexander Wurz

Allan McNish
Allan McNish

Born

29 December 1969
Formula One World Championship career

Nationality

British

Active years

2002

Teams

Toyota

Races

17 (16 starts)

Championships

Wins

Podiums

Career points

Pole positions

Fastest laps

First race

2002 Australian Grand Prix

Allan McNish

275
Last race

2002 Japanese Grand Prix

24 Hours of Le Mans career


Participating years 1997 2000, 2004
Teams

Roock Racing, Porsche AG, Toyota Motorsports, Audi Sport Joest, Audi Sport UK, Champion Racing

Best finish

1st (1998, 2008)

Class wins

2 (1998, 2008)

Allan McNish (born 29 December 1969) is a Scottish racing driver. He is a two-time winner of the 24 Hours of Le
Mans, most recently in 2008, and three-time American Le Mans Series champion. He is also a co-commentator for
BBC Radio 5 Live's Formula One coverage.

Early life
McNish who was born in Dumfries, Scotland played football while at school. He was a fan of Nottingham Forest and
also supported his local club Queen of the South. It wasn't until McNish began in karting that he found something at
which he excelled.[1]

Early career
McNish began his career in karting like fellow Dumfries and Galloway driver David Coulthard. McNish credited the
start given to both of them and Dario Franchitti as being largely down to David Leslie senior and junior.[2]
McNish and Coulthard both were recognised with a McLaren/Autosport BRDC Young Driver of the Year award
having moved up to car racing. In 1988 he won the Formula Vauxhall Lotus championship and in 1989 finished
runner up to David Brabham in a close fought British Formula Three Championship. During the late 1980s McNish
shared a house with team mate Mika Hkkinen.[3]
Tipped as a future F1 driver, he tested with both McLaren and Benetton, whilst also competing in F3000, then the
recognised second tier of European motorsport, in 19901992. Whilst racing his first season in F3000, McNish
suffered a crash at a race in Donington Park where a bystander was fatally injured.[] He went on to finish 4th overall
in the championship that season. Concentrating on F1 opportunities meant he appeared in F3000 only once during
1994, at Pau.
When an F1 drive failed to materialise, he returned to F3000 in 1995 with Paul Stewart Racing (run by the son of Sir
Jackie Stewart who went on to form Stewart Grand Prix). While he was arguably the fastest driver of the year, a
series of mishaps saw him well beaten by Super Nova drivers Vincenzo Sospiri and Ricardo Rosset in the title race.
McNish's career appeared to stall in early 1996 after a deal to race in Formula Nippon fell through and Mark
Blundell was preferred for a drive with the PacWest CART team. He also tested for Benetton during the year.

Sports cars
Having devoted his career to the pursuit of an F1 chance, it is ironic that McNish has become one of the world's most
highly rated sportscar drivers. His sportscar career began in 1996 with Porsche, at a time when their 911 GT1 model
revolutionized sportscar racing. With the factory team he took this car to victory in the 1998 24 Hours of Le Mans,
partnered by Laurent Aello and Stephane Ortelli. He subsequently appeared for Toyota and Audi in the race, and
after losing a likely victory in the dying stages of the 2007 event, scored a second triumph in 2008 with Tom
Kristensen and Rinaldo Capello driving an Audi R10.[4] He has also raced with great success for Audi in the
American Le Mans Series, winning the title with Dindo Capello in 2006 and 2007, and taking four overall victories
at the 12 Hours of Sebring (2004, 2006, 2009 and 2012). At the 2011 Le Mans McNish destroyed the car in a

Allan McNish

276

spectacular crash early in the race and ended the race for Audi #3. And again at the 2012 Le Mans, McNish made a
driving error and lost a first place by crashing the Audi #2 car a few hours before the finish.[citation needed] He also
codrove the #8 Starworks Motorsport Riley-Ford to a 2nd place finish at the 2012 24 Hours of Daytona.

Formula One
McNish finally found an opening into Formula One in 2001, when the
newly formed Toyota F1 team required a development driver. Given
his link with Toyota through sportscars he was an obvious choice for
this role, and after impressing in testing he was hired to race for the
season. He did not score any points during the season's 17 races, and he
and team-mate Mika Salo were replaced with a new line-up of Olivier
Panis and Cristiano da Matta for 2003. Salo had scored points for the
team on their debut in Melbourne and McNish had very nearly done
McNish's Toyota engine fails at the 2002 French
Grand Prix.
the same in the Malaysian Grand Prix, only for a pit lane mistake by
the team to cost him the result. Both drivers were told of their
replacement before Da Matta was announced, and ITV's Martin Brundle commented that "replacing Salo and
McNish with Panis and A.N. Other" was not, in his view, a step forward [citation needed].
McNish had a dramatic accident at the 130R corner while practising for the Japanese Grand Prix at Suzuka, but
escaped serious injury. This led to the corner being reprofiled the following year [citation needed].

After Formula One


In 2003 he was a test driver for Renault F1, also doing a little TV
work for ITV, but the next year he returned to his successful sports
car racing career, winning the 12 Hours of Sebring, combining this
in 2005 with a venture into the highly competitive DTM (German
Touring Car Championship), where he competed against the likes
of former F1 men Mika Hkkinen and Jean Alesi. He also won
Sportscar Driver of the Year awards from the Autosport and Le
Mans magazines and the (Jackie) Stewart Medal Award for
services to Scottish Motor Sport. He was made the President of the
Scottish Motor Racing Club at their annual Prize Giving and
Dinner in 2007, succeeding Sir Jackie Stewart.

McNish driving an Audi R10 TDI at the 2008 1000km


of Silverstone

In 2006, he continued racing with the Audi factory team and was
part of the driving line up which won the 12 Hours of Sebring in the new Audi R10 TDI diesel, setting pole position
and breaking the lap record. In 2008, McNish won the 24 Hours of Le Mans for Audi alongside Tom Kristensen and
Rinaldo Capello. It was his first win at la Sarthe since 1998.
Since Formula 1 has introduced the Drivers' Representative on the stewards panel at all Grands Prix, McNish has
featured as the Drivers' Representative twice in the 2011 season, in Monaco and most recently in Hungary and on
both occasions he has penalised the McLaren driver Lewis Hamilton for various trangressions. He has also appeared
in a Scania video test driving their new R730 V8.

Allan McNish

277

Other formulae
As well as those above, McNish has also raced in the following racing series:

Karting
Formula Ford
Vauxhall Lotus
British Formula 3
North American GT
FIA GT

Personal life
He lives in Monaco with his wife Kelly and their two children. Prior to his marriage, McNish's stag party in
Dumfries was attended by Dario Franchitti and Marino Franchitti and included taking in a Queen of the South
football match.[1] He speaks English and French.

Racing record
Complete International Formula 3000 results
(key) (Races in bold indicate pole position; races in italics indicate fastest lap.)
Year

Entrant

1989

Pacific Racing

SIL

1990

DAMS

DON SIL PAU JER MNZ PER HOC BRH


Ret
1
6
16
6
2
Ret
1

1991

DAMS

VAL PAU JER MUG PER HOC BRH SPA BUG NOG
DNQ 13 DNQ 5
8
Ret Ret
8
Ret
8

1992

3001 International

SIL
Ret

1994

Vortex Motorsport

SIL

1995 Paul Stewart Racing

VAL PAU JER

PER BRH BIR

SPA BUG
BIR
Ret

10
DIJ
8

11

DC Points
NC

BUG NOG 4th


Ret
8

26

16th

PAU CAT PER HOC NR SPA ALB NOG MAG


5
Ret
3
Ret 12
5

11th

PAU CAT PER HOC SPA EST MAG


Ret

NC

SIL CAT PAU PER HOC SPA EST MAG


3
Ret
2
Ret
6
Ret Ret
7

7th

11

Complete 24 Hours of Le Mans results

Allan McNish

278

Year

Team

Co-Drivers

Car

Class

Laps Pos. Class


Pos.

1997

Roock Racing

Stphane Ortelli Porsche 911 GT1


Karl Wendlinger

GT1

1998

Porsche AG

Porsche 911 GT1-98


Laurent Aello
Stphane Ortelli

GT1

351

1999

Toyota Motorsports
Toyota Team Europe

Thierry Boutsen Toyota GT-One


Ralf Kelleners

LMGTP

2000

Audi Sport Team Joest

Audi R8
Laurent Aello
Stphane Ortelli

LMP900 367

2004

Audi Sport UK Team Veloqx

Frank Biela
Pierre Kaffer

Audi R8

LMP1

2005

ADT Champion Racing

Frank Biela
Emanuele Pirro

Audi R8

2006

Audi Sport Team Joest

2007

DNF DNF
1st

1st

173 DNF DNF


2nd

2nd

350

5th

5th

LMP1

364

3rd

3rd

Tom Kristensen Audi R10 TDI


Rinaldo Capello

LMP1

367

3rd

3rd

Audi Sport North America

Tom Kristensen Audi R10 TDI


Rinaldo Capello

LMP1

262 DNF DNF

2008

Audi Sport North America

Tom Kristensen Audi R10 TDI


Rinaldo Capello

LMP1

381

1st

1st

2009

Audi Sport Team Joest

Tom Kristensen Audi R15 TDI


Rinaldo Capello

LMP1

376

3rd

3rd

2010

Audi Sport Team Joest

Tom Kristensen Audi R15 TDI plus


Rinaldo Capello

LMP1

394

3rd

3rd

2011

Audi Sport North America

Tom Kristensen Audi R18 TDI


Rinaldo Capello

LMP1

14

DNF DNF

2012

Audi Sport Team Joest

Tom Kristensen Audi R18 e-tron quattro


Rinaldo Capello

LMP1

377

2nd

11

12

2nd

Complete American Le Mans Series results


Year Entrant

Class Chassis Engine

10

1999 Champion LMP Porsche Porsche SEB ATL MOS SON POR PET MON LSV
Racing
ovr:6 ovr:12 ovr:8 ovr:7 ovr:Ret ovr:Ret
911
3.2L
cls:6 cls:12 cls:8 cls:7 cls:Ret cls:Ret
GT1 Turbo
Evo
Flat-6
2000

2004

Audi
Sport
North
America

LMP

LMP1
Audi
Sport UK
Team
Veloqx

Audi
R8

Audi
R8R

Audi
R8

Audi SEB
3.6L ovr:2
Turbo cls:2
V8

NR SON MOS TEX


ovr:Ret ovr:1 ovr:1 ovr:2
cls:Ret cls:1 cls:1 cls:2

Rank Points
25th

47

ROS
ovr:1
cls:1

PET MON LSV ADE


ovr:1 ovr:1 ovr:2 ovr:1
cls:1 cls:1 cls:2 cls:1

1st

270

PET

MON

7th

26

CHA SIL
ovr:20 ovr:3
cls:8 cls:3

Audi SEB MID


3.6L ovr:1
Turbo cls:1
V8

LIM

SON

POR MOS AME

Allan McNish

279

2005

ADT
LMP1
Champion
Racing

Audi
R8

Audi SEB ATL


3.6L ovr:2
Turbo cls:2
V8

2006

Audi
LMP1
Sport
North
America

Audi
R10
TDI

Audi SEB
5.5L ovr:1
Turbo cls:1
V12
(Diesel)

Audi
R8

Audi
3.6L
Turbo
V8

MID

TEX MID
ovr:1 ovr:3
cls:1 cls:1

LIM

SON POR

AME

MOS

PET

UTA POR AME


ovr:4 ovr:1 ovr:2
cls:3 cls:1 cls:2

MOS
ovr:1
cls:1

MON

10th

22

PET MON
ovr:1 ovr:1
cls:1 cls:1

1st

204

LIM
ovr:1
cls:1

2007

Audi
LMP1
Sport
North
America

Audi
R10
TDI

Audi SEB STP LNB


5.5L ovr:4 ovr:1 ovr:7
Turbo cls:2 cls:1 cls:1
V12
(Diesel)

TEX UTA LIM MID


ovr:3 ovr:2 ovr:5 ovr:5
cls:1 cls:1 cls:1 cls:2

AME
ovr:2
cls:1

MOS DET PET MON


ovr:2 ovr:3 ovr:1 ovr:1
cls:1 :cls:2 cls:1 cls:1

1st

246

2008

Audi
LMP1
Sport
North
America

Audi
R10
TDI

Audi SEB STP


5.5L ovr:3
Turbo cls:1
V12
(Diesel)

LNB

UTA

LIM MID

AME

MOS

DET

8th

60

LNB

PET MON
ovr:1
cls:1

2009

Audi
Sport
Team
Joest

LMP1

Audi
R15
TDI

Audi SEB STP


5.5L ovr:1
Turbo cls:1
V10
(Diesel)

UTA

LIM MID

AME

MOS

PET MON
ovr:3
cls:3

10th

30

2010

Audi
Sport
Team
Joest

LMP1

Audi
R15
TDI
plus

Audi SEB LNB MON UTA


5.5L
Turbo
V10
(Diesel)

LIM MID

AME

MOS

PET
ovr:3
cls:3

NC

2011

Audi
Sport
Team
Joest

LMP1

Audi
R15
TDI
plus

Audi SEB LNB


5.5L ovr:4
Turbo cls:4
V10
(Diesel)

MOS MID AME BAL

MON

NC

Audi
R18
TDI

Audi
3.7L
Turbo
V6
(Diesel)

Complete Formula One results


(key)

LIM

PET
ovr:Ret
cls:Ret

Allan McNish

280

Year Entrant Chassis Engine

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

WDC Points

2002 Panasonic Toyota Toyota AUS MAL BRA SMR ESP AUT MON CAN EUR GBR
GER HUN BEL ITA USA JPN 19th
FRA
Toyota TF102 RVX-02 Ret
7
Ret Ret
8
9
Ret Ret 14 Ret
Ret 14
9
Ret 15 DNS

11
Racing
3.0

V10
2003

Mild

Renault Renault AUS MAL BRA SMR ESP AUT MON CAN EUR FRA

Seven

R23

Renault
F1 Team

Renault
R23B

RS23

TD

TD

TD

TD

TD

TD

TD

TD

TD

3.0

GBR GER HUN ITA USA JPN

V10

TD

TD

TD

TD

TD

TD

Driver did not finish the Grand Prix, but was classified as they completed over 90% of the race distance.

Complete DTM results


(key)
Year

Team

Car

10

11

Pos Points

2005 Abt Sportsline Audi A4 DTM 2005 HOC1 LAU1 SPA BRN OSC NOR NR ZAN LAU2 IST HOC2 10th
11
Ret Ret 7
6
4
6
Ret
9
15
17

13

Complete FIA World Endurance Championship results


Year

Entrant

Class

Chassis

Engine

2012

Audi Sport
Team Joest

LMP1

Audi R18
e-tron
quattro

Audi TDI
3.7L Turbo
V6
(Hybrid
Diesel)

SEB SPA LMN SIL


1
3
2
3

2nd

159

2013

Audi Sport
Team Joest

LMP1

Audi R18
e-tron
quattro

Audi TDI
3.7L Turbo
V6
(Hybrid
Diesel)

SIL SPA LMN SO COA FUJ SHA BHR 1st*


1
2

45*

SO BHR FUJ SHA


3
2
3
2

Rank Points

*Season in progress

References
[1] Allan McNish interview 30th August 2009, part 1 on qosfc.com (http:/ / qosfc. com/ new_newsview. aspx?newsid=637)
[2] Allan McNish interview 30th August 2009, part 2 on qosfc.com (http:/ / qosfc. com/ new_newsview. aspx?newsid=638)
[3] "Allan McNish" interview 30th August 2009, part 3 on qosfc.com (http:/ / qosfc. com/ new_newsview. aspx?newsid=651)

External links
Allan McNish's official website (http://www.allanmcnish.com/)
Allan McNish's official blog (http://www.allanmcnish.com/blog/)
Richard's F1 interview with Allan McNish (http://richardsf1.com/category/exclusive-interviews/
allan-mcnish-exclusive-interviews/)
Profile (http://www.fiagt.com/driverinfo.php?drivername=Allan+McNish) by FIA GT Championship
official website (http://www.fiagt.com/)

Allan McNish

281

Sporting positions
Precededby
Michele Alboreto
Stefan Johansson
Tom Kristensen

Winner of the 24 Hours of Le Mans


1998 with:
Laurent Aello
Stphane Ortelli

Succeededby
Pierluigi Martini
Yannick Dalmas
Joachim Winkelhock

Precededby
Elliott Forbes-Robinson

American Le Mans Series champion


2000

Succeededby
Emanuele Pirro

Precededby
Frank Biela
Emanuele Pirro

American Le Mans Series champion


20062007
with Rinaldo Capello

Succeededby
Lucas Luhr
Marco Werner

Precededby
Frank Biela
Emanuele Pirro
Marco Werner

Winner of the 24 Hours of Le Mans


2008 with:
Rinaldo Capello
Tom Kristensen

Succeededby
David Brabham
Marc Gen
Alexander Wurz

Awards
Precededby
Eddie Irvine

Autosport
British Club Driver of the Year
1988

Succeededby
David Coulthard

Precededby
JJ Lehto

Autosport
National Racing Driver of the Year
1989

Succeededby
Robb Gravett

Precededby
Lewis Hamilton

Autosport
British Competition Driver of the
Year
2008

Succeededby
Jenson Button

Precededby
Lewis Hamilton

Segrave Trophy
2008

Succeededby
Paul Bonhomme

Henri Pescarolo

282

Henri Pescarolo
Henri Pescarolo

Born

25 September 1942
Formula One World Championship career

Nationality

French

Active years

1968 1974, 1976

Teams

Matra, March, Williams, BRM, privateer Surtees

Races

64 (57 starts)

Championships 0
Wins

Podiums

Career points

12

Pole positions

Fastest laps

First race

1968 Canadian Grand Prix

Last race

1976 United States Grand Prix

Henri Pescarolo

283

24 Hours of Le Mans career


Participating
years

19661968, 19701999

Teams

Equipe Matra (Matra-Simca), Scuderia Filipinetti, Ligier, Inaltera, Martini Racing-Porsche, Rondeau, Joest Racing, Kouros
Racing Team, Tom Walkinshaw Racing (Silk Cut Jaguar), Konrad Motorsport, Courage Comptition, La Filire Elf, Pescarolo
Sport

Best finish

1st (1972, 1973, 1974, 1984)

Class wins

6 (1972, 1973, 1974, 1976, 1984, 1992)

Henri Pescarolo (born 25 September 1942[]) is a former racing driver from France. He participated in 64 Formula
One World Championship Grands Prix, debuting on 22 September 1968. He achieved one podium, and scored a total
of 12 championship points. He wore a distinctive green helmet, and still has a full face beard, that partially covers
burns suffered in a crash.
Henri Pescarolo to this day drives in the yearly Dakar Rally.
After Pescarolo's retirement from Formula 1, he went on to start his own team which now competes in the Le Mans
Endurance Series, and the 24 Hours of Le Mans, which he won as a driver in 1972 in a Matra, co-driven by Graham
Hill. His team, Pescarolo Sport, is notably sponsored by Sony's PlayStation 2 and by Gran Turismo 4. During the
five years that Pescarolo has campaigned Courage C60 prototypes, so many modifications have been made to the
model that Courage allowed the team to name the car after themselves, such was the differences between their model
and the standard C60. In 2005, it was developed further still to meet the "hybrid" regulations, before the change to
LMP1/2 format. It is unknown whether Pescarolo will use the newer Courage C70 in the future.
Pescarolo holds the record for Le Mans starts with 33 and has won the
race on four occasions as a driver. He has yet to win the race as a team
owner, coming very close in 2005 with the Pescarolo C60H. His team
did manage to win the LMES championship in the same year. His team
was also second at Le Mans in 2006, followed by a third in 2007
behind a pair of diesel-powered prototypes.
Henri Pescarolo is also a keen helicopter pilot.
Franck Montagny driving the Pescarolo C60
during practice for the 2006 24 Hours of Le
Mans.

24 Hours of Le Mans results

Racing record

Henri Pescarolo

Year

284

Team

Co-Drivers

Car

Class Laps Pos. Class


Pos.

1966

Matra Sports

Jean-Pierre Jaussaud Matra M620-BRM

P
2.0

35

DNF DNF

1967

Equipe Matra Sports

Jean-Pierre Jaussaud Matra MS630-BRM

P
2.0

55

DNF DNF

1968

Equipe Matra Sports

Matra MS630

P
3.0

283 DNF DNF

1970

Equipe Matra-Simca

Jean-Pierre Beltoise

Matra-Simca MS660

P
3.0

79

DNF DNF

Mike Parkes

Ferrari 512F

S
5.0

DNF DNF

1971

Scuderia Filipinetti

Johnny
Servoz-Gavin

1972

Equipe Matra-Simca Shell

Graham Hill

Matra-Simca MS670

S
3.0

344

1st

1st

1973

Equipe Matra-Simca Shell

Grard Larrousse

Matra-Simca MS670B

S
3.0

355

1st

1st

1974

Equipe Gitanes

Grard Larrousse

Matra-Simca MS670C

S
3.0

337

1st

1st

1975

Gitanes Automobiles Ligier

Franois Migault

Ligier JS2-Ford Cosworth

S
3.0

146 DNF DNF

1976

Inaltera

Jean-Pierre Beltoise

Inaltera LM-Ford Cosworth

GTP

305

1977

Martini Racing Porsche System

Jacky Ickx

Porsche 936/77

S
+2.0

45

1978

Martini Racing Porsche System

Jacky Ickx
Jochen Mass

Porsche 936/78

S
+2.0

255 DNF DNF

1979

ITT Oceanic Jean Rondeau

Jean-Pierre Beltoise

Rondeau M379-Ford
Cosworth

S
+2.0

279

1980

ITT Jean Rondeau

Jean Ragnotti

Rondeau M379-Ford
Cosworth

S
+2.0

124 DNF DNF

1981

Oceanic Jean Rondeau

Patrick Tambay

Rondeau M379-Ford
Cosworth

2
+2.0

41

1982

Otis Automobiles Jean Rondeau

Jean Ragnotti
Jean Rondeau

Rondeau M382-Ford
Cosworth

146 DNF DNF

1983

Ford France

Thierry Boutsen

Rondeau M482-Ford
Cosworth

174 DNF DNF

1984

New-Man Joest Racing

Klaus Ludwig

Porsche 956B

C1

360

1st

1st

1985

Martini Lancia

Mauro Baldi

Lancia LC2-Ferrari

C1

358

7th

7th

8th

1st

DNF DNF

10th

2nd

DNF DNF

1986

Kouros Racing Team

Christian Danner
Dieter Quester

Sauber C8-Mercedes

C1

86

DNF DNF

1987

Kouros Racing

Mike Thackwell
Hideki Okada

Sauber C9-Mercedes

C1

123 DNF DNF

1988

Silk Cut Jaguar


Tom Walkinshaw Racing

John Watson
Raul Boesel

Jaguar XJR-9LM

C1

129 DNF DNF

1989

Joest Racing

Claude Ballot-Lna
Jean-Louis Ricci

Porsche 962C

C1

371

6th

6th

Henri Pescarolo

285

1990

Joest Porsche Racing

Jean-Louis Ricci
Jacques Laffite

Porsche 962C

C1

328

1991

Konrad Motorsport
Joest Porsche Racing

Louis Krages
Bernd Schneider

Porsche 962C

C2

197 DNF DNF

1992

Courage Comptition

Bob Wollek
Jean-Louis Ricci

Cougar C28LM-Porsche

C3

335

6th

1st

1993

Joest Porsche Racing

Bob Wollek
Ronny Meixner

Porsche 962C

C2

351

9th

4th

1994

Courage Comptition

Alain Fert
Franck Lagorce

Courage C32LM-Porsche

LMP1 142 DNF DNF


C90

1995

Courage Comptition

Franck Lagorce
ric Bernard

Courage C41-Chevrolet

WSC

1996

La Filire Elf

Franck Lagorce
Emmanuel Collard

Courage C36-Porsche

LMP1 327

7th

2nd

1997

La Filire Elf

Jean-Philippe Belloc Courage C36-Porsche


Emmanuel Clrico

LMP

319

7th

4th

1998

Courage Comptition

Olivier Grouillard
Franck Montagny

Courage C36-Porsche

LMP1 304

15th

4th

Michel Fert
Patrice Gay

Courage C50-Porsche

LMP

9th

8th

1999

Pescarolo Promotion Racing


Team

26

327

14th 14th

DNF DNF

Complete Formula One World Championship results


(key) (Races in italics indicate fastest lap)
Yr

Entrant

Chassis

1968 Matra Sports Matra MS11

Engine
Matra

11

12

13

14

15

RSA ESP MON BEL NED FRA GBR GER ITA CAN USA MEX
Ret

V12
1969 Matra Sports

10

DNS

16 WDC Points
NC

NC

12th

17th

NC

NC

Matra MS7 Cosworth RSA ESP MON NED FRA GBR GER ITA CAN USA MEX
5

(F2)
Straight-4
1970 Equipe Matra Matra-Simca
Elf
1971

Frank

MS120

V12

RSA ESP MON BEL NED FRA GBR GER AUT ITA CAN USA MEX
7

Ret

V8

Team

Ret

14

Ret

11
ESP MON NED FRA GBR GER AUT ITA CAN USA

March 711

Ret
1972

March 701 Cosworth RSA

Williams
Racing Cars

Matra

13

Ret

Ret

March 721 Cosworth ARG RSA ESP MON BEL FRA

Williams-Motul

V8

11

11

Ret

NC

Ret

DNS

Ret

GER AUT ITA CAN USA

DNS

Ret DNS DNQ

13

14

GBR

Politoys FX3

Ret
1973

STP March

March

Racing Team

721G/731

Frank

Iso-Marlboro

Williams

IR

Racing Cars

Cosworth ARG BRA RSA


V8

ESP BEL MON SWE


8
FRA GBR NED GER AUT ITA CAN USA
Ret

10

Henri Pescarolo

1974

Motul Team

286
BRM P160E

BRM

BRM
V12

ARG BRA RSA


9

14

18

ESP BEL MON


12

Ret

NED

Ret
SWE

BRM P201

Surtees

B&S

TS19

Ret

Ret

10

DNQ

Ret

Ret DNQ

Fabrications

References

Emanuele Pirro
Emanuele Pirro

Born

12 January 1962

Formula One World Championship career


Nationality

NC

Ret

Cosworth BRA RSA USW ESP BEL MON SWE FRA GBR GER AUT NED ITA CAN USA JPN
V8

FRA GBR GER AUT ITA CAN USA

Ret
1976 Team Norev /

NC

Ret

Italian

Active years

1989 - 1991

Teams

Benetton, Scuderia Italia

Races

40 (37 starts)

Championships 0
Wins

Podiums

Career points

Pole positions

Fastest laps

First race

1989 French Grand Prix

Last race

1991 Australian Grand Prix

11

17

19

NC

Emanuele Pirro

287

24 Hours of Le Mans career


Participating years 1981, 1998 - 2008, 2010
Teams

Martini Racing, GTC Competition, Audi Sport Joest, Champion Racing, Drayson Racing

Best finish

1st (2000, 2001, 2002, 2006, 2007)

Class wins

5 (2000, 2001, 2002, 2006, 2007)

Emanuele Pirro (born January 12, 1962 in Rome, Italy) is an Italian former Formula One driver and five time Le
Mans 24 hour winner.

Career
Pirro started his racing career in karts at the age of 11. At 18, he raced with the Formula Fiat Abarth, then moving on
to European Formula Three (198183), Formula Two (1984) and Formula 3000 (1985-1986). In 1988, he was the
official test driver for the all-conquering McLaren Formula One team. He seemed set to make his Formula One debut
at the 1989 French Grand Prix for Larrousse in place of Philippe Alliot but instead was hired by Benetton in place of
the unfit Johnny Herbert. While he ran 3rd at Hockenheim before crashing out, his season was generally something
of a disappointment, only scoring a single points finish (for 5th at the wet Australian Grand Prix).
He then signed a two-year deal with the Scuderia Italia team to drive
their Dallara chassis. His pre-season was affected by a bout of hepatitis
and he missed the first two races of 1990, with Gianni Morbidelli
taking his place. As it turned out the car wasn't competitive or reliable,
though he often spun of his own accord too. Pirro finished only three
times from 14 starts, with 10th place in Hungary his best result. 1991
was more promising with Judd V10 engines added to the package.
Despite scoring a point at Monaco Pirro was largely outpaced by
Pirro at the 1991 United States Grand Prix.
team-mate JJ Lehto and still had a habit of getting involved in
accidents (notably qualifying well in 7th at the Hungaroring only to
collide immediately with Stefano Modena). He was unable to find another Formula One drive for 1992.
After leaving Formula One, Pirro returned to touring car racing, having spent 1986-88 as part of the Schnitzer BMW
team in the European Touring Car Championship, as well as the inaugural World Touring Car Championship in
1987. Pirro won the Macau Guia race in 1991 and 1992 at the wheel of a BMW M3 Evolution, and the Italian
Touring car championship in 1994 and 1995 driving for Audi.

Emanuele Pirro

288

Further success followed in sports car racing, with three wins at the 24
Hours of Le Mans in three consecutive years (2000 to 2002) partnered
with Frank Biela and Tom Kristensen for Audi Sport Team Joest.
Pirro, Frank Biela and Marco Werner made history by becoming the
first drivers to win the Le Mans 24-hour race in a diesel-powered car.
Pirro was driving the Audi R10 Diesel when it completed a record 380
laps of the La Sarthe circuit. The team repeated the feat the following
year. Alongside teammates Dindo Capello and Allan McNish he won a
historic race at Petit Le Mans in 2008, driving for Audi Sport North
America.
Pirro retired from racing at the end of the 2008 season, having finished
second in the American Le Mans series, and took an ambassadorial
role with Audi in 2009. In 2010 he returned to race tracks as a third
driver for private LMP1 Drayson Racing team. In 2011 he drove a V8
Supercar in Australia for Stone Brothers Racing at the Gold Coast 600,
alongside New Zealander Shane Van Gisbergen.[1]
Pirro will take part in the 2012 Rolex 24 Hours of Daytona at the
wheel of an Audi R8 for APR Motorsport.[2]

Pirro driving an Audi R10 at Laguna Seca in


2006.

Race results
24 Hours of Le Mans results
(key)
Year Result

Team

Car

Class

1981 Ret

Martini Racing

Lancia Beta Monte Carlo Gr.5

1998 Ret

Gulf Team Davidoff / GTC Competition McLaren F1 GTR

GT1

1999 3

Audi Sport Team Joest

Audi R8R

LMP

2000 1

Audi Sport Team Joest

Audi R8

LMP900

2001 1

Audi Sport Team Joest

Audi R8

LMP900

2002 1

Audi Sport Team Joest

Audi R8

LMP900

2003 3

Champion Racing

Audi R8

LMP900

2004 3

ADT Champion Racing

Audi R8

LMP1

2005 3

ADT Champion Racing

Audi R8

LMP1

2006 1

Audi Sport Team Joest

Audi R10

LMP1

2007 1

Audi Sport North America

Audi R10

LMP1

2008 6

Audi Sport North America

Audi R10

LMP1

2010 NC

Drayson Racing

Lola B09/60

LMP1

Emanuele Pirro

289

Complete European Formula Two Championship results


(key) (Races in bold indicate pole position; races in italics indicate fastest lap.)
Year

Entrant

Chassis Engine

1984 Onyx Racing March

10

11

Pos Pts

BMW SIL HOC THR VAL MUG PAU HOC MIS PER DON BRH 6th 18
6
4
4
12
4
Ret Ret Ret 6
2
6

Complete International Formula 3000 results


(key) (Races in bold indicate pole position; races in italics indicate fastest lap.)
Year

Entrant

10

11

DC Points

1985 Onyx Racing SIL THR EST VAL PAU SPA DIJ PER ZEL ZAN DON 3rd
7
1
4
1
2
Ret Ret 2
4
5
Ret

38

1986 Onyx Racing SIL VAL PAU SPA IMO MUG PER ZEL BIR BUG JAR 2nd
2
3
2
19 Ret
6
13 Ret Ret 1
1

32

Complete Formula One results


(key) (Races in bold indicate pole position; races in italics indicate fastest lap)
Yr Entrant Chassis

Engine

1989 Benetton Benetton Cosworth BRA SMR MON MEX USA CAN
Formula B188
Ltd

V8

Italia

BMS

12

13

14

15

16

WDC Points
23rd

NC

FRA GBR GER HUN BEL ITA POR ESP JPN AUS 18th

11

Benetton

Dallara

11

FRA GBR

GER HUN BEL ITA POR ESP JPN AUS

B189
1990 Scuderia

10

Ret
Cosworth USA BRA SMR MON CAN MEX
V8

Ret

Ret

Ret

Ret

10

Ret Ret Ret Ret

FRA GBR GER HUN BEL ITA POR ESP JPN AUS
Ret

11

Ret

10

Ret Ret

15

Ret Ret Ret

190
1991 Scuderia
Italia

BMS

Judd

Dallara

V10

USA BRA SMR MON CAN MEX


Ret

11

DNPQ

DNPQ DNPQ

10

10

Ret

10

Ret

15

Ret

191

Complete American Le Mans Series results


(key) (Races in bold indicate pole position; races in italics indicate fastest lap.)
Year Entrant

Class

1999

LMP

Audi

SEB

ATL

MOS

SON

POR

PET

MON

LSV

MOS

Audi

R8R

3.6L

ovr:5

Team

Turbo

cls:5

Joest

V8

Audi

10

11

12

Audi

SEB

NR

SON

TEX

ROS

PET

MON LSV

R8

3.6L

ovr:1

ovr:3

ovr:2 ovr:Ret ovr:1

ovr:4

ovr:2

ovr:2 ovr:1 ovr:15

North

Turbo

cls:1

cls:3

cls:2

cls:4

cls:2

cls:2 cls:1

America

V8

Audi
R8R

Audi

Sport

LMP

Audi

Sport

2000

Chassis Engine Tyres

CHA

SIL

ovr:6

ovr:5

cls:6

cls:5

cls:Ret

cls:1

ADE
cls:5

Rank Points
52nd

20

3rd

232

Emanuele Pirro

2001

Audi

290

LMP900

Audi

Audi

TEX

SEB

DON

JAR

SON

POR

MOS

MID

MON

PET

R8

3.6L

ovr:2

ovr:2

ovr:2

ovr:2

ovr:2

ovr:2

ovr:1

ovr:4

ovr:1

ovr:1

North

Turbo

cls:2

cls:2

cls:2

cls:2

cls:2

cls:2

cls:1

cls:4

cls:1

cls:1

America

V8
SEB

SON

Sport

2002

Audi

LMP900

202

4th

206

Audi

MID

AME

WAS

TRO

MOS MON

MIA

PET

R8

3.6L

ovr:5 ovr:14

ovr:1

ovr:2

ovr:3

ovr:2 ovr:Ret ovr:1

ovr:1

ovr:6

North

Turbo

cls:5

cls:8

cls:1

cls:2

cls:3

cls:2

cls:Ret cls:1

cls:1

cls:6

America

V8
SEB

ATL

SON

TRO

MOS

AME

MON

MIA

PET

18th

22

MID

LIM

SON

POR

MOS

AME

PET

MON

13th

22

1st

182

5th

80

4th

175

3rd

156

12th

46

ADT

LMP900

Champion

1st

Audi

Sport

2003

Audi

Audi

R8

3.6L

ovr:2

Turbo

cls:2

Racing

V8
2004

ADT

LMP1

Champion

Audi

Audi

R8

3.6L

ovr:2

Turbo

cls:2

Racing

SEB

V8
2005

ADT

LMP1

Champion

Audi

Audi

SEB

ATL

MID

LIM

SON

POR

AME

MOS

PET

MON

R8

3.6L

ovr:2

ovr:3

ovr:3

ovr:2

ovr:1

ovr:1

ovr:1

ovr:3

ovr:1

ovr:2

Turbo

cls:2

cls:3

cls:3

cls:2

cls:1

cls:1

cls:1

cls:3

cls:1

cls:2

SEB

TEX

MID

LIM

Racing

V8
2006

Audi

Audi

UTA

POR

AME

MOS

PET

MON

Sport

Audi

LMP1

R10

5.5L

ovr:1

ovr:2

ovr:1

ovr:4

ovr:7

ovr:2

North

TDI

Turbo

cls:1

cls:2

cls:1

cls:4

cls:5

cls:2

UTA

LIM

America

V12
(Diesel)

2007

Audi

Audi

SEB

STP

LNB

Sport

Audi

LMP1

R10

5.5L

ovr:1

ovr:2

ovr:9

North

TDI

Turbo

cls:1

cls:2

cls:2

cls:2

cls:2

STP

LNB

UTA

LIM

America

TEX

MID

AME

MOS

DET

ovr:3

ovr:3

ovr:4

ovr:2

cls:4

cls:1

cls:2

cls:2

:cls:1

DET

PET MON

ovr:12 ovr:6 ovr:23

PET MON

V12
(Diesel)

2008

Audi

Audi

MID

AME

MOS

Sport

Audi

LMP1

R10

5.5L

ovr:Ret ovr:2 ovr:Ret ovr:21 ovr:2

ovr:2

ovr:2 ovr:DSQ ovr:1 ovr:2

North

TDI

Turbo

cls:Ret

America

SEB

cls:2

cls:Ret

cls:3

cls:2

cls:2

cls:2 cls:DSQ cls:1 cls:2

MON

UTA

LIM

MID

AME

MOS

V12
(Diesel)

2010 Drayson
Racing

LMP1

Lola

Judd

B09/60 GV5.5
S2
5.5L
V10

SEB
ovr:12
cls:4

LNB

ovr:Ret ovr:2
cls:Ret

cls:2

PET

Emanuele Pirro

291

References
[1] http:/ / www. v8supercars. com. au/ newsarticle/ stone-brothers-forced-into-enduro-change/ tabid/ 70/ newsid/ 11693/ default. aspx

Sources
Profile at www.grandprix.com (http://www.grandprix.com/gpe/drv-pirema.html)

External links
Official website (http://www.Pirro.com)
Sporting positions
Precededby
Masahiro Hasemi

Guia Race winner


19911992

Succeededby
Charles Kwan

Precededby
Roberto Ravaglia

Italian Touring Car Champion


19941995

Succeededby
Rinaldo Capello

Precededby
Joachim Winkelhock

Super Tourenwagen Cup


Champion
1996

Succeededby
Laurent Aiello

Precededby
Winner of the 24 Hours of Le Mans
Succeededby
Pierluigi Martini
2000 with:
Frank Biela
Yannick Dalmas
Frank Biela
Tom Kristensen
Joachim Winkelhock
Tom Kristensen
Emanuele Pirro
Precededby
Frank Biela
Tom Kristensen
Emanuele Pirro
Precededby
Allan McNish
Precededby
Frank Biela
Tom Kristensen
Emanuele Pirro
Precededby
Marco Werner
J.J. Lehto

Winner of the 24 Hours of Le Mans


Succeededby
2001 with:
Frank Biela
Frank Biela
Tom Kristensen
Tom Kristensen
Emanuele Pirro
American Le Mans Series
champion
2001

Succeededby
Tom Kristensen

Winner of the 24 Hours of Le Mans


Succeededby
2002 with:
Tom Kristensen
Frank Biela
Rinaldo Capello
Tom Kristensen
Guy Smith
American Le Mans Series
champion
2005
with Frank Biela

Succeededby
Allan McNish
Rinaldo Capello

Precededby
J.J. Lehto
Marco Werner
Tom Kristensen

Winner of the 24 Hours of Le Mans


Succeededby
2006 with:
Frank Biela
Frank Biela
Emanuele Pirro
Marco Werner
Marco Werner

Precededby
Frank Biela
Emanuele Pirro
Marco Werner

Winner of the 24 Hours of Le Mans


Succeededby
2007 with:
Allan McNish
Frank Biela
Rinaldo Capello
Marco Werner
Tom Kristensen

Scott Pruett

292

Scott Pruett
Scott Donald Pruett

Born

March 24, 1960


Roseville, California

Achievements SCCA Trans-Am Champion (1987, 1994, 2003)


IMSA GTO Champion (1988, 1986)
Michigan 500 winner (1995)
24 Hours of Daytona overall winner (1994, 2007, 2008, 2011, 2013)
Rolex Sports Car Series Daytona Prototype Grand-Am Champ (2004, 2008, 2010, 2011, 2012)
Awards

Indianapolis 500 co-rookie of the year (1989)


World Karting Association Hall of Fame inductee (1991)
NASCAR Sprint Cup Series career
40 race(s) run over 8 year(s)

2008 position

68th

Best finish

37th 2000 (Winston Cup)

First race

2000 Daytona 500 (Daytona)

Last race

2008 Toyota/Save Mart 350 (Sonoma)

Wins Top tens Poles


6

NASCAR Nationwide Series career


11 race(s) run over 6 year(s)
2008 position

79th

Best finish

76th 2000 (Busch)

First race

2000 NAPA Auto Parts 300 (Daytona)

Last race

2008 NAPA Auto Parts 200 (Montreal)

Scott Pruett

293

Wins Top tens Poles


4

Statistics current as of November 7, 2011.

Scott Donald Pruett (born March 24, 1960 in Roseville, California) is an American race car driver who has
competed in NASCAR, Champ Car, IMSA, Trans-Am and Grand-Am. He and his wife Judy have three children,
and are children's book authors.
Pruett started racing go karts at the age of eight,[] and went on to win ten professional karting championships. In the
1980s, he established himself as a top American sports car racer, eventually winning two IMSA GTO
Championships and three Trans-Am Series Championships.
In the 1990s, Pruett was a regular in the CART series. From 1988 to 1999, he made 145 starts with two wins, five
poles and fifteen podiums (top three finishes). In a pre-season testing in 1990, Pruett was involved in a serious crash
at West Palm Beach, Florida, where he seriously injured both his legs. Pruett spent the 1990 season recovering & on
certain occasions calling ESPN IndyCar telecasts as color commentator with Paul Page doing the play by play.
In 1994 he joined the reformed Pat Patrick team in CART series testing Firestone tires. Later that same year he won
the Trans-Am Series Championship. In 1995 he drove full-time for Patrick racing using Firestone tires in Firestone's
return to the CART series & finally won his first race in a thrilling last lap duel with Al Unser, Jr. at the Michigan
500. In 1997 he won his final CART series race at Surfers Paradise Australia (Nikon Indy 300).
Following his Champ Car career, Pruett raced the 2000 season in the NASCAR Winston Cup Series with PPI
Motorsports, although with little success, achieving just 1 top-10 and finishing 37th in the points standings. He then
moved back to sports car racing and won his third Trans-Am Series Championship in 2003. Since 2004, he has raced
in the Grand-Am Rolex Sports Car Series for Chip Ganassi Racing. Pruett is still a regular starter at NASCAR road
course races and he is often referred to as a Road Course Ringer. Pruett has won eleven American sports car
championships, five in Grand-Am (2004, 2008, 2010, 2011, 2012), to go along with previous championships in
IMSA GTO (1986, 1988), Trans-Am Series (1987, 1994, 2003) and IMSA GT Endurance (1986).[1]
Pruett also worked for several years as a commentator for Champ Car races on Speed Channel.
Scott and his wife have also opened Pruett Vineyards[] in Northern California. In November 2012 their Lucky
Lauren Red was given a score of 93 points from Wine Spectator.[]

Scott Pruett

294

Career
1980s
Pruett began racing in karts at the age of eight. In 1984, he moved to sedan
racing. His first victory took place in 1986, when he won the IMSA GTO
Championship, which he would again win in 1988.[] In 1987, Pruett won the
SCCA Trans-Am Championship.[] At the Indianapolis 500, he was the co-rookie
of the year in 1989.
In 1989 and some seasons in the 1990s, Pruett started in the Indy 500s, but never
won a position on the podium but started the race.

1990s
In pre-season testing for the 1990 season, Pruett was injured in a crash at Palm
City Fairgrounds Speedway.

Pruett at the 2008 24 Hours of

Daytona
Pruett won the opening round of the 1991 IROC series season at Daytona.[] In
1994, Pruett joined Patrick Racing as a test driver for Firestone tires. The same
year, he also won the IMSA 24 Hours at Daytona, and also won a second Trans-Am Series championship.[]

For the next 4 years, Pruett continued driving Indy Cars for Patrick Racing and usually made the top ten in the series
championship. In 1995 he won his first CART race at the Michigan 500 by beating Al Unser Jr by .56 seconds.[] His
best CART career championship finish was in 1998 finishing sixth in points with three podium finishes and one pole
position.
In 1999, Pruett changed to Arciero-Wells and participated in the Toyota engine program development. He also
earned Toyota's first pole on an oval (California Speedway) and earned Toyota's best qualifying effort on a road
course at the current time (third at the Australian Grand Prix).

2000s
In 2000, Pruett raced the #32 Tide Ford for Cal Wells in the NASCAR Winston Cup Series. Replaced by Ricky
Craven after the season, he briefly retired from racing,[] but returned in 2001 to win the 24 Hours of Le Mans
LMGTS Class in a factory Chevrolet Corvette C5-R.[] The following year, he won the GTS class in the 24 Hours at
Daytona and also joined Speed as a reporter. For them he covered the 2002 FedEx Championship Series as well as
the Champ Car World Series in 2003. This year, Pruett also won the Trans-Am Championships in the Motorock
Trans-Am Series for Rocketsports Racing.[]
In 2007, he won the overall race and Daytona Prototype in the Rolex 24 at Daytona, with Juan Pablo Montoya and
Salvador Durn in the #01 Telmex, Target, Lexus Riley for Chip Ganassi Racing.[] Later that same year he nearly
won his first Nationwide Series victory at the Telcel-Motorola Mexico 200 at the Mexico City road course only to
lose it in the closing laps when his Chip Ganassi teammate the aforementioned Juan Pablo Montoya spun him out
and Montoya would win his first NASCAR race. Pruett would recover to a 5th place finish, his best Nationwide
finish at that time. After the race however Pruett was none too pleased with his teammate stating, "that was...nasty,
dirty driving".[2]
Later at Montreal in 2007, Scott Pruett had a promising run and was in third spot on a restart with 3 laps left.
Unfortunately in turn 1, he angered Kevin Harvick who was pushed out of bounds. In the next turn Kevin Harvick
slapped Pruett who spun and collected Ron Fellows, Ron Hornaday Jr., Jeff Burton, Brad Coleman, Juan Montoya
and Scott Wimmer. Kevin Harvick went on to win the race because of a fluke (Robby Gordon and Marcos Ambrose
got into it) and apologized in victory circle for retaliating.(9)

Scott Pruett

295

The year 2008 was very successful for Scott Pruett. He won the overall race and in the Daytona Prototype Class at
the 2008 Porsche 250 at Barber Motorsports Park and also the Rolex Sports Car Series Daytona Prototype season
championship. In the Daytona Prototype Class at the Mexico City 250 he made the second place overall. Moreover,
Pruett won the closest finish in the history of Grand-Am at the time, beating Alex Gurney in the finish to the 2008
Brumos Porsche 250 held at Daytona International Speedway by 0.081 seconds, after 145 minutes of racing.

2010s
Pruett was racing for Chip Ganassi in the Grand-Am Series during the
2010 season. In July, Hendrick Motorsports chose him as a standby
driver should Jeff Gordon have to miss Watkins Glen due to the birth
of his son.[3] Pruett, combined with Memo Rojas, won 9 of 12 races to
win another Grand-Am Rolex Championship. The nine victories was a
series record.
In 2011, Pruett won the 24 Hours of Daytona, his fourth overall victory
in the event.[]

Pruett / Memo Rojas's 2011 Daytona Prototype

In 2012, Scott Pruett was one of the Commentators for Speed Channel's coverage of the 24 Hours of Le Mans.
Pruett once again led Ganassi Racing to their 3rd Rolex Series Championship in-a-row with Co-driver Memo Rojas.
The team put the #01 Telmex BMW Riley on the podium for 9 out of 14 races, top five for 10 out of 14 races with
only 2 wins on the season, besting 2nd place Ryan Dalziel by 12 points. This year's results mark Ganassi's 4th title in
5 years, and Pruett's 5th Rolex title.
In 2013 Pruett opened on a strong note, winning the 51st Rolex 24 at Daytona with co-drivers Memo Rojas, Juan
Pablo Montoya, and Charlie Kimball. 2013 marks his fifth win at the annual endurance race, tying the legendary
Hurley Haywood for most victories in the grueling twice around the clock race.

Racing record
American open-wheel racing results
(key)
CART
Year
1988

Team

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

Dick
Simon

PHX LBH INDY MIL

Racing

18

19

20

Rank Points
38th

8th

101

10th

67

11th

62

POR CLE TOR

Ret

Machinists
Union

MEA MIS POC MDO ROA NZR

Racing

Ret

LS

MIA

Ret

1989 TrueSports
PHX LBH INDY MIL
11

DNS

10

DET POR CLE MEA TOR MIS


2

Ret

POC MDO ROA NZR


8

Ret

LS
4

1991 TrueSports
SRF LBH PHX INDY MIL
5

Ret

Ret

Ret

Ret

DET POR CLE MEA TOR MIS


17

Ret

Ret

Ret

DEN VAN MDO ROA NZR


5

Ret

Ret

1992 TrueSports
SRF PHX LBH INDY DET POR MIL NHA TOR MIS
Ret

Ret

Ret

10

11

Ret

CLE ROA VAN MDO NZR


7

10

LS
14

LS
7

Scott Pruett

296

1993ProFormance
Motorsports SRF PHX LBH INDY MIL
7
1995

MIA SRF
4

PHX

Ret

Ret

15

LBH NZR INDY MIL DET POR ROA TOR

MIA RIO
4

Ret

12

13

Ret

CLE
Ret

MIS MDO NHA VAN


1

11

Ret

SRF

LBH NZR

500

MIL DET POR CLE TOR

11

Ret

12

LBH

NZR

RIO

STL

10

Ret

10

Ret

10

MIS MDO ROA VAN


Ret

Ret

Ret

MIA SRF
5

MIL DET POR CLE TOR


9

Ret

17

Ret

Ret

Patrick
Racing

MIA MOT LBH


5

Ret

12

NZR

RIO

STL

Ret

Ret

NZR

RIO

STL

10

Ret

14

MIL DET POR CLE TOR


10

MIS MDO ROA VAN


4

Ret

LS
Ret

MIA MOT LBH


Ret

Ret

15

MIL POR CLE ROA TOR


17

Ret

Ret

Ret

MIS

Ret

14

15

DET MDO CHI VAN


8

17

82

9th

102

6th

121

19th

28

HOU SRF FON


11

Ret

1999Arciero-Wells
Racing

10th

FON

Ret

112

LS

LS

7th

MIS MDO ROA VAN


9

12

LS

Patrick
Racing

1998

LS

Ret

Patrick
Racing

1997

DET POR CLE TOR MIS NHA ROA VAN MDO NZR

DNQ

Patrick
Racing

1996

19th

LS

Ret

13

19

20

21

HOU SRF FON


10

Ret

Complete V8 Supercar results


Year Team

10

11

12

13

16

17

18

22

23

24

25

26 Final Points
Pos

1997 Alan

CDL

PHI

SAN SYM WIN ECR

LKS

PTH MAL OPK SAN BAT

Jones

NC

0+

WIN

HDV HDV TOW TOW PHI BAT SUR SUR SYM SYM SAN SAN SYD SYD NC

0+

R12

R13

11

Racing
2010 Lucas YMC YMC BHR BHR ADE ADE HAM HAM QLD QLD WIN
Dumbrell R1

R2

R3

R4

R5

R6

R7

R8

R9

R10

R11

R14

R15

R16

R17 R18

Motorsport

R19

R20

Ret

Ret

R21

R22

R23

R24

R25

R26

+ Not Eligible for points


Non Championship Races

References
[1] (http:/ / sports. espn. go. com/ rpm/ racing/ notebook?page=notebook/ RacingNotes20080924)

9. http:/ / www. experts123. com/ q/ should-kevin-harvick-have-been-penalized-for-his-accident-with-scott-pruett.


html?utm_expid=13366266-1&utm_referrer=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.com%2F

External links
Scott Pruett (http://www.racing-reference.info/driver/Scott_Pruett) driver statistics at Racing Reference

Scott Pruett

297

Sporting positions
Precededby
Terry Borcheller

Grand-Am Daytona Prototype


Champion
2004
with Max Papis

Succeededby
Max Angelelli
Wayne Taylor

Precededby
Jon Fogarty
Alex Gurney

Grand-Am Daytona Prototype


Champion
2008
with Memo Rojas

Succeededby
Jon Fogarty
Alex Gurney

Precededby
Jon Fogarty
Alex Gurney

Grand-Am Daytona Prototype


Champion
2010, 2011, 2012
with Memo Rojas

Succeededby
Incumbent

Achievements
Precededby
Bill Vukovich III

Indianapolis 500 Rookie of the Year


1989
with Bernard Jourdain

Succeededby
Eddie Cheever

Brian Redman

298

Brian Redman
Brian Redman

Born

9 March 1937
Formula One World Championship career

Nationality

British

Active years

1968, 19701974

Teams

Cooper, Williams, Surtees, McLaren, BRM, Shadow

Races

15 (12 starts)

Championships 0
Wins

Podiums

Career points

Pole positions

Fastest laps

First race

1968 South African Grand Prix

Last race

1974 Monaco Grand Prix

Brian Herman Thomas Redman[1] (born 9 March 1937 in Colne, Lancashire and educated at Rossall School,
Fleetwood, Lancashire,[]) is an English racing driver.
He was very successful in sportscar racing and the World Sportscar Championship, winning the 1970 Targa Florio
with a Porsche 908 and the 12 Hours of Sebring twice, in 1975 with a BMW Coup, in 1978 with a Porsche 935 and
the Spa-Francorchamps 1000km race 4 times (19681970, 1972). He was for many years associated with the
Chevron marque, founded by fellow-Lancastrian Derek Bennett.

Brian Redman

299

Career
Redman drove for Shadow Racing Cars both in CanAm and in Formula One. He also appeared in McLaren, Cooper
and Alfa Romeo cars.
He participated in 15 World Championship Grands
Prix, debuting on 1 January 1968. He achieved one
podium in the 1968 Spanish Grand Prix in third place
behind Graham Hill and Denny Hulme in a Cooper
BRM. He then had an accident at the Belgian Grand
Prix at Spa-Francorchamps, crashing his Cooper-BRM
at Malmedy corner; he survived with a broken arm. He
scored a total of 8 championship points with two 5th
places in 1972, at the Monaco Grand Prix and the
German Grand Prix driving a Yardley McLaren.
Redman driving a Ferrari 312PB at the Nrburgring in 1972

He was offered various other Formula One drives, but


did not particularly enjoy the atmosphere of F1 even in
the 1970s, preferring sports car racing. He achieved
spectacular success in this category of racing,
particularly in 1969 and 1970 as a Porsche works
driver; in 1970 he drove a Porsche 917K and a Porsche
908/03 with former works Aston Martin racing team
manager John Wyer's Gulf-sponsored team in 1970,
winning a handful of races with Jo Siffert, including the
grueling Targa Florio in Sicily. The conservative
Redman decided to retire from his dangerous
profession, getting a job as a Volkswagen car
dealership manager in South Africa in 1971. But this
Redman driving an Alfa Romeo Tipo 33 TT 12 at the Nrburgring in
only lasted for 4 months, as he did not like the political
1974
atmosphere of South Africa; and he returned to his
home county of Lancashire in Northern England. He didn't have a drive; although Wyer contacted Redman and
offered him a drive in the Targa Florio. After being asked by Wyer to start the race (because he did not want Siffert
and Pedro Rodrguez (who had an intense track rivalry) on the dangerous and demanding track at the same time),
Redman crashed his and Siffert's Porsche 908/03 20 miles into the first lap and was injured. Thinking his career was
finished, he then found himself signing a one-race deal to drive for Scuderia Ferrari's sportscar team at the Kyalami 9
Hours race in South Africa that year. He and Clay Regazzoni won the race, and he then received a full-time offer
from Ferrari for the 1972 season. He won a number of races (most notably his fourth Spa 1000km race) and the
Ferrari team won every race in the series that year except for Le Mans, an event they did not participate in. He also
raced for Ferrari in 1973, winning the Nrburgring 1000km race with Jacky Ickx.
Redman then moved to the United States and then won the American F5000 championship three times in a row from
19741976 against considerable opposition, including Mario Andretti and Al Unser, driving a Jim Hall/Carl Haas
entered Lola. But in 1977 he had a serious accident in his Lola F5000 car at the Mont-Tremblant circuit near St.
Jovite; it took him 9 months to recover; but he returned to racing on a spectacular note by winning the 12 Hours of
Sebring in 1978 driving a Porsche 935. Later in his career he achieved more success in endurance racing, winning
the 1981 IMSA GT championship. His last year of professional racing was in 1989 at the age of 52; driving for the
works Aston Martin team in the World Sportscar Championship.

Brian Redman

300

Redman now lives in Florida and is very active in historic racing. He drives a Porsche 908/03 for the Collier
Collection and appears at the Goodwood Festival of Speed every year.

Legacy
Road America hosts The HAWK with Brian Redman for vintage cars, one of the largest and most prestigious
vintage racing events in the U.S.
Redman was inducted in the Motorsports Hall of Fame of America in 2002 in the sports cars category.[2]

Complete Formula One World Championship results


(key)
Year Entrant Chassis
1968 Cooper
Car
Company

1970

Engine

10

11

12

13

14

15

Cooper Maserati RSA


T81B

V12

Cooper

BRM

T86B

V12

Rob

Lotus

Walker

49C

19th

NC

NC

14th

NC

NC

Ret
ESP MON BEL NED FRA GBR GER ITA CAN USA MEX
3

Ret

Cosworth RSA ESP MON BEL NED FRA


V8

WDC Points

DNS

Racing
Team
Frank

De

GBR GER AUT ITA CAN USA MEX

Williams Tomaso
Racing

DNS DNQ

505

Cars
1971

Team
Surtees

Surtees Cosworth RSA ESP MON NED FRA GBR GER AUT ITA CAN USA
TS7

V8

1972 Yardley McLaren Cosworth ARG RSA ESP MON BEL FRA GBR GER AUT ITA CAN
Team

M19A

V8

Marlboro

BRM

BRM

USA

BRM

P180

V12

Ret

McLaren

1973 Shadow Shadow Cosworth ARG BRA RSA


Racing

DN1

ESP BEL MON SWE FRA GBR NED GER AUT ITA CAN USA

V8

DSQ

Team
1974

UOP
Shadow

Shadow Cosworth ARG BRA RSA


DN3

V8

ESP BEL MON SWE NED FRA GBR GER AUT ITA CAN USA
7

18

Ret

Racing
Team

References
External links
"Porsche experience" interview of Brian Redman (http://www.classicrallies.com/view_experience/3)
"Targa 66 club" started by Brian Redman (http://www.targa66.com)

Pedro Rodrguez

301

Pedro Rodrguez
Pedro Rodrguez

Born

18 January 1940
Mexico City, Mexico

Died

11 July 1971 (aged31)


Nuremberg, Germany
Formula One World Championship career

Nationality

Mexican

Active years

1963 - 1971

Teams

Ferrari, Lotus, Cooper, BRM

Races

54

Championships

Wins

Podiums

Career points

71

Pole positions

Fastest laps

First race

1963 United States Grand Prix

First win

1967 South African Grand Prix

Last win

1970 Belgian Grand Prix

Last race

1971 French Grand Prix

Pedro Rodrguez

302

Pedro Rodrguez de la Vega (18 January 1940 in Mexico City,


Mexico 11 July 1971 in Nuremberg, Germany) was a Mexican
Grand Prix motor racing driver. He was born in Mexico City and was
the older brother of Ricardo Rodrguez.

Personal
Rodrguez was the first son from the marriage of Pedro Natalio
Rodrguez and Concepcin "Conchita" Rodrguez (ne de la Vega),
and had three brothers, Federico, Ricardo, and Alejandro, and a
younger sister, Conchita.

Rodrguez in his BRM P133 in German GP 1968

At 15, his father sent him to Western Military Academy in Alton, Illinois in order to learn English and to get more
discipline.[1]
Rodrguez brothers raced bicycles and motorcycles, becoming Mexican national motorcycle champion in 1953 and
1954. He made his international debut in cars at Nassau in 1957 in a Ferrari.
He married Angelina (ne Dammy), in Mexico since 1961, although he had a girlfriend in England, Glenda
Foreman, with whom he lived in Bray on Thames in his latter years, but left no children.[2] Rodrguez disliked
driving in urban traffic, which he considered too dangerous, preferring to use a driver.[citation needed]
Rodrguez always traveled with a Mexican flag and a record of the national anthem because when he won the 1967
South African GP the organizers did not have the Mexican anthem.[3]
Jo Ramrez was a very close friend to both Rodrguez as well as his younger brother Ricardo.

Career
At 18 Rodrguez shared a Ferrari 500 Testa Rossa at 24 Hours of Le Mans, entered by U.S. importer Luigi Chinetti,
with Jos Behra, brother of Jean Behra, as his co-driver. Rodrguez came back every year to Le Mans, fourteen times
in total, and won in 1968, co-driving with Belgian Lucien Bianchi, sharing a Ford GT40 for the JWGulf team.
After his brother was killed in a horrific accident while practicing for the Mexican Grand Prix, Rodrguez considered
retiring from racing. However, in 1963 he won at Daytona International Speedway and took part in his first Grand
Prix for Lotus at the Watkins Glen and Magdalena Mixhuca. He competed in Formula One sporadically through
1966 with Ferrari and Lotus.
At the start of the new season of 1967, Rodrguez won in only his ninth Grand Prix, at Kyalami.[4] Cooper manager
Roy Salvadori allowed Rodrguez to drive the practice car, over the objections from teammate Jochen Rindt, who
had demanded Rodrguez's car, with strong support from Rindt's close friend Jackie Stewart. Rodrguez's smooth,
consistent driving earned him victory after Denny Hulme had had a lengthy pit stop and local privateer John Love's
Tasman Cooper needed a late fuel stop. Rindt, by contrast, retired the other Cooper-Maserati after 38 laps. Rodrguez
drove a controlled season in 1967 as No. 2 to Rindt. Though usually slower than his teammate, he built up
experience in the older and heavier T81, while Rindt was given the improved T81B and later the brand new
T86[5]Wikipedia:Please clarify and was also slowed by a mid-season accident. Nevertheless, Rodrguez was only
marginally slower than Rindt in the Dutch Grand Prix,[6] also the only other race in the season where the Coopers
were competitive.

Pedro Rodrguez

303
His performance at Zandvoort earned Rodrguez a better drive with,
BRM in 1968.[7] Rodrguez proved himself excellent in the wet at
Zandvoort and Rouen where he got his only fastest lap in F1 during the
French GP.[8] Lack of power meant he had to settle for second behind
Bruce McLaren in Belgian GP at Spa.[9][10]

The BRM P133 faded through the year from lack of testing time after
the death of Mike Spence, who team's owners favoured.[citation needed]
Nevertheless, Rodrguez led the Spanish Grand Prix from Chris Amon
Rodrguez at the 1968 Dutch Grand Prix
for 28 laps until he made a mistake and spun off.[11] At the end of the
year, despite Rodrguez's good performances, BRM team manager Sir
Louis Stanley released Rodrguez to the Parnell BRM privateer team for, to some, inexplicable reasons, in favour of
the inexperienced Jackie Oliver.
The Reg Parnell Racing BRMs proved to have hopeless engines, and after Monaco,[12] Rodrguez left and signed for
Ferrari for the remainder of the 1969 Grand Prix and sports car series.
Reentering F1 in the British Grand Prix,[13] Rodrguez matched teammate Amon's pace in practice and led Amon by
a whisker in the race. The uncompetitive 312s ran midfield until Rodrguez's car broke and Amon's engine blew for
the second race in a row. Given the hopelessness of the 312 V12, the frustration of his drivers, and the slow progress
with getting the new flat-12 F1 car ready, Enzo Ferrari would rather have run two Italian drivers for the rest of the
season, but the Brambilla brothers, Vittorio and Ernesto, proved too slow. So Ferrari ran Rodrguez in the last four
races of the season, in NART American racing colours for the North American races, but still, effectively, as a
Ferrari works team. In the underpowered car, Rodrguez managed a 4th in 1968;[14] 6th in 1964,[15] 1967[16] and
1970;[17] and 7th in 1965[18] and 1969;[19] places in his six home races in Mexico, but Ferrari didn't offer him a ride
for 1970.
BRM only offered him a ride in 1970 after John Surtees decided to leave to set up his own team at the last minute.
For most of 1970, Stanley clearly favoured Jackie Oliver as number one driver, perhaps partly in response to
Stewart's opinion of Rodrguez and possibly because of his "old-boys' club" of Englishmen at the team.[citation needed]
At Spa, Rodrguez won with his BRM P153 over the new March of Chris Amon for just 1.1 seconds and with an
incredible average speed of 149.94 mph (241.25 Km/h), then the highest average speed in the history of F1,[20]
Jean-Pierre Beltoise got the third place in Matra.[21]
The power of the V12 engines was particularly suited to the fast circuits with few really slow corners, such as Spa,
Monza, and to a degree Brands and Nrburgring, and that was usually the case with the BRMs, Matras, and Weslake
engined cars. A strong drive at St Jovite saw him finish 4th. Only the need to pit in the last laps for fuel at Watkins
Glen, robbed him of a victory in the United States Grand Prix, the highest paying event of the year at the time,
US$50,000.[22]Wikipedia:Please clarify The winner was a young man named Emerson Fittipaldi (23), who got the
first victory of his career in F1, Reine Wisell from Lotus got the third place in the podium.[23]
The 1971 season could have seen him as a championship contender, with a BRM P160 being prepared by Tony
Southgate, and for once BRM did have consistently good engines. The BRM team, however, was overextended,
trying to run three, and later four, cars. Pedro challenged Jacky Ickx magnificently in the rain during the Dutch
Grand Prix, but just failed to win.[24][25]

Pedro Rodrguez

304

Death
Rodrguez was killed in an Interserie sports car race at Norisring in Nuremberg, Germany, on 11 July 1971. While he
was driving for the lead, a slower car driven by Kurt Hild edged him into the wall and his prototype burst into
flames. The Mexican sadly died shortly after he was extricated from the wreck.[26] Rodrguez was at the wheel of a
Ferrari 512M of Herbert Mller Racing, his friend and teammate at the Targa Florio in 1971.

Legacy
Pedro Rodrguez was considered the best driver of his era in the wet,[27][28] and after many years racing for Ferrari in
the World Championship of Makes for sports cars, he signed for JW-Gulf-Porsche in 1970. He became two-time[29]
world champion driver in the fearsome Porsche 917 together with his co-driver Leo Kinnunen (the sportscars series
was run by teams in shifts).[30][31] He developed into one of the sport's great all-rounders, racing CanAm, NASCAR,
rallies and even becoming North American Ice Racing champion in 1970, invited by the Alaska Sports Car Club
from Anchorage, the race was in Sand Lake. In his NASCAR career, Rodrguez earned two top tens, including a 5th
in the 1965 World 600.[32] Along with Jo Siffert, he was considered the bravest driver in motorsport, an example of
this being the two touching through the then-very narrow and very dangerous Eau Rouge corner in the rain in their
917s at the start of the 1970 1000km of Spa-Francorchamps.

Commemoration
The first hairpin at Daytona International Speedway (the right-hand
hairpin) is named the Pedro Rodrguez curve,.[33] In 1973 the Mexico
City race track Magdalena Mixuhca, where F1, Champ Car, NASCAR
and other series race was renamed for him and Ricardo: Autdromo
Hermanos Rodrguez (Autodrome Brothers Rodrguez).
In July 2006, a bronze plaque was placed at the site of his crash in
Nuremberg, a joint effort by Scuderia Rodrguez (the friends and
family foundation) and the city authorities.[34][35] The Scuderia keeps
alive the memory of both Rodrguez brothers, serving as register for
Rodrguez memorabilia and cars, and certifying them. Its Secretary
General, Carlos Jalife, published the Rodrguez brothers' biography in
December 2006, with an English translation ready for sale [36][37] in
United States, Canada, and England which won the Motor Press Guild
Book of the Year award in 2009.[38]

Racing record
Formula One World Championship results
(key) (Races in bold indicate pole position; races in italics indicate fastest lap)

Rodrguez at Paul Ricard in 1971

Pedro Rodrguez

Year

Entrant

1963 Team Lotus

305

Chassis

Engine

10

Lotus
25

Climax
V8

MON BEL

NED FRA GBR GER ITA USA MEX RSA


Ret Ret

11

12

13

WDC Pts.
NC

1964

North
American
Racing
Team

Ferrari
156
Aero

Ferrari
V6

MON NED

BEL

FRA GBR GER AUT ITA

USA MEX
6

22nd

1965

North
American
Racing
Team

Ferrari
1512

Ferrari
V12

RSA MON BEL

FRA GBR NED GER ITA

USA MEX
5
7

14th

Lotus
33

Climax
V8

MON BEL

NC

6th

15

6th

18

14th

7th

23

10th

1966 Team Lotus

FRA GBR NED


Ret

Lotus Cosworth
F2 44
Straight-4
Lotus
33

GER ITA
Ret

BRM V8

USA MEX
Ret Ret

1967 Cooper Car Cooper Maserati


Company
T81
V12

RSA MON NED BEL FRA GBR GER CAN ITA


1
5
Ret
9
6
5
11

1968

RSA
Ret

USA MEX
6

Owen
BRM
Racing
P126
Organisation

BRM
V12

BRM
P133

BRM
V12

BRM
P138

BRM
V12

BRM
P126

BRM
V12

Scuderia
Ferrari

Ferrari
312

Ferrari
V12

North
American
Racing
Team

Ferrari
312

Ferrari
V12

1970

Yardley
Team BRM

BRM
P153

BRM
V12

RSA
9

ESP MON BEL NED FRA GBR GER AUT


Ret
6
1
10
Ret Ret Ret
4

ITA
Ret

1971

Yardley
Team BRM

BRM
P160

BRM
V12

RSA
Ret

ESP MON NED FRA GBR GER AUT ITA


4
9
2
Ret

CAN USA

1969 Reg Parnell


Racing

ESP MON BEL NED FRA GBR GER


Ret
Ret
2
3
NC Ret
6

CAN USA MEX


3
Ret
4
ITA
Ret

RSA
Ret

ESP MON
Ret
Ret
NED FRA GBR GER ITA
DNA
Ret
6
CAN USA MEX
Ret
5
7

CAN USA MEX


4
2
6

Pedro Rodrguez

306

Pedro Rodrguez at Ferrari

1962 Le Mans-winning Ferrari 330 TRI-LM,


bought by the Rodrguezes through NART.
Rodrguez raced several times in it.

Year

Race

Team

Car

Pos.

Co-driver

1957

Nassau Trophy

NART

500 TR

Ret.

Solo

1957

Governor's Trophy

NART

500 TR

Solo

1958

24 Hours of Le Mans

NART

500 TR

Jos Behra

1958

Governor's Trophy

NART

TR 58

Solo

1958

Ferrari Classic

NART

TR58

Solo

1958

Nassau Trophy

NART

TR 58

Solo

1959

II Circuito del Moral

NART

TR 58

Solo

1959

12 Hours of Sebring

NART

TR58

Ret.

Paul O'Shea

1959

1000 km Daytona

NART

TR58

No started

1959

VII Circuito Avndaro

NART

58TR

Solo

1959

Kiwanis GP Riverside

NART

250 TR

Ret.

Solo

1959

Governor's Trophy

NART

TR59

Solo

1959

Nassau Trophy

NART

TR59

13

Solo

1960

Cuban GP

NART

TR59

Solo

1960

12 Hours of Sebring

NART

Dino 196S

Ret.

Ricardo Rodrguez

1960

Targa Florio

NART

Dino 196S

1960

1000 km Nrburgring

NART

Dino 196S

Ret.

Ricardo Rodrguez

1960

24 Hours of Le Mans

NART

TRI60

Ret.

Ludovico Scarfiotti

1960

Governor's Trophy

NART

TR59/60

Ret.

Solo

1960

Nassau Trophy

NART

TR59/60

Ricardo Rodrguez

1961

12 Hours of Sebring

NART

TR59/60

Ricardo Rodrguez

1961

1000 km Nrburgring

NART

TRI/60

Ricardo Rodrguez

1961

24 Hours of Le Mans

NART

TRI/61

Ret.

Ricardo Rodrguez

1961

I GP Independencia

250 GT Cal

Solo

1961

GP Canada Sport

NART

TRI/61

Solo

1961

1000km Montlhry

NART

250 GT SWB

Ricardo Rodrguez

1961

Governor's Trophy

NART

TRI/61

Solo

7/1 Sport-2 Ricardo Rodrguez

Pedro Rodrguez

307

1961

Nassau Trophy

NART

TRI/61

Solo

1962

12 Hours of Sebring

NART

246 SP

Ret.

Ricardo Rodrguez

1962

12 Hours of Sebring

NART

Dino 246S

Ret.

Grossman x Connell

1962

1000 km Nrburgring

NART

268 SP

Ricardo Rodrguez

1962

24 Hours of Le Mans

SpA Ferrari SEFAC

246 SP

Ret.

Ricardo Rodrguez

1962

Double 400 Bridgehampton

NART

330 TRI/LM

Solo

1962

GP Canada Sport

NART

330 TRI/LM

Solo

1962

1000km Montlhry

NART

250 GTO

Ricardo Rodrguez

1963 Continental 3 Hours of Daytona

NART

250 GTO

Solo

1963

12 Hours of Sebring

NART

330 TRI/LM

Graham Hill

1963

24 Hours of Le Mans

NART

330 TRI/LM

Ret.

Roger Penske

1963

Governor's Tophy

NART

250 P

Solo

1963

Nassau Trophy

NART

250 P

Solo

1964

CC 250 M Daytona

NART

250 LM

Ret.

Solo

1964

Continental 2000Km Daytona

NART

250 GTO

Phil Hill

1964

12 Hours of Sebring

NART

330 P

Ret lap 40

John Fulp

250 GTO

Piper/xGammino

12 Hours of Sebring
1964

24 Hours of Le Mans

NART

330 P

Ret

S. Hudson

1964

12 Hours of Reims

NART

250 GTO

11

Nino Vaccarella

1964

Player's Quebec

NART

275 P

Solo

1964

Double 500 Bridgehampton

NART

275 P

Solo

1964

GP Canada Sport

NART

330 P

Solo

1964

1000km Montlhry

NART

250 GTO

Jo Schlesser

1964

GT+22 Oakes Field

NART

250 GTO

7/1 class

Solo

1964

Nassau Tourist Trophy

NART

250 GTO

6/1 class

Solo

1964

Governor's Trophy

NART

330 P

4/1 class

Solo

1964

Nassau Thophy

NART

330 GTO

3/2 class

Solo

1965

Continental 2000km Daytona

NART

330 P2

Ret.

John Surtees

Continental 2000km Daytona

NART

275 P

Ret.

Hansgen x

1965

12 Hours of Sebring

NART

330 P

Ret.

Graham Hill

1965

24 Hours of Le Mans

NART

365 P2

7/1 class

Nino Vacarella

1965

12 Hours of Reims

NART

365 P2

Jean Guichet

1965

Double 500 Bridghampton

NART

250 GTO

2/1 class

Solo

1965

GP Canada Sport

NART

365 P2

Solo

1966

24 Hours of Daytona

NART

365 P2

Mario Andretti

1966

12 Hours of Sebring

NART

365 P2

Ret.

Mario Andretti

1966

1000 km Nrburgring

NART

Dino 206 S

Richie Ginther

1966

24 Hours of Le Mans

NART

330 P3

Ret.

Richie Ginther

1966

200 M Bridgehampton

NART

Dino 206 S

Ret.

Solo

Pedro Rodrguez

308

1966

200 M Laguna Seca

NART

Dino 206 S

18

Solo

1966

Governor's Trophy

NART

275 GTB/C

7/1 class

Solo

1966

Nassau Trophy

NART

Dino 206 S

7/1 class

Solo

1967

24 Hours of Daytona

NART

412 P

Jean Guichet

1967

12 Hours of Sebring

NART

206 S

Ret.

Jean Guichet

1967

1000 km Monza

NART

412 P

Ret.

Jean Guichet

1967

24 Hours of Le Mans

NART

412 P

Ret.

Giancarlo Baghetti

1967

12 Hours of Reims

NART

Dino 206 S

Ret.

Jean Guichet

1968

24 Hours of Daytona

NART

Dino 206 S

Ret.

Kold

1968

Brands Hatch GP

NART

275 ML

Pierpoint

1969

12 Hours of Sebring

NART

330 P3

Ret.

Parsons

1969

6 Hours of Brands Hatch

NART

312 P

Chris Amon

1969

1000 km Monza

NART

312 P

Ret.

Schetty

1969

1000 km Spa

NART

312 P

David Piper

1969

1000 km Nrburgring

NART

312 P

Chris Amon

1969

24 Hours of Le Mans

NART

312 P

Ret.

David Piper

1969

200 M Bridgehampton

NART

312 P

Solo

1970

200 M Mid Ohio

NART

512 S

11

Solo

1970

200 M Elkhart Lake

NART

512 P

Solo

1971

200 miles of Norisring

Private

512 M

Died

Solo

Pedro Rodrguez in Porsche

Pedro Rodrguez won the World Champion of Makes in 1970 and 1970 World in
this Porsche 917

Pedro Rodrguez

309

Year

Race

Team

1970

24 Hours of Daytona

1970

12 Hours of Sebring

Car

Pos.

Co-driver

John Wyer 917K

Kinnunen/Redman

John Wyer

917K

Kinnunen/Siffert

1970 1000km of Brands Hatch John Wyer 917K

Leo Kinnunen

1970

1000 km Monza

John Wyer 917K

Leo Kinnunen

1970

Targa Florio

John Wyer

908-3

Leo Kinnunen

1970

1000 km Spa

John Wyer

917K

Ret.

Leo Kinnunen

1970

1000 km Nrburgring

John Wyer

908-3 Ret.

Leo Kinnunen

1970

24 Hours of Le Mans

John Wyer

917K

Ret.

Leo Kinnunen

Leo Kinnunen

1970 6 Hours of Watkins Glen John Wyer 917K


1970

1000 km Zeltweg

John Wyer

917K

Ret.

Leo Kinnunen

1971 1000 km of Buenos Aires

John Wyer

917K

Ret.

Jackie Oliver

1971

24 Hours of Daytona

John Wyer 917K

Jackie Oliver

1971

12 Hours of Sebring

John Wyer

917K

Jackie Oliver

1971

1000 km Brands Hatch

John Wyer

917K

Ret.

Jackie Oliver

1971

1000 km Monza

John Wyer 917K

Jackie Oliver

1971

1000 km Spa

John Wyer 917K

Jackie Oliver

1971

Targa Florio

John Wyer

908-3 Ret.

1971

1000 km Nrburgring

John Wyer

908-3

Oliver/Siffert

1971

24 Hours of Le Mans

John Wyer 917LH

18

Jackie Oliver

1971

1000 km Zeltweg

John Wyer 917K

Richard Attwood

Herbert Mller

Pedro Rodrguez in the 24 Hours of Le Mans


Year

Team

Num.

Car

Cat.

Co-driver

Grid

Engine
1958

North American Racing Team

25

Ferrari 500 TR58

OSCA Automobili

51

OSCA Sport 750TN

S 2.0

Jos Behra

33

Scuderia Ferrari SpA

12

Ferrari 250 TRI/60

S 750

Ricardo Rodrguez

11

North American Racing Team

17

Ferrari 250 TRI/61

S 3.0

S 3.0

Ludovico
Scarfiotti
Ricardo Rodrguez

47

SpA Ferrari SEFAC

28

Ferrari Dino 246 SP

North American Racing Team

10

Ferrari 330 TRI/LM


Ferrari 4.0L V12

305
23h

E 3.0

Ricardo Rodrguez

32

Ferrari 2.4L V6
1963

22
3h

Ferrari 3.0L V12


1962

32
5h

Ferrari 3.0L V12


1961

119
12h

OSCA 0.7L L4
1960

Result

Hours

Ferrari 2.0 L4
1959

Laps

174
13h

P
+3.0

Roger Penske

113
9h

Retire
(Cooling)
Retire
(Water
pump)
Retire
(Fuel)
Retire
(Engine)
Retire
(Gear box)
Retire
(Accident)

Pedro Rodrguez

1964

North American Racing Team

310
15

Ferrari 330 P

P 5.0

Skip Hudson

Ferrari 4.0 L V12


1965

North American Racing Team

18

Ferrari 365 P2/P1

5h
P 5.0

Nino Vaccarella

Ferrari 4.4 L V12


1966

North American Racing Team

27

Ferrari 330 P3
Spyder

North American Racing Team

25

Ferrari 330 P3

P 5.0

Richie Ginther

1969

John Wyer Automotive


Engineering

SpA Ferrari SEFAC

18

Ford GT40 Mk I

P 5.0

Giancarlo Baghetti

S 5.0

Lucien Bianchi

John Wyer Automotive Engineering

21

Porsche 917K

P 3.0

David Piper

John Wyer Automotive Engineering

18

Porsche 917L

S 5.0

Leo Kinnunen

331

223

22
4h

S 5.0

Jackie Oliver

Porsche 4.9 L Flat 12

Sources
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]

144

16h

Porsche 4.9 L Flat 12


1971

Retire
(Gear box)

Retire
(Pistons)
Winner

24h

Ferrari 3.0 L V12


1970

151

11h

Ford 4.9 L V8
Ferrari 312 P Coup

10h

Ferrari 4.0 L V12


1968

320

Retire
(Engine)

24h

Ferrari 4.0 L V12


1967

58

Los Hermanos Rodrguez book, pp.45-46


http:/ / misc. thefullwiki. org/ Pedro_Rodriguez
Los Hermanos Rodrguez book, p. 381
http:/ / www. formula1. com/ results/ season/ 1967/ 561/
Los Hermanos Rodrguez. 2006, pp. 389 & 395.
http:/ / www. formula1. com/ results/ season/ 1967/ 563/
http:/ / www. formula1. com/ results/ season/ 1968/ 553/
http:/ / www. formula1. com/ results/ season/ 1968/ 560/

[9] http:/ / www. formula1. com/ results/ season/ 1968/ 552/


[10] Klaus Ewald (http:/ / www. klaus-ewald. de/ pedro1. htm) .
[11] http:/ / www. formula1. com/ results/ season/ 1968/ 550/
[12] http:/ / www. formula1. com/ results/ season/ 1969/ 539/
[13] http:/ / www. formula1. com/ results/ season/ 1969/ 542/
[14] http:/ / www. formula1. com/ results/ season/ 1968/ 559/
[15] http:/ / www. formula1. com/ results/ season/ 1964/ 606/
[16] http:/ / www. formula1. com/ results/ season/ 1967/ 570/
[17] http:/ / www. formula1. com/ results/ season/ 1970/ 535/
[18] http:/ / www. formula1. com/ results/ season/ 1965/ 597/
[19] http:/ / www. formula1. com/ results/ season/ 1970/ 535/
[20] Los Hermanos Rodrguez. 2006, p. 503
[21] http:/ / www. formula1. com/ results/ season/ 1970/ 528/
[22] Los Hermanos Rodrguez. 2006, p. 521
[23] http:/ / www. formula1. com/ results/ season/ 1970/ 534/
[24] http:/ / www. grandprix. com/ gpe/ rr201. html
[25] http:/ / www. formula1. com/ results/ season/ 1971/ 517/
[26] http:/ / en. espnf1. com/ brm/ motorsport/ driver/ 858. html
[27] http:/ / www. oldracingcars. com/ driver/ Pedro_Rodriguez
[28] Ramrez, Jo. Mi vida en la Frmula Uno, pp. 95 & 105; Los Hermanos Rodrguez book, pp.489, 490, 573 & 581.
[29] Book: Los Hermanos Rodrguez. 2006, p. 575
[30] http:/ / www. porsche917. com. ar/ xhistoria1970_1. htm

14h

Retire
(Oil leak)
Retire
(Engine)
Retire
(Oil leak)

Pedro Rodrguez
[31]
[33]
[34]
[35]
[36]
[37]
[38]

311

http:/ / www. porsche917. com. ar/ xhistoria1971_1. htm


http:/ / misc. thefullwiki. org/ Pedro_Rodriguez
http:/ / carloscastella. wordpress. com/ 2011/ 02/ 14/ pedro-rodriguez-de-la-vega/
http:/ / www. grandprix. com/ ns/ ns17174. html
http:/ / www. classicdriver. com/ uk/ magazine/ 3200. asp?id=14091
http:/ / www. amazon. com/ dp/ 1893618897?keywords=carlos+ jalife-villalon
http:/ / www. motorpressguild. org/ dean-batchelor-award

The Brothers Rodrguez (http://www.amazon.com/dp/1893618897?keywords=carlos+jalife-villalon) book by


Carlos Eduardo Jalife-Villaln, August 2007

External links

History of Norisring races (http://www.norisringhistorie.de)


GrandPrix.com (http://www.grandprix.com/gpe/drv-rodped.html)
Fan Page (http://home.scarlet.be/~mathiasg/rodriguez.htm)
Career stats, courtesy GrandPrixStats.com (http://www.f1-stats.de/en/drivers/details.php?d=578)
Sporting positions
Precededby
Dan
Gurney
A. J. Foyt

Winner of the 24 Hours of Le


Mans
1968 with:
Lucien Bianchi

Succeededby
Jacky Ickx
Jackie Oliver

Rolf Stommelen

312

Rolf Stommelen
Rolf Stommelen

Born

11 July 1943

Died

24 April 1983 (aged39)


Formula One World Championship career

Nationality

German

Active years

19691976, 1978

Teams

Brabham, Surtees, March, Lola, Hill, Arrows, Eifelland

Races

63 (54 starts)

Championships 0
Wins

Podiums

Career points

14

Pole positions

Fastest laps

First race

1970 South African Grand Prix

Last race

1978 Canadian Grand Prix

Rolf Johann Stommelen[1] (11 July 1943 24 April 1983) was a racing driver from Siegen, Germany. He
participated in 63 Formula One World Championship Grands Prix, achieving one podium, and scored a total of 14
championship points. He also participated in several non-Championship Formula One races.
One of the best endurance sports car racing drivers of the 1960s, 1970s and early 1980s, Stommelen won the 24
Hours of Daytona 4 times; in 1968, 1978, 1980 and 1982 and the Targa Florio in 1967 in a Porsche 910.

Rolf Stommelen

313

Career

Stommelen driving for Brabham at the 1976


German Grand Prix.

Stommelen won the pole position for the 1969 24 Hours of Le Mans in
a Porsche 917 a year after finishing third in a Porsche 908. In this year,
he became the first man to reach speeds exceeding 350km/h
(217mph) on the Mulsanne Straight in his Porsche 917 LH. In 1970,
he made his Formula One debut with Brabham with sponsorship
obtained from the German magazine "Auto Motor und Sport" and
raced both sportscars (Toj and Porsche works teams) and Formula 1
throughout the 1970s.
Unfortunately, he would play a role in the end of the Spanish Grand
Prix's tenure at Montjuich Park in Barcelona when he crashed there in
the 1975 race after the rear wing of his Embassy-Hill- Lola broke,
resulting in the deaths of four spectators and him being seriously
injured.
After his recovery, Stommelen returned to sports car racing, winning
races for Alfa Romeo and also winning the 24 Hours of Daytona a
further three times.

In 1976 Stommelen had the honor to drive the maiden race of the
Porsche 936 at the 300km Nrburgring race. With a black body and
without the air-intake, the 936 of this race became known as the black
widow. He qualified second, between the factory Renault Alpine A442 of Patrick Depailler and Jean-Pierre Jabouille
on first and third. The Renault team was eager to win at Porsche's home soil. On the racing day in hard rain,
Stommelen managed to overtake the Renault in front right after the start. Now in the lead, he rushed towards the
Nordkehre, braked and let deliberately room for the Renaults in pursuit to overtake. The Renaults, wanting to take
back the lead after 2 of 300km, rushed past Stommelen into the water puddles and crashed into the catch-fences in
tandem, with Stommelen taking back the lead again. This led to the saying "On the Nordschleife, you can never
brake later than Rolf Stommelen!". After the sixth lap, the throttle cable of the 936 stuck in the "open" position. But
instead of giving up, Stommelen continued the race by turning off the master switch at the bends to brake, and
turning on the master switch again after the bends to accelerate throughout the rest of the race, mastering an
unbelievable second place at the end of the race.[2]
Stommelen driving a Porsche in 1977.

In 1978 he was given the task by the Porsche factory to pilot the mighty Porsche 935 "Moby Dick" in Martini
Colors. The 78 "Moby Dick" had a 3.2 liter Turbo Engine that produced 845 HP and Stommelen was with 235mph
(365km/h) the fastest man on the Mulsanne Straight, faster than the prototypes like the Porsche 936 and the finally
winning A442B. Due to high fuel-consumption of the engine, Stommelen had to pit too often to battle for the win.[3]
He continued at Le Mans with the Porsche 935, nearly winning the 24 hours of Le Mans with Dick Barbour and
actor Paul Newman as co-drivers in 1979 in a Porsche 935, only to be set back by a 23 minute long pit stop caused
by a stuck wheel nut. The Team would not have come so far, if Stommelen had not been constantly 25 seconds faster
than his team mates per lap.
He also drove Toj SC320 prototype sportscars with some success against the works Alfa team (Toj was a small
German manufacturer).[4]
He also competed in one NASCAR Grand National series event in 1971 at Talladega Superspeedway in a former
Holman-Moody Ford which Mario Andretti used to win the 1967 Daytona 500, which was rebuilt as a Mercury
Cyclone, with Jake Elder as crew chief. That car eventually was sold to independent driver Darrell Waltrip to use a

Rolf Stommelen

314

year later in his Winston Cup Series debut in 1972, starting a career which led to Waltrip's International Motorsports
Hall of Fame induction in April 2005.
He was also active in the German GT Championship Deutsche Rennsport Meisterschaft, winning the championship
in 1977 for the Gelo Racing Team on Porsche 935. A master at the vicious Nurburgring, he was a constant winner of
races held there.
In the 1980's he was still a sought after prototype pilot and raced successful on Kremer CK5, Lancia LC1 and
Porsche 956.

Death
Stommelen was killed in a vicious crash during an IMSA Camel GT event at Riverside International Raceway on 24
April 1983. He was running a John Fitzpatrick entered Porsche 935 with codriver Derek Bell. Stommelen had just
taken over the car from Derek Bell and was running the car at second place when the rear wing broke due to
mechanical failure at 190mph. The car became uncontrollable, slammed against a concrete wall, somersaulted and
caught fire. Stommelen died of head injuries.[5]

Complete Formula One World Championship results


(key)
Year
1969

Entrant
Roy
Winkelmann

Chassis

Engine

Lotus

Ford

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

RSA ESP MON NED FRA GBR GER ITA CAN USA MEX

WDC Points
NC

11th

10

20th

NC

NC

NC

NC

20th

59B F2 Straight-4

Racing Ltd
1970

Auto Motor
Und Sport

1971

Auto Motor
Und
Sport-Eifelland
Team Surtees

1972

Team
Eifelland

Brabham Cosworth RSA ESP MON BEL NED FRA GBR GER AUT ITA CAN USA
BT33

V8

Ret

Ret DNQ

DNQ

DNS

Ret

12

MEX
Ret

Surtees Cosworth RSA


TS7

V8

12
ESP MON NED FRA GBR GER AUT ITA CAN USA

Surtees

Ret

TS9

DSQ

11

10

DNS

Ret

Eifelland Cosworth ARG RSA ESP MON BEL FRA GBR GER AUT ITA CAN USA
Type 21

13

V8

Ret

10

11

16

10

Ret

15

Caravans
1973

Ceramica
Pagnossin

Brabham Cosworth ARG BRA RSA


BT42

ESP

BEL MON SWE FRA GBR NED GER


11

V8

AUT

ITA

Ret

12

AUT

ITA

Ret

Ret

CAN USA
12

Team MRD
1974

1975

Embassy

Lola

Racing

T370

Embassy

Lola

Racing

T370

Cosworth ARG BRA RSA

ESP

BEL MON SWE NED FRA GBR GER

V8

V8

13

Lola

RSA

T371

7
ESP MON BEL SWE NED FRA GBR GER

Martini

Brabham

Alfa

Racing

BT45

Romeo

BRA RSA USW ESP

AUT

ITA

16

Ret

BEL MON SWE FRA GBR GER AUT

ITA

Ret

Flat-12

Racing

Hesketh Cosworth
308D

12

14

Ret

Hesketh

11

Cosworth ARG BRA

Hill GH1

1976

CAN USA

V8

NED
12

USA

CAN USA

JPN

Rolf Stommelen

1978

Arrows

315
Arrows Cosworth ARG BRA RSA USW MON BEL ESP SWE FRA GBR GER

Racing Team

FA1

V8

Ret

Ret

14

14

15

NC

DNQ DSQ
AUT

Arrows

NED

ITA

USA CAN

DNPQ DNPQ DNPQ

A1

16

DNPQ

Non-Championship results
(key) (Races in bold indicate pole position) (Races in italics indicate fastest lap)
Year

Entrant

Chassis

Engine

1971 Team Surtees Surtees TS9


1975 Embassy Hill

T370

Ford V8

ARG ROC QUE SPR INT RIN OUL VIC


Ret
7

Ford Cosworth DFV ROC INT


9

SUI
12

References
[2] (http:/ / www. motorsport-info. de/ Fahrer/ Rolf_Stommelen/ Rennen/ 300_km-Rennen_76/ 300_km-rennen_76. php) Motorsport-info.de
300km Nuerburgring 1976
[3] (http:/ / www. motorsport-info. de/ Fahrer/ Rolf_Stommelen/ Rennen/ Le_Mans_78/ le_mans_78. php) Motorsport-info.de Le Mans 1978
[4] http:/ / www. peter-auto-racing. com/ index. php?option=com_content& view=article& id=12%3Afordgt40& catid=14& lang=dpx_uk
[5] (http:/ / alex62. typepad. com/ imsablog/ 2006/ 01/ a_very_sad_sund. html) IMSA Blog: A very sad Sunday

Hans-Joachim Stuck
Hans-Joachim Stuck

Born

1 January 1951

Formula One World Championship career


Nationality

German

Active years

19741979

Teams

March, Brabham, Shadow, ATS

Hans-Joachim Stuck

316
Races

81 (74 starts)

Championships 0
Wins

Podiums

Career points

29

Pole positions

Fastest laps

First race

1974 Argentine Grand Prix

Last race

1979 United States Grand Prix

24 Hours of Le Mans career


Participating years 19721973, 19801982, 19851991, 19931998
Teams

Ford, BMW Motorsport, BASF Cassetten Team GS Sport, Porsche, Joest Racing

Best finish

1st (1986, 1987)

Class wins

3 (1999)

Hans-Joachim Stuck (born 1 January 1951 in Garmisch-Partenkirchen), nicknamed "Strietzel", is a German racing
driver who has competed in Formula One and many other categories. He is the son of the legendary Hans Stuck. As
a young boy, his father taught him driving on the Nrburgring. In 1969 he started his first ever motor race at the
Nordschleife. Speaking about that day he said, "Getting to the grid was extremely exciting. All of a sudden, my
wishes to become a racer came true. I just wanted to start the race and give everybody hell!"[1] The following year, at
just 19 years of age, he won his first 24 hours race at the wheel of a BMW 2002TI. He won there again in 1998 and
2004, too, each time with a BMW touring car.
The always friendly and funny, tall and blond Bavarian, who is living in Austria, was immediately after his birth
nicknamed Strietzel by his grandmother, as she claimed that the newborn baby looked like one of the famous Stollen
cakes of her Saxony area. He is also nicknamed "Regenmeister" ("Rainmaster") for his ability to race on wet tracks.
In 1972, Stuck teamed up with Jochen Mass to drive a Ford Capri RS2600 to victory at the Spa 24 Hours endurance
race in Belgium. His campaigns racing the BMW 3.0 CSL "Batmobile" were very successful in 1974 and 1975, in
the German DRM as well as in the USA together with Ronnie Peterson. Later in the 1970s he raced the
turbo-charged BMW 320i.
After some success in Formula 2 with a March-BMW, he also entered F1 with March. Overall, Stuck participated in
81 Grands Prix, debuting on 13 January 1974. He achieved 2 podiums and scored 29 championship points. Stuck
was quite successful at Brabham-Alfa in 1977, leading the 1977 United States Grand Prix at Watkins Glen in the
rain, but was replaced by Niki Lauda for 1978. Stuck missed an opportunity to join Williams F1 just before this team
became successful.
Due to his height of 194 centimetres (6ft4in), he did not fit well into the F1 cars of the late 1970s that had the
cockpit moved forward. Leaving F1 at that time probably spared him bad injuries to the leg, as suffered by Ronnie
Peterson, Clay Regazzoni, Marc Surer and others.
Stuck continued racing touring and sports cars all over the world, winning the 24 hours of Le Mans twice with a
Porsche 962. Stuck says the 962 is the favourite racecar he has driven during his career, describing it has having the
"perfect combination of power and downforce".[1]
In the 1990s he tasted touring car success, winning the DTM Championship in 1990 with Audi, before returning to
Porsche until the 24 hours of Le Mans in 1998. He resumed an official role with BMW after that. In 2006, Stuck
raced in the inaugural season of the Grand Prix Masters formula for retired Formula One drivers after scoring 6th in

Hans-Joachim Stuck

317

the first race event at the Kyalami circuit in South Africa on 1113 November 2005.
January 2008 saw Stuck begin his current position with Volkswagen Motorsport.[2] This role has also seen him use
his experience to help refine road cars, including the new Golf VI GTI.[3]
Stuck announced the end of his active career as a race driver after 43 years after the 2011 Nrburgring 24 hours, in
which he participated with a Reiter Engineering Lamborghini Gallardo LP600+ GT3 together with Dennis Rostek
and his sons Ferdinand Stuck and Johannes Stuck. Team Stuck finished 15th overall following gearbox problems.[4]

Racing record
Complete European Formula Two Championship results
(key) (Races in bold indicate pole position; races in italics indicate fastest lap)
Year
1971

1973

1974

1975

1976

1977

Entrant

Chassis

Eifelland

Engine

10

11

12

13

BT30

FVA

STP March

March

BMW

Engineering

732

M12

March

March

BMW

Engineering

742

M12

Jgermeister

March

BMW

Team March

752

M12

16

MAL HOC THR NR PAU KIN


Ret

Ret

EST THR

762

BMW

NIV HOC ROU MNZ MAN KAR PER SAL NOR ALB VAL

Ret

Ret

Ret

Ret

HOC SAL ROU MUG PER

HOC THR VAL SAL PAU HOC ROU MUG PER


1

SIL

Ret

EST NOG

March

BMW

SIL

Ret
Ralt

ZOL NOG VAL

HOC

RT1

Ret

Ltd

Racing

43

March Cars

Project Four

2nd

NR PAU

Ret

2
March

BAR HOC PAU SAL HOC MUG KAR PER HOC VAL

HOC

BMW

DC Points

16

March

Motorsport

17

Ret

Engineering

Ltd

15

Brabham Cosworth HOC THR NR JAR PAL ROU MAN TUL ALB VAL VAL

Wohnwagenbau

1979 March Racing

14

THR HOC NR VAL PAU MUG ROU NOG PER

MIS

EST DON

Ret
BMW

SIL HOC THR NR VAL MUG PAU HOC ZAN PER

792

MIS DON

Ret

Complete Formula One World Championship results


(key)
Year
1974

Entrant

Chassis

March

March Cosworth ARG BRA RSA ESP

Engineering
1975

Lavazza
March

1976

March
Racing

741

Engine

V8

Ret

Ret

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

BEL MON SWE NED FRA GBR GER AUT ITA CAN USA
Ret

Ret

Ret DNQ Ret

11

Ret

V8

Ret

March Cosworth BRA RSA


761

V8

12

Theodore

USW

Racing

Ret

Ret

Ret

Ret

BEL MON SWE FRA GBR GER AUT NED ITA CAN USA JPN

Ret

Ret

Ret

Ret

Ret

Ret

Ret

Ret

NC

13th

ESP

16th

Ret DNQ

March Cosworth ARG BRA RSA ESP MON BEL SWE NED FRA GBR GER AUT ITA USA
751

17 WDC Points

Ret

Ret

Hans-Joachim Stuck

1977

318

March Cosworth ARG BRA RSA

Team
Rothmans

V8

761B

11th

12

18th

20th

Ret

International
Martini

Brabham

Alfa

Racing

BT45B

Romeo

USW ESP MON BEL SWE FRA GBR GER AUT NED ITA USA CAN JPN
Ret

Ret

10

Ret

Ret

Ret

Ret

Flat-12
1978

Shadow
Racing
Team

Shadow Cosworth ARG BRA RSA


V8

DN8

17

Ret DNQ

Shadow
DN9

1979

ATS

USW MON BEL

ESP SWE FRA GBR GER AUT NED ITA USA CAN

DNS

Ret

Ret

ATS D2 Cosworth ARG BRA RSA USW ESP

Wheels

V8

DNQ Ret

Ret

DSQ

14

Ret

11

11

Ret

Ret

Ret

Ret

Ret

Ret

BEL MON FRA GBR GER


8

Ret

DNS DNQ Ret


AUT NED ITA CAN USA

ATS D3

Ret

Ret

11

Ret

Complete 24 Hours of Le Mans results


Year

Team

Co-Drivers

Car

Class Laps Pos. Class


Pos.

1972

Ford Motor Company


Deutschland

Jochen Mass

Ford Capri 2600RS

S
3.0

152 DNF DNF

1973

BMW Motorsport

Chris Amon

BMW 3.0CSL

T
5.0

160 DNF DNF

1980

BMW Motorsport GmbH

Hans-Georg Brger BMW M1


Dominique Lacaud

1981

BASF Cassetten Team GS Sport

Jean-Pierre Jarier
Helmut Henzler

1982

BASF Cassetten Team GS Sport

1985

Rothmans Porsche

1986

IMSA 283

15th

IMSA
GTX

57

DNF DNF

Sauber SHS C6-Ford

76

DNF DNF

Derek Bell

Porsche 962C

C1

367

3rd

3rd

Rothmans Porsche

Derek Bell
Al Holbert

Porsche 962C

C1

368

1st

1st

1987

Rothmans Porsche AG

Derek Bell
Al Holbert

Porsche 962C

C1

368

1st

1st

1988

Porsche AG

Klaus Ludwig
Derek Bell

Porsche 962C

C1

394

2nd

2nd

1989

Joest Racing

Bob Wollek

Porsche 962C

C1

382

3rd

3rd

1990

Joest Porsche Racing

Derek Bell
Frank Jelinski

Porsche 962C

C1

350

4th

4th

1991

Konrad Motorsport

Derek Bell
Frank Jelinski

Porsche 962C

C2

347

7th

7th

1993

Le Mans Porsche Team

Walter Rhrl
Hurley Haywood

Porsche 911 Turbo S


LM-GT

GT

79

DNF DNF

1994

Le Mans Porsche Team


Joest Racing

Thierry Boutsen
Danny Sullivan

Dauer 962 Le Mans

GT1

343

3rd

Jean-Louis
Schlesser
Dieter Quester

BMW M1

5th

2nd

Hans-Joachim Stuck

319

1995

Porsche Kremer Racing

Kremer K8 Spyder
Thierry Boutsen
Christophe Bouchut

WSC

289

6th

2nd

1996

Porsche AG

Thierry Boutsen
Bob Wollek

Porsche 911 GT1

GT1

353

2nd

1st

1997

Porsche AG

Thierry Boutsen
Bob Wollek

Porsche 911 GT1

GT1

238 DNF DNF

1998

Team BMW Motorsport

Steve Soper
Tom Kristensen

BMW V12 LM

LMP1

60

DNF DNF

Complete 24 Hours of Nrburgring results


Year

Team

Car

Also driven by

Also driven by

Also driven by

Position

Notes

1970 Koepchen

BMW 2002 TI

Clemens
Schickentanz

1st

1971 Alpina

BMW 2002 TI

Gnter Huber

Retired

1972 Fritzinger Tuning

Ford Capri RS
2600

Klaus Fritzinger

2nd

1981 Unknown

BMW 320i Gr.


2

K. Hens

Michael
Middelhaufe

5th in
class

1982 Auto Budde Racing BMW 528i


Team

Heiner Mller

Michael
Middelhaufe

Retired

Accident

1984 Unknown

BMW 635 CSi

Dieter Quester

Harald Grohs

Retired

Accident

1992 Unknown

Porsche 911
Carrera 2

Olaf Manthey

Walter Rhrl

Frank Biela

3rd

1998 BMW Motorsport

BMW 320d

Marc Duez

Christian Menzel Andreas


Bovensiepen

1st

2000 Scheid Motorsport

BMW M3
GTRS

Johannes Scheid

Stefan Schlesack

Retired

2002 Scheid Motorsport

BMW M3
GTRS

Johannes Scheid

Mario Merten

Oliver Kainz

Retired

Gearbox
failure

2003 BMW Motorsport

BMW M3 GTR Boris Said

John Nielsen

Marc Duez

Retired

Accident

2004 BMW Motorsport

BMW M3 GTR Pedro Lamy

Jrg Mller

Dirk Mller

1st

2005 BMW Motorsport

BMW M3 GTR Pedro Lamy

Jrg Mller

Dirk Mller

2nd

2006 Duller Motorsport

BMW M3 E46
GT

Dieter Quester

Dirk Werner

Artur Deutgen

Retired

Accident

2007 Schubert
Motorsport

BMW Z4 M
Coupe

Johannes Stuck

Claudia Hrtgen

Richard
Gransson

5th

Class win

2008 Volkswagen
Motorsport

VW Scirocco
GT24

Florian Gruber

Thomas Mutsch

Jimmy Johansson 11th

2008 Volkswagen
Motorsport

VW Scirocco
GT24

Carlos Sainz

Giniel de Villiers Dieter Depping

15th

2009 Audi Sport Team


Phoenix

Audi R8 LMS
GT3

Emanuele Pirro

Frank Biela

Marcel Fssler

12th

2010 Audi Sport Team


Phoenix

Audi R8 LMS
GT3

Marc Basseng

Mike
Rockenfeller

Frank Stippler

Retired

Engine
failure

Class win
Double entry

Engine
failure

Hans-Joachim Stuck

320

2011 Team Stuck

Gallardo
LP600+ GT3

Johannes Stuck

Ferdinand Stuck

Dennis Rostek

15th

Stuck's final
race

References
[1] AUSringers.com (http:/ / www. ausringers. com/ 2009/ 04/ 03/ hans-joachim-stuck-talks-to-ausringers. html) Hans-Joachim Stuck interview
Retrieved 2009-04-04
[2] hansstuck.com (http:/ / www. hansstuck. com/ en/ career. html) Hans-Joachim Stuck career Retrieved 2009-04-04
[3] AUSmotive.com (http:/ / www. ausmotive. com/ 2009/ 03/ 24/ 2009-mk6-golf-gti-image-gallery. html) 2009 Mk6 Golf GTI image gallery
Retrieved 2009-04-04
[4] http:/ / www. hansstuck. com/ en/ news/ detailview. html?tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=395& tx_ttnews%5BbackPid%5D=11&
cHash=11fe7a13a4

External links
Official website (http://www.hansstuck.com)
Sporting positions
Precededby
None

Deutsche Rennsport Meisterschaft


Champion
1972

Succeededby
Dieter Glemser

Precededby
Herbert Adamzyck

Guia Race winner


1980

Succeededby
Manfred Winkelhock

Precededby
Helmut Greiner

Guia Race winner


1983

Succeededby
Tom Walkinshaw

Precededby
Stefan Bellof

World Sportscar Championship Champion


1985,
with Derek Bell

Succeededby
Derek Bell (1986)

Precededby
Klaus Ludwig
Paolo Barilla
Louis Krages

Winner of the 24 Hours of Le Mans


1986 with:
Derek Bell
Al Holbert

Succeededby
Derek Bell
Hans-Joachim Stuck
Al Holbert

Precededby
Derek Bell
Hans-Joachim
Stuck
Al Holbert

Winner of the 24 Hours of Le Mans


1987 with:
Derek Bell
Al Holbert

Succeededby
Jan Lammers
Johnny Dumfries
Andy Wallace

Precededby
Roberto Ravaglia

German Touring Car Champion


1990

Succeededby
Frank Biela

321

Notable endurance motorcycle riders


Sbastien Gimbert
Sbastien Gimbert
Nationality

French

Born

September 9, 1977
Le Puy-en-Velay, France

Currentteam Thevent Racing Team BMW


Bikenumber

Sbastien Gimbert (born September 9, 1977, in Le Puy-en-Velay, France) is a professional motorcycle road racer.
He currently competes in the Superbike World Championship. His greatest success has come in the Endurance
World Championship, and the bulk of his career has been spent on Yamaha YZF-R1 motorcycles.
He was France's 250cc champion in 1996 and 1997, before moving up to the 500cc World Championship on a
privately entered Honda in 1998 and 1999, and racing in the 250cc World Championship in 2000, without many
front-running displays.
From 2002 to 2004 he was primarily an endurance racer. He has won the biggest 24-hour races in the sport - Le
Mans, Spa-Francorchamps and the Bol d'Or. He helped the team to the Endurance World Championship in 2004.
Gimbert also remained active in shorter races, finishing 2nd in the French Super Production series in 2003 and doing
several rounds a year later. He also raced his R1 in 3 Superbike World Championship races, taking a pair of 4th
places despite 2 slow starts at Magny-Cours in 2004, a year with few manfuacturer backed bikes. As a result of this,
he was hired by Yamaha Motor France as their second rider in WSBK for 2005. He finished 16th overall in 2005,
and 19th (without a top 10 finish) in 2006.
He raced in the Supersport World Championship for 2007 finishing 20th overall. He also won the 2007 Bol d'Or
endurance race.

External links
sebgimbert.com [1] Official website

References
[1] http:/ / www. sebgimbert. com

Keiichi Kitagawa

322

Keiichi Kitagawa
Keiichi Kitagawa
Nationality

Japanese

Born

March 24, 1967


Kyoto, Japan

Motorcycle racing career statistics


Grand Prix motorcycle racing
Active years

1998

Starts Wins Podiums Poles F. laps Points


1

Superbike World Championship


Active years

19912000

Starts Wins Podiums Poles F. laps Points


24

222

Keiichi Kitagawa ( Kitagawa Keiichi, born 24 March 1967 in Kyoto, Kyoto Prefecture) is a retired
Grand Prix motorcycle road racer from Japan. He was runner-up in the 1993 F1 All-Japan Road Racing
Championship. He won the 1998 Superbike World Championship round at Sugo as a wild card rider for Suzuki.[1]
Kitagawa coming 16th in the season's overall standings. He was a semi-regular in the Superbike World
Championship in 1995, finishing 17th overall with a best finish of 4th, on a Kawasaki. Kitagawa finished 2nd in the
Suzuka 8 Hours race, teamed with Akira Ryo. He was also a three-time winner of the Bol d'or endurance race. He
retired from racing at the end of 2003, after winning the 2002 and 2003 Endurance World Championship.[2]

References
[1] Another Year of Carl (http:/ / www. superbikeplanet. com/ 1004a. htm)
[2] http:/ / www. rs-taichi. com/ main/ news2006-1003. htm

External links
Worldsbk.com profile (http://www.worldsbk.com/it/teams-e-riders/rider?pilota=29)
MotoGP.com profile (http://www.motogp.com/en/riders/Keiichi+Kitagawa)

Terry Rymer

323

Terry Rymer
Terry Rymer
Nationality

British

Motorcycle racing career statistics


Grand Prix motorcycle racing
Active years

1992, 1996

First race

1992 500cc British Grand Prix

Last race

1996 500cc Imola Grand Prix

Team(s)

Yamaha, Suzuki

Championships

Starts Wins Podiums Poles F. laps Points


8

22

Superbike World Championship


Active years

1988 - 1995, 1998

Manufacturers

Yamaha

1998 Championship position 53rd

Starts Wins Podiums Poles F. laps Points


124

11

Terrence William Rymer (born 28 February 1967 in London, England) is a retired motorcycle road racer turned car
and truck racer.
He won no fewer than 147 races during his motorcycle racing career. In his native home England during 1985, he
won both BMCRC 250cc and 350cc championships. He later won the 1990 British Superbike Championship (and
was runner-up in 1989), as well as the 1992 and 1999 Endurance World Championship. He was a regular in the
Superbike World Championship every year from 1988 to 1994 except for 1992, with 2 wins, 9 further podiums, and
a championship best of 6th in 1991.[1] He rode a Harris-Yamaha at the 1992 British motorcycle Grand Prix and
placed 6th. He made a handful of 500cc Grand Prix starts for Suzuki in 1996.[2] Subsequently he returned to the
British Superbike championship with some success - five race wins in 1996 with a Ducati, and one in 1998 for
Suzuki.[3] He won the prestigious Bol d'Or race five times, and the 24 Hours of Le Mans motorcycle race once.

Terry Rymer

References
[1] Terry Rymer career World Superbike statistics at worldsbk.com (http:/ / www. worldsbk. com/ teams-e-riders/ rider?pilota=21)
[2] www.motorcycle.com (http:/ / www. motorcycle. com/ mo/ mcmail/ rymer_i. html)
[3] Motorcycle Racing Online - British Superbikes decade of race winners (http:/ / www. sportnetwork. net/ main/ s180/ st60460. htm)

External links
Career summary (http://www.jpsnorton.com/terryrymer.asp)
Profile (http://www.race24.co.uk/riders/rymer.html)

324

Dominique Sarron

325

Dominique Sarron
Dominique Sarron

Sarron at the 1989 Japanese Grand Prix


Nationality

French

Motorcycle racing career statistics


Grand Prix motorcycle racing
Active years 1985 - 1992
First race

1985 250cc German Grand Prix

Last race

1992 500cc South African Grand Prix

First win

1986 250cc British Grand Prix

Last win

1988 250cc Brazilian Grand Prix

Team(s)

Honda

Starts Wins Podiums Poles F. laps Points


85

16

431

Dominique Sarron (born August 27, 1959 in Riom, Puy-de-Dme) is a former Grand Prix motorcycle road racer
from France. His best year was in 1986 when he won the Brazilian Grand Prix and finished in third place in the
250cc world championship behind Carlos Lavado and Sito Pons.[1] He won two races in 1988 riding for Honda and
ended the season ranked fourth.
After his Grand Prix career, Sarron competed in the 1993 Superbike World Championship. He also competed in
motorcycle endurance racing. He won the Suzuka 8 Hours in 1986 partnered with Wayne Gardner, and in 1989
partnered with Alex Vieira.[2][3] He is the younger brother of Christian Sarron, also a Grand Prix motorcycle racer.
In 1994, he teamed up with his brother to win the prestigious Bol d'or endurance race.

Dominique Sarron

326

Motorcycle Grand Prix Results[1]


Points system from 1969 to 1987:
Position 1
Points

4 5 6 7 8 9 10

15 12 10 8 6 5 4 3 2 1

Points system from 1988 to 1992:


Position 1
Points

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

20 17 15 13 11 10 9 8 7 6

(key) (Races in bold indicate pole position; races in italics indicate fastest lap)
Year Class

Team

Machine

10

11

12

13

14

15

1985 250cc Rothmans-Honda RS250 RSA ESP GER NAT AUT YUG NED BEL FRA GBR SWE RSM
France

27

15

18

15

NC

13

16

16

11

NC

NC

1989 500cc

Elf-Honda

NC

NC

NC

NC

10

10

DNS

10

10

NC

1991 250cc Gallina-Yamaha

TZ250

ROC
Yamaha

NC

NC

NC

10

NC

16

12

JPN AUS MAL ESP ITA EUR GER NED HUN FRA GBR BRA RSA
-

15

15

17

17

13

NC

15

NC

97

4th

158

4th

39

15th

78

10th

30th

23rd

10

JPN AUS USA ESP ITA GER AUT EUR NED FRA GBR RSM CZE VDM MAL
-

1992 500cc Banco-Yamaha

3rd

NC

1990 250cc Rothmans-Honda NSR250 JPN USA ESP NAT GER AUT YUG NED BEL FRA GBR SWE CZE HUN AUS
4

72

NSR500 JPN AUS USA ESP NAT GER AUT YUG NED BEL FRA GBR SWE CZE BRA
18

1988 250cc Rothmans-Honda NSR250 JPN USA ESP EXP NAT GER AUT NED BEL YUG FRA GBR SWE CZE BRA
France

21st

1987 250cc Rothmans-Honda NSR250 JPN ESP GER NAT AUT YUG NED FRA GBR SWE CZE RSM POR BRA ARG
France

1986 250cc Rothmans-Honda NSR250 ESP NAT GER AUT YUG NED BEL FRA GBR SWE RSM
France

Points Rank Wins

13

17

References
[1] Dominique Sarron career statistics at MotoGP.com (http:/ / www. motogp. com/ en/ riders/ profiles/ Dominique+ Sarron)
[2] 1986 Suzuka 8 Hours results at Moto Racing Japan (http:/ / www. motoracing-japan. com/ result/ spl/ 868h. html)
[3] 1989 Suzuka 8 Hours results at Moto Racing Japan (http:/ / www. motoracing-japan. com/ result/ spl/ 898h. html)

327

Notable endurance racing cars


Alfa Romeo 8C
Alfa Romeo 8C

Alfa Romeo 8C 2900A (1936)


Manufacturer

Alfa Romeo

Production

19311939

Class

Luxury car, Sports car, Racing car

Layout

FR layout

Engine

2.3L 2336cc I8
2.6L 2556cc I8
2.9L 2905cc I8
(road cars)

The Alfa Romeo 8C name was used on road, race and sports cars of the 1930s. The 8C means 8 cylinders, and
originally referred to a straight 8-cylinder engine. The Vittorio Jano designed 8C was Alfa Romeo's primary racing
engine from its introduction in 1931 to its retirement in 1939. In addition to the two-seater sports cars it was used in
the world's first genuine single-seat Grand Prix racing car, the Monoposto 'Tipo B' - P3 from 1932 onwards.[] In its
later development it powered such vehicles as the twin-engined 1935 6.3-litre Bimotore, the 1935 3.8-litre
Monoposto 8C 35 Type C, and the Alfa Romeo 8C 2900B Mille Miglia Roadster. It also powered top-of-the-range
coach-built production models. In 2004 Alfa Romeo revived the 8C name for a V8-engined concept car which has
made it into production for 2007, the Alfa Romeo 8C Competizione.

Alfa Romeo 8C

328

History
In 1924, Vittorio Jano created his first straight-eight-cylinder engine for Alfa Romeo, the 1987cc P2, with common
crankcase and four plated-steel two-cylinder blocks, which won the first World Championship ever in 1925. Albeit it
was a straight-8, the 8C designation was not used.
The 8C engine, first entered at the 1931 Mille Miglia road
race through Italy,[] had a common crankcase, now with two
alloy four-cylinder blocks, which also incorporated the
heads. The bore and stroke (and hence rods, pistons and the
like), were the same as the 6C 1750 (bore: 65mm, stroke:
88mm 2,336cc). There was no separate head, and no head
gasket to fail, but this made valve maintenance more
difficult. A central gear tower drove the overhead
camshafts, superchargers and ancillaries. As far as
production cars are concerned, the 8C engine powered two
models, the 8C 2300 (19311935) and the even more rare
and expensive 8C 2900 (19361941), bore increased to
68mm and stroke to 100mm (2,905cc).

Alfa Romeo 8C 2300 Spider Corsa 1932

Alfa Romeo 8C 2900B Touring Spider 1937 in 2005 Pebble


Beach Concours d'Elegance.

1933 ex-Scuderia Ferrari Alfa Romeo 8C 2600 Monza


in unusual color.

Raymond Sommer, and Tazio Nuvolari.

At the same time, since racing cars were no longer required


to carry a mechanic, Alfa Romeo built the first single seater
race car. As a first attempt, the 1931 Monoposto Tipo A
used a pair of 6-cylinder engines fitted side by side in the
chassis.[1] As the resulting car was too heavy and complex,
Jano designed a more suitable and successful racer called
Monoposto Tipo B (aka P3) for the 1932 Grand Prix season.
The Tipo B proved itself the winning car of its era, winning
straight from its first outing at the 1932 Italian Grand Prix,
and was powered with an enlarged version of the 8C engine
now at 2,665cc, fed through a pair of superchargers instead
of a single one.

Initially, Alfa Romeo announced that the 8C was not to be sold to


private owners, but by autumn 1931 Alfa sold it as a rolling
chassis in Lungo (long) or Corto (short) form with prices starting
at over 1000. The chassis were fitted with bodies from a selection
of Italian coach-builders (Carrozzeria) such as Zagato, Carrozzeria
Touring, Carrozzeria Castagna, Pininfarina and Brianza, even
though Alfa Romeo did make bodies. Some chassis were clothed
by coach-builders such as Graber, Worblaufen and Tuscher of
Switzerland and Figoni of France. Alfa Romeo also had a practice
of rebodying cars for clients, and some racing vehicles were sold
rebodied as road vehicles. Some of the famous first owners include
Baroness Maud Thyssen of the Thyssen family, the owner of the
aircraft and now scooter company Piaggio Andrea Piaggio,

Alfa Romeo 8C

329

Models
1931 8C 2300
The first model was the 1931 '8C 2300', a reference to the
car's 2.3L (2336cc) engine, initially designed as a racing
car, but actually produced in 188 units also for road use.
While the racing version of the 8C 2300 Spider, driven by
Tazio Nuvolari won the 1931 and 1932 Targa Florio race in
Sicily, the 1931 Italian Grand Prix victory at Monza gave
the "Monza" name to the twin seater GP car, a shortened
version of the Spider. The Alfa Romeo factory often added
the name of events won to the name of a car.

1938 Alfa Romeo 8C 2900B Touring Berlinetta, winner of the


first race at Watkins Glen in 1948, Pebble Beach Concours
d'Elegance "Best of Show" 2008 and Concorso d'Eleganza
[][]
Villa d'Este "Best of Show" 2009.

1931 8C 2300 Le Mans type


'8C 2300 tipo Le Mans' was the sport version of the '8C
2300' and it had a successful debut in the 1931 Eireann Cup
driven by Henry Birkin. It won the 24 Hours of Le Mans in
1931 (Howe-Birkin); 1932 (Chinetti-Sommer); 1933
(Nuvolari-Sommer) and 1934 (Chinetti-Etancelin).
The 8C 2300 Le Mans model on display at the Museo Alfa
Romeo was bought by Sir Henry Birkin in 1931 for
competition use, but it is not the car in which Birkin and
Howe won the 1931 Le Mans 24 hours.
2300 engine with Roots supercharger.

1933 8C 2600
In 1933 the supercharged dual overhead cam straight-8 engine, enlarged (bore: 68mm, stroke: 88mm, 2557cc) to
2.6litres ('8C 2600') for the Tipo B, was fitted to the Scuderia Ferrari 8C Monzas. Scuderia Ferrari had become the
"semi-official" racing department of Alfa Romeo, who were no longer entering races as a factory effort due to the
poor economic situation of the company. With the initial 215hp of the 2.6 engine, the Monoposto Tipo B (P3) racer
could accelerate to 60mph (97km/h) in less than 7 seconds and could eventually reach 135mph (217km/h). For
1934 the race engines became 2.9litres.
Tazio Nuvolari won the 1935 German GP at the Nrburgring at the wheel of a 3.2L[] Tipo B against the more
powerful Silver Arrows from Mercedes-Benz and Auto Union.

Alfa Romeo 8C

330

Alfa Romeo Monoposto Type C[2]


Manufacturer Alfa Romeo
Alsocalled

Alfa Romeo 8C 35

Production

19351939

Assembly

Italy

Predecessor

Alfa Romeo Monoposto 8C Type B

Successor

Alfa Romeo Monoposto 12C 37

Class

Racing car

Bodystyle

Monoposto (single seat) open wheeler

Layout

Multi-plate clutch at engine, four-speed Stirnsi rear transaxle.

Platform

Light gauge welded box-section frame with all independent suspension

Engine

Supercharged 3822cc straight eight twin overhead cam

Transmission

Unsynchronised rear transaxle four-speed with reverse gear

Wheelbase

108.2inches (2748.28mm)

Length

169.3inches (4300mm) including starting handle

Width

34.0inches (863.6mm) cockpit

Height

48.0inches (1219.2mm) cowl 52.0inches (1320.8mm) windscreen

Curbweight

1646lb (746.613kg) unladen

Designer(s)

Vittorio Jano

1935 Monoposto 8C 35 Type C


Eight 3.8-litre versions, sharing no castings with the earlier blocks,
were individually built for racing in five months, most being used
in the Alfa Romeo Monoposto 8C 35 Type C, as raced by Scuderia
Ferrari. (The P3 designation was dropped.) The 3.8 produced
330bhp (246kW) at 5500rpm, and had 320lbft (434Nm) from
900rpm to 5500rpm.[] It had 15.5-inch drum brakes all round,
using Pirelli 5.25 or 5.50 x 19 tyres at the front and 7.00 or 7.50 x
Alfa Romeo 8C-35 Scuderia Ferrari
19 tyres at the rear. Though not a match for the big Mercedes and
Auto Union on the faster circuits, they came into their own on the
tighter circuits and races. In 1936 Tipo Cs fitted with the troublesome V12 did not live up to expectations, and the
3.8 continued to be used. From 1933 Scuderia Ferrari had managed the racing, and the Ferrari prancing horse
appeared on the flanks of the Bimotore, but Alfa Corse began to become more active, and Vittorio Jano went at the
end of the 1937 season.[2] In 1938 four Alfa Romeo Tipo 308 racers were built for the three-litre class using 8C
engines.

Alfa Romeo 8C

331

1935 Bimotore
In 1935, to compete with Mercedes Benz and Auto Union, Enzo
Ferrari (Race team manager) and Luigi Bazzi (Designer) built a
racer with two 3.2 (3.165-litre) engines, one in the front and one in
the rear, giving 6.3litres and 540bhp (403kW). The drivetrain
layout was unusual. The two engines were connected by separate
driveshaft to a gearbox with two input shafts, and two angled
output shafts, so each of the rear wheels had its own driveshaft. It
could never quite succeed against the Mercedes W25 B of Rudolf
Caracciola, and was hard on fuel and tyres. The gain in speed was
offset by increased pit times. On May 12, 1935, two were entered
1935 Alfa Romeo Bimotore Scuderia Ferrari
in the Tripoli Grand Prix driven by Nuvolari and Chiron who
finished fourth and fifth. Chiron managed a second at the
following 1935 Avus race. On June 16, 1935 Nuvolari drove a specially prepared Bimotore from Florence to
Livorno and set a new speed record 364km/h (226mph) with an average speed of over 323km/h (201mph). After
that it was sidelined in favour of the Tipo C.[] It was the first racer to use the Dubonnet independent trailing arm
front suspension. The V12 was under development, but was not race ready. It was noticed that the Bimotore had a
traction advantage on rough ground, so a version of the Bimotore chassis with the independent Dubonnet front end,
and a new independent rear with swing axles with radius rods and a transverse leaf spring was used for the Tipo C
3.8s.

8C 2900
Alfa Romeo 8C 2900

1938 Alfa Romeo 8C 2900 B Lungo with Carrozzeria Touring Superleggera body
Manufacturer Alfa Romeo
Production

19351938

Assembly

Italy

Class

Sports car/Racing car

Bodystyle

2-seat roadster
2-seat coupe

Layout

Engine-mounted multi-plate clutch, rear transaxle.

[]

Alfa Romeo 8C

332
Platform

Light gauge welded box-section frame with all independent suspension

Engine

Supercharged 2,905cc (177.3cuin) DOHC straight-eight engine

Transmission

Unsynchronised four-speed rear transaxle with reverse gear

Wheelbase

2900A: 2,718mm (107.0in)


2900B Corto: 2,799mm (110.2in)
2900B Lungo: 3,000mm (118.1in)

Related

Alfa Romeo 8C 35

The 8C 2900 was designed to compete in sports car races in general and the Mille Miglia in particular. It used the
2.9L version of the 8C engine and was based on the 8C 35 Grand Prix racing chassis.[][][] As such, it had an inline
8-cylinder 2.9-litre engine using two Roots type superchargers fed by two updraught Weber carburettors[3] and fully
independent suspension with Dubonnet-type trailing arm suspension with coil springs at front and swing axles with a
transverse leaf spring at the rear.[][][]
The 8C 2900A was shown to the public at the 1935 London Motor
Show and was advertised for sale there. The engine, with a
compression ratio of 6.5:1 and a stated power output of 220bhp
(160kW) at 5300 rpm, was detuned from the Grand Prix racing
version. Ten 2900As were built, five in 1935 and five in 1936.[]
Scuderia Ferrari entered three 8C 2900As in the 1936 Mille Miglia and
again in the 1937 Mille Miglia. In 1936 they finished in the top three
positions, with Marquis Antonio Brivio winning, Giuseppe Farina
1936 Alfa Romeo 8C 2900A roadster.
finishing second, and Carlo Pintacuda finishing third. In 1937 they
finished in the top two positions, with Pintacuda winning and Farina
finishing second; the third 2900A, driven by Clemente Biondetti, did not finish. The 8C 2900A also won the 1936
Spa 24 Hours with Raymond Sommer and Francesco Severi.[]
The 8C 2900B began production in 1937. The 2900B design made some concessions to comfort and reliability. The
engine was detuned further, having a compression ratio of 5.75:1 and a stated power output of 180bhp (130kW) at
5200 rpm. The 2900B chassis was available in two wheelbases:[] the Corto (short) at 2,799mm (110.2in),[][] which
was longer than the 2900A's 2,718mm (107.0in) wheelbase,[] and the Lungo (long) at 3,000mm (118.1in).[][] The
wheels of the 2900B had 19-inch rims[] fitted with 17-inch (432mm) hydraulic drum brakes.[] Thirty-two 2900Bs
were built in regular production, ten in 1937, and twenty-two in 1938. Another 2900B was assembled from parts in
1941. Most of these cars were bodied by Carrozzeria Touring, although a few were bodied by Pininfarina[]
A 8C 2800 with Pininfarina cabriolet bodywork was auctioned for US$4,072,000 by Christie's at Pebble Beach,
California. This was the tenth highest price ever paid for a car at auction at the time.[]
1938 8C 2900B Mille Miglia Roadster

Alfa Romeo 8C

333

Alfa Romeo 8C 2900B Mille Miglia Roadster

Category

Sports car racing

Constructor

Alfa Romeo

Designer(s)

Engine: Vittorio Jano


Body: Carrozzeria Touring

Predecessor

Alfa Romeo 8C 2900A


[]

Technical specifications
Chassis

Light gauge welded box-section frame

Suspension (front) Trailing arms, coil springs, telescopic shock absorbers in oil-filled cylinders
Suspension (rear)

Swing axles located by radius arms and tranverse leaf spring, telescopic shock absorbers

Length

176.4in (448.1cm)

Height

42.2in (107.2cm) at cowl,


48.0in (121.9cm) at windscreen

Axle track

53.1in (134.9cm) front and rear

Wheelbase

110.2in (279.9cm)

Engine

Alfa Romeo 8C 2900 2,905cc (177.3cuin) Straight-8 Twin Roots superchargers front-mounted, behind rear axle

Transmission

four-speed + reverse unsynchronised manual rear transaxle

Weight

1,250kg (2,755.8lb)

Tyres

5.5-inch (140mm) Pirelli Corsa front and rear

[]

Competition history
Notable entrants

Alfa Corse

Notable drivers

Clemente Biondetti
Carlo Maria Pintacuda
Giuseppe Farina
Eugenio Siena
Francesco Severi

Debut

1938 Mille Miglia

Alfa Romeo 8C

334

In 1938, Alfa Corse, an in-house racing team for Alfa Romeo, took
over the activities of Scuderia Ferrari, along with many of their
personnel, including Enzo Ferrari. Alfa Corse prepared four 8C 2900B
Corto cars for the 1938 Mille Miglia.[] These used Carrozzeria Touring
Superleggera roadster bodies.[][] Three of these cars had their engines
tuned to give 225bhp (168kW),[] while the fourth, assigned to
Biondetti, had an engine from an Alfa Romeo Tipo 308 Grand Prix car,
The Alfa Romeo 8C 2900B MM that won the
which delivered 295bhp (220kW)[][4] The cars finished the in the top
1938 Mille Miglia driven by Clemente Biondetti.
two positions, with Biondetti winning and Pintacuda finishing second[]
Simeone Foundation Automotive Museum,
after leading the race from Piacenza to Terni where his brakes locked
Philadelphia,PA, USA
up.[] The other two 8C 2900B Mille Miglia roadsters did not finish;
Farina crashed and Eugenio Siena had a blown engine. Piero Dusio finished third in a privately entered 8C 2900A.
One of the 2800B Mille Miglia roadsters later won the 1938 Spa 24 Hours with Pintacuda and Severi driving.[]
Phil Hill competed in several west coast United States races in Pintacuda's car in 1951 before driving for Ferrari.[]
1938 8C 2900B Le Mans Speciale
Alfa Corse also prepared and entered a single 8C 2900B, chassis
number 412033, for the 1938 Le Mans. The car featured a streamlined
coup body at a time when Le Mans racers were almost always open
cars. The aerodynamic coup was built by Carrozzeria Touring.[] In
1987, an Italian magazine had the car tested at the Pininfarina wind
tunnel, where a Cx of 0.42 was measured, down to 0.38 with air
intakes closed.[] The coup, driven by Sommer and Biondetti, led for
most of the race, but tyre trouble was then followed by a dropped
valve. The car was driven to the pits, but had to retire there. At the time
the valve dropped, the coup had a 160km lead over the next car.[]

Alfa Romeo 8C 2900B Le Mans

This was the only time the coup was raced by Alfa Corse. After the
war, it was entered in minor races under private ownership, was then
displayed at the Donington museum from the 1960s before being
added in 1987 to the Alfa Romeo museum, which now runs it at many
events.

References
[1] Fusi, Luigi: Alfa Romeo Tipo A Monoposto, Emmeti Grafica, Milano, 1982