moisture accumulation.

Terminal boxes mounted on horizontal surfaces must have good
weather seals for their covers. Any gasket with questionable ability to provide a
watertight seal should be replaced.
Early completion of wire checking and low-voltage-component meggering is advisable,
especially when large transformers are to be tested. Completion of these tasks up front is
important because it allows application of power to alarm and control circuits without
worry of causing damage. Having auxiliary power available helps facilitate operational
checks, especially when UL tap changers need to be operated to perform various tests.
Changing tap positions manually by hand cranking the mechanism is a slow and tiresome
Transformer bushing CTs should be tested using the Current Ratio test method before the
transformer has been completely assembled. CTs should be tested before they are
mounted on the transformer. In some cases, CTs may have to be tested by connecting
test leads to both ends of an installed bushing. This can be difficult! If the CTs are
already mounted in the transformer, large (high-capacity) current-testing leads can be
pulled through the CT centers before bushings have been inserted.
Occasionally it is not possible to perform a Current Ratio test. CT tap ratios can be
verified by applying a voltage across the full CT winding – a Tap Voltage Ratio test -then measuring the voltage drop across each individual tap. This is a simple test to
perform, and voltage ratios will be directly proportional to the CT turns ratio between
This Tap Voltage Ratio test, however, should not be chosen as a substitute for a Current
Ratio test. The voltage method should be regarded as the last alternative. Testing the
equipment at rated current offers more assurance that it will perform as expected when
placed in service. The Current Ratio method reflects this philosophy; the Tap Voltage
Ratio method does not. The Tap Voltage method cannot establish true orientation
(polarity) of the installed CT, or test the primary to secondary current ratio, and leaves
some points unverified.
In addition to Tap Voltage Ratio, a secondary Tap Current Ratio test can be performed.
For this test, rated or less current is injected through a tap input and the output current of
the full CT winding is measured by transformer action. It is equivalent to the procedure
used for performing a Short-Circuit Impedance test on an autotransformer.
It is still necessary to verify CT polarity. One method used to establish CT polarity in
power transformers is commonly referred to as "Flashing the CTs." This test can be
performed by applying 6-to-12 volts DC to the transformer bushings, using a hot stick to
make and break the test circuit. An automobile battery is often most convenient because