MOBILE

COMPUTING

Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION

Roger Wattenhofer
Summer 2004

Distributed
Computing
Group

A computer in 2010?
[Der Spiegel]

Overview

Mobile Computing
Summer 2004

Distributed
Computing
Group




What is it?
Who needs it?
History
Future



Course overview
Organization of exercises
Literature

Thanks to J. Schiller for slides

Advances in technology




More computing power in smaller devices
Flat, lightweight displays with low power consumption
New user interfaces due to small dimensions
More bandwidth (per second? per space?)
Multiple wireless techniques

Technology in the background
– Device location awareness: computers adapt to their environment
– User location awareness: computers recognize the location of the
user and react appropriately (call forwarding)

“Computers” evolve
– Small, cheap, portable, replaceable
– Integration or disintegration?

Distributed Computing Group

MOBILE COMPUTING

R. Wattenhofer

1/3

Distributed Computing Group

MOBILE COMPUTING

R. Wattenhofer

1/4

mobile Examples 8 8 9 9 8 9 8 9 Stationary computer Notebook in a hotel Wireless LANs in historic buildings Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) The demand for mobile communication creates the need for integration of wireless networks and existing fixed networks – Local area networks: standardization of IEEE 802.Application Scenarios What is Mobile Computing? • Aspects of mobility – User mobility: users communicate “anytime. UMTS GPS ad ho c DAB [J. Wattenhofer 1/7 Distributed Computing Group MOBILE COMPUTING R. with anyone” (example: read/write email on web browser) – Device portability: devices can be connected anytime. Wattenhofer 1/5 Vehicles • • • • • • • • • • • • • Vehicles Nomadic user Smart mobile phone Invisible computing Wearable computing Intelligent house or office Meeting room/conference Taxi/Police/Fire squad fleet Service worker Lonely wolf Disaster relief and Disaster alarm Games Military / Security Distributed Computing Group What is important? MOBILE COMPUTING R.11 or HIPERLAN – Wide area networks: GSM and ISDN – Internet: Mobile IP extension of the Internet protocol IP Distributed Computing Group MOBILE COMPUTING R. Schiller] [Der Spiegel] Distributed Computing Group MOBILE COMPUTING R. Wattenhofer 1/6 Vehicles 2 GSM. anywhere. Wattenhofer 1/8 . anywhere to the network • • Wireless vs.

we have great Pizza!” Does nomadic user need her own hardware? • • Mobile phones get smarter Converge with PDA? Voice calls. without the “plug” Again: Find the local printer • I refer to my colleagues Friedemann Mattern and Bernt Schiele and their courses • • House recognizes inhabitant House regulates temperature according to person in a room • • • Trade Shows Home without cables looks better LAN in historic buildings [J. Wattenhofer 1/10 [MS] [ABC. Wattenhofer 1/12 . Wattenhofer 1/11 Distributed Computing Group MOBILE COMPUTING R. Distributed Computing Group t Buil C B 150 • • • • Read/write email on web browser Access data OK too Distributed Computing Group [Nokia] – Map – Pull: Find the next Pizzeria – Push: “Hey. Schiele] Distributed Computing Group MOBILE COMPUTING R.Nomadic user • • • • • • Smart mobile phone Nomadic user has laptop/palmtop Connect to network infrequently Interim period operate in disconnected mode Access her or customer data Consistent database for all agents Print on local printer (or other service) • • • • • • – How do we find it? – Is it safe? – Do we need wires? • MOBILE COMPUTING R. Wattenhofer 1/9 Stock/weather/sports info Ticketing Trade stock etc. Schiller] R. video calls (really?) Email or instant messaging Play games Up-to-date localized information MOBILE COMPUTING Invisible/ubiquitous/pervasive and wearable computing Intelligent Office and Intelligent House • • • Tiny embedded “computers” Everywhere Example: Microsoft’s Doll • • • Bluetooth replaces cables Plug and play.

Wattenhofer 1/13 Distributed Computing Group Lonely wolf Disaster relief • We really mean everywhere! • • • • • Cargo’s and yachts Journalists Scientists Travelers • • Sometimes cheaper than infrastructure? • • • Commercial flop Distributed Computing Group • MOBILE COMPUTING R. tsunami. Wattenhofer 1/16 . Wattenhofer 1/15 Distributed Computing Group MOBILE COMPUTING R. so that service person can bring the right tools right away MOBILE COMPUTING R. volcano. Wattenhofer 1/14 After earthquake.Meeting room or Conference Taxi / Police / Fire squad / Service fleet • • • • • Connect Control Communicate • • Service Worker Example: SBB service workers have PDA • • Share data instantly Send a message to someone else in the room Secretly vote on controversial issue Find person with similar interests Broadcast last minute changes • Ad-Hoc Network • Distributed Computing Group – Map help finding broken signal – PDA gives type of signal. etc: You cannot rely on infrastructure but you need to orchestrate disaster relief Early transmission of patient data to hospital Satellite Ad-Hoc network [Red Cross] [Motorola] MOBILE COMPUTING R.

Distributed Computing Group [Cybiko] MOBILE COMPUTING R. Wattenhofer 1/19 Vehicles Nomadic user Smart mobile phone Invisible computing Wearable computing Intelligent house or office Meeting room/conference Taxi/Police/Fire squad fleet Service worker Lonely wolf Disaster relief and Disaster alarm Games Military / Security Anything missing? Distributed Computing Group What do you like? MOBILE COMPUTING R. Wattenhofer 1/20 .Disaster alarm Games • • • • • With sensors you might be able to alarm early Example: Tsunami Example: Cooling room Or simpler: Weather station • • Satellite Ad-Hoc network • • • • • Distributed Computing Group MOBILE COMPUTING R. etc. Wattenhofer 1/17 Military / Security Cybiko [Extreme] is a competitor that has radio capabilities built in Second generation already Also email. chat. Wattenhofer 1/18 Application Scenarios: Discussion • From a technology standpoint this is similar to disaster relief • Sensoria says “US army is the best costumer” • Not (important) in this course • • • • • • • • • • • • • • [Der Spiegel] Distributed Computing Group Nintendo Gameboy [Advance]: Industry standard mobile game station Connectable to other Gameboys Can be used as game pad for Nintendo Gamecube MOBILE COMPUTING R.

. Windows?) Palmtop (Linux.g. Wattenhofer 1/24 . Wattenhofer 1/22 • Higher loss-rates due to interference • Restrictive regulations of frequencies – frequencies have to be coordinated.6kbit/s with GSM • Higher delays. embedded controllers Palmtop • tiny keyboard • simple versions of standard applications Mobile phone • voice.Mobile devices What do you have? What would you buy? PDA • simple graphical displays • character recognition • simplified WWW Pager • receive only • tiny displays • simple text messages Laptop • fully functional • standard applications Sensors.g... e. low quality displays. abstract symbols • MOBILE COMPUTING – emissions of. several hundred milliseconds for other wireless systems. defects. lightning there is no Moore’s law for batteries or solar cells limited computing power. can be reduced temporally • Distributed Computing Group Wireless networks in comparison to fixed networks Energy consumption – – – – – 8 for exercises 8 Effects of device portability • 8 8 8 • Lower security. other?) Mobile phone Satellite phone Pager Wireless LAN Card Wireless LAN Base Station (for home networking) Ethernet Plug in every room (for home networking) Bluetooth Proprietary device (what kind?) performance and size Distributed Computing Group MOBILE COMPUTING R. engines. theft) • Always shared medium – secure access mechanisms important Distributed Computing Group MOBILE COMPUTING R. base station can be simulated. Mac. small disks Limited memory (no moving parts) Radio transmission has a high energy consumption CPU: power consumption ~ CV2f • C: total capacitance. Windows?) PDA/Organizer (Palm.g. more jitter – connection setup time with GSM in the second range. 9. reduced by integration • V: supply voltage. e. thus attracting calls from mobile phones Loss of data – higher probability (e. can be reduced to a certain limit • f: clock frequency. tens of seconds with Bluetooth Limited user interfaces – compromise between size of fingers and portability – integration of character/voice recognition. regional currently. Pocket PC. Wattenhofer 1/21 R. data • simple text display • • • • • • • • • • • Laptop (Linux. simpler active attacking – radio interface accessible for everyone. useful frequencies are almost all occupied • Low transmission rates – local some Mbit/s. Wattenhofer 1/23 Distributed Computing Group MOBILE COMPUTING R. Mac.

Greece) – 1794: Optical telegraph by Claude Chappe • Electromagnetic waves MOBILE COMPUTING • • • 1901: First transatlantic connection 1906 (Xmas): First radio broadcast 1906: Vacuum tube invented • 1907: Commercial transatlantic connections • 1911: First mobile sender • • 1915: Wireless voice transmission NY – SF 1920: First commercial radio station – By Lee DeForest and Robert von Lieben – 1831: Michael Faraday (and Joseph Henry) demonstrate electromagnetic induction – 1864: James Maxwell (1831-79): Theory of electromagnetic fields. 1979 13000 customer in D – PTT NATEL B: 1984 – 1997.. wave equations – 1886: Heinrich Hertz (1857-94): demonstrates with an experiment the wave character of electrical transmission through space Distributed Computing Group 1895: Guglielmo Marconi (1874 – 1937) – huge base stations (30 100m high antennas) – on board of a Zeppelin R. Wattenhofer 1/25 Distributed Computing Group History: 1920 – 1945 History: 1945 – 1980 • • 1920: Discovery of short waves by Marconi – reflection at the ionosphere – smaller sender and receiver – Possible with vacuum tube • 1926: First phone on a train 1926: First car radio 1928: First TV broadcast • • 1933: Frequency modulation MOBILE COMPUTING 1958: German A-Netz [F. 80% coverage. Wattenhofer – Analog. 16kg. 15k Marks – 1971: 11000 customers – Compare with PTT (Swisscom) NATEL: 1978 – 1995. Baird (1888 – 1946) – Atlantic. flags („semaphore“). 160MHz. connection setup from the fixed network too (but location of the mobile station has to be known) – available also in A.History: Antiquity – 1890 History: 1890 – 1920 • • Many people in history used light for communication – first demonstration of wireless telegraphy (digital!) – long wave transmission. maximum capacity 4000. 160MHz. color TV – WGY Schenectady • R. Wattenhofer 1/27 Distributed Computing Group MOBILE COMPUTING R. NL and LUX. which was reached 1980 – Hamburg – Berlin – wires parallel to the railroad track • • MOBILE COMPUTING R. maximum capacity 9000 – John L. connection setup only from mobile station.. high transmission power necessary (> 200kW) – Nobel Prize in Physics 1909 – Heliographs (sun on mirrors).Mattern] 1972: German B-Netz 1979: NMT Nordic Mobile Telephone System – 450MHz (Scandinavia) – Edwin H. – 150 BC: smoke signals for communication (Polybius. Wattenhofer 1/28 . . Armstrong (1890 – 1954) Distributed Computing Group 1/26 – Analog. no handover.

5 GHz and infrared.2Mbit/s data transmission.. voice. FAX.History: 1980 – 1991 • History: 1991 – 1995 • 1982: Start of GSM-specification (Groupe spéciale mobile) • • 1984: CT-1 standard for cordless telephones 1986: German C-Netz – analog voice transmission.6kbit/s. cellular roaming in Europe now worldwide in more than 130 countries services: data with 9. 98% coverage – American AMPS: 1983 – today – PTT NATEL C: 1986 – 1999 • • 1991: DECT – Digital European Cordless Telephone. . hand-over. digital signaling. Wattenhofer 1/31 Distributed Computing Group MOBILE COMPUTING R. 2Mbit/s – already many products (with proprietary extensions) • 900MHz.11a 2001: IMT-2000 digital 200?: Fourth Generation (Internet based) R. e-mail. up to several 10000 users/km2. Wattenhofer 1/29 History: 1995 – today • – smaller cells – supported by many countries – SMS – Multiband phones Distributed Computing Group MOBILE COMPUTING cellular phones 1981: NMT 450 1997: Wireless LAN 1992: GSM 1998: Specification of GSM successors R. hand-over possible.4 – 2. voice encryption. modem. X. automatic location of mobile device – still in use today. used in more than 40 countries Distributed Computing Group MOBILE COMPUTING R. Today: “Enhanced” – 1880-1900MHz. 450MHz. authentication. services: FAX. Wattenhofer 1/32 .. 124 channels automatic location.11b. 120 duplex channels.25.11 1999: 802.6GHz to the mobile phone MOBILE COMPUTING 1991: D-AMPS 1987: CT1+ 1989: CT 2 1992: Inmarsat-B Inmarsat-M 1993: PDC 1991: DECT 1998: Iridium 2000: GPRS wireless LAN 1984: CT1 1988: Inmarsat-C 1991: CDMA cordless phones 1980: CT0 1982: Inmarsat-A 1983: AMPS 1994: DCS 1800 1998: Iridium Distributed Computing Group satellites 1986: NMT 900 – GPRS is packet oriented – UMTS is European proposal for IMT-2000 • 1994/5: GSM with 1800MHz 1996: HiperLAN – IEEE 802. Wireless systems: overview of the development – High Performance Radio Local Area Network – Products? • 1992/3: Start of GSM “D-Netz”/“NATEL D” – – – – – – goal: pan-European digital mobile phone system with roaming 199x: proprietary 1997: IEEE 802. Bluetooth 2000: IEEE 802. 1. ~100-500m range. Wattenhofer 1/30 analogue – 66 satellites (+6 spare) – 1.11 – 2.

1036 Laptops • M.1167 IMT-2000 network architectures Mobile Phones – Switzerland February 2002: More mobile phones than fixnet phones – Worldwide: More mobile phones than Internet connections – SMS: “More net profit with SMS than with voice” security in IMT-2000 [R. Wattenhofer 0 1/33 1997 `998 Distributed Computing Group `999 2000 2001 MOBILE COMPUTING R. Wattenhofer 1/34 MOBILE COMPUTING R.Recommendations for IMT-2000 The success story of Mobile “Computing” • M.1035 – framework for radio interface(s) and radio sub-system functions – – Switzerland 2001: For the first year less computers sold.1034-1 – • framework for satellites • M.1224 – 700 vocabulary for IMT-2000 600 – spectrum considerations Distributed Computing Group evaluation of transmission technologies 400 300 200 100 • www. Wattenhofer 1/36 Mobile phones Top 12 [crt.Weiss] – R.1168 • M.687-2 • • M.819-2 – speech/voiceband data performance • M.dk] Mobile phones worldwide 1996 Distributed Computing Group MOBILE COMPUTING R. but more mobile computers.1079 framework for services – • M.1225 • etc.1223 • M.int/imt MOBILE COMPUTING Desktop Mobile 500 • M. • M.817 – – • M.818-1 – satellites in IMT-2000 – IMT-2000 for developing countries – requirements for the radio interface(s) • M.1078 IMT-2000 concepts and goals – • M.itu.dk] [crt. Wattenhofer 1/35 Distributed Computing Group . private households buy 18% more laptops than the previous year.816-1 – • M.The future: ITU-R . framework for management evaluation of security mechanisms 800 • M.

Mobile phones saturation Internet vs. Wattenhofer • Data link layer • Physical layer Medium MOBILE COMPUTING R. Wattenhofer 1/37 Simple reference model Distributed Computing Group MOBILE COMPUTING • Transport layer – – – – – – Application Application Transport Transport Network Network Data Link Data Link Data Link Data Link Physical Physical Physical Physical Radio Distributed Computing Group [Tanenbaum/Schiller] • Network layer Network 1/38 Course overview: Networking Bottom – Up Approach • Application layer Network R.dk] [crt. routing. Wattenhofer 1/39 Distributed Computing Group – – – – – – – – – – service location new applications. multimedia adaptive applications congestion and flow control quality of service addressing. Wattenhofer 1/40 . Mobile phones [crt. device location hand-over authentication media access multiplexing media access control encryption modulation interference attenuation frequency MOBILE COMPUTING R.dk] Distributed Computing Group MOBILE COMPUTING R.

and Software Tests "Hello World" Theory: Codes/MAC Neighbor Detection Instant Messenger Topology Detection Multihop Routing 1 Multihop Routing 2 Theory: Ad-Hoc Networks Multihop Project 1 Multihop Project 2 Multihop Project 3 1/44 . Wattenhofer R.Distributed Computing Group • – – – – – – – • Distributed Computing Group MOBILE COMPUTING MOBILE COMPUTING R. Wattenhofer 1/42 Course overview: Lectures and Exercises Hard. Wattenhofer R. Wattenhofer 1/41 Course overview: Hands-On Exercises We build a wireless LAN based ad-hoc network We start with the “hello world” equivalent Neighbor detection Chat application Multihop routing Multihop project Emulator software Grading! Supported by – paper exercises 1/43 CSMA/CD HCPDU WSP/B LF USIM PDC SS7 FACCHTCH/HS POS M-NNI DS DCCH TETRA DTIM VC MSRN CCIR WATM HI LAPDm GPS HBR PHY DH SN BW T-SAP AK-HCPDUCGI SC CD HDLC RLP DSDV UPT PDO COA DT-HCPDUPLI Auth HA TLS TI GMSC VCC ACID TCH/H BSS SEC-SAP GWL WLAN WIM VBR RAS SIG PTP TINA ASCII MCC CC SHF SDCCH DVD MF MN CN CS DQPSK SRES FHSS MS XOR VAD NMAS MSIN SDP TFI HDTV HIPERL CBR PTM MCI TD-CDMA SIFS WTA HCQoS DVTR GPRS AUS AN WLL IMT-TC LA NRL GSN CORBA JDC WMLScript T MTSAPACS-UB CRC IFS DSMA CPM DDIB ISI RA GEO USSD RTT BLIRCS VHF W3C FIB DBPSK MSC OFDM SS EDTV PT CT SNDCP 3GPP RR TIB PNNI HMQoS CTS PSF PAL ABR SMS S-SAP HC IMSI W-CTRL ANSI CIDR TCH/FS BCA BRAN DFWMAC GTP DAMA NSA PSTN WWW TDMA GP BCCH DTMF HEO WCAC DHCP MSISD RAND SIM FDD ASP MSC ML MEO PAD BSC N MIB NTSC MCM UWC NFS EIT HO-HMPDU MMF MTC KID CEPT GMM EY-NPMACKSN LAI BSSGP ITU-T IMEI NAV SAP TMSI ROM PDA BCH SFN Codec SDMA SCPAS-TP PCH AP TDT CVSD ATIM ETSI RA SFD MT TFTS UP M-TCP I-TCP WML ISM NSS WDP SUMR CW WMT ARQ UBR ID MBS EHF CPU QPSK DVB-T SMRIB MHEG UN PTP-CONS HIB DPCCH LIR HMPDUHSCSD UTRA ICMP SH SDM UTRAN ATM ILR SC LC FEC SDU GRE PSN SDT NIB WAE PTP-CLNS NNI UD RT FIC PLW TM TTL BSSAP PIFS RLC IETF TC-HMPDU RL TSF POTS Req SAAL DVB-C HDACS HEC PDF URI GGSN WAN CDV VDB DVB-S PHS MATM HDA TTC GIF HCSDU SGSN Assoc GSM AID FPLMTS TLLI WTLSCSMA/CA ASK LAPD ADSL IMT DECT HP ACT ACL CCCH CSCW UNI TIM MOT OMC PMD DCA FDMA FR MOC ISL ISO FT CU AAL WTAI MH LEO T-TCP PRACH MUL JCT MACA VBR-rt ITU MSAP UIM WTP FCCH CDPD AFS DC FM GAP PPP PDTCHDisassoc LRU LED DCF PIN CIF COFDM GFSK TDM BER CCH FDM AIB SCH CAMEL LLC LI OSI FA MNC D-AMPS LAN DIFS CDMA PCF FCA BTS PACS AM PA WRC CDM DPDCH BSS PDU COS LM SSL RIP PLMN DVB ITU-R BTSM QoS B-ISDN IN Loc IMT-MC PCM DLC PPG RTR PDN ISMA CSD WSP IMT-SC UE HLR HDML AGCH QAM SEQN IEEE VLF SW PI M-QoS ASA WAP SA EIR EDGE IrDA COMS PSPDN TDD TPC OTA IWF ATM-CL UMTS AuC PRMA RSS AIDCS IV SCDMA LBR GERAN TV BLIR HID MSC CAC ADA PS PSK GSM LMP WPAN TR-SAP PMA SACCH NA-TDMA RM PM HTML TCH/F STA EDGE ARQN SI UDP DA BFSK CC DSSS TOS RAN DCS RAL RACH SCF M-PNNI RIB PLCP SDTV PC NDC PUK EMAS-E HCSAP M-UNI VLR GR TCP IMT-FT DAB EMAS MSDU CM GMSK CCA PPM DSR SATM WP-CDMA Cnf SNAP PCS SNACK SAMA TA EIRP TCH VBR-nrt AMPS ISDN MS LOS LS IMF MAC HM MM NIT VPN HTTP CATV RFC RSA DNS CLMS CAC NAT JPEG LAPC RNS ACK BLI BPSK VNDC RRM HDTP IR SwMI V+D BMP IOT MPEG AMA TFO UHF CN DPCH NMT FW OSS VHE ESS WCMP SCO HDB PAD TE CSMA W-CDMA RTS PCS IMT-DS RTT L2CAP IS HO DSL SCPS Res CCF HF TMN ARIB XML FSK AMES ICO MSK PLL IP ECDH AESA Course Overview: Acronyms Course overview: A large spectrum Systems Theory WAP GSM WML and WMLscript How does my wireless LAN card work? Bluetooth Distributed Computing Group Physical and Link Layer Introduction Media Access Control [Ostern] Wireless LAN Ad-Hoc & Sensor Networks Geometric Routing Clustering Topology Control [Pfingsten] Mobile IP and TCP GSM Mobile Web Distributed Computing Group How do I route in a mobile adhoc network? Satellites MOBILE COMPUTING MOBILE COMPUTING How can we access a shared channel? Orthogonal codes Optimal Frequency Allocation R.

and rock concerts. Wattenhofer 1/46 . the Internet unplugged Charles E. Wattenhofer 1/45 Famous last words “Mobile wireless computers are like mobile pipeless bathrooms – portapotties. Wattenhofer 1/47 Distributed Computing Group MOBILE COMPUTING R.ethz. They will be common on vehicles. papers.” Bob Metcalfe. … • • http://distcomp. papers. My advice is to wire up your home and stay there.Course specialties Literature • • • • • • Maximum possible spectrum of systems and theory New area. more open than closed questions Lecture and exercises are hard to synchronize MOBILE COMPUTING R. Perkins – Ad-hoc networking R. 1995 (Ethernet inventor) Distributed Computing Group MOBILE COMPUTING • • Plus tons of other books on specialized topics Papers.ch/mobicomp Distributed Computing Group • • Jochen Schiller – Mobile Communications / Mobilkommunikation Ivan Stojmeniovic – Handbook of Wireless Networks and Mobile Computing Andrew Tanenbaum – Computer Networks. and at construction sites. plus other books Hermann Rohling – Einführung in die Informations– und Codierungstheorie James D. Solomon – Mobile IP.