The Peripatetic Mean of Style and the Three Stylistic Characters

Author(s): G. L. Hendrickson
Reviewed work(s):
Source: The American Journal of Philology, Vol. 25, No. 2 (1904), pp. 125-146
Published by: The Johns Hopkins University Press
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/288414 .
Accessed: 27/03/2012 03:36
Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at .
http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp
JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of
content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms
of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org.

The Johns Hopkins University Press is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to The
American Journal of Philology.

http://www.jstor.org

AMERICAN

JOURNAL
VOL. XXV,

I.-THE

2.

OF PHILOLOGY
WHOLE

No.

MEAN OF STYLE AND
PERIPATETIC
THREE STYLISTIC CHARACTERS.

98.

THE

Concerning the origin of the ancient division of style into three
types or characters, there seems to be at the present time general
unanimity in attributing it to Theophrastus. It was first assigned
to him, so far as I am aware, by Westermann,1 but the more recent
discussions of the matter award to Dr. H. Rabe' (of Hannover)
the credit of having demonstrated the origin of the classification
and its place in Theophrastus' rhetorical system.3 In criticising
this conclusion I am less concerned to attack the name of Theophrastus than I am to correct a misconception of the stylistic
theory of the Peripatetic school which follows upon the acceptance of the evidence which has yielded this result. For in fact
a true account of the origin of the three styles will attribute to
Theophrastus the formulation of the ideas which gave rise at a
subsequent time to this division, but it will approach the matter
from a wholly different point of view, and will employ other
evidence than that which has hitherto been used. It is therefore
to define some aspects of the Peripatetic conception of rhetorical
style, as formulated by the two first masters of the school, that
I Griech. Beredsamkeit I,
p. 170 and n. 8. But see Vossius Com. Rhet. II
(I630), p. 464. Cf. Blass, Griech. Beredsamkeit von Alex. bis Aug., p. 8I, and

Jebb, Attic Orators, Vol. II, p. 397.
2 De Theophrasti libris reppi
2?tEo&,Diss. Bonn, 1890.
3 Cf. Norden, Antike Kunstprosa I, p. 70, note (extr.): " Dass die im Text
behandelte Scheidung der xapaKrTpec Zlsfewcmit ihren benachbarten Fehlern
auf Theophrastus zuruckgeht ... weist H. Rabe iberzeugend nach." Radermacher, Rh. Mus. Vol. 54 (1899), p. 36I. Wilamowitz, Hermes Vol. 35 (1900oo),
p. 27, and note r.
9

whose words I quote (1. then follows. reserve by Westermann. with the further purpose of clearing the ground for a truer account (as I venture to hope) of the origin and meaning of this stylistic analysis. finally.pTT style. 6. In fact to conclude that Theophrastus conceived of the two other styles as Dionysius does. Theophrasti iudicium affert. or named the same representatives of the different characters. wie namentlich den Abschnitt iber den rednerischen Ausdruck. " Darauf fuihrtDionysius Hal. 3." 2See Radermacher. It will be cited later in its true connection. which further cultivated by Plato and Isocrates. cit. . That in claiming all this for Theophrastus Rabe went too far has been generally recognized. 49. Rh. especially in attributing to him the judgment of the pre-eminence of Demosthenes. which belongs to a later time.1 more confidently by Rabe. and Wilamowitz cited on p." Again in recapitulation on p. 54. Einzelne Theile erweiterte er. Lys. plain culminating in Lysias. I25. p. c. and reached its highest This evidence is used with much development in Demosthenes. On the judgment of Demosthenes' rank as an orator see esp. I42. Thrasymachus is designated as the author of a mixed or a mean style (ptKicr XCiE'sor was uer-oTrr7s). the three styles essen- tially as they stand in Dionysius. Theophrastus recognized Thrasymachus as the author of a LIKTLrXieLs or a 1Loc. wo er auch vielleicht zuerst die technische Scheidung der friiher nur factisch bestehenden drei Arten des Stils begriindete. is found in a passage of Dionysius de Dem." And in note 8 ib. p. auf dem von Aristoteles gelegten Grunde fortgebaut zu haben. mixto ex prioribus. 7): " Quia de tertio. but here let it suffice to summarize briefly the argument from the beginning of the treatise to this point: Gorgias and Thucydides are named and characterized Ka as representatives of the grand and f'yKardaKcrEvo again XapaKrop vi\^7Xo'). The evidence. style the (XEiLrs 7Er. on the authority of Theophrastus. 379 extr. ch. 3.: " Im Ganzen scheint er.2 Effective criticism may be made also against the probability of his naming Lysias as a representative of the plain style. Dem. with the representatives of each as named by him. Schmid. the following study is undertaken. Mus. Mus. aperte tria illa genera eadem iam Theophrasto probata sunt.126 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHILOLOGY. II he attributes to the treatise rrplt XEcos. p. note 2. doch ohne sklavische Nachbeterei. is to transcend the limits of legitimate inference from the data afforded. Rh. which has seemed to furnish proof for the prevailing view. or even that he made a classification of style in any such sense as Dionysius understands it.

. I27 and before proceeding to other inferences it must be our task to ascertain the meaning of this one piece of evidence. III 9 I4O1 a 20 7o6a 6d ia7rtv v rotavr71 1E:tg ort ravavria yv&optisrara 7rap' aX7. beOcg O tS TXEt r ftKpOV avayKaiov iv 6ci c6 )6 eirreiv. For the proof of this we must turn first to Aristotle. since the singularly intimate relationship which existed between the two first Peripatetics affords a reasonable presumption that the position of the pupil will at least take its departure from the ideas of the master. we have the admiring judgments of his style from antiquity contrasting strikingly with the bald pragmatic language of most of his extant works. In the Rhetoric it is clear that Aristotle teaches with sympathetic appreciation a doctrine of style which corresponds essentially to the example set by Isocrates. To anticipate a somewhat devious argument. of the three characters of style. Even certain extremes of rhetorical ornament such as the Gorgianic figures. he still looks upon as legitimate resources of art. Theophrastus is not the source of this classification of styles. (3) that therefore. from this evidence at least. designated excellence of style as a mean (eao'n7/) and named Thrasymachus as the first one to attain it. has been a matter of some perplexity. which might seem to point rather to such a theoretical position as Aristotle2 has exemplified 1 Rhet. current in his time.l But on the other hand the Rhetoric contains several utterances which betray a contempt for all stylistic embellishment in rhetorical practice. oi iaEviroct 7raay 6dtdaaKai.rua paX2iov yvSpjptla. from whom the largest number of illustrations are chosen.a* d6taC?pei raovrov. I shall endeavor to show: (i) that Theophrastus. that the ancient judgments were not made with reference to the esoteric writings. (2) that Dionysius with superficial apprehension of this conception has applied it to the doctrine.THE PERIPA TETIC MEAN OF STYLE. To define the attitude of Aristotle toward the artistic use of prose. 2 Rhet. III I 1404 a 8 rT Ei0v oviv rtS . the true origin of which must be sought elsewhere. which the meagreness of our record makes necessary. On the one hand. But in this respect the Constitution of Athens has served to prove what was suspected before. LEdorr71. following the teachings of his master. identifying the Peripatetic mean with the so-called middle style. yap rt 7rpborb 6dr7XIat Kat ai6' a7ravra aavraaia rair-' iart Kaat rpop TOVaKpoarK v ' dlb oV6el oVTGryeoierTpeiv 6dTarter. but were rather based upon the dialogues and other works which addressed a general public.

But prose style as a work of art.' This is the point of contact of his stylistic theory with the conversational idiom. 6taXKrov eK2. III 2 I404b 24 K27iTrrErat 6' ei v rtCtC \I TS EowvlaC rdeta Cvvrzt79'* bITEp Ebpt7ri67C rotetil KaS series iuncturaque Epi Tp7roC. in of words the demanded he ordinary usage. Aristotle is therefore not so much concerned with creating a theory of rhetorical style for practical use-and hence perhaps his neglect of the admirable with that forensic eloquence of Lysias. together with other resources of sophistical and histrionic art.128 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHILOLOG Y. of fact and right. III 2 1404 b 28-35. Horatian-tantum pollet. though in some instances the inevitable preoccupation of stylistic theory with practical rhetoric intrudes itself. III I 1404 a 26 (5ta roV7ro TotU7rKrt1/ 7rpsrr XESY 2 Rhet. etc. These were problems which demanded the sobriety of unimpassioned consideration.3 The apt choice of words and their compouse of these two elements-the vero ' Rhet. Isaeus and others-as artistic form of prose which had its origins in imitation of poetry. It is not the artistic use of language as such which provokes his contempt (as is the case with many later philosophers) but the use of such language. yv . was a worthy goal of studious effort. to withdraw the mind of a court or an assembly from the real questions at issue. But such an inference would be unjustified. It was in fact an unfortunate accident that the theory and practice of prose style had been developed so largely in connection with the actual deliberation and adjudication of questions of public policy. absolved from the consideration of a concrete object of persuasion or dissuasion and comparable to the elaboration of language in the service of poetry. I1tantum de medio sumptis accedit honoris. Its poetical features depend rather upon composition (ovS'v0o-E) in its widest sense-the period. Cf. the Gorgianic figures. 3 Rhet. It is from this point of view that most of the chapters prepl XiE0so are written.' and after its first excesses in the hands of Gorgias and his contemporaries had subsided into a position intermediate between In vocabupoetry and the language of cultivated conversation. employment lary depending upon metaphor rather than upon unusual or poetical words for literary effect. practically in the esoteric writings. and to Aristotle it seemed preposterous that important decisions of public and private import should in any degree be influenced by literary art: 'no one has ever dreamed of teaching geometry in that way' is his contemptuous comment. rhythm. the OlOV i P op'iov.

irJTr of style: IS wplo-cof XeEwos ieav a'I a0Xo0. In poetry it had first been revealed by Euripides. I. which Aristotle inculcates. (Breslau. p. 43) but beside the point. But the artistic features of style are embraced in the second part of the definition " to be neither mean nor extravagant but appropriate. I have ventured to quote so well-known a passage for the sake of pointing out that the significant and essential part of this definition does not lie in the demand for clearness (which is all that has often been taken from it ). Zeller. in which the conception of good writing as consisting in a mean2 between the lack of ornament. where the inadequacy of clearness alone from an artistic point of view is expressly stated: "The excellence of style is to be clear and not mean. De Stoic. welches Aristoteles als allein nothwendig betrachtet. as being merely an indispensable preliminary to any other quality. I886). I886. 5o: summamque eius (sc. whose relation therefore to Aeschylus. 129 sition-in the avoidance of baldness on the one hand and poetical exaggeration on the other. Akad. 2: " Das zrpErrov.die richtige Mitte zwischen dem raretvblvund dem V7rrp rb aisiwua." . constitutes the excellence or virtue of style which is the mean. rhet." 2 Cf..v Xodyos.). and the excess of it is contained. Vinrp TO da$lo ov aper) 7rorljacrFL aa dXXa Trperovoav aacj eavrov (ch. 2 init.THE PERIPATET7IC MEAN OF STYLE. That style is clearest which consists of words in their ordinary idiomatic uses. with express recognition of the mean as the controlling principle of style. For the elements which have been named will make the style pleasing [and distinguished] if we have correctly defined excellence of 1Striller. would be comparable to the mean of prose style. 3): " aaeC. in its relation to the poetical excess of the style of Gorgias. d." The truth of this appears distinctly from a comparison with the similar definition in the Poetics. Gr. 22 init. The whole matter is summed up very clearly. II 2 769. d.): "To analyze further and to say that style must be pleasing and distinguished is superfluous. in chapter I2 (extr. p. I2.rjre yap excellence orT 6 TrareLY. Phil. Diels (Abh. Clearness is made a part of the definition. stud. but it is mean " (ch.). Berl. a relationship which the parenthetical words should have made perfectly clear. quacy of clearness as a definition of style are good (History of Crit. These points of view are set forth concisely in the famous definition ELvaL 'pyov) of the (urqtaiov K(i . dictionis) virtutem dicit rbTO Saintsbury's strictures on the inadecaa evat. but in the second part. p. der ginzlichen Schmucklosigkeit und der Ueberladung. for example.

must it be wholly FLE.or that of one to one (-) 1 Rhet. case each one of the elements which enters into the composition must also be a mean. rhythm.AMERICAN I30 JOURNAL OF PHILOLOGY. The wholly unrhythmical style. the use is the rhythm of broad comedy.Lerpov and Tr appvOlov there is the mean. pT7re correspond- ing exactly to the law laid down in the definition of the virtue of ra7reLVjv. But it is plain that the mean is the fitting Tr 8rXovoL 7co-ov thing (adXXa aap/orrEL). 2 Cf. And the elements already named will render style pleasing and distinguished if they be wisely combined.. it is prolix it will not be clear. while the others have or . the use of rhythm. viz. but appropriate ? Because if. conversational quality. on the other hand. o-rXa -rr injunction Xfeewv tE. 8 I409 a 2 ( EXPpcvro fev airo OpaavyadXov dipidyevot. nor again if it is too concise.v -).v) and one to two (v .Ci. the excessively metrical is the early habit of artistic prose still in imitation of the poetry from which it took its rise. 9) are treated separately by Aristotle.OL(aL?rT T is the inartistic language of every-day life or of early prose literature. nor. but rhythm not employed with l Ai KpL) the exactness of poetical metre (pvOpov pKlt ). the familiar and the strange.. for it has the ratio of 3 to 2 (v . For that he conceives of the two as inseparably related appears from his whole treatment and especially from the demonstration of the advantages which both rhythm and the period contribute to style.)-an etvaL /qire appvOIov.3 The paean comes third in order and is related to the forms that have been named. and III 9 I409 a 31 (of the unperiodic) iart de ai6l7d6ci rT acrnetpov. While conceivably the Aristotelian mean of style might be spoken of as a uIKtrq2'Ic. III 8 1408 b 27 (of the unrhythmical) 67r/deyap Kai ayvuarov rb dretLpov. for example. OVKceiXov 6 . though he and his followers could not define its nature.TpoV (roifi unrhythmical ch. the trochaic The paean remains. of which began with Thrasymachus.2 Prose style must not become verse. yet this separation is apparently only in the interest of perspicuity. that is I . 8) and the period (ch. style. III 1414 a 27 av ev /. it scarcely requires explanation In this that a mean would not result from a mixture of the two extremes. the iambic is too colloquial. and persuasiveness arising from the appropriate.IttXy. Again within the territory of rhythm itself one must choose the fitting The heroic rhythm is too stately and deficient in movement.' viz. Rhet. For why must it be clear and not mean. Thus between the extremes of ro 'E." Although rhythm (ch. i4rjE virp Tr a. 8 init. Xyetv III riTt Ov. 3 Rhet.

3 T he period. though they had hit upon the true rhythm. In regard to the period.tff elpofvil). which is discussed in ch.nfiniteand undeterminmd. 47. viz. For it implies not only that Thrasymachus did not recognize the reason for the superiority of the paean. it is a mean between them. or. e.' or "jointed" style (X. one and one-half is connected with these ratios (i and 2). that it names Thrasymachus as the first to use this mean in rhythm. and so facilitates attention to the thought and makes easy its retention. Aristotle claims for himself the merit of interpreting the paean as a mean between the other available forms. 9.THE PERIPATETIC MEAN OF STYLE. III 186: numerus autem in continuatione nullus est (probably from Theophrastus). for the question which we are investigating.. and cites the opening words of his history. 2Cf. a periodic structure which contains an excess of rhythmic rounding. comparable to a straight line divided into sections at hap-hazard.' The mind is afforded no natural halting places. and is recognized like verse. It is displeasing for the same reason that the unrhythmical is disagreeable. Aristotle's further statement that Thrasymachus and his followers. 193). As an example he names Herodotus. The extremes and the mean in the essential sense of Aristotle's thought. but that subsequent rhetorical theorists had failed to grasp the nature of its excellence. The extreme is not here named. There was first the merely continuous. In short. and of thus referring its excellence to a reasoned principle. . Here we have expressly affirmed and in concrete terms the same point of view which we found enunciated in regard to diction. on the other hand. as Cicero interprets in rendering this passage (Or. 3Demetrius de Eloc. but obviously it is the same as in rhythm. completes the thought within the conlpass of a certain rhythm. moreover. did not understand its nature. that the mean between the extremes named is the ideal at which to aim. which ceases to escape observation. as will be seen. Aristotle does not expressly define the three elements of the triad which he names in regard to rhythm. the point of departure for Theophrastus' designation of Thrasymachus as the source of the pecradT1 of style in general. i. that is. The passage has for us. this further and conspicuous value. Cicero de Or. as being i. I31 respectively. It is. is very significant. and 1An admirable illustration (better than Aristotle's example from Herodotus) is afforded by a fragment of Hecataeus which Norden (I 37) cites.

are given de Eloc. probably as defined and interpreted by Theophrastus. The whole thought is summarized in the definition of the virtue of style. by Demetrius TOV Xoyov acvveLtpeoaL. 2 Thus Cicero applies to Aristotle's approval of the paean the very words of the definition of the aperrj (So:eu (Or.2 which as we have seen is clearness as a necessary presumption (but not clearness alone. aX)a ra7retv7r. III I84. aXX\a IIELxXOaOL iaXXov at' (txqorTpWov. I92): ita neque humilem et abiectam orationem nec nimis altam et exaggeratam probat (Aristoteles). It may not unreasonably be said that the use of such general expressions as these in no way warrants the assumption that Aristotle means to apply to style that doctrine of the mean which is so explicitly unfolded in the Ethics. it is clear that the Aristotelian conception of excellence in style is based upon a doctrine of the mean (/Leor'Tvr) analogous to that which lies at It is put in the foundation of his political and ethical theories. But while it is true that the principle is nowhere expressly laid down.A MERICAN 132 JOURNAL OF PHILOLOGY.). 22 init. From this brief resum of the most essential utterances of Aristotle concerning diction and rhythm. 9). 3Cf. v.3) and embellishment restrained from poetical extrava(rO rrpE7rov). aaEoerarrT iLEvovv artv i] ?K rTv Kvpiwv bvoiarov (CLTSc). rTO IerpLov. a passage which will be cited presently.17reLpov in ch.7jre tLaX\eXvaoOa rrEpL08OLooXov OXov c. see Cicero de Or. most universal and philosophical connection with this thought in the definition of rhythm and the period (r7r nepar and ro . TO 7rperov. yet not only in the utterances already cited is it implied. . it appears in a more empirical and popular form in the injunctions concerning diction. this point of view that the invention of the period is attributed to Thrasymachus in Suidas (s. rTi adpaia. r EysyE/fJTre 5 aoKL/LadCo yap cK TOV ropyiov. Indeed gance by appropriateness Rhetoric r6 IEr-ov. plenam tamen eam volt esse gravitatis ut eos qui audient ad maiorem admirationem possit traducere. Poet. It is obvious that the correct form of period could only be attained by the use of the correct It is from rhythm and that brings us again to Thrasymachus. are almost the throughout interchangeable terms. which could best be attained by a style quite without distinction. I. but it is also contained in some of its more technical aspects in several passages of the 1 For a similar formulation of the matter with indication of Theophrastus as its source.

as when one says that 6 is a mean 1I should have considered it unnecessary to justify this position (further than has been done). Cope. for the doctrine of the mean in ethics is derived from a universal principle and interpreted by Aristotle in its special application to ethics. either absolutely (Kar' avro TrO rpay(1a) or relatively to ourselves (7rposiO ar). Int. Using the terms relatively. and n. p. just as in this chapter of book I Aristotle. But it is used in ch. But the same is true of every apErT. p. the ideal of style is aper?)like the ideal of conduct. . and the mean. as I think. p. Zeller cited above. by the absence of the article.) every aper7has fpyov. therefore. ar. ws av ap ti 6lXO. less and equal. Cf. whether it be conceived of as continuous or discrete. were it not that Cope criticises Brandis 'for ascribing too much ethical philosophy to the Rhetoric' in affirming that reference 'to the famous doctrine of the mean' is found in the enumeration of virtues in I 9. they are excess. IV (I849). and by Roberts. (Cf. Demetrius.' Cope was misled. (for him its excellence is a unit-r aper7r. is such a mean. It follows. therefore. ov 7roLoaet rT eavTov rpyov. Virtue. 1414 a 23 and ch. Ethical dprT7 is a mean between two extremes. 39. La Rhetorique et son Histoire. It should be added that brief recognition of the doctrine of the mean in Aristotle's theory of style has been made by Chaignet. I33 Rhetoric which call for a little more detailed explanation. undoubtedly has in mind the triad of his ethical theory. Uber Arist.. I29. to Arist. and the aperO is determined or defined as an efficient with reference to that which it has to effect of the definition of style is Thus the first element (e. which justified its corresponding explanation. and yet because of the more popular character of the Rhetoric refrains from setting forth its theoretical basis. Rhet. There are of course other considerations connected with the origin and character of book III which cannot here be discussed. that one virtue of style is to be perspicuous. so in the third book he uses the principle in an empirical and popular way without detailed explanation of its application to style. 2 In this connection emphasis should be laid on the fact that Aristotle does not speak of 'virtues' of style as is customary in later rhetoric. not an absolute mean. 31.. p. that the universal elements of the doctrine are applicable to rhetoric as well.. 97 and note. I presume. 50). The general principle of the mean set forth in II 5 I Io6 a 26 ff. I paraphrase as follows: "Everything. 12 extr.and Cope (whom Welldon follows) is wholly in error in translating Jpia06odapErrZeFc: ' let it be regarded as settled once for all.l In the first place.2 Furthermore as defined in the Ethics (II 5 init. and Brandis. is thereupon by the parenthetical raqafr elvat. But..pyov). 2 1404 b 37.teZov yapp orT 6 Xoyov.THE PERIPATETIC MEAN OF STYLE. Rhetorik in Philologus vol. admits of the terms more. deficiency.

for a rational man. 6 6p6Os means " that our action and statement this he by Xoyor (VI i.I34 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHILOLOGY. . Thus. II 9. and ten pounds too much. Therefore the ideal will be a relative mean between TO oE ayaOOv rTO 7rErepaodEYov. TO 7rpeTov. is seen in its most philosophical aspect in the treatment of rhythm. law or standard. where. Eth. I. ol aya6oo rEXpira7 Iio6 b 8 and I3) its applicability to moral virtue is deduced. . and esp. as applied to rhetoric. for the beginner in athletic training. the appvOpovis found unsuitable for style as being III 8 init. In conduct the chief practical question is the means of attaining the tLea(orrv. general principle is derived from a piece of Pythagorean symbolism. . therefore. as we saw. Rhet.vavriacg EXEWvT7 (1ea ch. In rhetoric and poetry (as perhaps in art generally) that which corresponds to the right reason is the subjective feeling of the appropriate. b The anepadvrc. and therefore in style such a limit is agreeable from its opposition to the undefined 6rta ro . these extremes: &60 pVO6Ov 8E1 eXELv rTv Xoyov . Ethics Vol. ch. 206. But limit or definition the mind requires for its satisfaction. Arist. and from its recognition in regard to every other field of knowledge or skill (rraaa E'Trrorr77i7." This is a truth susceptible of the widest application. pUvO. What is suijectively the Xoyor. Ethics KaKOI II 6. 1409 2). and this it is which is the guide to the attainment of the mean between the excess and the deficiency of But in prose. limitless (aq8/es yap Kal 'yvrov rTOV To a7rpoO. p. between 2 and io. VI i). As stated above. as determined by his individuality and reason. if two pounds of food be too little for a man. I) must correspond to the standard which exists in the rightly ordered mind."' The task of right conduct. Rhet. (Cf. consists in the employment of a constant series of checks and spurs.). This is to be determined by right reason.. the doctrine of the mean. But prose differs from poetry in not being subject to absolute definition or law. For the practised athlete this will be too little. a trainer will not therefore prescribe six pounds. 9. cites in go4 ol 1vOa7yopEOL EflKnov. too much. as well as in form and elaboration in language. 8 I408 b 30. that is objectively the peftr6rr] or balance. which in language is rd6f'eLrpov. in relaxing ((Vi/evt) to maintain his position and intensifying (CrrTEcivrv) his activity within the narrow limits of the mean. 1 Grant. but a mean varying between two extremes in accordance with individual capacity or idiosyncrasy.o6v e ui7 aIKptaSa. IIo6 b 29: rT which Aristotle rov7 aretpov.

It should be noted finally that the doctrine of the three styles is frequently brought under this point of view. preserved in the so-called Ars Cornuti (Spengel I2 2. 7-i r7V ef oe EarOy yevljeraa. 2Cf. XplfCv(ropV. I 254. III I02 and cf.e?vov rTOrprovp (III 2 1404 b 17). quam denique illi etiam qui fecerunt modos.parcentis viribus atque IIextenuantis eas consulto. but with much greater clearness. 3III I6 I46 b 30: vvv de yeXoi?o r7 raxv oviseyip iEraivad iar7 Tr EV TO r7V ddtyriJaiv fbaat deCv eivat raxeZav TOcrvvrT6wLS." The fragment (from whatever source) interprets the well-known passage of the Rhetoric III I6 I4i6b 303 on the same subject. a quibus utrisque summittitur aliquid deinde augetur. 9 (IIo6b 9): boev eit3aatv ErtXtiyetv roc eV EXOVatVepyot5 brt OVrTE0)EsE?iv ETrtv OVTE7rpoa&Eivat. let it rather rank with passing things faults.. so to say.' This essential identity in principle of the virtue of style with moral virtue is explained similarly. Eth. a deficiency. alias summissius. I 1o. 370): el yp . variatur distinguitur. .av'av6. constitute the mean: dXX' EGoL Kal Ev rOVroI7 e. p.riT 6EfYea6r1r0ror a4obviorC. eV raig conceived TLS /LTre7rap(AXElrovca avaOyKaLvCw Trov avucreTpla apErr7q KaKlaLs /La\XXo of as a mean (avp. but has for us the special value of applying in definite terms to style the doctrine of the deficiency. But it will be observed that the appropriate is the result of the same principle of relaxation and restraint which 'right reason' imposes in the attainment of the ethical mean.rOL. (4 r~7 1tev V7rep/o2Xug calrac kiLXeibecC 0betpeipovia'7 rb eV.a) 'cr7rp EvYeta "If raXOqecrai. 41r oVtv.2 neither 7sL /rCE v7rEp0alYOvUa brevity omitting be anything that is necessary nor containing more than is necessary. the extreme and the mean. so to speak. over that are serviceable. For music III 102: neque id actores prius viderunt quam ipsi poetae. though it has not its origin in it. For the art of acting (declamation) see de Or. For literature (quid aptum sit) III 212: ornamentis eisdem uti fere licebit alias contentius.. &aAdr7o Terpiow. Serm. THE PERIPATETIC I35 verse. let it be called a virtue. the sense of the appropriate constantly dictates expansion and contraction to meet the varying conditions which.MEAN OF STYLE. This is the true interpretation (though it has apparently not been recognized) of the well-known Horatian line. extenuatur inflatur.7 OvvTroFla 7rXreovrtouva. 13: interdum urbani. in an Aristotelian fragment on brevity.LcTVofXoXd. II 6..erps.evovKca . in each given case. within the legitimate limits of contraction and relaxation (Ertavare27u6ievovKaLav6av6oyevov rbOrpErov) is widely diffused in post-Aristotelian literature of artistic theory. 1 The conception of the appropriate as consisting in a constant adaptation to "environment" (subjective and objective) and hence as pulsating. crL. But if it is. The language is brief and gives no more than a suggestion of that which is implicitly contained in it.

AMERICAN 136 JOURNAL OF PIIILOLOG Y.p. Berl. modified and corrected by the essential artistic consideration Kai 7rp7rova-av. d. 24). It will be apparent. r-aqr EtvaLas an indispensable prerequisite. as of right conduct. II 2. sets forth the C-rvOeO-L KOLPV? or eao-rin terms which are drawn from the Aristotelian conception of style in general. . This relationship is formulated by Diels2 on the basis of a number of very interesting examples in which a sharper and more precise definition of 'Cf. viz. and in this reference to the personality of the speaker. that the Aristotelian doctrine of the mean could never have tolerated the definition of types of style in the sense of the For XapaKTrpeSXkeoew conceived of as types of individualism.Vol. which has many aspects. This is shown very admirably by Dionysius. 9). the FLEicors. modifying element is Tr rrp. who. But it is in no sense a doctrine of uniformity. the character of the subject-matter and the nature of the audience provision was made for every style of oratory and every shade of individual idiosyncrasy within the bounds of the appropriate. cXX' 0l aXXco a'XXoL Taa TrO ra& l[Eaf rTv X(ycov (de KaL aV^Kav . aristotelischen Rhetorik. individualism is its dominant characteristic." 2 Uber das dritte Buch d.r?0 ov Tr avra C(TVirS ov' TE 6ou0os oa fnrerT8evrav. therefore. Zeller. and as definite in its formulation as the nature of the subject allowed. 632: "Die Aufgabe unserer sittlichen Thitigkeit kann nur die sein. It is clear that here was a principle of style based upon a general philosophical thought. they are summarized in later rhetoric thus: e'v TovrTO 7rp&ayha' 7rpos rov yap 8i Xeyovra Kal i-pos' Kai ravra TrpoS TO TroVS KOVOVTraSKal 7rpos TO de Lysia 7rpirrov (Dionysius ch. every character of style there was but a single and universal precept. p. and which were never meant to be applied to a particular type of style: o rTE XpCa-aeYvoL a. im Verhdltniss zur menschlichen Eigenthitmlichkeit die richtige Mitte zu treften. 25 ff. On the contrary.Ev Trara XXoYa\o. Akademie i886. Abh. in explaining his three characters of composition.' The differentiating. We have next to consider a question of much greater difficulty. as truly as in the case of moral virtue. ch. Xoynv ' ITrTretLi 4ltoL Karaf rrdaas Comp.. the relationship of Theophrastus to the theory of style which we have thus outlined as contained with more or less definiteness of implication in the Rhetoric of Aristotle.rov. There is but one conception of good writing. It may be assumed in general that the vital points of the Aristotelian theory would not suffer serious alteration at his hands. I Kal 7ardTreS oL yevovro EKeV(a. viz.

In the following I hope to add some further illustrations of the general relationship which shall show that Theophrastus acted as the interpreter of the extremely concise and esoteric language of his master. III I84 and 185. the one is a mathematical. are several things that call for com- TO /iLyaXo7rpE7rTs' IEV EK rTS plaKps 'a Xaldv(ov. supra. the other a practical formulation of the same observation.2 The passage is cited by Demetrius in his treatment 1Cf. a\XX\a 7TTaLCLKOV Errelj /KiLKros r. TOVS' Xoyovs. e'arL Kal e eK Here.(Trepos.' In the second place. But especially I desire to make it plain by means of authentic fragments of Theophrastus that his conception of the 'virtue of style' was the same as that of Aristotle and therefore wholly alien to the division into xapaKTrpes now commonly attributed to him. And here it can be shown beyond question that Theophrastus defined for a larger audience the implications of the Aristotelian quasi-technical terminology. sondern weil er [IttKr Tit Eari Kcr2. He therefore enjoins that the rhythm shall not consist of strict paeans. and much in need of practical interpretation. rTOXoyLKOv ment. as we learn from Demetrius de Eloc. n. whether in regard to the choice of words or to rhythm and composition. then. I: " Den Paean selbst empfahl Theophrastus nicht aus den von Aristoteles empfohlenen Grinden. rwv P3paXEIav. c. and furthermore that he defined the nature of the paean. But the Aristotelian definition is abstract. ?. This was afforded by Theophrastus. We have already seen that Aristotle named Thrasymachus as the first to introduce the appropriate rhythm into prose." But the explanation of the excellence of the paean is the same in both cases.THE PERIPATETIC MEAN OF STYLE.) p.S ro r[t eCTLV. TrotoLro 41: i&drrep TrapaXa3Ev It ETvroL (tcroaX. p. it appears that Theophrastus interpreted more freely Aristotle's demand that the paean be employed. that Theophrastus (in the words . first of all. KX\OV rTO OV yap ratova 7rapadSaELya eK 7rato'Vt)v els EKTELOetrat pEyaXorpe7reLs[ a lKpLtf3S. but shall be paeonic. 28. . Diels (1. e6o(paaTos . but let it be noted.nErioI) LKTOrT'S 7 e'o-tL)interprets in intelligible and practical terms the rigorously theoretical definition of his master. 2A fuller record of Theophrastus' thought on this point is preserved by Cicero de Or. I37 Aristotle's ideas is discernible. and so gave a philosophical justification for its excellence. One point which undoubtedly required fuller explanation than is accorded to it in Aristotle was exactly this conception of the ideal of style as being a mean between the total absence of ornament and the poetical excess of it. I30). not to say obscure (v.

Phaedr. It was further noted above that although it was an easy inference from Aristotle's account to conclude that he would have named Thrasymachus as the first to attain the excellence of style arising from a correct periodic form. Kat TOV vV KO KX\ KaTree&L( s . Ernesti. Consequently.v apat EKb.' (3) The truth is that the paean is defined and illustrated by Theophrastus as the appropriaterhythm for artistic prose style in general. and as we know from other sources' Theophrastus defined as a universal quality of artistic prose ri f/IEyaXorpe7rfS. that it has not unnaturally been of as evidence to the belief that Theothought contributing defined such a stylistic type. 2 Demetr. Tech. since the rhythm advocated possesses 'distinction from the long syllable and conversational quality (ro XtOyK6v)from the shorts. For that he is the source of Suidas' attribution to Thrasymachus of the introduction of the period and colon has been conjectured (by Blass and others). that nevertheless he does not do so. (2) if the rhythm here advocated were attached in Theophrastus to any one style. such as those defined at a later time. 79 affluens aeyaXoprpe-re. ch. OpaavtaXov craropecvora This is generally OavxaornY'. by Aristophanes. it could only be to a xapanK7p peros. Isoc. Suidas. Such an inference. de Eloc.fEpouvXcL.2 With this compare Dionysius Av. ThraVsymacus: l K. rpoyyvocr is used of the new stylistic artifices of the sophistical rhetoric and by Plato. as we have seen. Or. Kai . rT edloc Lex. periods may though Cic. It remained for Theophrastus to state expressly what is apparently implied in Aristotle. s. Cf. however.. I think.o.ria 7irdv . of true of the have been this Thrasymachus. Acharn. It can. In later usage it is constantly used of periodic composition. is quite unwarranted: for.uaatv) 234 E. 686 (arpoyyi ols rog pbj.so of teyaXorrpireLa rhythm which is here advanced corresponds exactly to the Aristotelian conception of the true nature of prose rhythm in general. r 'i vyoIara interpreted ij' de OEeO0puaror Kal orrpoyyv\ws and was understood by Dionysius as a specially compact and incisive form of periodic But structure suited to forensic and agonistic oratory generally. rjr Lysia 6: Trapa dperT?v eVpiL'Ko iLev qfrflc.A.MERICAN JOURNAL I38 OF PHILOLOGY. . corresponding to the later phrastus XapaKrOp dapo'r or vr/tqX\. 7rp&rTO rreptooY prqropK:rs Trpo'rov Elo-lycaaro. 20: rTiJ 6f pr7optKS7 KVKItKov Kaca6dEoYevov arpoyyvbov ar6uarof TrEp6d0ov avECTapaftLtvov and v. be definitely proven. v. . 3. in spite of the fact that such a definition had been declared superfluous by Aristotle.Dionys. (I) the conception of the of the XapatcrOp lfeyaX)torperrrV.

. which Thrasymachus was the first to attain. 3 Cf.. In the Peripatetic styles) vitia agnata conception tco6r7rg only could be a virtus. 208: est nata haec vel circumscriptio vel Itaque posteaquam vel continuatio vel ambitus. 2 Cf. but he credited to him the authorship of the mean in diction as well. The attainment of the mean in style by Thrasymachus was the discovery of that which was right. el i 17rryi eaorT7rostT KTX.atxov OEPOpaCror. v . Gell. 139 yet the description is equally that of the period in general. 20: Tria sunt omnino etc. Or. appears in a totally different light from the middle style of later theory. Or.1 But in this connection. from which characteristic the name period is derived. Varro (ap. In the later doctrine of the characters the LvooOis one of three general types of style. and all of which have at different times found distinguished representatives.v. Theophrastus' terms appear at the end: Et6RjTrrrygrf ]v ovrow(sc.2 But in Aristotle the mean is the only goal to aim at. the . This inference must be drawn from Dionysius. OVK XO3 Xyt. a doctrine so essential and vital to the Peripatetic system that it will not appear probable a priori that Theophrastus should have introduced a modification of it.THE PERIPATETIC MEAN OF STYLE. quin redigeret omnis fere in quadrum numerumque comparatum sententias. de Dem. the UFo-o'Tr. sosolTra pavy.IKT'7 TE Ka( EK ffYvroS dpocrOda.. He not only recognized Thrasymachus as the inaugurator of the mean in rhythm and originator of the period. Note also Cic. 4): His singulis orationis virtutibus (said of the three sunt pari numero. as Theophrastus had said) riS lera6rqroq. Cic.. genera dicendi. si ita licet dicere. thus according to him in all respects that position in the history of style which Aristotle had assigned to him in respect to rhythm alone. ch. and when once found it defined the lines along which good writing must move henceforth. nemo qui aliquo comprehensio esset in numero scripsit orationem eius quod esset ad delectationem generis . which as defined by Aristotle consists in the compression and completion of the thought within the rounding of the rhythm. . where it is seen that Theophrastus is only moving further along the lines laid down by Aristotle. quibus in singulis quidam floruerunt. in connection with which Dionysius has preserved for us this precious bit of early Peripatetic teaching.3 Thus In this passage /tK1r7 cl represents Dionysius' conception of the middle style. . VI 14. But Theophrastus went further. Aiv 6 pYev OpaavLT KOOClOV ?'Te TrS q1v OVTCW rj7r 6 KaXxrovtoso aXos fitr aXXos TrS'. 3. any one of which is admirable.jevos' Kai KaTracTtrrras els TOP vvv 7rpoTOS * iv ov Oe v. Xci?t. the passage from which our started: inquiry rrTov rW Tv Vrdp(povra TplTrj Xfscor <it8ea?>> veZv.

the conception of the mean is contained in the idea of appropriateness. its recognition by artistic writers was inevitable when once it was apprehended and exemplified. which was the accepted type of artistic composition in his time. but this conception is implicit in his whole discussion of the subject and is made clear especially in his treatment of epithets. "Some are wholly unsuited to prose and the frequent employment of others exposes the art of the composition and makes it plain that it is poetry: nevertheless such embellishment must be used as giving variety to the language of everyday life. Aristotle had said of the X. and investing it with strangeness and sEi dignity:" the passage concludes with the warning-aiAXa aroX(aEO-gatrov /fTpLOV. that it was the earlier prose style and all had formerly used it: viv aeo'v rroXXol Xpcvrat-- that is. The attitude of Aristotle toward rhythmic prose. interpreting the implications of his master's teaching. ch.vXpd). Therefore Theophrastus said in defining the merit of Thrasymachus that he had introduced rov vvv frrs prTopLKrj Trporov (Suidas.). as the necessary and logical development of style finds an analogue in his remark concerning the developed type of dia 'a 7aaro ?irer EfoXe r7rv rpyova E troaCz-0 a/era3okac /7uEraaorLa tragedy: Kai a*vrlC iVctiv (Poet. . (III 3 1406 a io if.AMERICAN 140 JOURNAL OF PHILOLOGY. supplies the missing definition: 6pit'raL Ne rTo6 vXpov See also Brut. This appropriateness of language 20).). with the discovery of the advantages of the periodic style and its correct rhythmical form. some further In Aristotle's definition of the evidence may be adduced. But though we have seen that Theophrastus named Thrasymachus as the first to attain the peao-Trr?sof style. yet for a more satisfactory proof of our contention. Theophrastus. 5 ad fin.eLs edpopevq. supra). And so of the mean in general. as we have seen. and Dionysius. but tke style-the necessary goal. is elsewhere Violation (niep. with a suggestion of the same phraseology: els KaraOTTjca' TOP Pv vrapXovTa KoaryioP. that this testimony is to be interpreted in the sense of the Peripatetic mean. excellence of style.3oi) designated as 7 oiKELa Xi$is (III 7 1408 a of the appropriate in the direction constitutes tastelessness or frigidity of excess (ra #. 3) defines the error expressly as an excess. 30 and 66 (the simpler style of Thucydides and Lysias was suppressed by the more elaborate language of Theopompus and Demosthenes). to which the art of prose writing had at length attained in his time (vvv). To be sure Aristotle nowhere in his treatment of frigidity (ch. the Manifestly fie-orqr was to Theophrastus not a style. it had come to prevail.

.2 The obvious analogies between the Peripatetic conception of stylistic and ethical aperi. as the moral virtues have their related faults or excesses.KeLrat (avXdi riva aoretEOIS TrT'LV. rashness in relation to courage.THE PERIPA TE TIC MEAN OF STYLE. Undoubtedly common to Demetrius and Aristotle on this subject represents the formulation of Theophrastus. of the error as an excess (iurep/oX. most of the matter which is orUv0eETLEand crX'tiara.). but it contains (Demetr. the illustration by examples from the The ethical traits which ethical triad would be entirely pointless. so also the characters of style stand related to certain faulty types. Therefore Theophrastus defined but one excess of style.. olov sE alo(Xv'vri rr7 alvro. and classified them in accordance with his general division into EKXoy?t rT)v ovopLaTv. 10 . to which attention was called above. ' Interesting confirmation of this conclusion is found in the fact that practically all that Demetrius has to say of his other TrapcEKpiaeiC is contained in his treatment of /vXpp6ryg. 2Note for example what is said in Demetrius 117 and I8S. rTv aOrbv rp7roOV Kal Tijr That is. is prefaced by some analogous examples of the ethical mean and OfdppfL Lje'v extreme: r OptlCroF. Now we find in Demetrius that the definition of "frigidity " which we have just considered. and to each of his other three styles he assigns a corresponding form of error or excess. ovtro' Oeodpaoaror I~rvXPp6veoart Tr VrreppdXXov Trv I4I oi0KEav adrayyeXavy The fragment is brief. It is probable that Theophrastus placed under the heading of frigidity deviations from the appropriate on the side of excess of all kinds. especially since the doctrine of the mean in all its implications had been most fully illustrated by the master in his Ethics. #vXpOr7v. yet it is clear that unless stylistic virtue had been conceived of as a mean. transcending the just mean. de Eloc.Kafic or error of the XapaK7rp I/eyaXoTrpernsr. II4). fcrerfp 3e rrap. not a little for the reconstruction of Theophrastus' point of view. apart from the designation In Demetrius who quotes the passage frigidity is the rrapf. must have always made illustration of the former by the latter a very natural thing for a Peripatetic teacher. ep/yrLveiLa roir XapaKrTp'Lv 7rap(dKetvrat 8rtiapr7?rlv)oLT rTLVE (1I4). But in Aristotle it represents deviation from the appropriate (on the side of excess) in the most general sense: and so in Theophrastus-v-repgadXXov rr7v oiKelav arrayyeXtav. From this point of view it is but one source of error to which a single style is prone. While it may not be urged that this explanation must go back to Theophrastus. as for instance.

This would be a conceivable development. 'uvXp'rOT ( I9) -a comparison which is then carried out with some fulness of treatment. c. who as is generally agreed made most immediate use of the Peripatetic sources. For in the first place if the Peripatetic theory had become transformed in this way. TOLOVTOV Kal . between the time of Theophrastus and the beginning of the first century B. Dionysius. has no middle . The deficiency (EXXEeLfr) of mere colloquialism is less censurable (see Rhet. tion is developed by the selection of an ethical extreme more closely analogous in its nature to the rhetorical excess in question: Kal Ka06Xov orroXov Ti erLYv i7 aXaCovela. under the influence of certain changes in the attitude of literary taste toward the older monuments of Greek prose. not as being in themselves in any way analogous to But a little further on the illustrastylistic virtue and its excess. and aperLi illustrated it perhaps by the analogy of the ethical mean and extreme. The evidence now adduced should suffice. while originally the xapaKrqp !. To reconcile with this analysis the Peripatetic theory it would be necessary to assume that. and not erroneous deviations from the dpern. Now it is obvious that in this we have something entirely different from the doctrine of the three characters of style which we find in Gellius (Varro). Cicero. and the lrXvos and adpo' were respectively the 'AXX)ert and vnep3oXir. are cited are only given to illustrate the relations of mean and extreme. to show that Theophrastus accepted from his master the doctrine of the of style as a mean. but unfortunately this hypothesis does not account for the most characteristic features of the descriptions of the three styles. I think. Faulty writing errs chiefly on the side of excess. III 3 I406 a I6). defined the conception explicitly.AMERICAN I42 JOURNAL OF PHILOLOGY. just as it has been shown that the correct interpretation of the data concerning Theophrastus does not in fact point to the existence of any such division. etc.Eo was the only good style. But Demetrius. It should also be clear that such a theory did not admit of the definition of types of style. but undoubtedly Theophrastus would have condemned it with Aristotle as ranrevrj.. the author ad Herennium. All good writing observes a balance or mean. we must at least have looked for the consistent survival of its vital principle of the superiority of the middle style. yet in time these latter had come to be recognized as worthy types of stylevirtules as Gellius (Varro) calls them.

Of all our sources Dionysius is the only one in whom the XapaKr)p peoaor appears as the most admirable of the styles. 99: at vero hic noster quem principem ponimus. and so far as the one approaches the other it loses something of its complete perfection (aepvoI Troi avrFov zpyOLr dpa4orepoT LAEv ie [sc.). Again Cicero and Quintilian. it is refuted by Hermogenes II 316. applicable to all good writing whether simple or elaborate. Thus every good style (so only it avoided excess) observed the mean. not always alike but always consistent and appropriate. 5). For him there are but two fundamental styles. 143 style at all. This doctrine passed into later rhetoric not as a but as the obvious principle of appropriateness.3 xapaKrTp eo-rov.. Let an illusIn the Brutus (146) Cicero tration make the matter clear. Cicero Or. ch. the consists simple and the grand. But on closer examination it will be found that his conception bears only a crude external resemblance to the Peripatetic idea of the mean.THE PERIPA TE TIC MEAN OF STYLE. aiX' a7rep 6vOE'ararov Kai avrTiKeituov Evavrturcro. and the excellence of the AEo-or in the fact that by combining the two the range of style is In Dionysius' conception the representative of the increased. Quint.). 1 Cf. while deprecating the exclusive use of any one style. Dem. tamen magis offendit nimium quam parum. for in the sliding scale of the relative mean a theory existed which conceived of style. 73: in omnibus rebus videndum est quatenus: etsi enim suus cuique modus est. 63-65. In fact the two styles stand over against each other in diametrical (or 'diapasonal') opposition." also. middle style is thought of rather as having two independent styles at his command. Or.2. designate the genus grande as without question the most admirable. XII o1. This is seen very clearly in the characterization of Plato (de Dem. KaO'O oT Io-o adXX\qX\v aoav. Lysias and Thucydides]. .2 But the Peri- patetic conception is something wholly different. than as the user of one. 31 (Spg. the aurea mediocrilas. XapaKTrip 'VrX

r in Dionysius) is the decisive criterion in determining oratorical excellence. 2 The same point of view appears in Demetrius 6e ue-yao7rpe7rif 36: u6voS & mr iX2V. 2 extr. elevation (iosr.l To the writer "On the Sublime. Cicero. d6t 6d KaiC 6vovc d6o xapaKrTipdc rtvec aitovafv i eva TOVTOV KTr. whether it found expression in simple language of presentation or in more elevated tones of emotion. but gives the essential features of the Peripatetic fLeOTarrr of style in his XapaKTrp /AeyaXo7rperiir. as a unit.O ov fityvvrat. adreXeZ-. 3Cf. argumentative or emotional.

Scaevola was a model of clear argumentative style: fuit nobis orator in hoc interpretandi explanandi edisserendi genere mirabilis. spurring on a deficiency there. blande leniter. All good writing is thus a perondrl1 and so in fact Demetrius conceived of each of the four styles which he postulates. . mediocritas. Brute. etc. in which the strength of Crassus lay: in augendo. In the introduction to the discussion of ornatus in de Or. advtvat) perfect art is touched on in IOO and 102. To the same point of view belongs the discussion near the beginning of the third book de Oratore (25-37). But he concludes thus (149): cum omnis virtus sit. with thousand the conditions of each occasion: varying vary dicet ide n graviter severe. in which is set forth with much admirable illustration the theory of individual excellence with absence of uniformity. acriter vehementer. (98) quae maxime sensus nostros impellunt voluptate et specie prima acerrime commovent. The yEao6Trj is delectare sine satietate (97) and allusion to it is made especially in the illustrations in 99 unguentis moderatis. The two men represent the two extremes of oratorical habit which Cicero constantly uses in his characterizations.144 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHILOLOGY. III 97 we have the complete triad in the warning against nimia suavitas : ne exilis. ut vestra. Development of individuality and not conformity to an external standard is the goal toward which the teacher must direct his pupils' effort (35). cum omnis species quae modo recta est. de altero limavit. breviter urbane. in ornando. For all he will set the standard of a personal mean. uterque horum medium quiddam volebat sequi. amidst all variety there must be preserved the unity of individual character and temperament which for each ptrson is the mean. ab eis celerrime fastidio quodam et satietate abalienemur (iTreppoj). amare comiter. but he was deficient in those rhetorical qualities. ut id conformaret in utroque quod utriusque natura pateretur (36).in ipso tactu esse modunm. as Isocrates did with Theopompus and Ephorus-neque eos similis effecit inter se. habeat usum. quod For his style will vulgo genus dicendi vocant (XII o1. checking excess here. It is from this standpoint that Quintilian repudiates the significance of the division into styles for the training of his orator. sed tantum alteri adfinxit. sed ubique par sibi (ib. non ubique similis. ne inculta sit vestra oratio (EJECtt5). 7I)-that is. vetus Academia dixit. sic ut simile nihil viderim. contrasts the orator Crassus with the jurisconsult Scaevola. concitate copiose. 69). The fluctuating variety of (irtreivetv. remisse subtiliter. atque id ipsum non sit oratoris. as is This general principle of the mean in style may be illustrated by a few representative examples.

That this explanation of the pre-eminence of Demosthenes is but one of many interpretations which were offered. etc. Cicero holds that Demosthenes stands above the three styles and commands them he all. . 34. the master of Demosthenes. The chapter of Quintilian on the genera dicendi (XII io) concludes with similar warning against excess: sic erunt magna. Isaeus 20 extr.. I4I). even including Dionysius. The true reason for his interpretation lay in a desire to give a quasiphilosophical explanation for the pre-eminence of Demosthenes.THE PERIPA TETIC MEAN OF ST YLE.' apdXa) and for this reason Dionyius included Isaeus in his treatment For rhythm see also Or. clementer ire sine curriculo sine cunctatione (Marius Victorinus. the middle and the grand style the Peripatetic doctrine of the excellence of the mean. de sermocinatione. quia utriusque ultimum vitium est (80).. 2) denies to Demosthenes that Protean versatility which other ancient criticism accords to him almost without dissent. The writer " On the Sublime " (ch. . p. It was Isaeus. d 'Iaaiov (alrSC) reXVLKorEpa . sublimia non abrupta. because the tradition of the three styles. I78. Dionysius with slight variation of this conception-since the recognizes but two independent oratorical styles-attained same end by attributing to Demosthenes the complete development of the style which was blended of the plain and the grand. In the scholastic rhetoric of late antiquity we find this point of view comprehended in the following formula: bonus modus est in loquendo tamquam in ambulando. . The application was necessarily very superficial. 34 ff. 3: 6ce rlt ovr7S ar. he points out. .t r7f A?tgjoaGOvovf dvvd/mEC. Cf. Concerning Dionysius it is to be said that his unique interpretation of the XapaKTrp fiea-oV is merely an effort to apply to the current formula of the plain. as we have seen. non nimia.Kai 7rlT7 Dionys. whose skilful technique of argumentation and style afforded the starting-point (ra acr'piaraa KaL ras for the resourcefulness (asero'Trs) of Demosthenes. did not admit of the classification of either the grand or the plain style as erroneous forms. and finds in his flashes of sublimity the source of his acknowledged pre-eminence. I45 shown by his comparison of them to types of the ethical mean (see above p. . similis in ceteris ratio est ac tutissima fere per medium via. ib. 447 Halm)-a passage which is amplified with some amusing pedantry by Albinus. may be seen from the fact that Dionysius himself in the first part of the treatise De antiquis oratoribus explains the origin of Demosthenes' style in a wholly different and more rational way. 547.. Silnilarly in Gellius (Varro) the tria probabilia genera dicendi are virtutes and this is the consistent attitude toward them which is found in all our sources.

). or in the more typical formulation of other sources.3Er -roL7rTLKOl (of (Lysias). while Thrasymachus is placed among the aKcpLqer. 3). G. as the source of the mean (Dionysius Dem. On the other hand the true Peripatetic conception of style as a relative mean. Isocrates. cannot be referred to Theophrastus on the evidence that he named Thrasymachus as the author of a mixed style. I36). 8 init. At the end of the treatise (along with Lysias and Isocrates)l. L. Indeed throughout the first part of the work De antiquis oratoribus (Lysias. (3) The conception of excellence of style of whatever kind as a mean is fundamental to Aristotle's theory and was defined more accurately and illustrated by Theophrastus. especially as the doctrine of TO 7rpe7rOY. HENDRICKSON. de of Lysias KrX. and in the definition of a good and a faulty form of each style. on Isaeus the early orators are classified into two groups. with no mention of a middle class. 9 (rrpos Te and in the descrip- Compositione (cited above p. The wide difference in the point of view from which the style of Demosthenes is treated in the two works appears strikingly from the fact that in the essay on Demosthenes (ch. TOV tion (KpoarPv is expressed OrVLp. Anaximenes and others of the same time) as having contributed nothing new nor conspicuous to the styles which Thucydides and Lysias. From them it passed into the common teaching of ancient rhetoric and finds expression in many forms. To conclude therefore: (I) The doctrine of the different styles.vOsar in characterization Ta XeyodLLeva KOLYQ in the OZKeiLo. . isaeus) I have not observed a single allusion to the doctrine of the three styles. (2) Again it is not an historical development from the Peripatetic triad of the extreme.TerpeLraL of the Tr. Polycrates. whom Isocrates is the representative). ch.146 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHILOLOG Y. At another time I shall endeavor to indicate the true origin of the threefold classification of style and to interpret its significance. subject to the requirements of appropriateness. or more accurately. the deficiency and the mean. Isocrates and Plato had developed. and oi a'Kpl.) Isaeus is named and passed over (with Antiphon. Theodorus. whether as presented by Dionysius. Zoilus. o.

Related Interests

r in Dionysius) is the decisive criterion in determining oratorical excellence. 2 The same point of view appears in Demetrius 6e ue-yao7rpe7rif 36: u6voS & mr iX2V. 2 extr. elevation (iosr.l To the writer "On the Sublime. Cicero. d6t 6d KaiC 6vovc d6o xapaKrTipdc rtvec aitovafv i eva TOVTOV KTr. whether it found expression in simple language of presentation or in more elevated tones of emotion. but gives the essential features of the Peripatetic fLeOTarrr of style in his XapaKTrp /AeyaXo7rperiir. as a unit.O ov fityvvrat. adreXeZ-. 3Cf. argumentative or emotional.

Scaevola was a model of clear argumentative style: fuit nobis orator in hoc interpretandi explanandi edisserendi genere mirabilis. spurring on a deficiency there. blande leniter. All good writing is thus a perondrl1 and so in fact Demetrius conceived of each of the four styles which he postulates. . mediocritas. Brute. etc. in which the strength of Crassus lay: in augendo. In the introduction to the discussion of ornatus in de Or. advtvat) perfect art is touched on in IOO and 102. To the same point of view belongs the discussion near the beginning of the third book de Oratore (25-37). But he concludes thus (149): cum omnis virtus sit. with thousand the conditions of each occasion: varying vary dicet ide n graviter severe. in which is set forth with much admirable illustration the theory of individual excellence with absence of uniformity. acriter vehementer. (98) quae maxime sensus nostros impellunt voluptate et specie prima acerrime commovent. The yEao6Trj is delectare sine satietate (97) and allusion to it is made especially in the illustrations in 99 unguentis moderatis. The two men represent the two extremes of oratorical habit which Cicero constantly uses in his characterizations.144 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHILOLOGY. III 97 we have the complete triad in the warning against nimia suavitas : ne exilis. ut vestra. Development of individuality and not conformity to an external standard is the goal toward which the teacher must direct his pupils' effort (35). cum omnis species quae modo recta est. de altero limavit. breviter urbane. in ornando. For all he will set the standard of a personal mean. uterque horum medium quiddam volebat sequi. amidst all variety there must be preserved the unity of individual character and temperament which for each ptrson is the mean. ab eis celerrime fastidio quodam et satietate abalienemur (iTreppoj). amare comiter. but he was deficient in those rhetorical qualities. ut id conformaret in utroque quod utriusque natura pateretur (36).in ipso tactu esse modunm. as Isocrates did with Theopompus and Ephorus-neque eos similis effecit inter se. habeat usum. quod For his style will vulgo genus dicendi vocant (XII o1. checking excess here. It is from this standpoint that Quintilian repudiates the significance of the division into styles for the training of his orator. sed tantum alteri adfinxit. sed ubique par sibi (ib. non ubique similis. ne inculta sit vestra oratio (EJECtt5). 7I)-that is. vetus Academia dixit. sic ut simile nihil viderim. contrasts the orator Crassus with the jurisconsult Scaevola. concitate copiose. 69). The fluctuating variety of (irtreivetv. remisse subtiliter. atque id ipsum non sit oratoris. as is This general principle of the mean in style may be illustrated by a few representative examples.

That this explanation of the pre-eminence of Demosthenes is but one of many interpretations which were offered. etc. Cicero holds that Demosthenes stands above the three styles and commands them he all. . 34. the master of Demosthenes. The chapter of Quintilian on the genera dicendi (XII io) concludes with similar warning against excess: sic erunt magna. Isaeus 20 extr.. I4I). even including Dionysius. The true reason for his interpretation lay in a desire to give a quasiphilosophical explanation for the pre-eminence of Demosthenes.THE PERIPA TETIC MEAN OF ST YLE.' apdXa) and for this reason Dionyius included Isaeus in his treatment For rhythm see also Or. clementer ire sine curriculo sine cunctatione (Marius Victorinus. the middle and the grand style the Peripatetic doctrine of the excellence of the mean. de sermocinatione. quia utriusque ultimum vitium est (80).. 2) denies to Demosthenes that Protean versatility which other ancient criticism accords to him almost without dissent. The writer " On the Sublime " (ch. . p. It was Isaeus. d 'Iaaiov (alrSC) reXVLKorEpa . sublimia non abrupta. because the tradition of the three styles. I78. Dionysius with slight variation of this conception-since the recognizes but two independent oratorical styles-attained same end by attributing to Demosthenes the complete development of the style which was blended of the plain and the grand. In the scholastic rhetoric of late antiquity we find this point of view comprehended in the following formula: bonus modus est in loquendo tamquam in ambulando. . The application was necessarily very superficial. 34 ff. 3: 6ce rlt ovr7S ar. he points out. .t r7f A?tgjoaGOvovf dvvd/mEC. Cf. Concerning Dionysius it is to be said that his unique interpretation of the XapaKTrp fiea-oV is merely an effort to apply to the current formula of the plain. as we have seen. non nimia.Kai 7rlT7 Dionys. whose skilful technique of argumentation and style afforded the starting-point (ra acr'piaraa KaL ras for the resourcefulness (asero'Trs) of Demosthenes. did not admit of the classification of either the grand or the plain style as erroneous forms. and finds in his flashes of sublimity the source of his acknowledged pre-eminence. I45 shown by his comparison of them to types of the ethical mean (see above p. . similis in ceteris ratio est ac tutissima fere per medium via. ib. 447 Halm)-a passage which is amplified with some amusing pedantry by Albinus. may be seen from the fact that Dionysius himself in the first part of the treatise De antiquis oratoribus explains the origin of Demosthenes' style in a wholly different and more rational way. 547.. Silnilarly in Gellius (Varro) the tria probabilia genera dicendi are virtutes and this is the consistent attitude toward them which is found in all our sources.

). or in the more typical formulation of other sources.3Er -roL7rTLKOl (of (Lysias). while Thrasymachus is placed among the aKcpLqer. 3). G. as the source of the mean (Dionysius Dem. On the other hand the true Peripatetic conception of style as a relative mean. Isocrates. cannot be referred to Theophrastus on the evidence that he named Thrasymachus as the author of a mixed style. I36). 8 init. At the end of the treatise (along with Lysias and Isocrates)l. L. Indeed throughout the first part of the work De antiquis oratoribus (Lysias. (3) The conception of excellence of style of whatever kind as a mean is fundamental to Aristotle's theory and was defined more accurately and illustrated by Theophrastus. especially as the doctrine of TO 7rpe7rOY. HENDRICKSON. de of Lysias KrX. and in the definition of a good and a faulty form of each style. on Isaeus the early orators are classified into two groups. with no mention of a middle class. 9 (rrpos Te and in the descrip- Compositione (cited above p. The wide difference in the point of view from which the style of Demosthenes is treated in the two works appears strikingly from the fact that in the essay on Demosthenes (ch. TOV tion (KpoarPv is expressed OrVLp. Anaximenes and others of the same time) as having contributed nothing new nor conspicuous to the styles which Thucydides and Lysias. From them it passed into the common teaching of ancient rhetoric and finds expression in many forms. To conclude therefore: (I) The doctrine of the different styles.vOsar in characterization Ta XeyodLLeva KOLYQ in the OZKeiLo. . isaeus) I have not observed a single allusion to the doctrine of the three styles. (2) Again it is not an historical development from the Peripatetic triad of the extreme.TerpeLraL of the Tr. Polycrates. whom Isocrates is the representative). ch.146 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHILOLOG Y. At another time I shall endeavor to indicate the true origin of the threefold classification of style and to interpret its significance. subject to the requirements of appropriateness. or more accurately. the deficiency and the mean. Isocrates and Plato had developed. and oi a'Kpl.) Isaeus is named and passed over (with Antiphon. Theodorus. whether as presented by Dionysius. Zoilus. o.

"},"eligible_for_exclusive_trial_roadblock":false,"eligible_for_seo_roadblock":false,"exclusive_free_trial_roadblock_props_path":"/doc-page/exclusive-free-trial-props/251107406","flashes":[],"footer_props":{"urls":{"about":"/about","press":"/press","blog":"http://literally.scribd.com/","careers":"/careers","contact":"/contact","plans_landing":"/subscribe","referrals":"/referrals?source=footer","giftcards":"/giftcards","faq":"/faq","accessibility":"/accessibility-policy","faq_paths":{"accounts":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246346","announcements":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246066","copyright":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246086","downloading":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/articles/210135046","publishing":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246366","reading":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246406","selling":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246326","store":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246306","status":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/en-us/articles/360001202872","terms":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246126","writing":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246366","adchoices":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/articles/210129366","paid_features":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246306","failed_uploads":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/en-us/articles/210134586-Troubleshooting-uploads-and-conversions","copyright_infringement":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/en-us/articles/210128946-DMCA-copyright-infringement-takedown-notification-policy","end_user_license":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/en-us/articles/210129486","terms_of_use":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/en-us/articles/210129326-General-Terms-of-Use"},"publishers":"/publishers","static_terms":"/terms","static_privacy":"/privacy","copyright":"/copyright","ios_app":"https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/scribd-worlds-largest-online/id542557212?mt=8&uo=4&at=11lGEE","android_app":"https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.scribd.app.reader0&hl=en","books":"/books","sitemap":"/directory"}},"global_nav_props":{"header_props":{"logo_src":"/images/landing/home2_landing/scribd_logo_horiz_small.svg","root_url":"https://www.scribd.com/","search_term":"","small_logo_src":"/images/logos/scribd_s_logo.png","uploads_url":"/upload-document","search_props":{"redirect_to_app":true,"search_url":"/search","search_test":"control","query":"","search_page":false}},"user_menu_props":null,"sidebar_props":{"urls":{"bestsellers":"https://www.scribd.com/bestsellers","home":"https://www.scribd.com/","saved":"/saved","subscribe":"/archive/pmp_checkout?doc=251107406&metadata=%7B%22context%22%3A%22pmp%22%2C%22action%22%3A%22start_trial%22%2C%22logged_in%22%3Afalse%2C%22platform%22%3A%22web%22%7D","top_charts":"/bestsellers","upload":"https://www.scribd.com/upload-document"},"categories":{"book":{"icon":"icon-ic_book","icon_filled":"icon-ic_book_fill","url":"https://www.scribd.com/books","name":"Books","type":"book"},"news":{"icon":"icon-ic_articles","icon_filled":"icon-ic_articles_fill","url":"https://www.scribd.com/news","name":"News","type":"news"},"audiobook":{"icon":"icon-ic_audiobook","icon_filled":"icon-ic_audiobook_fill","url":"https://www.scribd.com/audiobooks","name":"Audiobooks","type":"audiobook"},"magazine":{"icon":"icon-ic_magazine","icon_filled":"icon-ic_magazine_fill","url":"https://www.scribd.com/magazines","name":"Magazines","type":"magazine"},"document":{"icon":"icon-ic_document","icon_filled":"icon-ic_document_fill","url":"https://www.scribd.com/docs","name":"Documents","type":"document"},"sheet_music":{"icon":"icon-ic_songbook","icon_filled":"icon-ic_songbook_fill","url":"https://www.scribd.com/sheetmusic","name":"Sheet Music","type":"sheet_music"}},"categories_array":["mixed","book","audiobook","magazine","news","document","sheet_music"],"selected_content_type":"mixed","username":"","search_overlay_props":{"search_input_props":{"focused":false,"keep_suggestions_on_blur":false}}}},"recommenders":{"related_titles_recommender":{"item_props":[{"type":"document","id":243022139,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/243022139/108x144/80ed4f9e81/1413335891?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/243022139/216x288/9fd3feaea3/1413335891?v=1","title":"Aristotle & Decision-Making","short_title":"Aristotle & Decision-Making","author":"Justin Horky","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":243022139,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"5ZlYguULbAiJng6OFjdjGKteTRw="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/243022139/Aristotle-Decision-Making"},{"type":"document","id":205861250,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/205861250/108x144/5b08e5d7e9/1531025583?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/205861250/216x288/1c71d771ab/1531025583?v=1","title":"La Iamgen Compleja Fenomenologia de Las Imagenes Cultura Visual Catala","short_title":"La Iamgen Compleja Fenomenologia de Las Imagenes Cultura Visual Catala","author":"Simone la Invitada","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":205861250,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"bcFWiIUgWJVXpUD+My3A6tDzG58="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/205861250/La-Iamgen-Compleja-Fenomenologia-de-Las-Imagenes-Cultura-Visual-Catala"},{"type":"document","id":330725580,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/330725580/108x144/eb8b6a7d3f/1478855601?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/330725580/216x288/c043bfe31d/1478855601?v=1","title":"Aristotle Biography","short_title":"Aristotle Biography","author":"rajesh","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":330725580,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"15MzEOC9rA9uVeCS2L3XtXcRdFs="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/330725580/Aristotle-Biography"},{"type":"document","id":150820823,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/150820823/108x144/3992e45ef2/1511482652?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/150820823/216x288/24d660a9b4/1511482652?v=1","title":"La Sombra y El Tiempo LaFotografia Como Arte","short_title":"La Sombra y El Tiempo LaFotografia Como Arte","author":"Carlitos Yeye","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":150820823,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"k/2e7ZM/03ukKS5y4Q6vNgU9QSo="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/150820823/La-Sombra-y-El-Tiempo-LaFotografia-Como-Arte"},{"type":"document","id":57808816,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/57808816/108x144/74228c1f72/1502128565?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/57808816/216x288/63d23d38af/1502128565?v=1","title":"Notas de Cocina de Leonardo Da Vinci","short_title":"Notas de Cocina de Leonardo Da Vinci","author":"Jorge Hernandez","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":57808816,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"kNOqdYcH44BREX7xC/Y3vKdSIVg="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/57808816/Notas-de-Cocina-de-Leonardo-Da-Vinci"},{"type":"document","id":211054500,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/211054500/108x144/6207b39947/1514364715?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/211054500/216x288/8a70ac5619/1514364715?v=1","title":"Vivian.maier.street.photographer","short_title":"Vivian.maier.street.photographer","author":"Valeria de los Ríos","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":211054500,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"ELZfVnrQGVR0Np39ixWS2K5BQFE="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/211054500/Vivian-maier-street-photographer"},{"type":"document","id":338499050,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/338499050/108x144/e63e5cab89/1486335806?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/338499050/216x288/a48aa6b745/1486335806?v=1","title":"Lecture 1","short_title":"Lecture 1","author":"Anuradha Damale","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":338499050,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"VToYDelQt1/F9YytCCeNaV5X4Rs="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/presentation/338499050/Lecture-1"},{"type":"document","id":190999021,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/190999021/108x144/61be4cbd71/1401840894?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/190999021/216x288/708f8aba88/1401840894?v=1","title":"Schaeffer La Imagen Precaria - Schaeffer Jean-Marie","short_title":"Schaeffer La Imagen Precaria - Schaeffer Jean-Marie","author":"Cutxo","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":190999021,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"LWZBmXi+sVR5MyGUUTWCj1FbsLw="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/190999021/Schaeffer-La-Imagen-Precaria-Schaeffer-Jean-Marie"},{"type":"document","id":376890351,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/376890351/108x144/3352e72f0f/1524226136?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/376890351/216x288/a92a411095/1524226136?v=1","title":"The Price of the Plot in Aristotle_s Poetics","short_title":"The Price of the Plot in Aristotle_s Poetics","author":"shevach","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":376890351,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"hEKjD2roSLuYnOX+d6xLxszcZws="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/376890351/The-Price-of-the-Plot-in-Aristotle-s-Poetics"},{"type":"document","id":242585841,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/242585841/108x144/9907bdfadc/1536710509?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/242585841/216x288/3b8bf79c1f/1536710509?v=1","title":"Despues_de_la_fotografia_-_Fred_Ritchin_.pdf","short_title":"Despues_de_la_fotografia_-_Fred_Ritchin_.pdf","author":"Melissa Zokat Grassie","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":242585841,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"50tCBiXL+guQTJAGqjfCy84tRRc="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/242585841/Despues-de-la-fotografia-Fred-Ritchin-pdf"},{"type":"document","id":158741938,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/158741938/108x144/fb9d83e05a/1450202484?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/158741938/216x288/6bbce8a8cd/1450202484?v=1","title":"Hito Steyerl - Documentary Uncertainty","short_title":"Hito Steyerl - Documentary Uncertainty","author":"Riccardo Giacconi","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":158741938,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"OjZzesy/UbQrPy5+wjCmWTTyhNU="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/158741938/Hito-Steyerl-Documentary-Uncertainty"},{"type":"document","id":164484982,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/164484982/108x144/18dad79931/1536249348?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/164484982/216x288/d343f0ae76/1536249348?v=1","title":"Bauman Modernidad Liquida","short_title":"Bauman Modernidad Liquida","author":"Sunia Valinotti","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":164484982,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"1YlMHKSk5ynhOuTPtZbVMHbSSD4="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/164484982/Bauman-Modernidad-Liquida"},{"type":"document","id":377492893,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/377492893/108x144/ade5eb7d0b/1524765843?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/377492893/216x288/3f98d18e6f/1524765843?v=1","title":"Curriculum Map ENC4379","short_title":"Curriculum Map ENC4379","author":"Shannon Henry","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":377492893,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"MFEYrf773qlOokKHHwjaSIW7fjU="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/377492893/Curriculum-Map-ENC4379"},{"type":"document","id":332014090,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/332014090/108x144/99b552ac9f/1479872484?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/332014090/216x288/f08017d084/1479872484?v=1","title":"000465.pdf","short_title":"000465.pdf","author":"Kurdi","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":332014090,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"K195av/FjVGxXZJbLKSOoUco38c="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/332014090/000465-pdf"},{"type":"document","id":209543768,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/209543768/108x144/82a54a2962/1404998510?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/209543768/216x288/dd652123ff/1404998510?v=1","title":"WRIT 1122, Winter 2014, Final Reflection Assignment","short_title":"WRIT 1122, Winter 2014, Final Reflection Assignment","author":"writRHET","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":209543768,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"Gt4vGBLT6fzSTAykjwKNHiEPAmo="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/209543768/WRIT-1122-Winter-2014-Final-Reflection-Assignment"},{"type":"document","id":310459151,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/310459151/108x144/d30d2fa66a/1486706113?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/310459151/216x288/97d2358768/1486706113?v=1","title":"artifact critique site","short_title":"artifact critique site","author":"api-316503696","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":310459151,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"KvEACd1Ne4F5IcXG28Or8skUz8Y="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/310459151/artifact-critique-site"},{"type":"document","id":338353459,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/338353459/108x144/d2451df73b/1486166248?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/338353459/216x288/4eb82fb8b6/1486166248?v=1","title":"Great Books of the Western World Ref","short_title":"Great Books of the Western World Ref","author":"Dylan D'silva","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":338353459,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"cciSInviwYY5tHfLmb/Xt7dEcJ0="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/338353459/Great-Books-of-the-Western-World-Ref"},{"type":"document","id":167556485,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/167556485/108x144/2c4fc7989d/1378964006?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/167556485/216x288/1462ad870b/1378964006?v=1","title":"Burke Rhetoric","short_title":"Burke Rhetoric","author":"jurbina1844","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":167556485,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"yrp02lvlk0wz+cxx4U8ianRDT7I="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/167556485/Burke-Rhetoric"},{"type":"document","id":68322385,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/68322385/108x144/8eb1673013/1367035984?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/68322385/216x288/237d2ac6bf/1367035984?v=1","title":"D'ENTREVES, Alexander Passerin - The Notion of the State","short_title":"D'ENTREVES, Alexander Passerin - The Notion of the State","author":"marekner","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":68322385,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"9gMCp1VhVh1PdGgnTOGjrJgwlcg="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/68322385/D-ENTREVES-Alexander-Passerin-The-Notion-of-the-State"},{"type":"document","id":100653769,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/100653769/108x144/04c49d1829/1412640598?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/100653769/216x288/3c934ac8cb/1412640598?v=1","title":"35402376 Introduction to Aristotle","short_title":"35402376 Introduction to Aristotle","author":"Olman Mora","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":100653769,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"26tR92wOrcQXtAAsm0HkkNfxz7Y="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/100653769/35402376-Introduction-to-Aristotle"},{"type":"document","id":366517900,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/366517900/108x144/fc4c1cede2/1512601241?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/366517900/216x288/b1093bd34a/1512601241?v=1","title":"paper 3 reflection","short_title":"paper 3 reflection","author":"api-374207947","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":366517900,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"4rg2NMGwBVxUnA8lUD1C9MCl5/s="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/366517900/paper-3-reflection"},{"type":"document","id":264391283,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/264391283/108x144/a3150358e8/1430926648?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/264391283/216x288/4d1403aee0/1430926648?v=1","title":"Sr Karen Asignment 1 Platonic Epistemology","short_title":"Sr Karen Asignment 1 Platonic Epistemology","author":"Michael Richards","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":264391283,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"jfW1GRIEXlkOdDXVCMyjuu0uoTw="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/264391283/Sr-Karen-Asignment-1-Platonic-Epistemology"},{"type":"document","id":46100414,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/46100414/108x144/63f1732323/1293787139?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/46100414/216x288/9a034814d1/1293787139?v=1","title":"WRIT 1122 Syllabus_Winter 2011_Section43","short_title":"WRIT 1122 Syllabus_Winter 2011_Section43","author":"Jeff Ludwig","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":46100414,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"quobsjEFS07abbbPUA6NYqJuUyk="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/46100414/WRIT-1122-Syllabus-Winter-2011-Section43"},{"type":"document","id":95127361,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/95127361/108x144/0ac227f01e/1371223321?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/95127361/216x288/69bfd4492c/1371223321?v=1","title":"Curs.optional.retorica.discursului.politic","short_title":"Curs.optional.retorica.discursului.politic","author":"Raluca Marian","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":95127361,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"bZbWYripBt1BWfpdIgib7E1+PaQ="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/95127361/Curs-optional-retorica-discursului-politic"},{"type":"document","id":235800272,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/235800272/108x144/a65d67daa3/1407145618?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/235800272/216x288/d634b3de98/1407145618?v=1","title":"SPRAGUE R. K. - Plants as Aristotelian substances","short_title":"SPRAGUE R. K. - Plants as Aristotelian substances","author":"Jean-Claude Picot","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":235800272,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"aea8JMeN/YxHTcpp19mLyoigLnE="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/235800272/SPRAGUE-R-K-Plants-as-Aristotelian-substances"},{"type":"document","id":374775694,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/374775694/108x144/edf6cb1ae5/1521953449?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/374775694/216x288/5871242cae/1521953449?v=1","title":"hillen english 301 spring 2018","short_title":"hillen english 301 spring 2018","author":"api-399776247","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":374775694,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"bI8Z1tDnuoRThRXlylEsNdZtxWY="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/374775694/hillen-english-301-spring-2018"},{"type":"document","id":364219210,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/364219210/108x144/03e7c6ed00/1510511618?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/364219210/216x288/4dd742ceeb/1510511618?v=1","title":"Carmina Cantabrigiensia - ZIOLKOWSKI, J. M. (1998)","short_title":"Carmina Cantabrigiensia - ZIOLKOWSKI, J. M. (1998)","author":"glorydays","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":364219210,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"gVxI+rcCdPt0DNG06/TU4b4zvXs="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/364219210/Carmina-Cantabrigiensia-ZIOLKOWSKI-J-M-1998"},{"type":"document","id":362603065,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/362603065/108x144/6f4b899298/1508952983?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/362603065/216x288/756c3f45ec/1508952983?v=1","title":"Filología Griega. Informática - ZOGG, F. (2007)","short_title":"Filología Griega. Informática - ZOGG, F. (2007)","author":"glorydays","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":362603065,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"To4d9eD/7z63MRCyxU6LZvepE7Q="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/362603065/Filologia-Griega-Informatica-ZOGG-F-2007"},{"type":"document","id":364509369,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/364509369/108x144/d8e42173ca/1511221152?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/364509369/216x288/7fa8fe8bd6/1511221152?v=1","title":"Género Epidíctico - ZINSMAIER, Th. (1999)","short_title":"Género Epidíctico - ZINSMAIER, Th. (1999)","author":"glorydays","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":364509369,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"bkmmXra+kELhUpoyicbG1za6FjQ="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/364509369/Genero-Epidictico-ZINSMAIER-Th-1999"},{"type":"document","id":364219188,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/364219188/108x144/3771bc827a/1510511608?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/364219188/216x288/87a711db97/1510511608?v=1","title":"Filología Griega. Informática - ZOGG, F. (2007).pdf","short_title":"Filología Griega. Informática - ZOGG, F. (2007).pdf","author":"glorydays","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":364219188,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"LgUqGOMM+CI9VZMDDB8W9Jq2rsY="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/364219188/Filologia-Griega-Informatica-ZOGG-F-2007-pdf"},{"type":"document","id":364509310,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/364509310/108x144/0ca34ce58a/1511221151?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/364509310/216x288/edf6faf182/1511221151?v=1","title":"Esparta. Termópilas. Epigrama - ZIOGAS, I. (2014).pdf","short_title":"Esparta. Termópilas. Epigrama - ZIOGAS, I. (2014).pdf","author":"glorydays","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":364509310,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"NJSR5BbkpFWomYzfVK3bICUUtE4="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/364509310/Esparta-Termopilas-Epigrama-ZIOGAS-I-2014-pdf"},{"type":"document","id":364509343,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/364509343/108x144/6de7e350ef/1511221152?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/364509343/216x288/f9e3e4fcaa/1511221152?v=1","title":"Filología Griega. Informática - ZOGG, F. (2007).pdf","short_title":"Filología Griega. Informática - ZOGG, F. (2007).pdf","author":"glorydays","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":364509343,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"kQunBfUtyMQqQu/uIrtO6Kg4wMI="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/364509343/Filologia-Griega-Informatica-ZOGG-F-2007-pdf"},{"type":"document","id":362187879,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/362187879/108x144/d047263178/1508574760?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/362187879/216x288/1ddeee5d7e/1508574760?v=1","title":"pandora_julio 2016.pdf","short_title":"pandora_julio 2016.pdf","author":"glorydays","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":362187879,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"WifpLxLWyEUfkGvQjIYBMq816I8="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/362187879/pandora-julio-2016-pdf"},{"type":"document","id":368925741,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/368925741/108x144/87c289e152/1515685323?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/368925741/216x288/090e0e73ac/1515685323?v=1","title":"Tierra y Libertad (1910-1919). CNT. Orígenes - ZAMBRANA CAPITÁN, J. (2009).pdf","short_title":"Tierra y Libertad (1910-1919). CNT. Orígenes - ZAMBRANA CAPITÁN, J. (2009).pdf","author":"glorydays","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":368925741,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"ERymUefbGNPc0EAsntgbBKWKsrY="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/368925741/Tierra-y-Libertad-1910-1919-CNT-Origenes-ZAMBRANA-CAPITAN-J-2009-pdf"},{"type":"document","id":364838926,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/364838926/108x144/efdc297f47/1511236592?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/364838926/216x288/83ce351d87/1511236592?v=1","title":"Esparta. Termópilas. Epigrama - ZIOGAS, I. (2014).pdf","short_title":"Esparta. Termópilas. Epigrama - ZIOGAS, I. (2014).pdf","author":"glorydays","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":364838926,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"CNNjAdkfgwnAVSE1iuVxQPHc2ck="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/364838926/Esparta-Termopilas-Epigrama-ZIOGAS-I-2014-pdf"},{"type":"document","id":362187872,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/362187872/108x144/ac2ac3fc89/1508574744?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/362187872/216x288/1bfe27eb3e/1508574744?v=1","title":"pandora_junio 2016.pdf","short_title":"pandora_junio 2016.pdf","author":"glorydays","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":362187872,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"j1t3/S9wGnZUFLPD+an5WjXPUiY="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/362187872/pandora-junio-2016-pdf"},{"type":"document","id":368925267,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/368925267/108x144/a952202ab2/1515684806?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/368925267/216x288/a3cfdea0c0/1515684806?v=1","title":"Maquis. Aragón (1939-1952) - YUSTA RODRIGO, M. (Zaragoza, 2003).pdf","short_title":"Maquis. Aragón (1939-1952) - YUSTA RODRIGO, M. (Zaragoza, 2003).pdf","author":"glorydays","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":368925267,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"7ZAaVdr854vuI7rH4ppg18Ne85k="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/368925267/Maquis-Aragon-1939-1952-YUSTA-RODRIGO-M-Zaragoza-2003-pdf"},{"type":"document","id":364838963,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/364838963/108x144/c2ef4a8f50/1511235740?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/364838963/216x288/4b0eedff34/1511235740?v=1","title":"Jean Ziegler. Entrevista - RIVIÈRE MARTÍ, M. (2001 IV 15 D)","short_title":"Jean Ziegler. Entrevista - RIVIÈRE MARTÍ, M. (2001 IV 15 D)","author":"glorydays","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":364838963,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"LsB/Lzz6FylUFr4wKtYwfNy4za0="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/364838963/Jean-Ziegler-Entrevista-RIVIERE-MARTI-M-2001-IV-15-D"},{"type":"document","id":364838945,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/364838945/108x144/e013250eda/1511236589?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/364838945/216x288/47fa9c0300/1511236589?v=1","title":"Género epidíctico - ZINSMAIER, Th. (1999).pdf","short_title":"Género epidíctico - ZINSMAIER, Th. (1999).pdf","author":"glorydays","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":364838945,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"0TzMk+4Jj1mF39D0XBbVfdkbCZw="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/364838945/Genero-epidictico-ZINSMAIER-Th-1999-pdf"},{"type":"document","id":362187864,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/362187864/108x144/74834bd0c8/1508574729?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/362187864/216x288/7dc0b0f43f/1508574729?v=1","title":"pandora_enero 2016.pdf","short_title":"pandora_enero 2016.pdf","author":"glorydays","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":362187864,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"41nx6sB1VPZslWj6OJJNNP6KcTE="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/362187864/pandora-enero-2016-pdf"},{"type":"document","id":362187889,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/362187889/108x144/860d7b7375/1508574787?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/362187889/216x288/f7dfae95bd/1508574787?v=1","title":"Pandora Agosto 2016","short_title":"Pandora Agosto 2016","author":"glorydays","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":362187889,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"poMHnjkHWXYIH2k50LWkp/BAn5Y="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/362187889/Pandora-Agosto-2016"},{"type":"document","id":359116933,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/359116933/108x144/e36866c23e/1505641074?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/359116933/216x288/fc25ebe75d/1505641074?v=1","title":"pandora_febrero 2016.pdf","short_title":"pandora_febrero 2016.pdf","author":"glorydays","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":359116933,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"AJA4xc+thzONbwqOBvEfr0fhm9A="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/359116933/pandora-febrero-2016-pdf"},{"type":"document","id":359050353,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/359050353/108x144/acfca7f380/1505554680?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/359050353/216x288/e3bfba476c/1505554680?v=1","title":"pandora_enero 2016.pdf","short_title":"pandora_enero 2016.pdf","author":"glorydays","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":359050353,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"NimHkQBZ4BZZQa7rvI2fc3x/gdE="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/359050353/pandora-enero-2016-pdf"},{"type":"document","id":362187827,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/362187827/108x144/2f6124a7cb/1508574631?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/362187827/216x288/1e5c339c94/1508574631?v=1","title":"pandora_mayo 2016.pdf","short_title":"pandora_mayo 2016.pdf","author":"glorydays","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":362187827,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"meEWNjY/Z1tWYhCtBDlA8ga53iQ="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/362187827/pandora-mayo-2016-pdf"},{"type":"document","id":362187833,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/362187833/108x144/944bd00293/1508574658?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/362187833/216x288/4f2625b749/1508574658?v=1","title":"pandora_abril 2016.pdf","short_title":"pandora_abril 2016.pdf","author":"glorydays","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":362187833,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"nVV3XTlnfQQULEdoUn/bXVP2OI0="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/362187833/pandora-abril-2016-pdf"},{"type":"document","id":359116976,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/359116976/108x144/560a1616b5/1505641122?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/359116976/216x288/bf7034b3a5/1505641122?v=1","title":"Pandora Mayo 2016","short_title":"Pandora Mayo 2016","author":"glorydays","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":359116976,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"EB0pjIe4OXgYsaL6xDCybPwDljg="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/359116976/Pandora-Mayo-2016"},{"type":"document","id":359050363,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/359050363/108x144/b83525a353/1505554693?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/359050363/216x288/b082208460/1505554693?v=1","title":"Pandora Febrero 2016","short_title":"Pandora Febrero 2016","author":"glorydays","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":359050363,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"vMBjhkcFWXywEUhCGsCf9rB9st8="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/359050363/Pandora-Febrero-2016"},{"type":"document","id":359050323,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/359050323/108x144/f175642516/1505554640?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/359050323/216x288/033b9a7893/1505554640?v=1","title":"pandora_octubre 2016.pdf","short_title":"pandora_octubre 2016.pdf","author":"glorydays","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":359050323,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"BLsJHDKeH0M7+4v+7m87iQZON8Y="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/359050323/pandora-octubre-2016-pdf"},{"type":"document","id":359116951,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/359116951/108x144/803952ea6a/1505641121?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/359116951/216x288/381f7eb96a/1505641121?v=1","title":"pandora_marzo 2016.pdf","short_title":"pandora_marzo 2016.pdf","author":"glorydays","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":359116951,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"SAYwDvhjtR0wSc7VCdn5BDph/oQ="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/359116951/pandora-marzo-2016-pdf"},{"type":"document","id":359116964,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/359116964/108x144/c6b1bd25f9/1505641108?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/359116964/216x288/775938fbeb/1505641108?v=1","title":"pandora_abril 2016.pdf","short_title":"pandora_abril 2016.pdf","author":"glorydays","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":359116964,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"8BgpUaw7eNNzDdztMq9dnGDTKkM="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/359116964/pandora-abril-2016-pdf"},{"type":"document","id":359050341,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/359050341/108x144/198c5c9806/1505554669?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/359050341/216x288/64e7c574ea/1505554669?v=1","title":"pandora_diciembre 2016.pdf","short_title":"pandora_diciembre 2016.pdf","author":"glorydays","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":359050341,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"MwcMmsdlT0GCrrdtsy6IYSjVEcM="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/359050341/pandora-diciembre-2016-pdf"},{"type":"document","id":362187851,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/362187851/108x144/be3231f148/1508574709?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/362187851/216x288/eaaefbd401/1508574709?v=1","title":"pandora_febrero 2016.pdf","short_title":"pandora_febrero 2016.pdf","author":"glorydays","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":362187851,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"N4yAFp8u8OE3TwCLMtWk77WW9fk="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/362187851/pandora-febrero-2016-pdf"},{"type":"document","id":362187842,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/362187842/108x144/231101ee5b/1508574682?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/362187842/216x288/c4f038ef53/1508574682?v=1","title":"pandora_marzo 2016.pdf","short_title":"pandora_marzo 2016.pdf","author":"glorydays","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":362187842,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"u+uPbyYum8GRXEIZwDyMW9dGcJI="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/362187842/pandora-marzo-2016-pdf"},{"type":"document","id":359116886,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/359116886/108x144/c309c6da08/1505641020?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/359116886/216x288/531f2b57b8/1505641020?v=1","title":"pandora_abril 2015.pdf","short_title":"pandora_abril 2015.pdf","author":"glorydays","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":359116886,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"kMu7x8UVel4wehLKO6ul3ajBS1I="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/359116886/pandora-abril-2015-pdf"},{"type":"document","id":359050333,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/359050333/108x144/d71c85285e/1505554656?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/359050333/216x288/523cfdaec1/1505554656?v=1","title":"pandora_noviembre 2016.pdf","short_title":"pandora_noviembre 2016.pdf","author":"glorydays","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":359050333,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"epW3ywNi7lVgYaqd8gbXhdhakCQ="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/359050333/pandora-noviembre-2016-pdf"},{"type":"document","id":352080388,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/352080388/108x144/09a7a55bb8/1498231065?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/352080388/216x288/40566ce212/1498231065?v=1","title":"Pandora Junio 2016","short_title":"Pandora Junio 2016","author":"glorydays","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":352080388,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"BlGN3mHS7Z3KjxaeunaCeJsZWH0="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/352080388/Pandora-Junio-2016"}],"title_link":null,"title":null,"track_opts":{"compilation_id":"KsFTnfDEC0RzsFOi/bsiFhxIBkE=","module_id":"qjfkvQmtPYmXKf58YfURWG6ineg=","widget_name":"right sidebar","track_id":"flattened_recommender"}},"footer_recommenders":{"recommenders":[{"item_props":[{"type":"document","id":243022139,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/243022139/108x144/80ed4f9e81/1413335891?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/243022139/216x288/9fd3feaea3/1413335891?v=1","title":"Aristotle & Decision-Making","short_title":"Aristotle & Decision-Making","author":"Justin Horky","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":243022139,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"5ZlYguULbAiJng6OFjdjGKteTRw="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/243022139/Aristotle-Decision-Making"},{"type":"document","id":205861250,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/205861250/108x144/5b08e5d7e9/1531025583?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/205861250/216x288/1c71d771ab/1531025583?v=1","title":"La Iamgen Compleja Fenomenologia de Las Imagenes Cultura Visual Catala","short_title":"La Iamgen Compleja Fenomenologia de Las Imagenes Cultura Visual Catala","author":"Simone la Invitada","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":205861250,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"bcFWiIUgWJVXpUD+My3A6tDzG58="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/205861250/La-Iamgen-Compleja-Fenomenologia-de-Las-Imagenes-Cultura-Visual-Catala"},{"type":"document","id":330725580,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/330725580/108x144/eb8b6a7d3f/1478855601?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/330725580/216x288/c043bfe31d/1478855601?v=1","title":"Aristotle Biography","short_title":"Aristotle Biography","author":"rajesh","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":330725580,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"15MzEOC9rA9uVeCS2L3XtXcRdFs="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/330725580/Aristotle-Biography"},{"type":"document","id":150820823,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/150820823/108x144/3992e45ef2/1511482652?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/150820823/216x288/24d660a9b4/1511482652?v=1","title":"La Sombra y El Tiempo LaFotografia Como Arte","short_title":"La Sombra y El Tiempo LaFotografia Como Arte","author":"Carlitos Yeye","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":150820823,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"k/2e7ZM/03ukKS5y4Q6vNgU9QSo="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/150820823/La-Sombra-y-El-Tiempo-LaFotografia-Como-Arte"},{"type":"document","id":57808816,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/57808816/108x144/74228c1f72/1502128565?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/57808816/216x288/63d23d38af/1502128565?v=1","title":"Notas de Cocina de Leonardo Da Vinci","short_title":"Notas de Cocina de Leonardo Da Vinci","author":"Jorge Hernandez","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":57808816,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"kNOqdYcH44BREX7xC/Y3vKdSIVg="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/57808816/Notas-de-Cocina-de-Leonardo-Da-Vinci"},{"type":"document","id":211054500,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/211054500/108x144/6207b39947/1514364715?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/211054500/216x288/8a70ac5619/1514364715?v=1","title":"Vivian.maier.street.photographer","short_title":"Vivian.maier.street.photographer","author":"Valeria de los Ríos","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":211054500,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"ELZfVnrQGVR0Np39ixWS2K5BQFE="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/211054500/Vivian-maier-street-photographer"},{"type":"document","id":338499050,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/338499050/108x144/e63e5cab89/1486335806?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/338499050/216x288/a48aa6b745/1486335806?v=1","title":"Lecture 1","short_title":"Lecture 1","author":"Anuradha Damale","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":338499050,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"VToYDelQt1/F9YytCCeNaV5X4Rs="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/presentation/338499050/Lecture-1"},{"type":"document","id":190999021,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/190999021/108x144/61be4cbd71/1401840894?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/190999021/216x288/708f8aba88/1401840894?v=1","title":"Schaeffer La Imagen Precaria - Schaeffer Jean-Marie","short_title":"Schaeffer La Imagen Precaria - Schaeffer Jean-Marie","author":"Cutxo","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":190999021,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"LWZBmXi+sVR5MyGUUTWCj1FbsLw="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/190999021/Schaeffer-La-Imagen-Precaria-Schaeffer-Jean-Marie"},{"type":"document","id":376890351,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/376890351/108x144/3352e72f0f/1524226136?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/376890351/216x288/a92a411095/1524226136?v=1","title":"The Price of the Plot in Aristotle_s Poetics","short_title":"The Price of the Plot in Aristotle_s Poetics","author":"shevach","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":376890351,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"hEKjD2roSLuYnOX+d6xLxszcZws="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/376890351/The-Price-of-the-Plot-in-Aristotle-s-Poetics"},{"type":"document","id":242585841,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/242585841/108x144/9907bdfadc/1536710509?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/242585841/216x288/3b8bf79c1f/1536710509?v=1","title":"Despues_de_la_fotografia_-_Fred_Ritchin_.pdf","short_title":"Despues_de_la_fotografia_-_Fred_Ritchin_.pdf","author":"Melissa Zokat Grassie","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":242585841,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"50tCBiXL+guQTJAGqjfCy84tRRc="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/242585841/Despues-de-la-fotografia-Fred-Ritchin-pdf"},{"type":"document","id":158741938,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/158741938/108x144/fb9d83e05a/1450202484?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/158741938/216x288/6bbce8a8cd/1450202484?v=1","title":"Hito Steyerl - Documentary Uncertainty","short_title":"Hito Steyerl - Documentary Uncertainty","author":"Riccardo Giacconi","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":158741938,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"OjZzesy/UbQrPy5+wjCmWTTyhNU="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/158741938/Hito-Steyerl-Documentary-Uncertainty"},{"type":"document","id":164484982,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/164484982/108x144/18dad79931/1536249348?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/164484982/216x288/d343f0ae76/1536249348?v=1","title":"Bauman Modernidad Liquida","short_title":"Bauman Modernidad Liquida","author":"Sunia Valinotti","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":164484982,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"1YlMHKSk5ynhOuTPtZbVMHbSSD4="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/164484982/Bauman-Modernidad-Liquida"},{"type":"document","id":377492893,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/377492893/108x144/ade5eb7d0b/1524765843?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/377492893/216x288/3f98d18e6f/1524765843?v=1","title":"Curriculum Map ENC4379","short_title":"Curriculum Map ENC4379","author":"Shannon Henry","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":377492893,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"MFEYrf773qlOokKHHwjaSIW7fjU="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/377492893/Curriculum-Map-ENC4379"},{"type":"document","id":332014090,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/332014090/108x144/99b552ac9f/1479872484?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/332014090/216x288/f08017d084/1479872484?v=1","title":"000465.pdf","short_title":"000465.pdf","author":"Kurdi","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":332014090,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"K195av/FjVGxXZJbLKSOoUco38c="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/332014090/000465-pdf"},{"type":"document","id":209543768,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/209543768/108x144/82a54a2962/1404998510?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/209543768/216x288/dd652123ff/1404998510?v=1","title":"WRIT 1122, Winter 2014, Final Reflection Assignment","short_title":"WRIT 1122, Winter 2014, Final Reflection Assignment","author":"writRHET","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":209543768,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"Gt4vGBLT6fzSTAykjwKNHiEPAmo="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/209543768/WRIT-1122-Winter-2014-Final-Reflection-Assignment"},{"type":"document","id":310459151,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/310459151/108x144/d30d2fa66a/1486706113?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/310459151/216x288/97d2358768/1486706113?v=1","title":"artifact critique site","short_title":"artifact critique site","author":"api-316503696","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":310459151,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"KvEACd1Ne4F5IcXG28Or8skUz8Y="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/310459151/artifact-critique-site"},{"type":"document","id":338353459,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/338353459/108x144/d2451df73b/1486166248?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/338353459/216x288/4eb82fb8b6/1486166248?v=1","title":"Great Books of the Western World Ref","short_title":"Great Books of the Western World Ref","author":"Dylan D'silva","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":338353459,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"cciSInviwYY5tHfLmb/Xt7dEcJ0="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/338353459/Great-Books-of-the-Western-World-Ref"},{"type":"document","id":167556485,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/167556485/108x144/2c4fc7989d/1378964006?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/167556485/216x288/1462ad870b/1378964006?v=1","title":"Burke Rhetoric","short_title":"Burke Rhetoric","author":"jurbina1844","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":167556485,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"yrp02lvlk0wz+cxx4U8ianRDT7I="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/167556485/Burke-Rhetoric"},{"type":"document","id":68322385,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/68322385/108x144/8eb1673013/1367035984?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/68322385/216x288/237d2ac6bf/1367035984?v=1","title":"D'ENTREVES, Alexander Passerin - The Notion of the State","short_title":"D'ENTREVES, Alexander Passerin - The Notion of the State","author":"marekner","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":68322385,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"9gMCp1VhVh1PdGgnTOGjrJgwlcg="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/68322385/D-ENTREVES-Alexander-Passerin-The-Notion-of-the-State"},{"type":"document","id":100653769,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/100653769/108x144/04c49d1829/1412640598?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/100653769/216x288/3c934ac8cb/1412640598?v=1","title":"35402376 Introduction to Aristotle","short_title":"35402376 Introduction to Aristotle","author":"Olman Mora","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":100653769,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"26tR92wOrcQXtAAsm0HkkNfxz7Y="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/100653769/35402376-Introduction-to-Aristotle"},{"type":"document","id":366517900,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/366517900/108x144/fc4c1cede2/1512601241?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/366517900/216x288/b1093bd34a/1512601241?v=1","title":"paper 3 reflection","short_title":"paper 3 reflection","author":"api-374207947","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":366517900,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"4rg2NMGwBVxUnA8lUD1C9MCl5/s="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/366517900/paper-3-reflection"},{"type":"document","id":264391283,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/264391283/108x144/a3150358e8/1430926648?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/264391283/216x288/4d1403aee0/1430926648?v=1","title":"Sr Karen Asignment 1 Platonic Epistemology","short_title":"Sr Karen Asignment 1 Platonic Epistemology","author":"Michael Richards","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":264391283,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"jfW1GRIEXlkOdDXVCMyjuu0uoTw="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/264391283/Sr-Karen-Asignment-1-Platonic-Epistemology"},{"type":"document","id":46100414,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/46100414/108x144/63f1732323/1293787139?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/46100414/216x288/9a034814d1/1293787139?v=1","title":"WRIT 1122 Syllabus_Winter 2011_Section43","short_title":"WRIT 1122 Syllabus_Winter 2011_Section43","author":"Jeff Ludwig","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":46100414,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"quobsjEFS07abbbPUA6NYqJuUyk="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/46100414/WRIT-1122-Syllabus-Winter-2011-Section43"},{"type":"document","id":95127361,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/95127361/108x144/0ac227f01e/1371223321?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/95127361/216x288/69bfd4492c/1371223321?v=1","title":"Curs.optional.retorica.discursului.politic","short_title":"Curs.optional.retorica.discursului.politic","author":"Raluca Marian","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":95127361,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"bZbWYripBt1BWfpdIgib7E1+PaQ="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/95127361/Curs-optional-retorica-discursului-politic"},{"type":"document","id":235800272,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/235800272/108x144/a65d67daa3/1407145618?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/235800272/216x288/d634b3de98/1407145618?v=1","title":"SPRAGUE R. K. - Plants as Aristotelian substances","short_title":"SPRAGUE R. K. - Plants as Aristotelian substances","author":"Jean-Claude Picot","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":235800272,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"aea8JMeN/YxHTcpp19mLyoigLnE="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/235800272/SPRAGUE-R-K-Plants-as-Aristotelian-substances"},{"type":"document","id":374775694,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/374775694/108x144/edf6cb1ae5/1521953449?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/374775694/216x288/5871242cae/1521953449?v=1","title":"hillen english 301 spring 2018","short_title":"hillen english 301 spring 2018","author":"api-399776247","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":374775694,"track":"similar_to","doc_uuid":"bI8Z1tDnuoRThRXlylEsNdZtxWY="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/374775694/hillen-english-301-spring-2018"}],"title_link":null,"title":"Documents Similar To Genera Dicendi. Peripatéticos - HENDRICKSON, G. L. (1904)","track_opts":{"compilation_id":"KsFTnfDEC0RzsFOi/bsiFhxIBkE=","module_id":"gCy+t/ZW0+dH8ROiDh+9dBIWyAU=","widget_name":"document_carousel"}},{"item_props":[{"type":"document","id":364219210,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/364219210/108x144/03e7c6ed00/1510511618?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/364219210/216x288/4dd742ceeb/1510511618?v=1","title":"Carmina Cantabrigiensia - ZIOLKOWSKI, J. M. (1998)","short_title":"Carmina Cantabrigiensia - ZIOLKOWSKI, J. M. (1998)","author":"glorydays","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":364219210,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"gVxI+rcCdPt0DNG06/TU4b4zvXs="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/364219210/Carmina-Cantabrigiensia-ZIOLKOWSKI-J-M-1998"},{"type":"document","id":362603065,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/362603065/108x144/6f4b899298/1508952983?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/362603065/216x288/756c3f45ec/1508952983?v=1","title":"Filología Griega. Informática - ZOGG, F. (2007)","short_title":"Filología Griega. Informática - ZOGG, F. (2007)","author":"glorydays","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":362603065,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"To4d9eD/7z63MRCyxU6LZvepE7Q="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/362603065/Filologia-Griega-Informatica-ZOGG-F-2007"},{"type":"document","id":364509369,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/364509369/108x144/d8e42173ca/1511221152?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/364509369/216x288/7fa8fe8bd6/1511221152?v=1","title":"Género Epidíctico - ZINSMAIER, Th. (1999)","short_title":"Género Epidíctico - ZINSMAIER, Th. (1999)","author":"glorydays","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":364509369,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"bkmmXra+kELhUpoyicbG1za6FjQ="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/364509369/Genero-Epidictico-ZINSMAIER-Th-1999"},{"type":"document","id":364219188,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/364219188/108x144/3771bc827a/1510511608?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/364219188/216x288/87a711db97/1510511608?v=1","title":"Filología Griega. Informática - ZOGG, F. (2007).pdf","short_title":"Filología Griega. Informática - ZOGG, F. (2007).pdf","author":"glorydays","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":364219188,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"LgUqGOMM+CI9VZMDDB8W9Jq2rsY="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/364219188/Filologia-Griega-Informatica-ZOGG-F-2007-pdf"},{"type":"document","id":364509310,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/364509310/108x144/0ca34ce58a/1511221151?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/364509310/216x288/edf6faf182/1511221151?v=1","title":"Esparta. Termópilas. Epigrama - ZIOGAS, I. (2014).pdf","short_title":"Esparta. Termópilas. Epigrama - ZIOGAS, I. (2014).pdf","author":"glorydays","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":364509310,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"NJSR5BbkpFWomYzfVK3bICUUtE4="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/364509310/Esparta-Termopilas-Epigrama-ZIOGAS-I-2014-pdf"},{"type":"document","id":364509343,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/364509343/108x144/6de7e350ef/1511221152?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/364509343/216x288/f9e3e4fcaa/1511221152?v=1","title":"Filología Griega. Informática - ZOGG, F. (2007).pdf","short_title":"Filología Griega. Informática - ZOGG, F. (2007).pdf","author":"glorydays","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":364509343,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"kQunBfUtyMQqQu/uIrtO6Kg4wMI="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/364509343/Filologia-Griega-Informatica-ZOGG-F-2007-pdf"},{"type":"document","id":362187879,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/362187879/108x144/d047263178/1508574760?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/362187879/216x288/1ddeee5d7e/1508574760?v=1","title":"pandora_julio 2016.pdf","short_title":"pandora_julio 2016.pdf","author":"glorydays","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":362187879,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"WifpLxLWyEUfkGvQjIYBMq816I8="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/362187879/pandora-julio-2016-pdf"},{"type":"document","id":368925741,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/368925741/108x144/87c289e152/1515685323?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/368925741/216x288/090e0e73ac/1515685323?v=1","title":"Tierra y Libertad (1910-1919). CNT. Orígenes - ZAMBRANA CAPITÁN, J. (2009).pdf","short_title":"Tierra y Libertad (1910-1919). CNT. Orígenes - ZAMBRANA CAPITÁN, J. (2009).pdf","author":"glorydays","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":368925741,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"ERymUefbGNPc0EAsntgbBKWKsrY="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/368925741/Tierra-y-Libertad-1910-1919-CNT-Origenes-ZAMBRANA-CAPITAN-J-2009-pdf"},{"type":"document","id":364838926,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/364838926/108x144/efdc297f47/1511236592?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/364838926/216x288/83ce351d87/1511236592?v=1","title":"Esparta. Termópilas. Epigrama - ZIOGAS, I. (2014).pdf","short_title":"Esparta. Termópilas. Epigrama - ZIOGAS, I. (2014).pdf","author":"glorydays","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":364838926,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"CNNjAdkfgwnAVSE1iuVxQPHc2ck="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/364838926/Esparta-Termopilas-Epigrama-ZIOGAS-I-2014-pdf"},{"type":"document","id":362187872,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/362187872/108x144/ac2ac3fc89/1508574744?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/362187872/216x288/1bfe27eb3e/1508574744?v=1","title":"pandora_junio 2016.pdf","short_title":"pandora_junio 2016.pdf","author":"glorydays","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":362187872,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"j1t3/S9wGnZUFLPD+an5WjXPUiY="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/362187872/pandora-junio-2016-pdf"},{"type":"document","id":368925267,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/368925267/108x144/a952202ab2/1515684806?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/368925267/216x288/a3cfdea0c0/1515684806?v=1","title":"Maquis. Aragón (1939-1952) - YUSTA RODRIGO, M. (Zaragoza, 2003).pdf","short_title":"Maquis. Aragón (1939-1952) - YUSTA RODRIGO, M. (Zaragoza, 2003).pdf","author":"glorydays","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":368925267,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"7ZAaVdr854vuI7rH4ppg18Ne85k="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/368925267/Maquis-Aragon-1939-1952-YUSTA-RODRIGO-M-Zaragoza-2003-pdf"},{"type":"document","id":364838963,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/364838963/108x144/c2ef4a8f50/1511235740?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/364838963/216x288/4b0eedff34/1511235740?v=1","title":"Jean Ziegler. Entrevista - RIVIÈRE MARTÍ, M. (2001 IV 15 D)","short_title":"Jean Ziegler. Entrevista - RIVIÈRE MARTÍ, M. (2001 IV 15 D)","author":"glorydays","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":364838963,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"LsB/Lzz6FylUFr4wKtYwfNy4za0="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/364838963/Jean-Ziegler-Entrevista-RIVIERE-MARTI-M-2001-IV-15-D"},{"type":"document","id":364838945,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/364838945/108x144/e013250eda/1511236589?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/364838945/216x288/47fa9c0300/1511236589?v=1","title":"Género epidíctico - ZINSMAIER, Th. (1999).pdf","short_title":"Género epidíctico - ZINSMAIER, Th. (1999).pdf","author":"glorydays","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":364838945,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"0TzMk+4Jj1mF39D0XBbVfdkbCZw="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/364838945/Genero-epidictico-ZINSMAIER-Th-1999-pdf"},{"type":"document","id":362187864,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/362187864/108x144/74834bd0c8/1508574729?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/362187864/216x288/7dc0b0f43f/1508574729?v=1","title":"pandora_enero 2016.pdf","short_title":"pandora_enero 2016.pdf","author":"glorydays","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":362187864,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"41nx6sB1VPZslWj6OJJNNP6KcTE="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/362187864/pandora-enero-2016-pdf"},{"type":"document","id":362187889,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/362187889/108x144/860d7b7375/1508574787?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/362187889/216x288/f7dfae95bd/1508574787?v=1","title":"Pandora Agosto 2016","short_title":"Pandora Agosto 2016","author":"glorydays","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":362187889,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"poMHnjkHWXYIH2k50LWkp/BAn5Y="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/362187889/Pandora-Agosto-2016"},{"type":"document","id":359116933,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/359116933/108x144/e36866c23e/1505641074?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/359116933/216x288/fc25ebe75d/1505641074?v=1","title":"pandora_febrero 2016.pdf","short_title":"pandora_febrero 2016.pdf","author":"glorydays","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":359116933,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"AJA4xc+thzONbwqOBvEfr0fhm9A="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/359116933/pandora-febrero-2016-pdf"},{"type":"document","id":359050353,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/359050353/108x144/acfca7f380/1505554680?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/359050353/216x288/e3bfba476c/1505554680?v=1","title":"pandora_enero 2016.pdf","short_title":"pandora_enero 2016.pdf","author":"glorydays","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":359050353,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"NimHkQBZ4BZZQa7rvI2fc3x/gdE="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/359050353/pandora-enero-2016-pdf"},{"type":"document","id":362187827,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/362187827/108x144/2f6124a7cb/1508574631?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/362187827/216x288/1e5c339c94/1508574631?v=1","title":"pandora_mayo 2016.pdf","short_title":"pandora_mayo 2016.pdf","author":"glorydays","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":362187827,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"meEWNjY/Z1tWYhCtBDlA8ga53iQ="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/362187827/pandora-mayo-2016-pdf"},{"type":"document","id":362187833,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/362187833/108x144/944bd00293/1508574658?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/362187833/216x288/4f2625b749/1508574658?v=1","title":"pandora_abril 2016.pdf","short_title":"pandora_abril 2016.pdf","author":"glorydays","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":362187833,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"nVV3XTlnfQQULEdoUn/bXVP2OI0="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/362187833/pandora-abril-2016-pdf"},{"type":"document","id":359116976,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/359116976/108x144/560a1616b5/1505641122?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/359116976/216x288/bf7034b3a5/1505641122?v=1","title":"Pandora Mayo 2016","short_title":"Pandora Mayo 2016","author":"glorydays","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":359116976,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"EB0pjIe4OXgYsaL6xDCybPwDljg="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/359116976/Pandora-Mayo-2016"},{"type":"document","id":359050363,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/359050363/108x144/b83525a353/1505554693?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/359050363/216x288/b082208460/1505554693?v=1","title":"Pandora Febrero 2016","short_title":"Pandora Febrero 2016","author":"glorydays","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":359050363,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"vMBjhkcFWXywEUhCGsCf9rB9st8="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/359050363/Pandora-Febrero-2016"},{"type":"document","id":359050323,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/359050323/108x144/f175642516/1505554640?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/359050323/216x288/033b9a7893/1505554640?v=1","title":"pandora_octubre 2016.pdf","short_title":"pandora_octubre 2016.pdf","author":"glorydays","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":359050323,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"BLsJHDKeH0M7+4v+7m87iQZON8Y="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/359050323/pandora-octubre-2016-pdf"},{"type":"document","id":359116951,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/359116951/108x144/803952ea6a/1505641121?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/359116951/216x288/381f7eb96a/1505641121?v=1","title":"pandora_marzo 2016.pdf","short_title":"pandora_marzo 2016.pdf","author":"glorydays","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":359116951,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"SAYwDvhjtR0wSc7VCdn5BDph/oQ="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/359116951/pandora-marzo-2016-pdf"},{"type":"document","id":359116964,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/359116964/108x144/c6b1bd25f9/1505641108?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/359116964/216x288/775938fbeb/1505641108?v=1","title":"pandora_abril 2016.pdf","short_title":"pandora_abril 2016.pdf","author":"glorydays","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":359116964,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"8BgpUaw7eNNzDdztMq9dnGDTKkM="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/359116964/pandora-abril-2016-pdf"},{"type":"document","id":359050341,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/359050341/108x144/198c5c9806/1505554669?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/359050341/216x288/64e7c574ea/1505554669?v=1","title":"pandora_diciembre 2016.pdf","short_title":"pandora_diciembre 2016.pdf","author":"glorydays","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":359050341,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"MwcMmsdlT0GCrrdtsy6IYSjVEcM="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/359050341/pandora-diciembre-2016-pdf"},{"type":"document","id":362187851,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/362187851/108x144/be3231f148/1508574709?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/362187851/216x288/eaaefbd401/1508574709?v=1","title":"pandora_febrero 2016.pdf","short_title":"pandora_febrero 2016.pdf","author":"glorydays","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":362187851,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"N4yAFp8u8OE3TwCLMtWk77WW9fk="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/362187851/pandora-febrero-2016-pdf"},{"type":"document","id":362187842,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/362187842/108x144/231101ee5b/1508574682?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/362187842/216x288/c4f038ef53/1508574682?v=1","title":"pandora_marzo 2016.pdf","short_title":"pandora_marzo 2016.pdf","author":"glorydays","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":362187842,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"u+uPbyYum8GRXEIZwDyMW9dGcJI="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/362187842/pandora-marzo-2016-pdf"},{"type":"document","id":359116886,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/359116886/108x144/c309c6da08/1505641020?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/359116886/216x288/531f2b57b8/1505641020?v=1","title":"pandora_abril 2015.pdf","short_title":"pandora_abril 2015.pdf","author":"glorydays","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":359116886,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"kMu7x8UVel4wehLKO6ul3ajBS1I="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/359116886/pandora-abril-2015-pdf"},{"type":"document","id":359050333,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/359050333/108x144/d71c85285e/1505554656?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/359050333/216x288/523cfdaec1/1505554656?v=1","title":"pandora_noviembre 2016.pdf","short_title":"pandora_noviembre 2016.pdf","author":"glorydays","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":359050333,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"epW3ywNi7lVgYaqd8gbXhdhakCQ="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/359050333/pandora-noviembre-2016-pdf"},{"type":"document","id":352080388,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/352080388/108x144/09a7a55bb8/1498231065?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/352080388/216x288/40566ce212/1498231065?v=1","title":"Pandora Junio 2016","short_title":"Pandora Junio 2016","author":"glorydays","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":352080388,"track":"from_user","doc_uuid":"BlGN3mHS7Z3KjxaeunaCeJsZWH0="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/352080388/Pandora-Junio-2016"}],"title_link":null,"title":"More From glorydays","track_opts":{"compilation_id":"KsFTnfDEC0RzsFOi/bsiFhxIBkE=","module_id":"aKd4o8KHr6y3SXgujONuChBIaBY=","widget_name":"document_carousel"}}]},"seo_new_docs_recommenders":{"recommenders":[]}},"seo_roadblock_props_path":"/doc-page/seo-roadblock-props/251107406","signup_context":null,"toolbar":{"search_path":"/search-4gen?allowed_pages=1%2C2&auth_token=BAYJbfxvm0nFbnKwh8Lk9GehXxQ%3D&authenticity_token=tSocEp%2B4uvjmulzGrIKETku55jfkattRQ%2F31SdIziYOArjtiwZg%2F4IuOZ2C%2BZf6Lvlgf6MLI5aHczYUeZN5XRw%3D%3D&expires=1537960725&wordDocumentId=251107406&wordUploadId=255728955"},"renewal_nag_props":null}-->