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Origami-inspired active structures: a synthesis and review

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2014 Smart Mater. Struct. 23 094001
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Smart Materials and Structures
Smart Mater. Struct. 23 (2014) 094001 (28pp)

doi:10.1088/0964-1726/23/9/094001

Topical Review

Origami-inspired active structures:
a synthesis and review
Edwin A Peraza-Hernandez1,2, Darren J Hartl1,2, Richard J Malak Jr1,3 and
Dimitris C Lagoudas1,2
1

Texas Institute for Intelligent Materials and Structures, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX
77843, USA
2
Department of Aerospace Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
3
Design Systems Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College
Station, TX 77843, USA
E-mail: darren.hartl@tamu.edu
Received 10 April 2014, revised 12 May 2014
Accepted for publication 13 May 2014
Published 11 August 2014
Abstract

Origami, the ancient art of paper folding, has inspired the design of engineering devices and
structures for decades. The underlying principles of origami are very general, which has led to
applications ranging from cardboard containers to deployable space structures. More recently,
researchers have become interested in the use of active materials (i.e., those that convert various
forms of energy into mechanical work) to effect the desired folding behavior. When used in a
suitable geometry, active materials allow engineers to create self-folding structures. Such
structures are capable of performing folding and/or unfolding operations without being
kinematically manipulated by external forces or moments. This is advantageous for many
applications including space systems, underwater robotics, small scale devices, and selfassembling systems. This article is a survey and analysis of prior work on active self-folding
structures as well as methods and tools available for the design of folding structures in general
and self-folding structures in particular. The goal is to provide researchers and practitioners with
a systematic view of the state-of-the-art in this important and evolving area. Unifying structural
principles for active self-folding structures are identified and used as a basis for a quantitative
and qualitative comparison of numerous classes of active materials. Design considerations
specific to folded structures are examined, including the issues of crease pattern identification
and fold kinematics. Although few tools have been created with active materials in mind, many
of them are useful in the overall design process for active self-folding structures. Finally, the
article concludes with a discussion of open questions for the field of origami-inspired
engineering.
Keywords: active materials, origami, review, morphing structures, design, origami engineering,
smart structures
(Some figures may appear in colour only in the online journal)
‘paper’ [1]. Its original purpose was not particularly utilitarian, but rather recreational and artistic [2]. Specifically, it was
and remains the art of folding uncut sheets of paper into
decorative and well-defined shapes, either abstract in form or
representative of realistic objects (e.g., plants, animals). In

1. Introduction
Traditionally, the term ‘origami’ has been associated primarily with the art of folding paper. The term origami has the
Japanese roots ‘ori’ meaning ‘folded’, and ‘kami’ meaning
0964-1726/14/094001+28$33.00

1

© 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd Printed in the UK

a goal shape is obtained from an initially planar sheet exclusively through folding operations. space structures. and many others [64]. chemical. Active materials are also typically energy dense and geometrically simple when used as actuators [68–70]. To determine the fold direction of a crease. various space structures (solar panels. foldable wings and airplanes [31–36]. invasive biomedical devices). faces on either side of the crease can be thought of as rotating into the page. In the mid-1970s. Stretching and tearing are not permitted. creases are defined by their endpoints. In either case. in some cases. For a sheet with non-zero thickness.. In these circumstances. In origami. The objectives of this paper are to provide a survey and classification of current active self-folding structural approaches and design tools that might be applied to them. One approach for the development of self-folding systems is to leverage the use of active materials agents of fold generation. 52]. 2. Certain basic origami concepts should be defined prior to the discussion of active self-folding structures in the subsequent sections. it is impractical to externally execute the manipulations necessary to produce the folding operations. Struct. and a reduction in manufacturing complexity [13] (reduced part counts and improved assembly using collapsible/deployable parts). section 3 presents examples of active self-folding structures. active materials enable for self-folding systems since they inherently convert other forms of energy into mechanical work allowing folding and. assembling. self-folding capabilities are essential.Smart Mater. store. electrical. a fold is defined as any deformation of the sheet that preserves a continuous neutral surface (i. 67]. metamaterials [51. Sheet regions bounded by the creases are known as faces. 4–6].e..g. This coupling can be categorized as direct (mechanical response due to field-induced eigenstrains in the active material) or indirect (mechanical response due to fieldinduced change in stiffness or other properties). optical. solar sail. Compactness is an important design consideration for self-folding systems since flat reference configurations are often essential.g. shelters [48–50]. These concepts are depicted figure 2. as well as to provide open questions and challenges in the field of origami-inspired engineering with active materials. while for valley folds. origami has been demonstrated to be applicable across scales via its applications ranging from DNA approaches at the nano-scale [14–17] to deployable structures for space exploration at the very large scale [18–21]. the locations of localized folds on the sheet are formally called creases [66. scientists. These discoveries enabled new approaches for manufacturing. foldcore-based structures for improved mechanical properties and impact resistance [37–43]. folding directions. the potential for structures to be reconfigurable [9–12]. a fold is defined as any deformation of the sheet such that the in-surface distance between any two points in the sheet is preserved and self-intersection does not result [3]. section 4 presents a review of design tools for folding structures. This is evident in the increasing attention mathematicians. The internal fold angle θi is the angle at the intersection of two line segments stretching collinearly with respect to the folding faces. and section 5 presents the conclusions and open questions for the field of origami-inspired engineering. Self-folding Self-folding is the capability of a structure to fold and/or unfold without the application of external manipulations. microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) [53–57]. and morphing of devices and structures based on origami principles. active materials allow the mechanical work associated with the folding operations to be obtained via the application of a non-mechanical field (e. thermal. and morph structures. A crease pattern is a schematic that shows all the creases on a sheet required to fold a structure. As mentioned in the preceding section. biomedical devices [58–63]. For mountain folds.. crash boxes and other energy absorption systems [44–47]. mathematicians discovered that an endless number of shapes could in theory be created using traditional origami (initially planar shape. formally called vertices. A self-folding structure is one that has the capability of folding and/or unfolding to and/or from a desired shape without external manipulations. assemble. Other current applications of origami-inspired engineering include: micro-mirrors [22].. Origami offers engineers novel ways to fabricate. batteries and capacitors with improved properties [24–27]. Typically. These parameters are shown schematically in figure 3. In the view that a finite thickness sheet cannot provide sharp folds and for the purposes of discussion. airbags [7. For an idealized sheet with no thickness. etc). typically with mountain-valley assignments. a ‘mountain-valley’ assignment is typically used. Active materials are materials that convert various forms of energy into mechanical work [65]. only folds allowed) [1]. the remainder of this paper is organized as follows: section 2 presents a description of active materials and describes how they might be used for self-folding structures. 8]). 2 . telescope lenses [23]). and engineers have given to origami theories and tools over the past four decades [1. Furthermore. Specifically. it is assumed that a finite region centered at the fold is bent and has a radius of curvature R. robots [28–30]. Potential advantages include the capability to compactly store deployable structures (e. underwater robotics. folding magnitude. This is the case at very small or very large scales or in remote applications (e. they can be thought of as rotating out of it. The external fold angle θe is defined as 180° − θi . A representative cross-section of these engineering applications is shown in figure 1. unfolding operations. and folding sequence determine the ultimate shape of the structure. For certain origami-inspired engineering applications. a surface that neither stretches nor contracts) and prevents self-intersection. Figure 4 is a schematic of the process for developing origami-inspired active structures and how it relates to the organization of this paper. The creases. bending is the essential deformation [3]. Two parameters that describe the magnitude of a fold are the folding angle and the radius of curvature at the fold line.g. 23 (2014) 094001 E A Peraza-Hernandez et al origami.

and ‘flexural’.1. The concepts are divided into two categories: hinge type and bending type. Figure 3. 23 (2014) 094001 E A Peraza-Hernandez et al Figure 1. ASME). Struct. associated with one of three local actuator concepts: (i) variable length active rod or spring connected to the two faces joined by the hinge (figure 5(a)). Copyright (2006). respectively. (b) Reprinted from [60]. and (iii) active element with preset folded shape (figure 5(c)). Single fold concepts Concepts for generating individual folds using active materials are provided here while particular examples follow in section 3. ‘torsional’. Examples of current and potential applications of origami-inspired structures with and without self-folding capability. Most hinge-type active folds are 3 . with permission from Elsevier. 2. Figure 2. (ii) active torsional element at the hinge (figure 5(b)). (d) ([28] Reproduced by permission of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Schematic of a pinwheel crease pattern illustrating various origami concepts. Parameters that define the magnitude of a fold.Smart Mater. Throughout this paper these fold concepts will be referred to as ‘extensional’.

however. several critical design drivers should be considered: actuation strain. this can be achieved by installing two active elements that generate twist in opposite directions (e. A passive layer generates negligible mechanical work compared to the active layer under the application of the actuation inducing field. magnetic. Such concepts are shown in figures 5(d) and (e). Examples of self-folding systems that use other types of folding concepts (e. All concepts can be further improved to allow for folding in both directions relative to the sheet normal by adding corresponding antagonistic active components. temperature) at specific locations for a considerable period of time [72]. It should be noted that folding using active materials is not restricted to the five concepts presented in this section. Such a gradient generates a distribution of actuation strain through the sheet thickness. For this purpose. Upon application of the activation field. Figure 4.. In the flexural concept (figure 5(c)). folds are clearly restricted to structurally pre-determined hinge locations. it can be achieved by pairs of active elements in opposition to each other (e.g.g. Other applications and approaches do not assume the existence of discrete hinge mechanisms but are rather based 2. This design allows for folds in both directions relative to the sheet normal based on the direction of the driving field gradient.. In other words. For the extensional and flexural concepts. The twist angle of the active material thus directly controls the rotation of the hinge. [71]). A key challenge for such threelayer designs is to isolate the driving field within only one of the two active outer layers..g. plastic deformation. induces the local hinge to do the same. Specifically. while the passive layer is not. hindering the folding operation and possibly leading to material failure (e. on opposite sides of the sheet for the extensional concept).e. The single layer concept considers self-folding via bending without hinges using a sheet with a single active layer subjected to a graded driving field (figure 5(e)). When such a field (thermal. it should be noted that out-of-plane displacements and changes in Gaussian curvature can be obtained by the application of uniform through thickness but inhomogeneous in-plane strain fields in a sheet [75–77]..2. actuation 4 Although it is not strictly folding. 23 (2014) 094001 E A Peraza-Hernandez et al on direct local sheet bending caused by the actuation of the active material. etc) is applied. the middle layer may serve in another role as an insulator with respect to the driving field. 4 . folding via this approach is generally more difficult as compared to the multi-layer concept since it is not practical to maintain gradients in some physical fields (e. generally axially. Active materials for self-folding systems When considering self-folding from a flat to a deformed configuration using active materials. damage). However. hinged faces with magnetic patches that are kinematically manipulated by the direction of the magnetic field without requiring deformation of the magnetic patches [73. the direct bending approach (i. The torsional concept (figure 5(b)) uses the active material as a torsional spring or a rod that provides twist at the hinge.g. In hinge type concepts. mechanical restrictions may arise since activation of one active element may subject its associated antagonistic active element to excessive stress or deformation. without hinges) may offer the advantage of massive foldability. Unlike the hinge type fold concepts. the active material itself returns to its preset folded configuration and being bonded to the faces of the passive material. the active layer is driven to deform.g.. causing the sheet to bend. The extensional concept (figure 5(a)) uses the active material in a rod or spring form with its two ends attached to the faces connected by the hinge and the length of the active element controls the rotation of the hinge. This concept can be further expanded to allow for folds in both directions relative to the sheet normal in a manner similar to that employed for hinge-type folds. Another challenge is that of maintaining both sufficient geometric offset and localized/ targeted driving field imposition such that opposing hinge moments do not result. 74]) are presented in section 34. In the torsional concept. three-layer designs with two opposing outer layers of active material separated by a passive material can be used. Struct. the active material has been manufactured or trained to have a preset folded configuration but is then deformed to an initially flat configuration.. This difference in expansion or contraction between the two layers generates localized bending of the sheet. preventing the field applied to one active layer from reaching the opposing active layer. However. folds can occur at any location or orientation to which the driving field is applied (unless mechanically restricted). We will refer to the concept of figure 5(d) as ‘multi-layer’ and that of figure 5(e) as ‘single layer’. The multi-layer concept considers self-folding using a two-layer laminate with one passive layer and one active layer (figure 5(d)). Process for developing origami-inspired active structures as it relates to the organization of this work.Smart Mater.

and the capability of generating and/or manipulating the desired field at the chosen scale. and (e) single layer subjected to graded driving field. We will limit the conversations of this work to such an assumption.Smart Mater. In order to understand how active self-folding systems are developed. The following expression relates the total strain ε to different ε = Sσ + α ( T − T0 ) + d pE n ( ) + d mH + ∑ ei ci − c0i + ε ms . Basic active fold concepts. Bending type: (d) bilayer consisting of an active and a passive layer. Individual simplified free body diagrams of the hinge-face structure and the active element are also shown. 5 . 23 (2014) 094001 E A Peraza-Hernandez et al Figure 5. Hinge type: (a) extensional (variable length active rod or spring connected to the two faces). constitutive relations that relate the externally applied fields to the obtained actuation strain are needed. fields [65. α is the second order thermal expansion 5 This additive decomposition of strain is valid only in the case of small strains. and (c) flexural (active element with preset folded shape). σ is the second order stress tensor. 78–81] 5: stress. Struct. This section provides a description of field/actuation strain/actuation stress relations. (b) torsional (active torsional element at the hinge). i=1 (1) where S is the fourth order compliance tensor.

E .g. d p is the third order piezoelectric coefficients tensor. change in the crosslinked structure in certain polymers [85. Comparative single fold analysis. 23 (2014) 094001 E A Peraza-Hernandez et al Figure 6. ci is the concentration of the i chemical species. The influence of secondary material regions or structural components (e. To make an assessment of the actuation strain and actuation stress for different active materials.and/or nanostructure. The top and right axes represent the normalized hinge rotation and the normalized hinge torque. 86]. This last contribution (εms ) may be generated or recovered due to phase transformation [82]. variant reorientation [83. This separation is given by ε = εel + εact .g.2. The diagram shows typical ranges of actuation strain and actuation stress for different common active materials [65]. and εms is the second order tensor of strains caused by changes in the material micro. • Use direct coupling by applying fields to modify the micro. H . The total strain ε can clearly be separated into two distinct parts: the strain due to elastic deformation εel and the strain due to actuation εact . those properties should be mapped into fold-specific quantitative characteristics (e. (2) It is observed that there are various possible ways to control an active self-folding structure depending on the active material chosen: 6 . Taking this into account. phase or variant fraction). These strains are coupled in certain extent to external variables such as σ .1. Equations relating actuation strain and actuation stress to various self-folding metrics are presented in table 1 where φ. • Use direct coupling by applying fields that induce actuation strain without modifying the material microand nano-structure (e..Smart Mater.and nano-structure of the material (e. one obtains the following expression for the actuation strain: 2.. connectors) that might be essential in the full physically realized self-folding systems is neglected. folding angle or radius of curvature at the fold). etc.. Analytical expressions for the mechanical analysis of a single fold can be obtained for the torsional and multi-layer concepts (see figure 5) after making certain simplifications. H is the magnetic field vector. d m is the third order piezomagnetic coefficients tensor. Struct. E is the electric field vector.g. • Use indirect coupling and apply fields that modify certain material properties (e. T. apply temperature to induce phase transformation in a shape memory alloy (SMA) and generate/recover transformation strains). sensors. bending or torsional moment. 84]. use temperature to modify the material compliance S and alter the elastic strains.g. where the elastic strain is given by εel = Sσ . T0 is the reference temperature. ei is the second order tensor of expansion due to concentration of i chemical species. c0i is the reference concentration of the i chemical species. ε act = α ( T − T0 ) + d pE + d mH n ( ) + ∑ ei ci − c0i + ε ms i=1 . respectively.g.. T is the absolute temperature. and are often associated with other internal variables (e. modify the electric field E to increase actuation strain due to piezoelectric effect (d pE ) or modify the temperature to generate thermal expansion or contraction α (T − T0 )) ..g. tensor. Examples of indirect coupling: [87–90]). Active materials performance for the torsional fold concept..

Figures 6 and 7 compare the actuation strain and actuation stress of common active materials [65] for the torsional and multi-layer fold concepts. radius of curvature. the thickness of the active layer. respectively. Struct. a2 is the thickness of the passive layer. The constants r and L correspond to the cross-section radius and axial length of the torsional active element at the hinge. The top and right axes of figure 6 show metrics that assess the material performance in the torsional concept (according to the results of table 1). Active materials performance for the multi-layer fold concept. and the width of the sheet in the direction parallel to the fold line. respectively. Table 1. n is the ratio of the elastic modulus of the active layer to the passive layer. The bottom axes of both figures 6 and 7 represent the actuation strain (related to the stroke of an actuator) and the left axes represent the actuation stress σ act . R. The top and right axes of figure 7 show quantities that assess the material performance as an active layer in the multi-layer concept (table 1). The other parameters in the equations shown in table 1 are constants that depend on geometry and/or material properties.Smart Mater. 7 .2. Fold concept Torsional concept Multi-layer concept Actuation strain assessment Actuation stress assessment r φ = 2ε act L R 1 = act C1 h ε Mt πσ act = 3 2 r Mb C2 = σ act wha1 2. Active materials assessment. respectively. respectively. a1. and Mb are the torsional angle (equal to folding angle θe for the torsional concept). The derivations for the relations associated with a single fold via the torsional concept and multi-layer concept are presented in appendix A and appendix B. E1 a13 + E2 a 23 ). Relations between actuation stress and actuation strain with different fold metrics. 23 (2014) 094001 E A Peraza-Hernandez et al Figure 7. The constants h. assuming here that the active material is operating under constant stress.2. The diagram shows typical ranges of actuation strain and actuation stress for different common active materials [65]. Mt . In this plot. The top and right axes represent the normalized bending radius of curvature and the normalized bending moment. respectively. Those values are directly or inversely proportional to the active material actuation strain ε act and actuation stress σ act . torsional moment. and w correspond to the total sheet thickness. The dimensionless constants C1 and C2 are defined as follows 2 C1 = ( 3 ( 1 + m ) + ( 1 + mn) m2 + 1 ( mn) 2 6 ( 1 + m) C2 = 2 + 6ha12 E1 . and bending moment. and E1 and E2 are the elastic modulus of the active and the passive layer. it is observable that ceramic-type active materials (electrostrictive ceramics. respectively. magnetostrictive ceramics. and piezoelectric ceramics) may not be suitable for self-folding systems because they would provide bending radii that are orders of magnitude below other common active (3) (4) where m is the ratio of thickness of the active layer to the thickness of the passive layer. respectively.

and multi-layer Multi-layer Multi-layer Yes SMA 1000. Although there are several ways to alter the temperature field in a structure. Often. radiation. On 3. shape memory polymers (SMPs) [85.0 Thermoresponsive polymer 0.0 Multi-layer Multi-layer Yes (once) Yes Yes Multi-layer Yes Multi-layer Yes Single layer SMA Thermoresponsive polymer Polymer-metal bilayer 25..0 Flexural Yes SMP 1000. have been demonstrated to be a suitable active material for self-folding (e. 112] [113] [114] [115] [116–118] [119] [101. Struct. thermally-induced self-folding has been achieved mostly by the usage of SMAs and SMPs.0 1000. examples of previously demonstrated systems are presented in the subsequent section.0 Multi-layer and single layer Other Other Extensional Flexural Extensional.0 Not available (in the order of 1000.0 500. tables 2 through 6 summarize the characteristics of the largest classes of self-folding systems considered.0 2000.g. 100].0 Flexural and multilayer Other Yes SMP 500. Active self-folding structures Here we describe existing examples of self-folding structures classified according to the physical field that induces the 8 . 111] [28. 23 (2014) 094001 E A Peraza-Hernandez et al Table 2. The goal is to provide researchers and practitioners with a systematic view of the state-of-the-art in this important and evolving area. chemical. 103] [104–107] [60.0) 5. by adding thermal insulators to maintain a large temperature zone concentrated in certain regions of the self-folding system). the influence of structural components such as connectors and sensors on the folding performance is neglected). At the macro-scale.0 100. 130] [131–133] folds.g. 92]. 109] [110. Fold concept Reversible Material system Characteristic thickness [μm] Flexural Yes SMA 500. material system.0 Yes SMP 500. fold concept.0 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes SMA SMA SMA SMA SMA 50. and current or potential application.g. 3. characteristic sheet thickness. etc. 127] [128] [129. convection. Examples of each type are characterized in terms of their inducing field. and magnetic field-induced self-folding structures are presented. For instance. the diffusive nature of heat represents a design challenge requiring the consideration of methods for controlling the spatial distribution of temperature over time (e. actuation stress limitations may be reduced by the usage of compliant mechanisms [93–98]. flexural. which are shown in figures 6 and 7 as having the lowest actuation stress compared to the other common active materials.0 Multi-layer Yes SMA and SMP 1000. materials.Smart Mater. Thermal.1. Joule heating. 120–122] [123] [124] [125] [126. The assessments in table 1 were made using analytical models and they serve as a quantitative first order assessment of how different materials will perform in self-folding systems under certain idealizations (e. 108.5 Application Potential multi-purpose morphing structures Potential multi-purpose morphing structures Stent Robotics fabrication Robotics Robotics Flexible mobile devices Flexible mobile devices Decorative paper structures Potential multi-purpose morphing structures Potential multi-purpose morphing structures Novel fabrication methods Potential multi-purpose morphing structure Potential multi-purpose morphing structure Microgripper Potential multi-purpose morphing structures Capture/release small scale devices Capture/release small scale devices Reference [102. [101]).0 Yes Yes SMA SMA 100. Examples of thermally-activated self-folding structures. To provide with further information regarding the full system integration and capabilities of active materials within self-folding structures. though they may do so at much higher frequencies [91. Thermally-activated self-folding The design space for thermally induced self-folding systems is large in terms of the methods available for localized supply of heat which include conduction. reversibility of the folds. electrical.0 SMP 250.. optical.0 1000. 99..

Thermally-induced self-folding structures: (a) sheet with SMA hinges. (b) Massively foldable SMA-based laminate including worm and rolling locomotion examples and self-folded cube simulations [139] and experimental demonstrations of the sheet folding towards a ‘bowl shape’ and an ‘S-shape’ [135]. 9 . 23 (2014) 094001 E A Peraza-Hernandez et al Figure 8. Struct.Smart Mater. A flat sheet maneuvers to fold towards an airplane shape [102] (reproduced by permission of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States of America. PNAS). (c) SMP-based self-folding structures morphed under uniform heating [121].

. 121]. After such temperature is exceeded. The authors demonstrated that the proposed design successfully deploys as expected. The deployment of this stent design can be achieved by shape memory effect activated at the body temperature or by making use of pseudoelasticity. Liu and coworkers fabricated self-folding structures that employ localized absorption of light in the infrared spectrum cast over a compositionally homogenous sheet of SMP. 103] developed a concept of self-folding origami with universal crease patterns that consisted of a single sheet with repeated triangular tiles connected by pre-engineered actuated hinges. The SMP-based self-folding composites show the capability of creating complex geometries and locking shapes via proper sequential folds design. Lee and coworkers designed a microgripper that uses Ni–Ti–Cu SMA the SMA side. More recently. Rus. They showed the fabrication and assembly process of a robot that can undergo worm-like peristaltic locomotion [111]. By changing the size of its wheels the robot was able to navigate paths with various space limitations. the permanent (set) shape of the SMP is the desired folded configuration while the temporary shape is associated with the unfolded configuration. Other example of SMA-based self-folding origami is the concept of massively foldable self-folding sheet developed by Hartl. they created a model for the torque exerted by such composite hinges. an elastomer). They have studied different ways to heat the SMP including radiation heating (visible light). Qi and coworkers [116.. they describe and analyze algorithms that generate designs and programs for the sheet. and characterization process of a selfdeployable origami stent graft. Of course. The uniform externally applied stimulus (i. This concept adds to the extensive use of SMAs in the biomedical field [140–142]. The original flat configuration can be recovered by heating the entire sheet above the SMP transition temperature. Malak. SMA-SMP composite laminates have been investigated with this concept to create a shape memory composite capable of locking in its folded shape upon a heating/cooling cycle [119]. Wood. Thin (100 μm) Nitinol foil was used as the actuating hinge. Lagoudas and others [104. Firouzeh and coworkers [113] developed a four-fold sheet-like robot that folds using SMA 10 . and others [101].e.g. 135. This stent is made from a single foldable SMA foil with mountain and valley folds. Their approach uses mass-produced materials without the need for multiple fabrication steps. One example of thermallyactivated self-folding with SMPs is the work of Demaine. Their works provide a set of design guidelines and information regarding circuitry details. unfocused light) generates a focused folding response via localized designed light absorption [125]. NiTi spring actuators placed on the body moved parts of the robot on demand. They developed a method of self-folding hinges consisting of SMP. In addition. 108] performed the design. Light sources have also been used to heat thermallyactivated self-folding devices based on the conversion of light to heat [72]. manufacturing. 117] utilized SMA wires to self-fold different shapes such as cranes. An and Rus provided a design and programming guide for the development of selffolding sheets of this kind [134]. Rus and coworkers [110] presented an origami-inspired technique that allows for the application of two-dimensional fabrication methods to build three-dimensional robotic systems.Smart Mater. There are a number of self-folding examples using thermally-induced actuation at the small scale. In their work. In their demonstration. 137] or meshes of prestrained SMA wires [104. Robots with SMA-based self-folding components have also been designed. Examples of uniformly heated SMP-based self-folding composites are shown in figure 8(c). It was shown via finite element analysis (FEA) that structures composed of this laminate are able to morph. The laser-machined origami robots use only a flat sheet as the base structure for building complicated bodies. electrical methods. With this three layer design. The interesting shapes of folding structures can also be potentially applied to other areas such as flexible display devices [143–146]. Initially at a temperature below the glass transition temperature. The repeated triangular tiles configuration provides flexibility in the number of shapes into which the sheet can fold. 136]. This system was shown to be successful through demonstrations of the single planar sheet folding towards conventional origami shapes such as a boat or a plane (figure 8(a)). where the folded regions were defined by the presence of black ink patterned by a printing process. SMA-based self-folding has also been used for paper animation. For example Roudaut and coworkers [114] and Gomes and coworkers [115] proposed new flexible display designs for mobile devices that can adapt their shape via SMA actuation driven fold-like operations to create what they term shape resolution in mobile devices. Kuribayashi and coworkers [60. morphing from its flat temporary configuration to its folded permanent configuration. and form three-dimensional structures as demonstrated in [105]. Behl and coworkers have also demonstrated self-folding using the shape memory effect in SMPs [124]. the SMP can be heated above this temperature. Simulations and experimental demonstrations of this concept are shown in figure 8(b). The concept consists of a composite laminate with two outer layers of SMA separated by a compliant and insulating layer (e. 138]. the side of the laminate being heated determines the direction of the fold relative to the laminate normal. and resistive circuits. The device also showed promising locomotion characteristics. Struct. SMPs provide actuation at a higher strain but lower force (see figures 6 and 7). In such design. The outer layers of the SMA may consist of thin pre-strained SMA films [106. Rus and coworkers [102. which was experimentally validated. and uniform heating [120. these local SMP regions relax and the film bends. 106. SMAs are not the only option for thermally induced folding. raise against gravity. 23 (2014) 094001 E A Peraza-Hernandez et al actuators. where the thermal energy is then converted to mechanical energy. Lee and coworkers [28] designed a deformable wheel robot with the ball-shaped waterbomb origami pattern where the size was altered by activating an SMA spring actuator. The polymer regions located beneath inked areas heat faster than the areas elsewhere and eventually heat beyond the glass transition temperature of the SMP. paper.

Chemically-activated self-folding Self-folding using chemical stimulus has also been explored by multiple researchers. Micro. Gracias and coworkers fabricated folding structures at the micro-scale able to perform sequential folding via heating of pre-stressed hinges using lasers [128]. Struct. Their hinges were composed of Cr/Au-polymer bilayers while their rigid regions were composed of single Au layers. Kalaitzidou and coworkers [129. One example are the microtubes fabricated by Kumar and coworkers [152].0 No Multi-layer No Polymer degradation pH responsive polymer Not available (in the order of 100) 0. Their bilayer sheets consisted of polydimethysiloxane (PDMS [147. PS demonstrates minimal water uptake while P4 VP is less hydrophobic and swells in acidic aqueous solutions because of protonation of polymer chains. 132]. self-folding to open and close [126. Applications for the microgripper include assembling small parts for manufacturing. and then removing the bilayer [153] where the effects of layer thickness and other parameters on the microtubes fabrication procedure have been investigated [154]. the polymer layer softens and the bilayer bends due to existing pre-stress generated during the bilayer fabrication process.2. Combining PNIMAN with the PCL hydrophobic layer allows for temperature controlled folding and unfolding of structures created with this bilayer. For instance. if fixed to a PS layer. will cause the resulting polymer laminate to fold. This folding-based fabrication approach shows flexibility in the axial shape of the obtained microtube 11 . the bilayer folds or unfolds due to dissimilar thermal expansion of the two layers. The PDMS layer had a thickness of several micrometers while the thickness of the Au layer was in the order of nanometers. This approach was also demonstrated to be useful for the fabrication of all metallic microtubes by using a PDMS–PS polymer bilayer as template by depositing a thin layer of metal onto the bilayer. 157] [158] [159] [160] [161. Upon changes in temperature. transport and release different solids was demonstrated indicating their potential application as delivery tubes [130]. 151]. Most of these systems are based on the multi-layer fold concept and utilize the degradation or swelling behavior of certain polymers under the presence of specific substances or pH level [150. PCL is hydrophobic (i. Self-folding films sensitive to pH are commonly designed using weak polyelectrolytes as active polymers [151]. Upon laser irradiation.Smart Mater. This temperature dependent behavior allows PNIPAM to swell or collapse in the 3. The folding-based mechanism for rolling-up of the microtubes was based on the different degree of swelling in the constituting polymer layers. In their work. Deposited SMA films serve as the outer layers of the microgrippers. Examples of these systems are presented in table 3. The multi-layer concept has also being exploited by other researchers for self-folding at the small scales. Clearly the single outer layer of SMA provides bending actuation in a manner analogous to the bilayer design shown in figure 5(d). 162] [163] presence of water with changes in temperature. among others [126].0 5.5 Application Reference Microtubes fabrication for small scale devices Drug release device Micro-containers Potential multi-purpose morphing structures Potential multi-purpose morphing structures Small scale grippers [152–155] Capture/release small scale devices [156.0 50. The microgripper is fabricated by alignment and selective eutectic bonding of two preprocessed silicon wafers. Kumar and coworkers converted the PDMS layer into silica after rolling via oxidative pyrolisis. acting as actuators. A similar bilayer approach was adopted by Ionov and coworkers when fabricating polycaprolactone (PCL) poly-(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) self-folding polymer bilayers [131.0 Torsional and multi-layer Multi-layer Yes Hydrogel 200. They also created a PDMS-silicon carbide (SiC) bilayer with similar behavior to demonstrate that their concept can be applied using any two materials with dissimilar thermal expansions. 130] also developed self-folding polymer-metal bilayer structures. This process allowed them to produce a stiff and thermally and chemically stable microtube. The ability of the bilayers to capture. 23 (2014) 094001 E A Peraza-Hernandez et al Table 3. tending to repel/reject water [149]) while the solubility of PNIMAN can be changed reversibly with temperature by going above/below its low critical solution temperature [131]. Fold concept Reversible Material system Characteristic thickness (μm) Multi-layer No Hydrogel 0. rolling by the polymer swelling. remote handling of small particles in extreme environments. minimally invasive biopsy tissue sampling. 148]) and gold (Au) layers that had self-folding capabilities. When a P4 VP layer swells. 127].5 Multi-layer Multi-layer Multi-layer No Yes Yes Hydrogel Hydrogel Hydrogel 20.. its volume increases and. They considered a three-layer laminate sheet of poly-(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) / polystyrene (PS) / poly(4-vinylpyridine) (P4 VP) for self-rolling of microtubes.and nano-tubes fabricated by this method are promising for applications including nano-syringes for intra-cellular surgery and nanojet printing [164].e. Examples of chemically-activated self-folding structures.

Smart Mater. and a layer of poly(2hydroxyethyl methacrylate). Two different micro-scale structures folding using this bilayer are shown in figure 9(a). A similar self-folding bilayer approach was adopted by He and coworkers in the fabrication of an oral delivery device [156]. where they utilize two different polymer types with two mutually exclusive enzyme sensitivities. Here. The bilayer approach was also utilized by Ionov and coworkers to synthesize PCL/polysuccinimide polymer bilayer self-rolled tubes. Struct. Shim and coworkers [158] created robust microcarriers using hydrogel bilayers that exhibited reversible folding behavior. When one polymer is selectively degraded by its associated enzyme. Studies regarding the degree of folding as a function of the bilayer composition have been performed [159]. The considered polymer was composed of Pentaerythritol tetra(3-mercaptopropionate) (PETMP). which swells significantly when exposed to body fluids. Both polycaprolactone and polysuccinimide are generally hydrophobic. Planar films composed of this bilayer were able to fold towards micro-containers by swelling of the p(HEMA-co-AA) layer at a pH of 9. A self-folding gripper that opens and closes by the actuation of polymer hinges was fabricated by Gracias and coworkers [161.1. p(HEMA-co-AA). Reprinted with permission from [159]. Chemically-activated self-folding examples: (a) optical micrographs of a cross-shaped microwell and a multiple extensions microwell in their folded and unfolded configurations. The bilayer hydrogel system consisted of a layer of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-coacrylic acid). and helix forms. This idea allowed them to create programmed two-dimensional sheets that can self-fold into a cube. The folding process is also illustrated for a single hinge. (b) Optical images and schematic representation of micro-grippers folded by selective polymer degradation. In physiological buffer surrounding environment. In such studies. The mechanism used for selffolding in their work was localized photo-induced stress relaxation. and ethylene glycol di(3-mercaptopropionate) (EGDMP) mixed with photoinitiators. An example of this is the fabrication of toroidal hollow-core microcavities obtained using the polymer bilayer approach [155]. the swelling layer was prepared with a mixture of poly(ethylene glycol methacrylate) and poly-(ethylene glycol dimethacrylate). 2-methylene-propane-1. the tubes do not necessarily have to be straight). The main part of the device consisted of a finger like bilayer composed of pH-sensitive hydrogel based on crosslinked poly(methyacrylic acid). its modulus decreases and the gripper closes. Optically-activated self-folding Previously in section 3.. we consider actuation driven by microstructural changes directly caused by light irradiation. 12 . 3-di(thioethylvinylether) (MDTVE). Reprinted with permission from [161]. The actuation of the polymer hinges was triggered by their sensitivity to the presence of enzymes. Copyright (2010) American Chemical Society. pyramid. 162]. Straining the sheet and subsequently irradiating it with light dissociates specific photoinitiators into free radicals that react with and cleave the MDTVE 3. By controlling the ratio between the two components of this ‘active’ layer. we discussed light driven actuation that worked on the principle of radiative heating. Copyright (2005) American Chemical Society. and a second non-swelling layer based on poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate). Folding of polymer films with light was investigated by Ryu and coworkers [165]. All scale bars represent 100 μm. Figure 9. Jeong and coworkers developed a PDMS—hydrophilic polyurethane (PU)/2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) bilayer composite that folds when submerged in hexane solvent due to the large swelling of the PDMS layer of such substance [160].e. This process is shown in figure 9(b).3. When the other polymer is degraded via the action of its own distinct enzyme. The two polymers were placed at hinges in such a way that bending in opposite directions is activated given the appropriate stimulus. In another work. its respective hinge bends and the gripper opens. polysuccinimide hydrolyzes forming water-swellable polyaspartic acid that yields to the rolling of the polymer bilayer and the formation of tubes [163]. Scale bars represent 200 μm. p(HEMA). 23 (2014) 094001 E A Peraza-Hernandez et al (i. however. different degrees of folding were achieved.

It was noted that improvements could be made with respect to the bending performance by optimizing the geometrical parameters of the device and/or adding more dielectric elastomer layers. These advances 13 . Electrically and magnetically-activated self-folding structures: (a) a self-folding sheet with dielectric elastomer actuator under no applied electrical field (left) and with applied electrical field (right) [73] (reproduced by permission of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.Smart Mater. White and coworkers [29] demonstrated the feasibility of implementing dielectric elastomer actuators for a bending component that can be applied to modular robotics. Actuation of such laminates was achieved by laser irradiation [22. They developed a bending actuator that consisted of three primary 3. Polymers are not the only option when considering optical actuation. All rights reserved). Such events irreversibly rearrange the network connectivity and macroscopically result in stress relaxation that generates the folds. Example of optically-activated self-folding structures. ASME). limitations for the generation and manipulation of electric fields across scales have diminished. Examples of these structures are provided in table 5. Electrically-activated self-folding With the recent advanced in electronics and MEMS technologies. Further information about optically induced deformation in polymer films can be found elsewhere [166.0) 1. 167]. (c) Magnetically induced folding of a PDMS-MAE box under zero magnetic field (left) and under non-zero magnetic field (right) [73] (reproduced by permission of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 172]. They present the design and experimental analysis of a dielectric elastomer actuator that consists of two layers of dielectric elastomer separated from each other. 56].0 Potential multi-purpose morphing structures Micro-mirrors Reference [165] [22. functionalities along the polymer backbone [165]. along with the extensive research in dielectric elastomers [168. A different design for a dielectric elastomer employed for self-folding structural actuation was investigated by Frecker and coworkers [73. 169] and other electro-active polymers [170] have made possible for the development of electrically-activated selffolding structures. (b) Photo series of a biomorphic origami robot showing the robot translating using accordion-like movement activated via electrically-induced folds [173] (Reproduced by permission of IOP Publishing. For instance. Struct. Zanardi Ocampo and coworkers fabricated optically-actuated micro-mirrors based on laminates with strained GaAs-based alloys.4. 56] Figure 10. On the large scale. ASME). 171. Fold concept Single layer Multi-layer Reversible No Yes Material system Characteristic thickness (μm) Application Photo-responsive polymer GaAs-based alloys Not available (in the order of 1000. The authors were able to create folded arcs and a closed cube-shaped box using this self-folding approach. 23 (2014) 094001 E A Peraza-Hernandez et al Table 4.

a passive substrate (scotch tape). 175]. who created a biomorphic robot fabricated by a folding a conducting polymer film [173]. which entails crease pattern design and fold planning.0 Potential multi-purpose morphing structures Robotics / locomotion [73. Inganás and Lundstróm utilized conducting polymers as actuators within electrically-driven polymer-gold folding bilayers [174. Self-folding with dielectric elastomers based on the extensional concept (figure 5(a)) were developed by Roudaut and coworkers for flexible mobile device displays (previously discussed in section 3. They demonstrated the feasibility of the concept by fabricating different prototypes such as an origami robot that moves rectilinearly with a caterpillar-like motion. the MAE patches were used only for their ability to be magnetized rather than for any magnetic to mechanical energy conversion. demonstrating the promising qualities of this as a self-folding concept.Smart Mater. The bilayer is submerged in Na + DBS −electrolyte solution (where DBS represents dodecylbenzenesulfonate).0 0. This section is concerned with the design of crease patterns and the analysis of folding maneuvers to achieve certain shapes or functionalities. Magnetically-activated self-folding Magneto-active elastomers (MAE [178]) have been investigated as actuators for self-folding materials by von Lockette and coworkers [73. Composites consisting of PDMS sheets with MAE patches were able to achieve locomotion under application a oscillating magnetic field.1). The folding actuation was generated by electrically-induced changes in the elastic modulus of a conducting humidosensitive polymer film. Their concept considered bending of a flexible mobile device via contraction and expansion of a linear dielectric elastomer actuator connected to two sides of the device [114]. Struct. Fold concept Reversible Other Yes Multi-layer Yes Other Yes Extensional Yes Multi-layer Yes Material system Dielectric elastomer Dielectric elastomer Electroactive polymer Dielectric elastomer Electroactive polymer Characteristic thickness (μm) Application Reference 1000. 4. They used conducting PPy as the active layer. thus the flattens. The subsequent section provides a survey of another level in the design process of a self-folding structure. When a positive voltage potential is applied. 171. irrespective of the active 14 . When a negative voltage potential is applied.5 Table 6. The MAE-based selffolding composite was able to bend with a sample length normalized tip displacement of slightly above 0. The MAE materials were fabricated by mixing 30% (by weight) barium ferrite (BaM) particles into a silicone rubber matrix.5. Example of magnetic-induced self-folding structures. At the small scale. The bending samples configured in this manner were able to generate a sample length normalized tip displacement of slightly above 1. layers: the active dielectric elastomer. the volume of the PPy layer reduces and the bilayer bends. Fold concept Other Reversible Yes Material system Magneto-active elastomer Characteristic thickness (μm) 3000. However. it should be noted that in this particular example. The passive substrate consisted simply of a silicone RTV compound. 23 (2014) 094001 E A Peraza-Hernandez et al Table 5. More complex deformations were demonstrated by Okuzaki and coworkers.0 2000. Those changes of elastic modulus were due to absorption and desorption of water vapor molecules depending on the imposed electrical field. In addition. 74]. we addressed the design of individual folds as well as the material selection for active self-folding systems. the PPy film fills with Na + and is expanded to its 3.0 Application Potential multi-purpose morphing structures Reference [73. 177]) (figure 10(b)). 74] original size. and compliant electrodes (carbon grease). Figure 10(a) shows the folding behavior of the dielectric elastomer-based bending sample.5. 175] 20. 172] [173] Flexible mobile devices [114] Small scale tools [174. a cross-shaped PDMS sheet with four MAE patches on its sides that raised under the application of magnetic field was shown to fold into a box (figure 10(c)). Such motion was achieved by repeated expansion and contraction of its accordion-like body via folding/unfolding of electrically sensitive Polypyrrole (PPy [176. Examples of electrically-induced self-folding structures. Crease pattern/fold kinematics design Previously in section 2.0 Robotics [29] 350.

Table 7 is a summary of this design problem.1. obtaining the crease pattern that folds a single sheet of material into a given polyhedral surface without any cut). folding angle limitations. In a more recent work [191]. Although many origami design approaches have their limits with respect to actual material folding behavior (e. which may be an arbitrary polyhedral surface. 193]. Crease pattern that can produce said shape(s) 3. One of the proposed techniques consists of obtaining a freeform variation of rigidfoldable and bidirectionally flat-foldable disk surfaces. This section is a review of the prior work on origami engineering tools in support of these design activities.. The base is then folded and shaped into an origami model.Smart Mater. where the tree graph of a bug is shown together with the computed crease pattern generated by TreeMaker. In their work. The previous sections of this article have focused primarily on domain knowledge about fold concepts and the various active materials available for achieving self-folding behavior. and self-intersections. and a sequence of folding actions that results in the desired shape(s). One of the most well known software packages for fold pattern design is Robert Langʼs TreeMaker [179]. Tachi developed a software 4. they showed that one can obtain a crease pattern for a particular flat silhouette or for a three-dimensional polyhedral surface. it also allows for the visualization of the folding/unfolding process for a given model. Sequence in which to execute folds (fold kinematics) 4. to identify a crease pattern that can achieve the desired shape(s). 185] (i. we do attempt to address the options most suitable for the design of self-folding systems with a focus on the most recent works. The obtained configuration is then modified by satisfying geometric constraints of developability6. Given Desired design functionality Find 1. designers might achieve a storage/deployment functionality for satellite solar panels using a folding structure. Further information and advances of this algorithm can be found in the literature [180. they provide useful options for addressing the design of folded structures in general..g. Tachi has also contributed methods and software for creating freeform foldable structures that can approximate curved surfaces [186–188]. The base can be fully defined by the location of creases.1) and detailed geometry 5. In addition to folding pattern generation. However. Designers must achieve all of this subject to local and system-level failure criteria and requirements for interfacing the structure with other parts of the system (e. High-level definition of the design problem for active self- folding structures. Important considerations are to determine what is the final folded shape (or shapes. A software that provides these capabilities has been created. in the case of a reconfigurable structure).e. the challenges of identifying crease patterns and fold sequencing require unique tools and methods. etc [183]. Existing computer aided design and FEA tools can be used directly or extended for use in the analysis and design of active folds. another that maximizes the width of the sheet strip subject to certain constraints. To realize a useful active self-folding structure. Appropriate active material(s) (sections 2. they commonly neglect thickness or assume an infinitely small fold radius). and the orientation and location of each facet [179]. which is a combination of generalized Miura-Ori [189] and eggbox patterns [190]. designers must consider several issues beyond the choice of active material and folding concept. This method allows for the design of an origami base. In another work.g. The Origamizer software solves the inverse problem of providing a crease pattern from the input. Another approach for crease pattern design is to directly impose the exact final shape that the sheet should take after folding. While this survey is far from complete. In his work Tachi investigated the conditions required for constructing a valid crease pattern. Demaine and coworkers [182] developed a 6 A surface is developable if it has zero Gaussian curvature everywhere [192. The method consists of first separating faces of the desired shape and then inserting folded parts between them. 23 (2014) 094001 E A Peraza-Hernandez et al material or other mechanism being used to effect the folding behavior. Table 7. Appropriate active fold concept(s) (section 2. Folded shape(s) that achieve desired functionality 2. In such processes. 181]. 15 . Such method is not only applicable to paper but also sheets that do not allow 180° degree folding. They proposed different algorithms for wrapping the desired shape with the sheet.. It is based on the idea of using folds in an initially planar sheet to create flaps that are ‘tucked’ (hidden) to form the desired three-dimensional shape. mating points). Tachi proposed a method to produce origami tessellations from given polyhedral surfaces. Lang described the theoretical foundation on which TreeMaker is based: the tree method [179].2 and 3) and passive structure materials Failure criteria and interface requirements Subject to mathematical framework for folding a sheet into a thin strip that is essentially ‘wrapped’ around the desired shape. TreeMaker determines a crease pattern that results in the desired base via optimization methods. An example of the application of this algorithm is shown in figure 11(a). The motivation for a design problem is to fulfill one or more desired functions. Struct. Tachi presented a practical method for ‘origamizing’ objects [184. their angles. these include one that uses any sheet area arbitrarily close to the surface area of the desired shape. Software developments Designers need tools and methods tailored to each part of the design problem of self-folding structures (table 7). curved bodies such as disks and cylinders can be obtained from collapsible variations of rigid-foldable surfaces. For example. which is defined as a nonstretching transformation of the sheet into 3-space such that all facets remain flat.

. A dual graph consisting of the edges and vertices of the dual mesh is then created along with an associated spanning tree that includes all vertices from the dual graph. This method is preferred for the creation of artistic origami. In their work they demonstrate the feasibility and applicability of their algorithm by creating plastic film and stainless steel plate folded models. With kind permission from Springer Science and Business Media). Eos provides two methods for folding: the mathematical fold and the artistic fold. Every vertex of the dual graph is then two-dimensionally thickened into a triangle and every edge of the spanning tree is twodimensionally thickened into a developable quadrilateral. 200. Such method requires fair knowledge of nomenclature and coding definitions for different folding options. and refinement for finite element analysis (Reprinted from [105]. (c) Procedure to obtain a single-panel unfolding from a cube: initial mesh.e. is given to the publication in which the material was originally published.. page 93. The artistic fold method is more user-friendly and allows one to specify relatively straightforward folding features such as whether fold is a valley or a mountain. divides into triangles) the initial shape to guarantee that all faces of the shape are planar. 23 (2014) 094001 E A Peraza-Hernandez et al for interactive simulation of origami based on rigid origami [194]. Inc. spanning tree. and (right) flow with a vortex filament with its analogous crease pattern for conical shell [195] (Reproduced by permission of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASME). The simulation program can generate the continuous process of folding a flat sheet into a 3D shape by calculating the configuration from the crease pattern. Lang. The method enables the design of complex deployable structures systematically and efficiently from simple structures.) [181] (Springer and The Mathematical Intelligencer. The former folding method is based on axiomatic definitions of origami folds [196. An example of this procedure for the creation of a single-panel unfolding for a cube is Figure 11. Examples of folding pattern/sheet design tools. Copyright (2013). Ishida and coworkers developed a method using conformal transformations to design crease patterns of circular membranes that can be wrapped up compactly [195]. © 2005 Springer Science+Business Media. and to what angle they should be folded. The algorithm first triangulates (i. 27. Origami design secrets: mathematical methods for an ancient art. Struct. (b) Conformal transformation on fluid flows and analogy to origami patterns: (left) uniform flow with analogous crease pattern for a cylindrical shell. (a) Illustration of the tree algorithm using one of Meguroʼs bugs. The software allows for visualization and interaction of origami constructions. Akleman and coworkers developed a method to unfold a given convex polygonal shape into a one-piece planar (i. figure 2. An origami computational interface called Eos [196–199] that permits a user to fold sheets virtually as if they were folding paper by hand has been developed by Ida and coworkers. (Not all creases are shown. unfolding. 2005. which allows full mechanical analysis of the folding (or self-folding) process. 201]. The method follows an analogous procedure for the generation of fluid flow streamline profiles using velocity potentials and streamline functions. The spanning tree is then unfolded into two-dimensional planar shapes [203]. with permission from Elsevier).Smart Mater. The graphical analogy between fluid flows and origami pattern is shown in figure 11(b) where it is observed that unidirectional flow is analogous to a crease pattern for a cylindrical shell while flow with a vortex filament is analogous to a crease pattern for a conical shell. Robert J.e. The configuration of the sheet is then determined by the crease angles and the trajectory is calculated by projecting the crease angles into the constrained configuration space. The algorithm has been extended such that each two-dimensional planar shape can be further subdivided into smaller quadrilaterals and triangles for input into finite element software. In their work. which lines are to be folded. similar potential and streamline functions are used to generate the fold lines profile in circular shells. controlling angles among fold lines. 16 . A ‘dual mesh’ is then constructed from the triangulated shape such that every face becomes a vertex and every original vertex becomes a face [202]. by adding this figure. developable) surface [105].

The folding angles are the design variables. (b) Fold planning [221. The figure was obtained courtesy of Simon Guest (reproduced by permission of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States of America PNAS). Based on the works of [223]. conversely. Examples of folding kinematics studies. shown in figure 11(c). 23 (2014) 094001 E A Peraza-Hernandez et al Figure 12. the three-dimensional geometry of the folded sheet can be computed using origami approaches similar to those described previously in this section. Studies of folding and the behavior of folded structures One main consideration when designing a crease pattern for conventional origami designs is flat-foldability. (ii) 2-colorable: this condition refers to the binary designation assigned to the faces (finite areas) bounded by the 4. a crease pattern is everywhere locally foldable if there is a mountain-valley assignment so that each vertex locally folds flat [183]. the existence and type of fold lines are assumed. 222] examples: motion paths to fold an icosahedron and an sphere from single panels (courtesy of Nancy Amato and her research group at TAMU). The rigid panels are depicted in green while the flexible membranes are represented as red lines. and Poma [208]. Struct. It has been shown [206] that crease patterns created under this constraint can be applied for the design of physically realized sheets that have non-zero thickness and may not provide perfectly flat folds. The feasibility of the algorithm was tested by considering the complete unfolding/re-folding process associated with a dome and a cube shapes. 180° mountain fold. The results show that Miura-ori folded sheets have metamaterial characteristics independent of the sheet material [52]. dihedral angles of zero between pairs of adjacent faces.Smart Mater. A flat-foldable origami structure must be able fold into a shape that has 17 . 180° valley fold. Schneider [207].2. For a given ground structure and set of folding angles. this given configuration is known as the ‘ground structure’. In their approach. combined with the ground structure. This is known as the Kawasakiʼs theorem [209–211]. In general. (c) Fold designs of membrane-panel model for thickness accommodation. Fuchi and coworkers [204] proposed a folding pattern design method based on topology optimization [205]. and 60° valley fold are shown. be deployed toward a fully flat configuration. The imposition of flat foldability constraints onto the design of origami structures ensures that such structures can be be created from an initially flat sheet or. global flat-foldability must satisfy the following conditions: (i) Local flat-foldability: considering a single vertex. According to the previous works of Demaine and OʼRourke [66]. (a) In-plane Poissonʼs ratio of Miura-ori folded sheet for different folding states. A topology optimization method is then used in an iterative effort to find the optimal set of folding angles that. provide the desired folded geometry. it has been shown that is flat-foldable if the alternating angles surrounding the vertex sum to 180° .

213]. For example. The entire mechanism can be folded from a single initially planar sheet. 237] that are applicable to the fold planning problem. Researchers have also explored origami models that are folded so that in their final folded/deployed state they exhibit motion [216. 236. An example of these results are provided in figure 12(a) where the negative in-plane Poissonʼs ratios in a Miura-ori pattern for different folding stages and pattern geometries are shown. Qiu and coworkers performed a kinematic analysis of origami carton-type packages [212. They investigated the effects of combining several corrugated leaf patterns to produce deployable surfaces. The motion planner is based on Probabilistic RoadMaps [238] and has been improved through the years to increase computational efficiency. the geometry of the sheet in both its folded and unfolded shapes and can generate a continuous path through the state space that will allow the sheet to move from one configuration to the other without self-intersecting itself. such as solar sails. The classification is based in the idealization of vertices of intersecting folding lines as spherical mechanisms. For instance. Nature inspired approaches for crease pattern analysis are also being developed by McAdams and coworkers [232. each vertex are tracked by considering their projections onto that the sphere. They explored the configuration space of this mechanism under different geometric constraints. the examples described in section 3 largely address self-folding of ‘thick’ sheets. De Focatiis and Guest [231] presented a folding pattern design of deployable structures inspired by a model of deploying tree leaves. Moses and coworkers investigated the kinematics of origami-inspired rotors consisting of a snake-like strip connected to two fixed platforms at its ends and having a rotating body in the middle [215]. To form the creases and vertices in an ‘ice-cracking’-like origami crease pattern. has been used to describe such focus. 23 (2014) 094001 E A Peraza-Hernandez et al creases (see figure 2) referred to as ‘colors’. 217]. The second method is based on the analogy between icecracks on a frozen lake surface where each crack is equivalent to a crease and each forking point to a vertex [233]. and the body at the middle of the strip rotates only due to folding maneuvers of the strip. which assesses the physical feasibility of folding operations in complex forms. (iii) Able to stack all faces flat without penetration or collision between faces during the folding process. A crease restoration algorithm to extract the equivalent crease pattern from the multicellular representation was proposed. especially in terms of their potential applicability. The classification takes into account characteristics of the folding pattern such as whether the fold lines form a loop. A genetic algorithm [234. The term action origami [218]. They idealized creases as torsional springs with arbitrary stiffness during folding. Struct. With several examples in nature of origami-like processes [224–229]. In addition. 220] studied a large number of action origami models and proposed a classification scheme for them. The kinematics of origami-inspired robotic linkages were addressed by several authors. solar panels. Experiments were performed to validate their models. bioinspiration has also provided ideas for fold designs [230]. Bowen and coworkers [216. Amato and coworkers investigated motion planning algorithms [221. and antennas. Potential applications of this idea include rotating propellers for micro underwater or fluid immersed robots and high mobility wheel legs for crawling vehicles [215]. they also considered a folded structure based on a stacking of individual folded layers taking into account kinematic compatibility between layers. 222. Two examples of successfully determined folding paths are shown in figure 12(b) and includes examples are folding paths for an icosahedron and a sphere. Using a similar approach while further addressing more physical considerations. the linearity of the fold line chains. whether they are periodic. The cells define the crease pattern by their color (each face contains a collection of cells with the same color). They showed that such multilayer folded structure is able to fold and unfold uniformly and can be designed to lock its motion in a specific configuration. One issue not addressed in the studies and developments mentioned up to this point is that of fold planning. They addressed design issues of origami macroscale packaging and presented mathematical models to predict their folding characteristics. each vertex is considered to lie at the center of an imagined sphere and the motion of the folds connected to 18 . The majority of what has been described so far in this section is relevant for folding of only very thin sheets. Schenk and coworkers studied the kinematics of Miura-ori folding patterns [52] and showed that a folded structure folded in this pattern provides a negative Poissonʼs ratio for in-plane deformations and a positive Poissonʼs ratio for out-of-plane bending. Their motion planning algorithm can obtain. 219. To ensure global flat foldability no neighboring faces should share the same color. and other aspects. there are a number of works addressing the kinematics and fold design pertaining to thick sheets. as input.Smart Mater. a vertex is picked as the starting location and the rest of the creases and vertices are grown in an analogous manner to crack growth and fork formation in ice. Guest and Pellegrino [239] developed a methodology for wrapping thin membranes The kinematics of both folding and the mechanical response of folded structures is also an extensive area of study and is relevant to active self-folding systems. For example. However. Fortunately. 233] where they consider pixelated multicellular representations to define origami structures and a crease generation method based on the analogy between a crease pattern and ice-craks on a frozen lake surface. The first method consists of defining a crease pattern via a set of distributed cells. In this formalism. 235] encodes the geometric information of forming the creases and vertices according to the development sequence based on the ‘ice-cracking’ process which can be adapted to accelerate the emergence of optimal design outcomes through the evolutionary design process. Such work has potential value in origami packaging design and elastic type origami elements in robotics. Qin and Dai studied an eight bar robotic mechanism where folded panels acted as links and the fold creases themselves acted as revolute joints [214].

g. optical. chemical. yielding an array of design options. many of which are useful for designing self-folding structures. and magnetic. Several combinations of materials. Perhaps increased efforts by engineering design researchers. the theme of origami has traditionally captured form and geometric considerations. and 60° valley folds are shown. Mechanically. Evaluation of common active materials and self-folding structures for various fold concepts confirms that there is no dominant active material or mechanism for self-folding applications and that the material and mechanism selection are application-dependent (e. • Function-driven design of self-folding structures: in both its artistic goals and mathematical theory. engineering applications of origami principles are more often motivated and constrained by function rather than form. • Increased understanding of the mechanics of folding in thick structures toward improved flat foldability: even though multiple theories and software exist for the design and analysis of zero thickness folding structures (see section 4). availability of a particular inducing field. Early investigations into the mathematics of origami addressed basic questions such as whether a particular shape is foldable and relied on strong idealizations such as having a folding sheet of zero thickness. Examples of panel-membrane hinge designs for common folds are shown in figure 12(c). electrical.. Zirbel and coworkers [223.. boundary conditions. Three questions are of particular importance in the context of smart self-folding systems: around a central hub. stacking of faces) and conventional origami structures where the thickness of the sheet is not several orders of magnitude below the characteristic length of the sheet. They begin with the assumption of zero thickness for the generation of a folding pattern and then show a way to correct the proposed folding pattern to accommodate for a sheet of finite thickness. Although the research on origami principles and folding structures has been extensive. Hinge designs for 180° mountain folds. Considerations such as whether folds must be reversible. restrictions on sheet thickness. Most assume a desired folded form is known and thus address one of the two origami subproblems: determining where folds should go and determining the order in which folds should be made.. They demonstrate the applicability of their model using a 1/20 scale prototype of a deployable solar array for space applications. and inducing field are feasible. Researchers have demonstrated self-folding behavior in many active material systems with inducing fields that include thermal. solar panels made of brittle materials). Tachi proposed a method for creating a 3D structure composed of finite thickness panels.g.. and folded shapes towards simple objectives such as maximizing self-folded structural height under gravity [206]. However. such as those who draw inspiration from the functions of 5. However.g. surrounding environment). the panels must remain within a non-zero internal folding angle and/or a finite distance between them). For example multiple software products exist for the determination of crease patterns and/or folding sequences that will allow a sheet to be mapped into a certain goal three-dimensional shape. multiple challenges and open questions remain. As identified in this review. However. 242] addressed the accommodation of thickness in origami-based deployable arrays. 23 (2014) 094001 E A Peraza-Hernandez et al be similar enough to benefit from origami design principles. motivated by the need to fold thick rigid panels that cannot bend during folding or deployment (e. 180° valley folds. and the overall folded structure concept are among the drivers for design decisions. the science and technology associated with origami-inspired engineering is new and developing rapidly. one can use smart materials to produce folding along a hinge or to approximate folds through a smallradius bending action in a composite laminate structure or single-layer active material using a graded field. these limited examples apply to specific sheet materials and constraints and lack the generality desired of an engineering tool to determine ideal crease patterns/folding sequences for the optimal performance of specific functions. Thick origami folding is a challenging problem and has to be addressed for the development of applications that require compact storage in non-planar configurations (e. but can 19 . Thus. The kinematic behavior of an associated zerothickness model of the same structure is preserved by embedding said zero-thickness mechanism within a set of finite thickness panels [240]. 241. concepts with pre-engineered hinge locations can produce folds that are more idealized and their more restricted structure can simplify aspects of the design process such as fold planning. In their work they present a mathematical model for the modification of folding patterns to accommodate material thickness in the context of the design. A number of design tools exist for origami. Only a few examples have been addressed such as the determination of folded shapes for crash box applications [44–46]. and bio-inspired folded structures is yielding results that will help bridge the gap between idealized origami and the reality of smart self-folding structures. the kinematics of origami structures. dependent on the desired folding radii or angle.Smart Mater. smart materials can play a significant role in the realization of selffolding origami-inspired structures. and testing of a deployable system. The lack of pre-engineered hinge locations in bending fold concepts also makes them more adaptable in principle. Newer research into topics such as folding with thickness. very few exist for the development of folding structures with non-zero thickness. Struct.g. modeling. geometry. Conclusions Although the art of origami is ancient. Concepts in the latter category are less similar to creases in paper. the proposed mechanism folds in the same way of the base zero-thickness model though with some limitations such as that the final folded state of the structure cannot have coplanar panels (e. Their physical construction included gap widths at the folding lines (not present in zero thickness origami models) to accommodate for thickness.

e. (A. Therefore. it is assumed that the magnitude of the actuation shear strain far exceeds that of the elastic shear strain due to the choice of active material and/or the assumption of relatively small resistive moments at the fold ( σ12 = σ13 = 0). As has been discussed. etc). therefore. this may prevent the level of truly reconfigurable self-folding structures at the small scale or other situations where local field imposition becomes unfeasible. however. inertial forces.g. of a single given physical field (e. 2 (A. dθ dx1 = constant = θ′. inducing localized self-folding is more challenging still. Analysis of folding using an active torsional element The (x For the analysis of the torsional self-folding concept (figure 5(b)). 243–245]. (A. reconfigurability under global (remote) fields would be an important advancement.. assumed to be constant. in the absence of body forces. magnetic. 2 1 x 2 θ′ ..1) The corresponding non-zero stress components are: ⎛ ⎞ ⎛1 ⎞ 1 σ12 = G ⎜ − x 3 θ′ − ε12act ⎟ . and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. The centroidal axis of the bar coincides with the x1-axis. 23 (2014) 094001 E A Peraza-Hernandez et al torsional element is represented as a rod of circular crosssection with radius r and length L. findings. The rod is composed of an active material and is initially unstressed. Any opinions. • Development of remote field-induced reconfigurable foldability: every one of the active material-based folding or fold-like structures described herein relies on the imposition.Smart Mater.2) ⎝ ⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ 2 where G is the shear modulus of the active material bar. the active torsional element is isolated from the other bodies (hinge and connected faces are not modeled). As the community that champions such solutions progresses. Under the uniform application of the inducing field. reconfigurability (i. Application of past discoveries and current tools toward future morphing structures challenges. from one morphed/folded shape to another) under global fields becomes difficult.4) will occur when ) = r . This could be accomplished by designing for multi-field actuation (e. it is reasonable to assume that the motion of each cross-sectional region with thickness dx1 is restricted to a rigid body rotation about the x1 -axis [248]. Sheets are preengineered to respond in a single particular manner to such field application. Such constraints are associated with the resistance of the sheet to the fold-like operation (e.3) is: ε act = Appendix A. 2 Active material technologies have already enabled a wide range of engineering applications. Multi-field self-folding is being addressed by some researchers in both large [73] and small scales [54] but there is still much to be done in this area. two different cases are explored. The active 2 2 +x maximum 2 3 1 θ′ x 22 + x 32 2 ( value 1 2 ) of ε act . the only non-zero strains. is subjected to equal and opposite end moments Mt . ε13el + ε13act = 1 x 2 θ′ . Considering either equation (A.. Thus. By the rotational symmetry of the problem. Therefore. many of them accurately described as being based on ‘smart structures’. it can be found that the local twist angle θ varies linearly with x1. From equilibrium. caused by friction at the hinge. local or global. the limit of the change in angle per unit length the bar axis θ′ multiplied by r is given by rθ′ = 2ε act . thermal and magnetic [247]) or by allowing discrete folding regions to be tuned so as to respond to changes in a single global field type (e. 1 ε12el + ε12act = − x 3 θ′ . Under such displacement assumption. interactions of the sheet with other bodies. thermal. etc).. 2 ε13act = (A. A boundary value problem of the individual torsional element is considered by modeling the interactions of the element with other bodies in terms of applied moments.5) The total twist angle φ (that is expected to translate into a folding angle) is obtained by integrating θ′ along the entire 20 . thermal and electric [246].g.g. 1 x 3 θ′ . creating recoverable folds in complex material systems is more difficult than creasing paper. To relate actuation strain to the folding performance of the torsional element. will allow engineers to address the open issues posed and offer new technological solutions to the world at large. such as the art and theory of origami. the rod twists and. the effects of gravity.. which are due to elastic strains (denoted by superscript ‘el’) and mechanismagnostic actuation strains (denoted by superscript ‘act’) are given by: folding in nature [233.3) The magnitude of the maximum principal actuation strain ε act at any point in the bar under the strain state given in equation (A.1) or (A. it is likely that researchers may find great advantage in looking beyond traditional design approaches and permitting inspiration from alternative sources. (A. The initial and final configurations of the torsional element are shown in figure A1. To obtain bounds for an actuation stress and strain assessment. if constrained to some degree at its ends. Struct. as in changes in magnetic field frequency). σ13 = G ⎜ x 2 θ′ − ε13act ⎟ .g.2) under this assumption: Acknowledgments ε12act = − This work is supported by the National Science Foundation under grant EFRI-1240483. will help to expand these capabilities.

The bilayer sheet is depicted in figure B1. When substituting the expressions in equation (B.. the end state of such a bilayer beam would be the same regardless of the origin of the eigenstrain (neglecting out-of-plane effects). The maximum normal or shear stress due to actuation σ act occurs at the boundary of the bar and are related to the reaction moment Mt by [248]: Mt πσ act = . when α1 ≠ α2 ). the constant C1.4) (A. The sheet of total thickness h has a layer of material I with thickness a1 and a layer of material II with thickness a2 so that a1 + a2 = h . σ13 = t 2 . the case in which the sheet is fully constrained from folding is considered.3) The radius of curvature normalized with the film thickness is then given as follows section (Ip = πr 4 2 ). ε act ≡ − α1 ( T − T0 ).1) the eigenstrain is assumed to be due to thermal expansion of the constituent layers.8) Mt x 3 Mx .2) 2 6ε act ( 1 + m ) 1 = 2 R h 3 ( 1 + m ) + ( 1 + mn) m2 + 1 ( mn) (A.2) into equation (B. obtained moment) as function of actuation stress and strain of the active material. In equation (B. The base analytical solution for this case is obtained from Timoshenko [249]. When the bilayer film is uniformly heated from temperature T0 to temperature T. Using equations (A. length of the bar φ= ∫ L θ′dl = θ′ 0 ∫ L dl = θ′L. the following is obtained7 σ12 = G ( − ε12act ) = Gε12el . defined in equation (3). Analysis of folding using an active/ passive bilayer For the analysis of the multi-layer self-folding concept (figure 5(d)).2) the following is obtained: σ12 = − ( 2 ( ) 3 ( 1 + m ) + ( 1 + mn) m2 + 1 ( mn) R = .6).4) and Equations (A. Similarly. The relations between the stresses and the applied moments are given as follows [248]: (B.1).6) 2 6 ( α 2 − α1 ) ( T − T0 ) ( 1 + m ) 1 = 2 R h 3 ( 1 + m ) + ( 1 + mn) m2 + 1 ( mn) 0 ( By substituting equation (A.5) into (A. The preceeding equation corresponds to the elastic solution of the problem. Ip Ip )) where m = a1 a2 and n = E1 E2 . (B.1) where ε act is the actuation strain. Local twisting of an active circular bar under the application of a locally uniform field.e.1) and (A. the following dimension-normalized relation between ε act and the total twist angle φ is obtained r φ = 2ε act . (B.10) provide an assessment of the folding characteristics of concept (b) (twist angle. σ13 = G ( − ε13act ) = Gε13el .9) ( where Ip is the polar second moment of the circular cross- ( )) . Material I has an elastic modulus and thermal expansion coefficient of E1 and α1.7) and (A. The second expression implies that the active layer is contracting with a strain of ε act . Thus we use the following simple substitution To obtain a bound for the assessment of actuation stress. The width of sheet is denoted as w. bending of an active-passive bilayer sheet is considered.7) α 2 ≈ 0. 7 Assuming expansion of the active layer will change the sign of R (meaning that the final configuration is convex down) but the magnitude of R will be unaffected. (A. is substituted into equation (B.10) To simplify the preceding equation. In 1925. Struct. Timoshenko analyzed bending a bilayer sheet due to unequal thermal expansion. respectively.Smart Mater. it bends to a configuration with radius of curvature R due to unequal thermal expansion of the constituent layers (i. 2 r3 . L (A. 21 . 2 h 6ε act ( 1 + m ) (B. however. (A. material II has an elastic modulus and thermal expansion coefficient of E2 and α2 . In this case θ ( x1 ) = θ′ = 0 . Here we consider material I as the active material while material II is the passive material.2) emerges from the assumption that the passive material provides negligible strain under the applied field. The first expression in equation (B. respectively. 23 (2014) 094001 E A Peraza-Hernandez et al Appendix B. The relationship between the obtained radius of curvature R and the geometric parameters and material properties of the film was found by Timoshenko [249] to be Figure A1.

8) To simplify the form of equation (B. J. Bending of a bilayer sheet under unequal field-induced expansion. Sci. Kumar V and Yim M 2011 A simulator for origami-inspired self-reconfigurable robots Origami 5: Fifth Int. (B. Struct. the maximum stress experienced (σ max ) by the active layer is found. Japan. Kruck B and Baudisch P 2013 Laser origami: laser-cutting 3 D objects Proc. Gultepe E and Gracias D H 2013 Origami inspired self-assembly of patterned and reconfigurable particles J. Design Engineering Technical Conf. 2. wha1 (B. Meeting of Origami Science Mathematics. combinatorial.8).Smart Mater. Yan H and Gothelf K V 2011 DNA origami: a quantum leap for self-assembly of complex structures Chem. on Human Factors in Computing Systems (New York: ACM) pp 2585–92 [14] Rothemund P W K 2006 Folding DNA to create nanoscale shapes and patterns Nature 440 297–302 [15] Tørring T. Chem. wha1 ⎝ E1 a13 + E2 a 23 ⎠ (B. Ramani K. Opin. Sci. An expression for the maximum stress was also found by Timoshenko [249] and it consists of two parts: the stress due to axial force and the stress due to bending. It is given by σ act = σ max = aE P + 1 1. wa1 2R (B. paper. 9–13 Oct. Han D.7) h Mb 12Mb where I1 and I2 are the moments of inertia of the cross-sections of layer I and II. Symposium on Theory Design and Realization of Shell and Spatial Structures (Nagoya.R= = . Substituting the results from 22 . the constant C2 . Soc. the following is obtained R 1 = act . Soc. (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) pp 1161–8 [11] Gao W. 14 608–15 [17] Edwards A and Yan H 2014 DNA origami Nucleic Acid Nanotechnology (Berlin: Springer) pp 93–133 Figure B1. Meeting of Origami Science Math and Education (Asilomar.8) and the following relation between actuation stress and bending moment is obtained: σ act = Mb C2 . Mech. 23 (2014) 094001 E A Peraza-Hernandez et al equation (B.6) where P is the total axial force in the active layer. CA) [9] Gray S. Voigt N V. World 20 30–31 [2] Lang R J 2004 Origami: complexity in creases (again) Eng. The moments of inertia were substituted in equation (B. of the SIGCHI Conf. is substituted into equation (B. 135 111009 [12] Pandey S. 67 5–19 [3] Demaine E D 2001 Folding and unfolding linkages. the radius of curvature of the bent sheet decreases. For an assessment of actuation stress σ act .5) Equation (B. FL: CRC Press) p 323 [10] Gao W. Liu Y and Yan H 2010 DNA origami: a history and current perspective Curr. Biol. Cipra R J and Siegmund T 2013 Kinetogami: a reconfigurable. Hum. and polyhedra Discrete and Computational Geometry (Berlin: Springer) pp 113–24 [4] Fei L J and Sujan D 2013 Origami theory and its applications: a literature review Int. as actuation strain increases. and Education (Boca Raton. C1 h ε (B. respectively.6) the following is obtained σ act = Mb ⎛ 6ha12 E1 ⎞ ⎜2 + ⎟. Clearly. 2001) pp 298–9 [7] Cromvik C and Eriksson K 2006 Airbag Folding Based on Origami Mathematics Chalmers University of Technology [8] Hoffman R 2001 Airbag folding: origami design applied to an engineering problem Third Int.7) into equation (B.7) using the result Ii = wai3 12 where i = 1. 7 113–7 [5] Cipra B A 2001 In the fold: origami meets mathematics SIAM News 34 1–4 [6] Tarnai T 2001 Origami in structural engineering IASS Symposium 2001: Int. Nangreave J. Zeichner N. 40 5636–46 [16] Nangreave J. Des.9) References [1] Lang R J 2007 The science of origami Phys. Rev. Ramani K and Cipra R J 2012 Reconfigurable foldable spatial mechanisms and robotic forms inspired by kinetogami ASME 2012 Int. 72 50022 [13] Mueller S. Visualized Exp. It can be shown [249] that the total bending moment Mb relates to P and R as follows: ( ) w E1 a13 + E2 a 23 2Mb E1 I1 + E2 I2 P= . and printable sheet folding J. The term E1 I1 + E2 I2 represents the effective bending stiffness of the bilayer. and Computers and Information in Engineering Conf. Eng. defined in equation (4).5) provides a non-dimensional analytical expression for the assessment of the folding behavior of a bilayer film with a layer of active material and a layer of passive material.

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