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Resilient Design: Is Resilience the New Sustainability?
Posted By Jill Fehrenbacher On December 14, 2013 @ 4:45 am In Architecture,carousel showcase,Disaster-proof
design,Features,Sustainable Building | 9 Comments

Ever since Hurricane Sandy [1] wrought havoc on the East Coast, ‘resilient design [2] ’ has been a hot topic of conversation — and not
just amongst architects and designers, but politicians, engineers and city planners as well. In November 2012, ‘Resilient Design’ was a
trending search term in Google, moving from near obscurity in the months before the devastating super storm [3] to a popular
catchphrase post-Sandy. Natural disasters like this, and more recently the typhoon [4] that hit the Philippines in early November, serve
to remind those of us in the green design community that while building with pure “save-the-earth” ecological motivation is certainly
important, low-VOC-paints [5] and LEED points [6] don’t matter much if a building becomes uninhabitable due to flooding [7] ,
earthquake [8] , power outages [9] or some other natural or manmade disaster. That’s where resilient design comes into play. According
to the Resilient Design Institute [10] , resilient design is defined as “the intentional design of buildings, landscapes, communities, and
regions in response to vulnerabilities to disaster and disruption of normal life”.



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Of course. New York City has a wet climate [19] . as well as fire danger. http://inhabitat. common points of stress due to normal use. high heat loads in the summer. Pakistan and Haiti [13] are a wake up call to remind designers that we always need to keep the long-term picture in mind when we design. with extremely dry interior air (in heated buildings in the winter). and so resilient design is always locally specific. storm surges [19] . and water is a part of its environmental challenges throughout the year. and the alternation of humidity (in the summer). builders in New York City also need to design to withstand seismic activity [22] . So What Does ‘Resilient Design’ Entail When It Comes to Building? To design a building with resiliency [17] means to start the design process by thinking carefully about the typical use scenarios of the building. high-humidity. Hurricanes Katrina [11] and Sandy [3] . power outages. as well as the most likely disaster situations in the environment that could challenge the integrity of the building and/or endanger its occupants.12/27/2014 Inhabitat – Sustainable Design Innovation. On the West Coast of the United States. Resilient building in New York City needs to plan for all of these types of events. “sustainability” literally means “to endure”. Eco Architecture. the most common and likely natural disaster scenarios involve water: hurricanes [1] . flooding in Grand Rapids. Thinking through every potential problem and possible disaster situation can be overwhelming for designers. preparing buildings to withstand possible disasters as well as more mundane long-term wear and tear. In New York City. manmade disasters like terrorism. MI. and earthquakes in Japan [12] . As climate change turns our attention to the possibility of increasingly likely disaster scenarios. and blizzards [21] . flooding [20] . knowledge and experience. as well as the day-to-day stress that comes from significant precipitation year round. resilient design [2] serves to remind us to design for durability over time. The local environment always plays a critical role in determining the factors that make a building resilient or not.com [18] For example.com/resilient-design-is-resilience-the-new-sustainability/print/ 3/12 . seismic considerations are obviously much more of a concern. Priuses [15] and low carbon emissions [16] . Green Building » Resilient Design: Is Resilience the New Sustainability? » Print Major disasters like Typhoon Haiyan [4] . which is why a sensible approach starts by examining the most likely problem situations and pulling from local wisdom. While the term “sustainability” in today’s lexicon often conjures up an image of CFLs [14] . Any so-called “green” products and buildings that don’t stand the test of time are not truly sustainable. as well as the normal damage that comes with thousands of people moving through spaces in rapid succession. photo courtesy of GRNow.

between. but hundreds of thousands of people walk over them everyday without realizing it due to expansion joint covers [35] . but what many people don’t realize is that much of the damage in earthquakes occurs largely due to poorly constructed buildings and faulty infrastructure [30] .12/27/2014 Inhabitat – Sustainable Design Innovation. a structure’s ability to flex and absorb vibration [32] is just as important as how strong it is when it comes to earthquake-proof design [31] . Examples like Hurricane Sandy show us that more resilient structures are hugely important when it comes to health. and comfort within a city. These covers allow the day-to-day movement of a structure’s thermal expansion and contraction. but protects occupant life! http://inhabitat. as well as all sources of general everyday stress. had they also been better designed to withstand flood waters from a storm surge. there are many new technologies [31] and building methods that allow buildings to be increasingly ductile and able to withstand severe seismic activity [22] . and after a seismic event. Green Building » Resilient Design: Is Resilience the New Sustainability? » Print Flooding from Hurricane Sandy under the Brooklyn Bridge (AP Photo / Bebeto Matthews) Resiliency in Commercial Building Design Most of the talk about ‘resilient design’ these days is generally in the context of residential buildings and community infrastructure [23] (such as how New York City can engineer to protect itself against the next major storm surge from a disaster like Hurricane Sandy [24] ). leading to widespread evacuations. hospital evacuations.com/resilient-design-is-resilience-the-new-sustainability/print/ 4/12 . For example. if the Con Edison power plant that exploded on 14th Street [25] in lower Manhattan during Hurricane Sandy had had higher flood barrier walls — and had generally been better designed to withstand flooding [26] — all of lower Manhattan would not have lost power for the 4 days [27] that followed Hurricane Sandy [1] . but also allow much greater movement during seismic events. expansion joints [34] are deployed within. to allow entry back into the building. Eco Architecture. good seismic design not only helps a building be resilient. and then start the design process with all of these considerations in mind. earthquakes are high up on the list. Fortunately. Expansion joint covers are designed to remain intact during a seismic event. safety. As with all seismic construction. Emergency Resiliency & Disaster Preparedness So how can we build resiliency into commercial buildings? The first step is to consider all possible and likely disaster scenarios. Seismic Considerations When it comes to devastating natural disasters. Above all. which is exactly what it sounds like — decoupling the base of a structure from the rest of the building so that only the base shakes during an earthquake while the superstructure remains intact. non- residential buildings are too often overlooked. Expansion joint covers are designed to provide a seamless look while concealing the gaps beneath the floor’s surface. requiring the emergency evacuations of thousands of patients [28] . Contrary to what the layperson might think. and public transportation failure. Chances are you have never seen an expansion joint before. One of the most popular seismic building methods is base isolation [33] . and around structures to allow the building to move without damage during seismic activity. What is unfortunate is that in all the discussion surrounding resilient residential buildings and city-wide infrastructure [23] . to allow egress of the buildings’ occupants. Similarly NYU Langone Hospital [28] and Bellevue Hospital [29] in Manhattan’s East side would not have been so devastated.

Hurricanes. Eco Architecture.12/27/2014 Inhabitat – Sustainable Design Innovation. special attention needs to be paid to designing to resist severe wind load. as well as heavy precipitation. Green Building » Resilient Design: Is Resilience the New Sustainability? » Print World’s largest shake table [22] tests wooden 7 story house [22] ‘s resilience during an earthquake Seismic testing [36] can be used on components of buildings. basements. building designers need to focus extra attention on the challenges of weather – especially hurricanes [40] and flooding [41] . as well as have adequate drainage solutions for roofs. This is a rectangular platform which is coupled to hydraulic motion actuators to shake the platform in different ways [37] and therefore. Flooding As climate change [39] brings rising sea levels and more extreme weather events. Buildings in hurricane prone areas need to be very well-sealed. and ground-level flooding. where adequate ventilation and outside air-intake is http://inhabitat. terraces. including reproductions of recorded earthquakes time-histories. A common way to test the seismic resilience of a design is to use a “Shake Table [36] ”. model representations. For mechanical rooms.com/resilient-design-is-resilience-the-new-sustainability/print/ 5/12 . Hurricane Sandy photo via NOAA National Hurricane Center [38] Extreme Weather: Storms. test structural models or building components with a wide range of simulated ground motions [37] . When designing commercial buildings in hurricane and flood prone areas. and even entire buildings at actual scale to determine their resilience in withstanding earthquakes. and any other areas which may collect water.

they would have fared far better during Hurricane Sandy and not had to close operations and evacuate. designed by KieranTimberlake [51] . so in the event of flooding or storm surges. can also be used in commercial buildings to result in everyday energy savings as well as life-saving natural heating and cooling options in a disaster situation without access to electrical power (and therefore mechanical HVAC). the hospital is much less likely to lose power and need to evacuate its patients. potentially risking the health and lives of occupants inside. As you can see from the above photo. if New York City’s east river hospitals [28] were built more resiliently. designed by Perkins + Will [44] (and awarded LEED gold) [43] . They’re designed specifically to let air in and keep wind and driven-rain out. in flood-prone regions. with important mechanicals on top floors rather than basement. smart building designers would do well to locate all important mechanicals on the tops of buildings rather than in the basement. designed by Perkins + Will [44] and awarded LEED gold [43] – you can see the mechanicals on the top floor of the building Flood barrier walls [45] are obvious solutions to the threat of flooding on the ground level. as well as not locating emergency backup generators. or anything else important. Eco Architecture.com/resilient-design-is-resilience-the-new-sustainability/print/ 6/12 . natural ventilation with operable windows. in the basement. For example. Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital [43] in Boston. solar shading devices [48] . if electricity is knocked out due to a flood or earthquake. Green Building » Resilient Design: Is Resilience the New Sustainability? » Print important. to block hot midday solar radiation Implementing solar shading devices [48] is critical – not only for the unlikely event of a power outage or natural disaster. the hospital’s mechanicals are housed in the top floor of the building. an all-glass office building can quickly become like an oven on a hot summer day. but also just to increase occupants comfort and to help to reduce the energy and cooling costs of a building during normal year round use. Sidwell Friends School [50] . On this note. storm-resistant louvers [42] are a good choice for maximizing air intake while blocking wind and driving rain [42] . As previously mentioned. The Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital [43] in Boston. and employing stack ventilation [49] can help buildings remain comfortable for inhabitants even when there is no mechanical heating and cooling available. employs multiple solar shading devices throughout the facade. http://inhabitat.12/27/2014 Inhabitat – Sustainable Design Innovation. Proper insulation. or even if there is just a common “blackout”. Schiestlhaus [46] photo by DI Wilhelm Hofbauer Extreme Heat & Cold The same types of passive design strategies [47] that can be employed in homes to make them super energy efficient and green. is a great example of what to do when it comes to the location of important mechanical systems.

So how do you make a building last longer? Designers need to build in day-to-day durability with tight building envelopes and long-lasting. On average. brush-clearing. In addition to urban fire hazards. Eco Architecture.com/resilient-design-is-resilience-the-new-sustainability/print/ 7/12 . but these days we also need to plan carefully to address fires caused by earthquakes. http://inhabitat. unremitting use. but they need to last through years of constant. let’s get back to the facts of day-to-day life. city wide infrastructure can and will fail. Power outages and blackouts are such a common occurrence that commercial building designers always need to design backup systems to keep a building usable and comfortable when the electricity fails – as it will occasionally! Some lessons learned from Hurricane Sandy: always have a back-up power supply.12/27/2014 Inhabitat – Sustainable Design Innovation. US DOE). fire-resistant building materials and proper escape methods. lightning and other natural disasters. low-maintenance interior finishes. maintain off-grid heating and cooling capabilities. Most building code adequately addresses common fire hazards with mandatory fire-resistant stairwells. and barrier zones in wildfire prone areas. Green Building » Resilient Design: Is Resilience the New Sustainability? » Print Fire Resistance Fire is a danger as old as architecture [52] itself — as long as humanity has had buildings. and maximize daylight so that people can continue to see. New York Magazine’s Famous Iwan Ban photograph [27] of a blacked-Out NYC after Hurricane Sandy [54] Infrastructure Failure & Power Outages New York [55] building owners learned some resilient design lessons the hard way during Hurricane Sandy [56] . many commercial structures will see millions of human feet trudging through its spaces. work and move around without artificial light. make sure that natural ventilation is possible when air conditioning fails (specifically by having operable windows). and steps that can be taken to protect commercial buildings against wildfire include fire-resistant landscaping. we’ve faced the threat of them catching fire. Truly resilient buildings need to not just withstand natural disasters. and keep your back-up power on a higher floor [57] (not in the basement). meaning over almost a century. make sure that building insulation is as tight as can be. Image via Shutterstock [58] Everyday Resiliency & Normal Wear and Tear Now that we’ve scared you with our focused look at natural disasters [59] . wildfires [53] are a growing threat in the Western United States. a commercial building has a lifespan of 73 years (Source: 2010 Buildings Energy Data Book.

as they are the most highly-trafficked parts of a commercial building. Eco Architecture. Construction Specialties Entrance Flooring (GridLine. and the most common points of failure. PA Interior Finishes Doors and entrance points need to be made especially durable.com/resilient-design-is-resilience-the-new-sustainability/print/ 8/12 . Another concept which is important to consider when it comes to the building envelope is explosion venting. durable building employs proper sealing and insulation. resettable pressure relief vents [60] that activate at very low pressures (5psf) to protect the structural integrity of the building. Green Building » Resilient Design: Is Resilience the New Sustainability? » Print Durable Building Envelopes First and foremost. http://inhabitat. so if you want a durable building. including the use of highly insulated windows (double or triple pane. doors and roofs. These types of buildings need field-testable. Doors and entrance flooring take a lot of abuse. Explosion venting [60] is often used in industrial and power generation facilities where there can be a rapid pressure release or explosion (power plants. Most commercial interiors use standard wood doors. including flashing. high pressure laminate doors are used for greater longevity. Durable entrance floor systems [62] help buildings stand the test of time by effectively stopping dirt. chips and cracks. WA Another way to build resilience into a building is with interior doors [63] that will endure years upon years of use. DesignStep & PediTred) at 525 William Penn Place in Pittsburgh. Construction Specialties Acrovyn Doors at the Digestive Health Waldon Endoscopy Center in Tacoma. The most resilient doors [63] are those that employ a “kit of parts” approach so that when damage does occur. especially at windows. but for true durability an architect needs to really invest in doors with a long-lasting product that is built resistant to tearing. Explosion vents [61] help release pressure. Think about your local bank or workplace. grain mills). and external building stressors start at the building envelope. manufacturing operations. drainage and moisture barriers. so stopping it at the door helps extend the life of all the floor finishes and reduce cleaning and replacement costs. and how many people walk through the entrance on a daily basis.12/27/2014 Inhabitat – Sustainable Design Innovation. Occasionally. grids or robust carpeting have the ability to collect large amounts of dirt and moisture. it is imperative to have robust entrance doors and flooring be to withstand a high level of traffic. Dirt and particulates damage floor finishes throughout the entire building. Sometimes there is human error or mechanical failure. only the damaged piece needs to be replaced and not the entire door. thousands of dirty (sometimes wet) feet trudging throughout the building yearly. doors whipping open and closed hundreds of times in an hour. A resilient. often with a low-E seal and/or inert gas between panes). Not all disasters are natural. helping buildings to survive the natural and manmade disasters involving explosions and excess internal pressure. water and foreign contaminants from entering a building’s interior. commercial building needs to be built to last. Specialty flooring [62] that use tread rails. as well as adequate moisture protection.

everyday wear. crash rails and corner guards [64] . resilient design is a complex and many-faceted paradigm that involves long-term thinking about worst-case disaster scenarios. sun controls.” so our goal should be. grilles.com/resilient-design-is-resilience-the-new-sustainability/print/ 9/12 . the culprits are more often wheeled objects than feet. entrance flooring. was founded in 1948 and is headquartered in Lebanon. If building longevity is a goal. carts. protecting interior walls is especially important. Green Building » Resilient Design: Is Resilience the New Sustainability? » Print Constuction Specialties’ Acrovyn Wall Protection at the Avera Behavioral Health Center in Sioux Falls. smoke vents. The company serves architects and designers. and often complicated – the larger lesson is simple: buildings need to be resilient in order to be truly sustainable. Photovoltaics and lowflow toilets are not enough for ‘sustainability’ – a building needs to be able to stand the test of time. New Jersey. to design buildings that last longer than we do. [66] Construction Specialties [66] manufactures and sells specialty architectural products internationally. facility managers and contractors. Eco Architecture. building owners. food carriers. expansion joint covers. as well as more common. luggage). Inc. but in the case of walls. While thousands of scuffling feet may sound bad. In Conclusion As we’ve explored in this article. and one way this can be done is with interior wall guards [64] such as handrails. louvers. and cubicle track/curtains. As architect Carl Elefante once said. SD Interior walls take almost as much abuse as floors. http://inhabitat. with over 30 offices and manufacturing facilities worldwide. explosion vents. Though the variables which contribute to resilience are many. as architects. walls have a unique challenge in withstanding thousands of bumps and scrapes with moving objects (eg.12/27/2014 Inhabitat – Sustainable Design Innovation. “The greenest building [65] is the one that’s already built. Construction Specialties [66] . Its products include interior wall and door protection.

Green Building » Resilient Design: Is Resilience the New Sustainability? » Print http://inhabitat.com/resilient-design-is-resilience-the-new-sustainability/print/ 10/12 .12/27/2014 Inhabitat – Sustainable Design Innovation. Eco Architecture.

com/how-building-codes-saved-lives-during-chiles-earthquake/ [31] new technologies: http://inhabitat.noaa.wikipedia.org/wiki/Expansion_joint [35] expansion joint covers: http://www.c-sgroup.spauldingrehab.com/yes-the-massive-snowstorms-plaguing-the-east-coast-are-related-to-climate-change/ [22] withstand seismic activity: http://inhabitat.html [27] would not have lost power for the 4 days: http://inhabitat.com/resilient-design-is-resilience-the-new-sustainability/print/ 11/12 .12/27/2014 Inhabitat – Sustainable Design Innovation.shutterstock.html? src=HkeIn65qphP1Z10c7CIdpQ-1-99 http://inhabitat.com/shake-table-used-to-simulate-earthquake-on-fake-hospital/ [38] NOAA National Hurricane Center: http://www.gov/ [39] climate change: http://inhabitat.com/tag/kierantimberlake/ [52] architecture: http://inhabitat.com/sun-controls [49] stack ventilation: http://www.nhc.com/louvers/about/stormproof-louvers [43] Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital: http://www.org/wiki/Earthquake_shaking_table [37] shake the platform in different ways: http://inhabitat.xx.com/tag/flooding/ [42] storm-resistant louvers: http://www.10151593802764105.com/tag/carbon-emissions/ [17] design a building with resiliency: http://inhabitat.com/6-tips-to-protect-your-home-from-wildfires/ [54] Hurricane Sandy: http://inhabitat. Green Building: http://inhabitat.19176404104&type=3&src=https%3A%2F%2Fscontenta-lga.com/10000-feared-dead-in-the-wake-of-super-typhoon-haiyan/ [5] low-VOC-paints: http://inhabitat.html [29] Bellevue Hospital: http://well.blogs.wikipedia.com/pic-146291882/stock-photo-passenger-in-the-malaysia-airport.net%2Fhphotos-ash3%2F552775_10151593806914105_1834969271_n.com/despite-record-breaking-earthquake-no-buildings-in-tokyo-collapsed-thanksto-stringent-building-codes/ [32] flex and absorb vibration: http://inhabitat.fbcdn.wikipedia.com/SustainabilityHub/Designstrategies/Air/1-2-1-2-Naturalventilationstackventilation.com/nyc/could-building-sized-floodgates-protect-lower-manhattan-from-futuresuperstorms/ [46] Schiestlhaus: http://inhabitat.com/work/spaulding-rehabilitation-hospital.com/kamjz-tower-in-taiwan-protects-itself-from-earthquakes-using-justrainwater/ [33] base isolation: http://en.php? fbid=10151593806914105&set=a.com/study-predicts-coastal-flooding-damage-will-cost-1-trillion-a-year-by-2050/ [8] earthquake: http://inhabitat.facebook.com/passivhaus-the-greenest-building-standard/ [47] passive design strategies : http://inhabitat.com/wooden-house-can-withstand-severe-earthquakes/ [23] community infrastructure: http://inhabitat.com/rfp-for-nycs-flood-protecting-seaport-city-puts-it-a-step-closer-toreality/ [20] flooding: http://inhabitat.com/new-report-predicts-deadly-earthquake-and-tsunami-for-pacific-northwest/ [9] power outages: http://inhabitat.com/how-soft-infrastructure-like-wetlands-and-green-roofs-could-helpprotect-nyc-from-future-storms/ [24] how New York City can engineer to protect itself against the next major storm surge from a disaster like Hurricane Sandy: http://inhabitat.resilientdesign.com/2013/06/07/nyregion/trump-soho-hotel-sues-conedison-for-hurricane-sandy-losses.com/2012/10/30/nyregion/patients-evacuated-from-nyu-langone-afterpower-failure.com/resilient-design-is-resilience-the-new-sustainability/ URLs in this post: [1] Hurricane Sandy: http://inhabitat.com/tag/japan-earthquake/ [13] Haiti: http://inhabitat.com/noaa-climate-change-makes-sandy-style-flooding-twice-as-likely/ [21] blizzards: http://inhabitat.com/is-it-green-the-compact-fluorescent-lamp/ [15] Priuses: http://inhabitat.org/locations/spaulding-rehabilitation-hospital/phototour.perkinswill.c-sgroup.com/2012/11/26/a-return-to-bellevue-after-the-storm/ [30] faulty infrastructure: http://inhabitat.com/interview-with-bridgette-meinhold-author-of-urgent-architecture/ [18] GRNow.com/nyc [56] Hurricane Sandy: http://inhabitat.aspx [50] Sidwell Friends School: http://www. Green Building » Resilient Design: Is Resilience the New Sustainability? » Print Article printed from Inhabitat – Sustainable Design Innovation.com URL to article: http://inhabitat.com/tag/prius/ [16] carbon emissions: http://inhabitat. Eco Architecture.com/tag/resilient-design/ [3] devastating super storm: http://inhabitat.com/photo.nytimes.com/architecture/ [53] wildfires : http://inhabitat.nytimes.nytimes.com/is-leed-still-leading-the-way-for-green-building/ [7] flooding: http://inhabitat.com/expansion-joint-covers [36] Seismic testing: http://en.com/nyc/shop-architects-dancing-towers-break-ground-on-firstavenue-and-could-be-storm-resistant/ [58] Shutterstock: http://www.com/tag/hurricane-katrina/ [12] Japan: http://inhabitat.html [45] Flood barrier walls: http://inhabitat.architecture.com/former-director-of-nyc-dept-of-city-planning-says-giant-rotterdam-style-floodgates-could-protectnyc-from-the-next-superstorm/ [25] Con Edison power plant that exploded on 14th Street: http://inhabitat.com/tag/climate-change [40] hurricanes: http://inhabitat.com/nyc/photographer-iwan-baan-on-how-he-shot-thathaunting-half-dark-new-york-city-photo-from-the-sky/ [28] NYU Langone Hospital: http://www.com/iwan-baan-shares-how-he-shot-that-amazing-half-dark-new-york-city-aerialphoto/ [10] Resilient Design Institute: http://www.com: https://www.1073741845.com/sun-controls/sidwell-friends-testimonial#1912 [51] KieranTimberlake: http://inhabitat.com/tag/hurricane/ [41] flooding: http://inhabitat.aspx [44] Perkins + Will: http://www.com/nyc/video-dramatic-con-ed-station-explosionat-hurricane-sandys-peak/ [26] better designed to withstand flooding: http://www.c-sgroup.com/tag/haiti-earthquake/ [14] CFLs: http://inhabitat.c-sgroup.com/afm-safecoat-the-safest-paint-around/ [6] LEED points: http://inhabitat.org/wiki/Base_isolation [34] expansion joints: http://en.com/nyc/tag/hurricane-sandy [55] New York : http://inhabitat.jpg&size=960%2C720 [19] New York City has a wet climate: http://inhabitat.org [11] Hurricanes Katrina: http://inhabitat.com/tag/passive-design [48] solar shading devices: http://www. Eco Architecture.com/tag/hurricane-sandy/ [2] resilient design: http://inhabitat.com/what-hurricane-sandy-taught-us-about-americas-crumblinginfrastructure/ [4] typhoon: http://inhabitat.com/tag/hurricane-sandy [57] back-up power on a higher floor: http://inhabitat.

explovent.c-sgroup.com/resilient-design-is-resilience-the-new-sustainability/print/ 12/12 .com/2013InhabitatResilienceArticle_inhabitat.com/entrance-flooring [63] interior doors: http://www.com/news-archive.c-sgroup. Green Building » Resilient Design: Is Resilience the New Sustainability? » Print [59] natural disasters: http://inhabitat.com/acrovyn-doors [64] interior wall guards: http://www.c-sgroup.html Copyright © 2011 Inhabitat Local . http://inhabitat. All rights reserved.12/27/2014 Inhabitat – Sustainable Design Innovation. Eco Architecture.New York.com/disaster-proof-design/ [60] Explosion venting: http://www.com/acrovyn/acrovyn4000/introduction [65] greenest building: http://inhabitat.c-sgroup.com/explosion-vents/explosion-vents [61] Explosion vents: http://www.html [62] entrance floor systems: http://www.com/tag/green-building/ [66] Image: http://solutions.c-sgroup.