W dwide

World
e Pan
noram
ma o
of Nu
uclear Ene
ergy

N
Nove
mbe
er Ed
dition
n 2014

c Planning M
Management
GPL.G – Strategic

W
Worldwide Pa
anorama of N
Nuclear Ene
ergy – Nove
ember 2014

1

Tab
ble of C
Contentt
Introduction - page
I
e 3
I – Highlightts- page 4
II - World N
Nuclear Electricity Generatio
on - page 11
III – Reactorss Distribution - pag
ge 13
IV - Nuclear Energy Status
S
in ssome coun
ntries/regions
ericas -- page 14
ƒ Ame
ƒ Euro
age 28
ope -- pa
ƒ Africa / Midd
dle East / African Arabic Co
ountries--page 71
a -- page
e 82
ƒ Asia
ƒ Ausstralia -- page 105
5
V – Some Trrade Agre
eements and
a
Cooperration Acc
cords -- page 107
VI - A Few N
Nuclear A
Application
ns – page 123
VII – Environm
ment and S
Society -- page 12
29
VIII – Fuel
ƒ Ura
anium -- p
page 133
ƒ Tho
orium -- p
page 137
ƒ Pluttonium -- page 138
8
ƒ MOX
X -- pag
ge 138
uel, Radia
ation and W
Waste
IX – Spent Fu
• Spe
ent Fuel -- page 14
40
• Rad
diation -- page 141
1
• Nuc
clear and Radioactivve Waste -- page 146
X – P
Proliferatiion and Riisks for the Security -- pag
ge 151
XI – Decommis
D
sioning-- page 156
6
XII – Conclusion
ns -- page
e 158
Main Sourrces of inf
formation -- page 161
XIII – M
No
ote: Comm
ments will be welcome and ca
an be sentt to:
Ru
uth Soare
es Alves - rtalves@e
eletronucle
ear.gov.br

; and/or

- ruth_salve
es@hotma
ail.com

This re
eport can be reprod
duced in whole
w
or in
n part witth due ind
dication of
f the cred
dits.
The orig
ginal editio
on was wrritten in P
Portuguese
e.
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dwide Panorrama of Nuc
clear Energy – Novemb
ber 2014

2

In
ntroduc
ction
No techno
ology is more enshro
ouded in myth
m
than nuclear en
nergy. The
e urgency of addresssing
global povverty and reducing emissionss demandss that we consider this techn
nology with
hout
ideologica
al blinders.. The basic facts off the technology — both good and bad
d — mustt be
confronted
d.
Perhaps the key cha
allenge is in representing and communicating unce
ertainty – what
w
is kno
own,
n and unsu
ure in an un
ncertain wo
orld – to de
ecision-ma
akers seeking certaintty. Regardless
not known
of the safe
ety concerrns of nuclear powerr, there is n
no doubt tthat nuclea
ar power iss here to sstay.
While som
me countrie
es have putt in motion plans to phase
p
out n
nuclear pow
wer, there are many who
w
are actively boosting
g the growtth of nuclea
ar power.
As more ccountries lo
ook to builld their firsst nuclear power
p
plan
nt, the 'build own ope
erate' or B
BOO
model is seriously being co
onsidered for its b
benefits, w
which inclu
ude training, handss-on
experience
e, and fina
ancial supp
port.
Russia is a nuclea
ar power m
market established that is ag
ggressivelyy trying to explore new
n
opportunities in nucle
ear expand
ding marke
ets through
h Rusatom
m Overseass, a subsid
diary
business o
of Russian state-ow
wned Rosa
atom - Atomic Energ
gy Corpora
ation, found
ded in 201
11 to prom
mote
Russian n
nuclear technology gllobal market. The company inte
ends to usse a BOO m
model to b
build
the first nuclear pow
wer plant iin Turkey, based on Akkuyu in
n southern
n Turkey, d
due to starrt in
2015.
eling has its advanttages and disadvanttages depe
ending on the conditions of e
each
This mode
country. It is good if the cou
untry need
ds energy quickly an
nd does not
n have tthe necesssary
technological and nu
uclear skills and/or the
t
financia
al ability of the proce
ess involve
es. If howe
ever
the countrry wants to
o develop itts own nucclear industry, techno
ology and the
t indepen
ndence or has
specific ru
ules that ba
ar the mod
del (case o
of the USA
A) it is disadvantageo
ous. The m
most significcant
benefit is undoubte
edly financcial. Otherw
wise, the process ccould be sslower in T
Turkey in the
on of its first
f
nuclea
ar power plant. BOO
O models can be a great se
elling pointt for
constructio
developing
g countriess, such as Jordan, Ba
angladesh, Vietnam and
a Turkeyy.

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ar Energy – November 2014

3

Note:
es not add
dress quesstions of re
esponsibilitty, legal or otherwise
e, for actss or
This publiication doe
omissionss by any pe
erson. The use of parrticular dessignations of countrie
es or territo
ories does not
imply any judgment by the publisher, EL
LETRONUC
CLEAR, co
oncerning the legal sstatus of su
uch
countries o
or territorie
es, of their authoritiess and institu
utions or of the delimitation of itts frontiers.
mes of speccific compa
anies or (w
whether or not indica
ated as reg
gistered) do
oes
The mentiion of nam
not imply any produ
uct intended
d to infring
ge propriettary rights, nor should it be con
nstrued as an
endorsem
ment or reco
ommendatiion by ELE
ETRONUCLEAR.
ent of the
ese pagess have be
een carefully prepare
ed and re
eviewed. H
However, the
The conte
ELETRON
NUCLEAR does no
ot guarantee the accuracy, completen
c
ess or quality of the
information provided
d, or that it is up-to-da
ate.
LETRONUCLEAR in
n respect o
of material or immatterial dama
age
Liability cllaims agaiinst the EL
caused byy the use
e or non-u
use of the informatio
on offered or by ina
accurate or
o incompllete
information are in prrinciple rule
ed out provvided that there is no
o provable culpable in
ntent or gro
oss
negligence
e on the Company pa
art.

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ar Energy – November 2014

4

WORL
LD PAN
NORA
AMA O
OF NUC
CLEAR
R ENER
RGY
I – Hig
ghlights
s of the
e November 2
2014 Ed
dition
In 2014, up
p to Novem
mber
o 438 nuclear po
ower reacttors in ope
eration with an insta
alled total net capaciity of 375,504

W(e)
GW
uclear pow
o 71 nu
wer reactorss under co
onstruction (net capaccity of 67,027 MW(e)
ons to the g
grid
Connectio

o
o
o

Fuqing-1 (1000 M
MW(e), PW
WR, China) on 20/08/2
2014
Ningde
e-2 (1018 M
MW(e), PW
WR, China) on 04 /01//2014
Atucha
a 2 (692MW
W(e), PHW
WR, Argentiina) on 27 /06/2014
Fangjia
ashan-1 (10
000 MW(e), PWR, China) on 04/11/2014
0

o
Construction starts

o
o
o

Carem 25 (25 MW
W(e), PWR
R, Argentin
na) on 8/02
2/2014
Belarusssian-2 (11
109 MW, B
Belarus on 26/04/2014
Baraka
ah-3 (1345
5 MW, UAE
E on 24/09//2014

In 2013:
Permanen
nt shutdow
wns

o
o
o
o

Crysta
al River 3 (8
860 MW(e), PWR, US
SA) on 5 /0
02/2013
Kewau
unee (566 MW(e), PW
WR, USA on
o 7/05/2013
San Onofre
O
2 (10
070 MW(e), PWR, US
SA) on 7 /0
06/2013
San Onofre
O
2 (10
070 MW(e), PWR, US
SA) on 7 /0
06/2013

Connectio
ons to the g
grid

o
o
o
o

Hongyan
nhe-1 (100
00 MW(e), PWR, CHINA) on 18 /02/2013
Hongyan
nhe-2 (100
00 MW(e), PWR, CHINA) on 23 /11/2013
Kudanku
ulam-1 (917 MW(e), P
PWR, India
a) on 22 /10/2013
Yangjian
ng-1 ( 1000MW(e), PWR,
P
CHIN
NA) on 31 //12/2013

Construction starts

o
o
o
o
o
o
o

Virgil C. Summer 2 (1117 MW
W(e), PWR
R, USA) on 9 /03/2013
3
W(e), PWR
R, USA) on 4 /11/2013
3
Virgil C. Summer 3 (1117 MW
3(1117 MW
W(e), PWR, USA) on 1
12 /03/2013
Vogtle-3
Barakah
h 2(1345 MW(e), PWR
R, UAE) on
n 28 /05/20
013
Shin-Hanul-2(1340
0 MW(e), P
PWR, KOR
REA REP.) on 19 /06/2
2013
Yangjian
ng 5 (1000 MW(e), PW
WR, China
a) on 19 /06
6/2013
Tianwan
n 4 (1050 MW(e),
M
PW
WR, China) on 27 /09//2013

15 Countries,, representting half off world population bu
uild 69 new
w reactorss with total net
pacity of 66
6,831 MW((e).
cap

65 Countries holding no
o nuclear te
echnology have exprressed to tthe IAEA th
heir interesst in
thiss matter, a
as they plan
p
to build reactorrs and/or to develo
op an indu
ustrial nucclear
cap
pability.

GPL.G
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Worldwide Panoram
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ar Energy – November 2014

5

Counttry

AR
RGENTINA
AR
RMENIA
BE
ELGIUM
BR
RAZIL
BU
ULGARIA
CA
ANADA
CH
HINA
CZ
ZECH REPU
UBLIC
FINLAND
FR
RANCE
GE
ERMANY
HU
UNGARY
INDIA
IR
RAN
JA
APAN
KO
OREA, REPU
UBLIC
OF
F
ME
EXICO
NE
ETHERLAND
DS
PA
AKISTAN
RO
OMANIA
RU
USSIA
SL
LOVAKIA
SL
LOVENIA
SO
OUTH AFRIC
CA
SP
PAIN
SW
WEDEN
SW
WITZERLAN
ND
TA
AIWAN, CHIN
NA
UK
KRAINE
UN
NITED KING
GDOM
US
SA

Tota
al

Number o
of
Operated
d
Reactors
s
June 2014

T
Total Net
E
Electrical
Cap
pacity [MW
W]

3
1
7
2
2
19
23
6
4
58
9
4
21
1
48
23

1.627
375
5.927
1.884
1.906
13.500
18.610
3.884
2.752
63.130
12.068
1.889
5.308
915
42.388
20.721

2
1
3
2
33
4
1
2
7
10
5
6
15
16
100

1.330
482
690
1.300
23.643
1.815
688
1.860
7.567
9.474
3.308
5.032
13.107
9.243
99.081

438

3
375.504

R
Reactor typ
pe

3 PHWR
PWR
7 PWR
2 PWR
2 PWR
PHWR
PWR
6 PWR
2
2PWR e 2 BWR
R
58 PWR
7 PWR; 3 BWR
R
4 PWR
1 PWR; 2 BWR; 18 P
PHWR
1 PWR
24 PWR; 24 BW
WR
19 PWR; 4 PHW
WR
2 BWR
1 PWR
2 PWR; 1 PHWR
R
2 PHWR
1FBR
R;17 PWR; 15 L
LWGR
4 PWR
1 PWR
2 PWR
1
1BWR e 6 PWR
R
7 BWR; 3 PWR
R
2BWR; 3 PWR
R
2 PWR; 4 BWR
R
15 PWR
1 PWR; 15 GCR
R
35 BWR; 65 PW
WR

438 R
Reactors in operation by
b type Cou
untry - IAEA
A – Novemb
ber 2014

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Worldwide Panoram
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ar Energy – November 2014

6

BWR - Boiling Light-WatterCooled an
nd Moderated Reactor
15; 3%

GCR-Gás ccooled, GraphiteModerateed Reactor

2; 1%

81; 19%

FBR - Fast Breeder Reacctor
15; 3%
9; 11%
49

LWGR-Light-WaterCooled,graaphite-Moderrated
Reactor
PHWR - Prressurized HeaavyWater-Mo
oderated and Cooled
Reactor
PWR - Preessurized Lightt-WaterModerateed and Cooled Reactor

276; 6
63%

Reac
ctors Un
nder con
nstructiion

-

IAEA - Novem
mber 13
3 th, 201
14

Num
mber of
Rea
actors

Tota
al Net
Elec
ctrical
Capaciity (MW)

ARGENT
TINA

1

2
25

BELARUS
BRAZIL
CHINA
FINLAND
D
FRANCE
INDIA
JAPAN
KOREA, REPUBLIC
C OF
PAKISTA
AN
RUSSIA
SLOVAK
KIA
TAIWAN,, CHINA
UKRAINE
E
UNITED A
ARAB EMIRATES
UNITED S
STATES O
OF AMERIC
CA

2
1
26
1
1
6
2
5
2
10
2
2
2
3
5

22
218
12
245
25
5756
16
600
16
630
39
907
13
325
63
370
6
630
83
382
8
880
26
600
19
900
40
035
56
633

Total

71

Countrry

Rea
actor Typ
pe
1 PWR
2 PWR
1 PWR
25 PWR
R; 1 HTR
1 PWR
1 PWR
1 PWR; 4 PHWR; 1 FBR
2 BWR
5 PWR
2 PWR
9 PWR; 1 FBR
2 PWR
2 BWR
2 PWR
3 PWR
5 PWR

68,136 MW

71 Reactorrs under construction by type – November
N
2
2014

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Worldwide Panoram
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ar Energy – November 2014

7

2; 3%
4; 5%

1; 1%
%
4; 6%

BWR - Boilingg Light-WaterCooled and M
Moderated
Reactor
FBR - Fast Breeeder Reactor

HTGR - High-TTemperature
Gas-Cooled Reactor
60; 85%

PHWR - Pressurized Heavy-Water-Moderrated and Coo
oled
Reactor
PWR - Pressurized LightWater-Moderrated and Coo
oled
Reactor

Summa
ary of Ana
alyses and
d Procedures adopted by mos
st countrie
es after the
accident Fukush
hima
After th
he acciden
nt at Fuku
ushima in Japan in March 201
11, the en
ntire nuclea
ar industryy
mobilized for the evaluation
n of the eve
ent and ste
eps to be taken to en
nsure that these
t
factss
would n
not repeat in other nuclear pow
wer plants. The lesso
ons from th
he event ge
enerated a
series of
o actions as a result of the evvaluations tthat each ccountry ha
as made. T
The issues,
problem
ms and solutions are not commo
on to all reactors or to
o all countries.
me cases it will be necessaryy change tthe regulattory structure of the
e countries’
For som
regulato
ors with the intention
n of making
g agenciess more inde
ependent, but most o
of countriess
did analyzes foccused on ensuring the reacto
ors ability to withsta
and extrem
me eventss
(earthq
quakes and
d other seissmic eventts, tsunami, floods, w
windstorms and hurriccanes) and
d
the beh
havior of ssecurity sysstems and
d safe shuttdown of th
he plants. They also
o evaluated
d
the pro
ocesses an
nd planning
g for exterrnal respon
nse to nucclear emerg
gencies an
nd SAMG'ss
(Severe
e Accidentss Managem
ment Guide
elines)
Evaluattions unde
ertaken by countrie
es and th
heir regula
ators gene
erate prog
grams and
d
procedures to solve any we
eaknesses and have
e been or are
a being d
developed.. The main
n
entrated in areas whe
ere there arre potentia
al for improvvements:
actionss are conce
1. Country
C
Re
egulatory S
Structure;
2. Seismic
S
resistance evvaluation o
of each rea
actor;
3. Checking
C
o
of Tsunami/flood defe
enses;
4. Install
I
new
w emergenccy Diesels;
5. Checking
C
E
Emergencyy cooling p
pumps;
6. Evaluation
E
of Spent F
Fuel Pool C
Cooling;
7. Checking
C
o
of Instrume
entation’s S
Spent Fuel Pool;
8. Hydrogen’s
H
s Recombiiners
9. Containme
C
ent Vent
10. SAMG’s
S
(S
Severe Acccidents Management Guideliness)
11. Multi-unit
M
A
Analysis Em
mergency Response

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The comparison o
of nuclear power gen
neration in the years 2
2010 to 20
013 showss that some
e
countrie
es have re
educed their nuclea
ar generation, but m
most of the
em has inccrease the
e
energy generated
d by this source
s
from
m one yearr to the ne
ext. Only JJapan, whicch took off
ff
of its fleet ffor tests affter the earrthquake a
and tsunam
mi of March
h 2011 and
d Germanyy
much o
have tu
urned off some of its reactors sspontaneou
usly, had a reduction
n in its nucclear powerr
generation.
900.0000

800.0000

G
Geração
nuclearr fonte: IAEAA
2010/ 2011/ 2012/ 2013

700.0000

600.0000

500.0000

400.0000

300.0000

200.0000

100.0000

0

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World
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ber 2014

9

II - W
World N
Nuclearr electrricity ge
eneratiion
With th
he global g
growth in e
energy con
nsumption, a lot of efforts
e
have
e been ma
ade toward
d
increassing electricity generrating cap
pacity, and
d nuclear energy sta
ands as one
o
of the
e
leading
g technolog
gies for the
e future off the nucle
ear power industry.
i
Itt provides one of the
e
best he
eat genera
ation rates among other therma
al electricitty generatiion source
es, emitting
g
no gree
enhouse gases.
g
Also
o, being de
eployable in a small area with a powerfu
ul fuel at a
highly competitivve price, n
nuclear en
nergy allow
ws large-sscale elecctricity prod
duction byy
ng as a com
mponent off the powe
er grid’s basseload flee
et.
suitablyy functionin
So thatt the functiions of mo
odern socie
ety can be appropriattely perform
med (settin
ng industryy
in motio
on, comme
erce, proviiding comm
munication, health, p
public serviices, etc...)) energy iss
an esse
ential staplle to rely on
n, especially electric energy sup
pplied in a reliable manner, at a
suitable
e price. En
nergy supp
ply and security is cu
urrently an
n essential requireme
ent for anyy
countryy, and a key driver forr many of the
t strategiic decisions made byy governme
ents.
Total electricity ge
eneration data
d
has be
een furnish
hed by the companiess involved, always on
n
nual basis. In 2013, the Unitted Statess was the country tthat most generated
d
an ann
electriccity from nu
uclear pow
wer, accoun
nting for arround 33%
% of the wo
orld’s total production
n
of such
h form of energy. Oth
her leading electricity producing
g countries were: Fran
nce (17%),
Russia (6,8%), S
South Kore
ea (5,6%), China (4
4,4%), Canada (4%), German
ny 3,91%),
e (3,31%). Brazil wa
as responssible for 0,58% of the world’s electricity generation
n
Ukraine
from nu
uclear pow
wer.
d its produ
uction of nuclear ene
ergy in 201
13 that rea
ached 405
5,989 GWh
h
France decreased
nger stops in
i the perio
od. In Japa
an, producttion was 13
3,947GWh,
primarily due to outages lon
uge drop ccompared to 2011 w
when it reached 156
6,182 GWh as a result of the
e
with hu
acciden
nt at Fukushima Daiiichi. Only two reacto
ors were in operatio
on in 2013. Germanyy
ed 92,141 GWh nett with small reductio
produce
on comparred to 201
11 and 2012 when itt
reached
d, respectively, 96,951 and 94
4098 GWh net.
According to the
e Internatio
onal Energ
gy Agencyy (IEA), in ‘World En
nergy Outlook 2012’
Nuclear energy o
output could rise by 5
58 percentt by 2035, but nucle
ear’ s share of world
d
energy generatio
on will fall from 13 percent to
o 12 perce
ent becausse the am
mbitions forr
een “scaled
d back” as
a countrie
es have re
eviewed policies
p
following the
e
nuclearr have be
acciden
nt at Fukusshima-Daiichi. The ca
apacity is still
s projectted to rise,, led by Ch
hina, South
h
Korea, India and Russia.
AEA adopte
ed a resolution to en
ncourage a
and suppo
ort the devvelopment of nuclearr
The IA
applica
ations in de
eveloping countries
c
in
n order to re
educe the existing wiide distancce between
n
the ave
erage annu
ual consum
mption by de
eveloped ccountries (a
about 8,600 KWh perr inhabitantt
- OECD
D) and, for example, that of th
he African continent which is 1
170 lower, inasmuch
h
improviing such indicator is the drriver of prrogress an
nd well-be
eing of th
he needierr
populattion.
At pressent, 65 co
ountries holding no nu
uclear tech
hnology ha
ave expresssed to the IAEA theirr
interestt in this m
matter, as they plan to build reactors
r
a
and/or to d
develop an
n industrial

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ber 2014

10

nuclearr capabilityy. Expandin
ng world powers
p
wan
nt to multip
ply the num
mber of po
ower plantss
in their territory.
after the accident a
at the Fu
ukushima nuclear
n
po
ower station in Jap
pan, manyy
Even a
governments con
nsider the internationa
al expansio
on of nucle
ear energyy an option
n to climate
e
change
e and an alternative to
o oscillations in the p
prices of en
nergy produ
ucts, and a protection
n
againstt the uncerrtainties of fossil fuel supply. Th
he worldwid
de expansiion of nuclear energyy
requires that governmentss act resp
ponsibly an
nd enforce
e strict sa
afety criterria on the
e
on of nucle
ear facilities.
operatio

Tota
al Capacity
suppllied [GW.h] 2013

C
Country
UNITED STA
ATES OF AM
MERICA
FR
RANCE
RUSSIA
KO
OREA, REP
PUBLIC OF
CHINA
CA
ANADA
GERMANY
UKRAINE
UNITED KING
GDOM
SW
WEDEN
SP
PAIN
BE
ELGIUM
TA
AIWAN, CH
HINA
IN
NDIA
CZ
ZECH REPUBLIC
SW
WITZERLAND
FIINLAND
SL
LOVAKIA
HUNGARY
JA
APAN
BR
RAZIL
SO
OUTH AFR
RICA
BU
ULGARIA
MEXICO
RO
OMANIA
AR
RGENTINA
A
SL
LOVENIA
PA
AKISTAN
IR
RAN, ISLAM
MIC REPUBLIC OF
NETHERLAN
NDS
AR
RMENIA

790.1
186,82
405.8
898,51
161.7
718,08
132.4
465,24
104.8
837,88
94.2
290,49
92.1
141,57
78.1
166,16
64.1
132,52
63.7
723,40
54.3
313,20
40.6
631,96
39.8
820,26
30.0
008,52
29.0
005,37
24.9
991,83
22.6
673,00
14.6
623,63
14.5
537,51
13.9
947,00
13.7
780,06
13.6
640,61
13.3
316,11
11.3
377,14
10.6
695,75
5.7
735,22
5.0
036,47
4.3
370,93
3.8
893,67
2.7
736,93
2.1
167,63

World
C
Contribut
tion
[%] - 201
13
33,50
17,21
6,86
5,62
4,44
4,00
3,91
3,31
2,72
2,70
2,30
1,72
1,69
1,27
1,23
1,06
0,96
0,62
0,62
0,59
0,58
0,58
0,56
0,48
0,45
0,24
0,21
0,19
0,17
0,12
0,09

Particiipation by c
country in tthe world nu
uclear power generation – 2013

The ma
ajor barrie
ers to the nuclear op
ption have to do with
h the safe
ety of nucle
ear plants,
disposa
al of radioactive wasstes and p
proliferation
n of nuclea
ar weapon
ns, in addition to the
e
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costs o
of construction and m
maintenancce. Also to be conside
ered is the
e difficulty involved in
n
supplying large-siized nuclea
ar components.
EA projectss the nece
essity for governmentts to mitiga
ate the fina
ancial riskss
Additionally the IE
ear constructions an
nd projects through sspecific pollicies, such
h as by inccluding the
e
of nucle
carbon price in g
generation costs, so
o that the nuclear so
ource’s 37
75 GWe re
equired forr
g operation
ns between 2020 an
nd 2030, b
both in rep
placing old
d plants a
and in new
w
starting
electriccity generattion projectts can obta
ain the ade
equate inve
estment.

III - D
Distribu
ution of
o Reac
ctors
Amon
ng
the
largest
electricityy
generrating flee
ets, the following
g
countrries stand
d out: th
he United
d
Statess with 104 units, Fran
nce with 59
9
reacto
ors and Japan, 53. In 2010,
constrruction wass started o
on fourteen
n
new p
plants, and
d five new ones were
e
conne
ected to the
eir grids. B
But mention
n
should
d be mad
de of the
e definitive
e
closurre of the Phenix (130
0 MW(and),
FBR, France) on
n 02/01/10.
Accord
ding to the
e World Nuclear
N
Asssociation - WNA up
p to April 2
2014 the experience
e
e
gained all over th
he world byy nuclear power
p
reacctors (sum
mmation of all reactorrs’ years off
on), was m
more than 15,000 ye
ears, with the power generatio
on of arou
und 68,400
0
operatio
TWh.
Suppliers
Genera
al Electric - GE
Westin
nghouse
Areva
AECL
Mitsub
bish
Toshib
ba
Genera
al Atomics
s
Eskon

Reacto
ors type
A
ABWR
/ ES
SBWR
A
AP1000
E
EPR
A
ACR
700
U
USA
PWR
A
ABWR
G
GTMHR
P
PBMR

hortage off large forgings is a problem
m to be ttackled byy the worrld’s majorr
The sh
constru
uctors of n
new nuclea
ar reactorss. There e
exist not many
m
manu
ufacturers of reactorr
pressurre vessels, steam ge
enerators or
o large turrbines. Forr example,, Japan Steel Works,
which h
holds 80%
% of the larrge forging
gs market, acknowledges that it has a capacity
c
forr
only 4 vvessels a year.
y
uclear Engineering In
nstitute - NEI warns that the rele
evant arrangements should nott
The Nu
be dela
ayed, on p
pain of imp
pacting the
e constructtion schedule of new
w plants. O
Other large
e
manufa
acturing co
ompanies a
are China F
First Heavyy Industries and Chin
na Erzhong
g, Russia’ss
OMZ Izzhora, Korrea’s Doossan, Francce’s Le Crreusot and
d India’s JS
SW. All off them are
e
expand
ding their capacities.
c
The most recent devvelopmentss are in Ge
ermany, wh
hich set up
p
a new ffabrication plant at Vö
ölklingen and
a the Fre
ench compa
any Alstom
m, which op
pened up a
new fab
brication pllant in the United Sta
ates to mee
et the need
ds for large
e turbines a
and turbine
e
generators and o
other equip
pment item
ms for gas-- and nucllear-fueled power pla
ants in the
e
U.S. ma
arket. Also
o, new fabrication plan
nts are planned in En
ngland, Ind
dia and China.
house-Tosh
hiba, and G
GE-Hitachii are vendo
ors holding
g
Consorrtia “Areva//Mitsubishii, Westingh
larger production
n scale and technolo
ogy to cau
use real im
mpact on the
t
nuclea
ar industry.
Mention
n should a
also be ma
ade of Kore
ean and Russian
R
com
mpanies. B
Because o
of the small
number of compe
etitors, the market is likely to go through a scaling up
p of prices in
i general.

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Apart frrom small reactors,
r
th
he following are the m
main mode
els actively being marrketed:
• Are
eva: EPR, Atmea1, K
Kerena
• We
estinghouse/Toshiba:: AP1000, A
ABWR
• GE
E Hitachi: ABWR,
A
ESB
BWR, PRIS
SM
• KH
HNP: APR1400
• Mittsubishi: AP
PWR
• Ro
osatom: AE
ES-92, AES
S-2006, VV
VER-TOI ettc
• Ca
andu: EC6
• CN
NNC & CGN
N: Hualong
g One (from
m 2014)
• SN
NPTC: CAP
P1400 (from
m 2014)
Up to A
August 2013, accord
ding to the IAEA, 82.7
7% of the operating
o
rreactors (35
59) around
d
the world had be
een active for more th
han 20 years. Of the
ese, 183 u
units had b
between 20
0
and 30
0 years, an
nd 176 havve more th
han 30 yea
ars of activvity. Such fleets
f
will have
h
to be
e
replace
ed by new reactors o
or by anoth
her energy generation
n source. P
Part of the solution iss
to extend the exissting plants’ useful liffetime, pusshing the p
problem off energy su
upply on to
o
the futu
ure. Accord
ding to the
e WNA, byy 2030, 143
3 are expe
ected to be
e closed, as
a they will
reach the end of ttheir useful lifetime.
o após o accidente da usina de F
Fukushima muitos pa
aíses contin
nuam conssiderando a
Mesmo
fonte nuclear com
mo uma op
pção às mu
udanças cclimática e à instabilid
dade dos p
preços doss
a geração de energia
a elétrica. A expansã
ão da geraçção nuclea
ar depende
e
combusstíveis para
também
m que govvernos ajam
m com ressponsabilidade e se ccomprome
etam com o
os critérioss
de segu
urança de operação de suas ce
entrai.
Even a
after the accident a
at the Fu
ukushima nuclear
n
po
ower station in Jap
pan, manyy
governments con
nsider the internationa
al expansio
on of nucle
ear energyy an option
n to climate
e
change
e and an alternative to
o oscillations in the p
prices of en
nergy produ
ucts, and a protection
n
againstt the uncerrtainties of fossil fuel supply. Th
he worldwid
de expansiion of nuclear energyy
requires that governmentss act resp
ponsibly an
nd enforce
e strict sa
afety criterria on the
e
operatio
on of nucle
ear facilities.

Age of
o Reactors in operation
Sou
urce: IAEA Jun
ne 2014

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IV - Currrent S
Situation off Nucllear E
Energy
y in
So
ome C
Counttries / Regio
ons
A - Ame
ericas

Nuclear Power plant position
n in North Ame
erica

A
A1 – No
orth Am
merica
da
Canad
Country
y

Reactors in
i
operation
n

Canada

19

installed
capacity (M
MW)

13,500

Reacto
ors under
consttruction

c
capacity
under
co
onstruction (MW
W)

generated energy
2013 (T
TWH)

% off total energy
gene
erated in 2013

0

0

96,9
97

16

Canada
a’s total n
nuclear insstalled cap
pacity up to
t 2013 was
w
13,500
0 MW. Th
he sourcess
comprissing a mixx of hydro,, thermal and
a
nuclea
ar sources, in additio
on to otherrs such ass
wind, b
biomass, biogas and solar. Can
nada has 19 operatin
ng nuclearr power pla
ants (17 off
them in
n Ontario) which generated 96,97 TWh or 16% of the countryy’s electricity in 2013.
All reacctors are PHWR type -pressurizzed heavy water
w
reacctor (CAND
DU).
In Septtember 201
12 followin
ng a processs of refurb
bishing and
d reconnecction of Brruce Powerr
Plant (4
4 PHWR U
Units), the Bruce-2 ((772-MW) was synch
hronized to
o the grid. The plantt
located
d in Ontario returning
g to servicce after ha
aving been
n shut sincce 1995. Unit
U
4 wass
restarte
ed in late 2
2003 and unit
u 3 in early 2004. T
The Unit 1 is expecte
ed to return
n to service
e
the fou
urth quarte
er of 2012. The Poin
nt Lepreau
u plant is also being
g refurbish
hed and in
n
Octobe
er, 2012 it was
w grid-re
econnected
d.
The lon
ng-term en
nergy plan published in Novem
mber 2010 contempla
ates at leasst two new
w
nuclearr plants (to
otal capacity 2,000 M
MW) in the
e Ontario region (Da
arlington, where
w
fourr
other plants alrea
ady exist) a
and refurbisshing otherr 10 by 202
20.
In June
e 2013 the
e Ontario Power
P
Generation (O
OPG) has received detailed co
onstruction
n
plans, schedules and cost estimates for two potential nu
uclear reacctors at Da
arlington in
n
Ontario
o.
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The prroposals w
were by Westingho
ouse Electtric Canad
da (AP1000) and SN
NC-Lavalin
n
Nuclear / Candu Energy. Co
ompleted ssubmission
ns will be re
eviewed byy a team of OPG and
d
the Miinistries off Energy, Finance and Infra
astructure Ontario. The
T
Nucle
ear Safetyy
Canada hass also gran
nted a license to pre
epare the ssite, but no
o work wass
Commiission of C
done on site.
anadian Nu
uclear Safe
ety Commisssion has renewed th
he operatin
ng license for Ontario
o
The Ca
Power Generatio
on's Pickerring A and
d B stations, comprrising six u
units, for ffive years,
through
h August 3
31, 2018. In 2013 A
Alstom has been se
elected to refurbish ffour steam
m
turbine generato
or units off 3,512 MW
M
Darlin
ngton pow
wer plant in Ontario
o, with an
n
approximate pow
wer capacitty of 900 MW
M each, for Ontarrio Power Generation
n’s (OPG).
This long-term se
ervice con
ntract is wo
orth appro
oximately €
€265m (US
S$340m). Alstom
A
will
bines and generators units, and the associated
d auxiliaryy
refurbissh four stteam turb
equipm
ment. The fiirst planned outage to
o start thiss moderniza
ation is sch
heduled fo
or the fall off
2016 and
a
comple
etion of the
e entire re
efurbishment project is expecte
ed in late 2
2024. Thiss
mid-life
e refurbishm
ment will be
b one of the largest capital inffrastructure
e projects iin Canada,
creating
g significan
nt long-term
m benefits for 25 to 30
3 additiona
al years be
eyond the e
existing life
e
cycle.
In 2011
1 Canada became th
he first cou
untry to announce it w
would with
hdraw from
m the Kyoto
o
protoco
ol on climatte change since it willl not able to
t reach go
oals becau
use the exp
ploitation off
oil rese
erves in Ca
anada and North America could
d increase global atm
mospheric C
CO2 levelss
by as m
much as 15%. As th
he country is the larg
gest supplier of oil an
nd natural gas to the
e
United States and
d is keen tto boost ou
utput of cru
ude from A
Alberta's oil sands - also
a
known
n
as tar ssands - which are cen
ntral to Can
nada's ene
ergy strateg
gy.
The AE
ECL develo
ops the Ad
dvanced C
Candu Rea
actor (Generation III)), fueled by enriched
d
uranium
m or thorium
m, but therre are no b
built units using such design.
own reacttor design (CANDU))
Canada has its o
acked by tthe government, whicch recentlyy
partly ba
(May 2
2010) deccided to withdraw from the
e
businesss, after ha
aving alloccated nearrly 2 billion
n
dollars to compa
any AECL for deve
eloping the
e
g
since 20
006. Such
h
CANDU’s new generation,
n is due to the size o
of the AEC
CL reactorss
decision
division,, not big en
nough to co
ompete in the markett
with succh giants off the size o
of AREVA or Toshiba
a
and Gen
neral Electric.
NRU at Ch
halk River – Canada (photo AECL)

Specialists have vowed tha
at, withoutt the particcipation off the Cana
adian gove
ernment, itt
would b
be difficult for the CA
ANDU techn
nology to ssurvive; butt in June 2011
2
the SN
NC-Lavalin
n
Group signed a p
purchase agreement
a
for taking up the go
overnment’s share in the AECL
L
n Canada and worlldwide, the
e National
reactorrs division. Of vital importancce both in
Researrch Universsal Reacto
or – NRU, located o
on Chalk R
River betwe
een the Quebec and
d
Ontario
o provinces, is operrated by tthe Atomicc Energy of Canada Ltd - A
AECL, and
d
ed – for so
produce
ome time – half of the
e world’s medical isoto
opes.
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On acccount of m
maintenance
e problemss associated with electrical fla
aws and he
eavy waterr
leaks, it was shutt down on 05/14/2009
9. Necessa
ary correcttive and ma
aintenance
e work wass
perform
med for fifte
een month
hs. On Aug
gust 17, 20
010, after the
t repairs, the regulatory bodyy
authorizzed the re
eactor to be restore
ed into service and the resum
mption of world-level
producttion of rad
dioisotopess. On Octo
ober 2011,, the NRU
U reactor, which
w
also
o producess
neutron
n-based n
nuclear re
esearch m
materials, was give
en authorrization to
o continue
e
radioiso
otope prod
duction up to 2016. Such
S
facilityy is the wo
orld’s oldesst of its kin
nd and hass
been in
n operation
n since 195
53.
Canada
a is one o
of the large
est uranium produce
ers in the world. The
e companyy Cameco
o
owns several
s
min
nes whose production
n is exporte
ed to manyy countriess. As an exxample we
e
can me
ention the cooperatio
on agreem
ment signed with Ind
dia for sup
pply of Indian NPPs,
which entered
e
into
o force in 2013.
2
Nuclea
ar wastes
Canada
a contemplates a De
eep Geolog
gic Reposittory (DGR)) for low- and interme
ediate-level
radioacctive waste
es. Site cle
earing and constructiion work a
and operation are pro
oposed forr
the Tivverton regio
on near th
he site of B
Bruce nuclear powerr station. S
Such nucle
ear wastess
storage
e facility is planned to
o serve all nuclear po
ower reactors at the Bruce, Picckering and
d
Darling
gton power stations.
7, after reviiewing the options, th
he Canadia
an governm
ment decide
ed that all o
of its spentt
In 2007
fuel wo
ould be sea
aled into sa
afe contain
ners and sttored in un
nderground
d rock repo
ositories forr
use in the future.. Such facilities will b
be a mega
aproject with planned
d expenditu
ures of the
e
of 20 billion
n dollars over
o
an are
ea of 10 hectares on
n the surfa
ace and ga
alleries 500
0
order o
meters below ground level.
es have e
expressed interest iin the pro
oject, with three being in the
e
Eight ccommunitie
Saskatcchewan (P
Pinehouse, Patuanakk and Creig
ghton) regiions and five in Onta
ario. These
e
commu
unities are in the learning stage with respect to nu
uclear wasttes, which may be a
heritage
e for future genera
ations to u
use new nuclear
n
te
echnologiess in recovvering and
d
recyclin
ng fuel exp
pected to be
e develope
ed over the
e forthcoming 100 yea
ars.
a’s regulatory body - Canadian
n Nuclear S
Safety Com
mmission (CNSC) wo
orked out a
Canada
plan of action for operators of any nucclear facilitties in Can
nada to gett them to review theirr
safety stances a
and criteria
a in the liight of the
e Fukushim
ma eventss, with em
mphasis on
n
defense
e-in-depth principle
es and m
mechanism
ms for prevention and mitigation off
conseq
quences fro
om adverse
e and seve
ere events in generall. Under the plan, succh external
risks ass seismic e
events, floo
ods, fire, h
hurricanes, etc. must be considered and e
emergencyy
plans updated.
u
The revvitalization
n plans for Bruce po
ower station
e
n’s units (in Ontario) continue within the
same e
established
d schedule, noting tha
at Unit 2 iss expected to be back in operattion by late
e
2011 and Unit number 1 by early 2012
2. The final cost will b
be US$ 5 b
billion. Worrk activitiess
on the remaining 6 plants arre to start b
by 2015.

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16

Mexic
co
Countrry

Reactorrs in
operattion

installed
d
capacity
y (MW)

Reac
ctors under
con
nstruction

Mexic
co

2

164
40

0

c
capacity unde
er
generated e
energy
construction
2013 (TW
WH)
(MW)

0

11,37
77

% of total energy
generrated in 2013

4.6

Mexico
o has a nucclear powerr station wiith 2 BWR operating plants (Lag
guna Verde
e-1 and -2,
820 MW
W, each) located in Vera Cruzz, whose e
electricity p
production in 2013 was
w 11,377
7
TWh orr 4.6% of the
t countryy’s electricc power. Th
he power station’s
s
ow
wner and operator iss
the statte-run entitty Comision Federal de Electriccidad (CFE
E) which ho
olds around
d 2/3 of the
e
Mexica
an power grid’s installled capacitty, including transmisssion and p
part of the d
distribution
n
networkk.
ong outages for 20%
% power u
uprate and
d
The lo
other maintena
ance activvities, com
mpleted in
n
Augusst 2010 on the two pllants (Lagu
una Verde-1 and
d -2) broug
ght down the
t
percen
nt share off
nuclea
ar energy in the cou
untry’s total electricityy
generration. Mexico has plans to build new
w
plantss over the fforthcomin
ng years, th
he first one
e
to be
e on the g
grid by 20
021. The ffuture (ten
n
planne
ed) plants are reporrted to be 1,300 and
d
1,600 MW, using
g technology yet to b
be defined.
Laguna Verde
V
– Mexico
o
(Image Comision Federral de Electriciidad -CFE)

South Korea hass plans to participate
e in this Me
exican devvelopment through a
agreementss
nt venturess inasmuch
h as Mexicco intends tto reach 35
5% capacity in clean energy byy
and join
2024 (nuclear ne
ew-build in
ncluded). The
T
counttry also ha
as researcch reactorss and hass
signed a cooperation agreem
ment with Canada
C
in the area o
of research
h and devellopment.
ectricity mixx is well divversified, w
with gas su
upplying ap
pproximate
ely 49%, oill 20%, coal
The ele
12.5%, hydro 10.5% and n
nuclear 4.7
7% in 2007, accordin
ng to data
a from the WNA. Perr
e
is 1
1,800 kWh
h/year. Me
exico is the
e world’s sseventh larrgest oil exxporter, butt
capita energy
has no uranium m
mines in op
peration.
All nucclear fuel in
n Mexico is propertyy of the go
overnment, which is also responsible forr
waste manageme
m
ent. In the case of th
he Laguna Verde pow
wer station
n, the waste is being
g
stored o
on the plan
nts’ own sitte.
Antonio Me
eade - Mexxico’s Seccretary of E
Energy, Ja
avier Duartte - Goverrnor of the
e
Jose A
Veracru
uz State (w
where Lag
guna Verde
e-1 and -2 are locate
ed), and re
epresentatives of the
e
Comisió
ón Federal de Electrricidad, tog
gether with technical staff members of the
e Comisión
n
Nationa
al de Seguridad Nuclear y Safeguards (CN
NSNS) con
nducted a g
general insspection on
n
the two
o Mexican
n plants. Their
T
reporrt held tha
at the nucclear powe
er station’ss operating
g
conditio
ons called for no m
major preca
autions and that nucclear enerrgy in Mexxico has a
promisiing future; still, no p
plans existt to actuallly build a new nucle
ear plant in
n the nearr
future.
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According to the Secretary, nuclear te
echnology has been ffunctioning
g smoothly in Mexico,
in spite
e of the co
ountry’s history of ea
arthquakess which, he argues, can be ta
ackled with
h
feasible
e technicall solutions,, stressing that it is m
more difficu
ult to deal with the m
matter from
m
the poliicy’s persp
pective of th
he issue.
The En
nergy Minisster Jordy Herrera is recommen
nding expa
anding nucclear capaccity as partt
of its sttrategic energy plan through
t
20
026. Due to
o the counttry’s rising gas reservves and itss
lower p
prices, the nuclear op
ption is now
w less attra
active and it will be d
delayed forr over than
n
three yyears. The Mexican congresss backs nuclear technology
t
y in varyiing levels,
depend
ding on the
e political party.

d States
United
Cou
untry

Re
eactors in
o
operation

United States

100

ins
stalled
capacity
(M
MW)

9
99,081

Rea
actors under capacity und
der
co
onstruction c
construction (M
MW)

5

5,633

generate
ed energy
2013 ((TWH)

% of total energy
y
generated in 2013
3

790.186

19.4

The Un
nited State
es are the owner of the
t
world’ss largest nuclear
n
flee
et, with 104
4 plants in
n
operatio
on (69 PW
WRs and 35
5 BWRs), w
which corre
espond to a
an installed
d capacity of 107,714
4
MW in 2012; and
d in 2012 they produ
uced 769,3
331 TWh(e
e). This fig
gure corressponded to
o
more th
han 32,8%
% of the wo
orld’s entire
e nuclear e
energy and
d around 19%
1
of tha
at country’ss
energy. Such am
mount is a
also approximately 7
70% of the
e electricitty generated withoutt
greenhouse gas e
emissions.
The US
S has a to
otal installe
ed nuclear capacity o
of 98,560 MW as of June 2013 with 100
0
units in
n operation
n, after th
he perman
nently shutt of 4 re
eactors in 2013 (Ke
ewaunee in
n
Wiscon
nsin; Crysta
al River-3 in Florida a
and San On
nofre-2 and
d -3 in Sou
uthern California) due
e
econom
mic situatio
on.
esumed co
onstruction of the W
Watts Bar-2
2 plant in Tennessee
e (PWR 1
1,160 MW))
The re
.
orkers of th
he TVA Co. (Tennesssee Valley Authority Company)
C
currenttly employss 3,300 wo
Projectt was expe
eriencing cost
c
overruns and schedule
s
d
delays, butt the delivvery of the
e
nuclearr fuel from
m Westingh
house has already been autho
orized by th
he NRC and start off
operatio
on is plann
ned for 201
15.
The be
eginning of 2013 wass by the sta
art of construction of the first AP1000
A
mo
odels in the
e
United States with
h plants V
Vogtle 3 an
nd 4, in the
e state of G
Georgia, th
he first new
w American
n
units in
n more than
n 30 yearss. They are
e scheduled to come in operation in 2018
8 and 2019
9
respecttively. It fo
ollows in th
his contextt of new co
onstruction
n the two new
n
units in Central
Summe
er with two
o (2) AP10
000 reactorrs (operato
or SCE & G
G), in South
h Carolina the first to
o
go into operation in 2017 an
nd the seco
ond in 2019. Thus we
e have until June 201
13 five new
w
reactorrs under co
onstruction with grosss installed ccapacity off 6,218 MW
W.
In the U
United Stattes, the insstalled cap
pacity has been
b
grow
wing significcantly in re
ecent yearss
due to the capacity expansion of nuclear plantss, which fig
gure reache
ed 6.862 M
MW in Mayy
a
no
o new unitt had been
n built. Thiss representts more tha
an fourfold
d the future
e
2013, although
Angra 3 plant (1,4
405 MW) under
u
consstruction in Brazil. In this processs, some p
plants have
e
come tto increase
e their pow
wer outputt on severa
al occasions, and 14
48 applica
ations have
e
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alreadyy been revviewed. Ass the NRC
C reported in July 20
013, an ad
dditional 14
4 requestss
(1000 MW)
M
are pe
ending review and other 3 may add 180 M
MW to the g
grid by 2017.
n should also be mad
de of the se
election prrogram for the siting o
of new nucclear powerr
Mention
plants iin the Unite
ed States (“Nuclear
(
P
Power 2010”). In this connection, there exxist 30 new
w
plants in the lice
ensing pro
ocess, with
h their COL (Constru
uction and
d Operation License))
under review
r
by the licensin
ng body – the NRC.
er relevantt fact to be
e
Anothe
underliined is the
e increase
e
in th
he plantss’ useful
lifetime
e, which is being
g
extend
ded to 60 years. In
n
this ca
ase, 74 u
units now
w
have their usefful lifetime
e
extend
ded, which is equal to
o
67,935
5 MW funcctioning forr
more ttwenty yea
ars, with no
o
capital costs in
nvolved in
n
constru
uction. In
n addition,
the
NRC

Nuclearr
Regula
atory Com
mmission iss
review
wing
lifetime
e
extenssion appliccations forr
17 pllants, and
d for an
n
additio
onal 9 otthers thatt
have already sstarted the
e
applica
ation process but have yett to complete the submissiion of alll relevantt
docume
entation. F
From this vviewpoint, over the past recen
nt 10 yearrs, the Uniited Statess
have added a ca
apacity equ
uivalent to more than
n 30 new large reactors opera
ating for 40
0
years.
On Aug
gust 18, 20
011 TVA's board apprroved the rresumption
n of constru
uction of Unit 1 (1260
0
MW - PWR) of Central Bellefonte in Alabama
a Work on the Belllefonte rea
actors wass
suspen
nded in the
e 1980s wh
hen unit 1 was 90% complete and unit 2 was 58%
% complete.
The co
onstruction was halte
ed due to tthe drop in
n energy d
demand an
nd costs. The
T
currentt
estimatted cost iss 4.9 billio
on dollars. The reacttor is a PW
WR manufacturing B
Babcock &
Wilcox and ARE
EVA has been alre
eady conttracted for engine
eering serrvices and
d
constru
uction. The
e plant works are at about 50%
% complete
e should be
e complete
ed between
n
2018 and
a
2020, and the current worrks only sttart when tthe fuel W
Watts Bar-2
2 (currentlyy
under constructiion) is lo
oaded, no
ot to acccumulate constructtion of tw
wo plantss
simulta
aneously. A
Are alreadyy working o
on this pro
oject 300 employees of AREVA
A, all based
d
in the U
United Stattes. Anoth
her America
an concern
n is fuel su
upply for itss nuclear flleet. In thiss
connecction the NRC has au
uthorized th
he operatio
on (June 20
010) of the
e additional cascadess
of Uren
nco’s New Mexico enrichment plant.
p
This is
i the first U.S. enrich
hment plan
nt using the
e
gas cen
ntrifuge pro
ocess.

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In 2012
2 some 48
8 million po
ounds or 8
83% of the
e total uran
nium purch
hased by US
U nuclearr
power plants wass of foreign
n origin, acccording to
o figures frrom the US
S Energy Information
n
Adminisstration. In
n addition, o
over a third
d (38%) of the enriched uranium
m needed tto fabricate
e
fuel for US reacto
ors was sup
pplied by fo
oreign enrichers.
of foreign--supplied uranium ccame from
m Canada
a, Russia, Australia,
In 2012, 84% o
hstan, and Namibia. The rest ccame from
m Uzbekista
an, Niger, South Afrrica, Brazil,
Kazakh
China, Malawi, an
nd Ukraine
e, EIA said. Also 2012, a total of
o 52 millio
on pounds of uranium
m
hexaflu
uoride (UF6
6) was dellivered to e
enrichers in China, F
France, Ge
ermany, Ne
etherlands,
Russia, United Kingdom, an
nd the Uniited Statess. Enricherss in the Un
nited State
es received
d
he remaining 38% we
ent to foreign enriche
ers.
62% off the deliveries, and th
In 2012
2, the averrage price per SWU (separativve work un
nit) was $
$141.36, a
and ownerss
and op
perators of US comm
mercial nucllear powerr reactors p
purchased enrichmen
nt servicess
totalling
g 16 millio
on SWU, EIA said. This reprresents a total cost to the ow
wners and
d
operato
ors of US ccommercial nuclear p
power reacttors of abo
out $2.3 billion.

Welding at Watts Bar 2 Steam Generator
Position of
o American Nuclear
N
Power plant in opera
ation

Plans also include using mixed ura
anium and
d plutonium oxide ffuel withdrawn from
m
disman
ntled nuclear warheads (there e
exist aroun
nd 7 tons o
of plutoniu
um available for such
h
purpose
der way att the Brown
ns Ferry p
plant owned
d by TVA, which hass
e), and tessts are und
been subsidized by the U.S
S. Departm
ment of Ene
ergy (DoE) for using
g such matterial on itss
nuclearr power pla
ants.
nment forresees a 5
50 GW inccrease in tthe nuclea
ar share off electricityy
The U..S. Govern
generation by 202
20, and Obama adm
ministration has annou
unced a sttrategic pla
an to boostt
the restart of the nuclear in
ndustry, witth governm
ment-backe
ed loan gua
arantee be
eing one off
at plan.
the faciilities of tha
The pla
an contem
mplates loan guarante
ees in the amount o
of US$ 54 billion, folllowing the
e
committment asssumed byy President Obama
a who a
asked Congress to
o pass a
compre
ehensive bill
b on electtricity gene
eration and
d climate cchange (w
whereby a 2
28% fall in
n
greenhouse gas e
emissions is expected
d to occur by 2020), w
with incenttives for cle
ean energyy
to beco
ome profita
able.
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The U.S
S. Government says po
ower plantss burning co
oal, oil and g
gas are the largest majo
or source off
emissions in the US, togetherr accounting
g for roughlyy 40 percen
nt of all dom
mestic greenhouse gass
pollution
n.
The US
S will make
e continued
d progress in reducing
g
pollution
n from fossil fuel power plants by leading the
e
way in th
he developm
ment of clea
an energy te
echnologiess
such as efficient na
atural gas, rrenewables, clean coa
al
technolo
ogy and nuclear,
n
a climate a
action plan
n
released
d by the White House ssays.
The acccident of F
Fukushima seems nott to have
much afffected the people’s mood in th
he United
States; rather, it h
has just bo
oiled down to safety
reviews that reporte
edly all concerned cou
untries are
conductiing.
Central de
e Vogtle3

Results of opinion polls of ressidents livin
ng near nucclear powerr plants sho
owed that respondents
r
s
continue
ed to be mu
uch in favorr (80%) of n
nuclear plan
nt activities.. Out of the
e population
n in general,
67% of the Americcans consid
der the safe
ety of the co
ountry’s nuclear power plants as high. Such
h
figures are expecte
e report fro
ed to grow even more favorable u
upon the re
elease of the
om the NRC
C
and the
e Sandia National Lab
boratories (u
under evalu
uation by in
ndependentt auditors) with a new
w
mathem
matical apprroach to ra
adiation disssipation on American nuclear po
ower plants in case off
reactor core melt-down.
e environment and the
The datta shows m
much lower rradiation rates (of the order of 30
0 to 1) to the
e
public in
n general, b
being estima
ated to conccentrate on tthe plant’s a
area.
Constru
uction and pre-construc
p
ction for new reactors are under way on 5 ssites, it bein
ng expected
d
that the installed ca
apacity will surpass the
e 101 GW b
by 2010 and
d reach 109
9 GW by 2020. Anotherr
example
e is the agreement sig
gned by Ba
abcock & W
Wilcox Com
mpany and TVA, where
e plans are
e
defined for the dessign, NRC licensing an
nd constructtion of up to
o 6 modula
ar reactors ((SMR-Small
Modularr Reactor) o
on the Clincch River site
e - Roane Co
ounty, by 20
020. Accorrding to the president off
the Laccy Consultin
ng Group (B
Bruce Lacy)), the bigge
est challeng
ges for nuclear power in the U.S.
continue
e to be the cconstruction
n time, finan
ncing costs, and the competitive ga
as price.

Nuclea
ar wastes
s
nited Statess has foreccast a large
e definitive repositoryy for the diisposal of high-activityy
The Un
radioacttive wastess that would
d meet, and guard off the fuel u
used in pow
wer plants tto generate
e
electricity, all the fu
uel used byy the reacto
ors of subm
marines, airccraft carries, and any o
other civil orr
ar reactors. This reposittory would b
be in Yucca
a Mountain, Nevada. In
n
military installation with nuclea
he NRC deccided to ab
bandon the project (afte
er spending
g more than
n $ 9 billion). The NRC
C
2010, th
has dettermined tha
at such waste can be stored safe
ely in their own place of power p
plants for at
least an
nother 60 ye
ears after the end of the
e useful life time of the plant. In Au
ugust 2013 the Court off
Appealss for the District of Co
olumbia ordered the NRC to resu
ume the revview of the abandoned
d
license application to build an
nd operate tthe nuclear waste site at Yucca M
Mountain, ass requested
d
by the D
DoE. With th
his is still pe
ending the d
decision of h
how and wh
hen the coun
ntry will solvve the issue
e
of its n
nuclear wasste. The Am
merican go
overnment policy
p
may be headin
ng for repro
ocessing off
irradiate
ed material.

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A
A2 – So
outh Am
merica

Location
n of South Ame
erican Nuclearr Power plant in operation

Argen
ntina
Country
Argentiina

Reactorrs in installe
ed
operation capacity (MW)
3

1627

Rea
actors
un
nder
consttruction

capacity unde
er
c
construction
(MW)

generatted
energy 2013
(TWH))

% of ttotal energy
gen
nerated in
2013

1

25

5,735
5

4.4

Argentiina has 3 operating nuclear po
ower plantss - Atucha 1 (PHWR
R, 335MW)), Atucha 2
(PHWR
R 692MW) and Emba
alse (PHW
WR, 600 MW
W), whose
e electricityy productio
on in 2013,
was 5.7
735 TWh o
or 4.4% of tthe countryy’s electricity grid. On
n the same
e Atucha 1 and 2 site,
in Lima
a, nearly 1
100 km aw
way from B
Buenos Aires, CARE
EM25 (PW
WR 25 MW
W) is underr
constru
uction.
Embalsse PHWR is supplie
ed by Can
nada (CAN
NDU desig
gn) and A
Atucha-1 a
and -2 are
e
supplie
ed by Germ
many (KWU/Siemenss and succcessors). Constructio
C
on work on
n Atucha-2
2
began in 1981, w
were suspended in 19
987 and re
esumed in 2
2006. Com
mpletion wa
as reached
d
in Septtember 201
11 and the plant rema
ained in the pre-operrational tessting phase
e until June
e
2014. In July 201
14 Atucha 2 (rename
ed ‘Kirchne
er’) was co
onnected to
o Argentine
e Grid and
d
sent itss first rated power to tthe electriccity grid.
The co
onstruction of reacto
or CAREM25 - Centtral Argenttina de Elementos M
Modulares,
began in Februarry 2014. It is an Arge
entina proto
otype reacttor design proposed by INVAP,
a techn
nology com
mpany, whicch can be used as a generator of electricity (25 MW
W) research
h
reactorr with up 100MWt
1
orr desalinattion with p
power up tto 8 MW iin cogenerration. The
e
CAREM
M prototype
e is expecct to cost $446 million
n. It is sch
heduled to begin cold
d testing in
n
2016 and receive
e its first fu
uel load in the second half of 2
2017. It relies on passive safetyy
system
ms, with the
e entire prim
mary coola
ant system in a single
e self-presssurised vessel, using
g
free convection to
o circulate tthe coolant.
On September 3
3rd 2014, a commerrcial frame
ework conttract for th
he constru
uction of a
eactor at the
t Atucha site has b
been signed between
n Nucleoelé
éctrica Arg
gentina and
d
third re
China N
National Nuclear Corrporation (C
CNNC). In the contra
act CNNC will provide
e technical
supportt, services, equipment and instrumentatio
on under a $2 billion
n long-term
m financing
g
arrange
ement. In a
addition, China
C
will a
also supplyy materials needed byy Argentina
a to locallyy
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produce
e compon
nents for the unit. Through the conttract, the parties a
agree thatt
Nucleoeléctrica, a
as the reacctor ownerr and architect engin
neer of the project, w
will conductt
oject, desig
gn, constru
uction, com
mmissionin
ng and op
peration off the new 800 MWe
e
pre-pro
Candu 6.
as five ressearch reacctors (RA0
0, RA1, RA
A3, RA4, RA6)
R
for ap
pplications,
Argentiina also ha
training
g of manpo
ower, materials irradia
ation and ra
adioisotope
e productio
on. It has sstill the RA-10 (30 MW) proje
ect that willl reset the RA3 (from
m 1967), be
esides prod
ducing radioisotopes,
peration forreseen for 2018.
2
with op
Jun 14, 2012 - A
Argentina's Neuquen plant has completed
c
production
n of 600 m
mt of heavyy
water ffor the inittial load of
o the Atuccha-2 PHW
WR, the co
ountry's Planning Ministry hass
informe
ed.
In Augu
ust 2011, the govern
nment of Argentina
A
ssigned an agreement with Canada (SNS-Lavalin
n- Candu E
Energy) for activities tto expand by more th
han 30 yea
ars the use
eful lifetime
e
of the Embalse plant, which started
d commerrcial opera
ation in Ja
anuary 1984. Seven
n
agreem
ments in the
e amount o
of 444 millio
on dollars are involve
ed (US$ 24
40 million financed byy
Corpora
ação Andina de Fom
mento-CAF
F), comprissing transfe
er of Cana
adian techn
nology and
d
develop
pment of the
t
local in
ndustry forr nuclear ccomponent fabrication
n. The pro
oject’s total
cost is US$1.366 million (no
oting that the differen
nce will be allocated ffor contraccting on the
e
here are p
plans to upgrade the plant’s generating
g
Argentiinean marrket). In addition, th
capacitty. Along th
his line, in A
August 2010, Canadian L-3 Ma
apps was e
engaged th
he supply a
full-sco
ope operato
or training simulatorr for Emba
alse, a devvelopment associate
ed with the
e
planned
d expansio
on of the plant’s usefu
ul lifetime.
In addition, the country, in advance
e of startiing an intternational competitivve bidding
g
processs, is holdiing contaccts with se
everal sup
ppliers (Ca
anada, Fra
ance, Russsia, China,
Japan and USA
A) intended
d to define
e the tech
hnology and/or time
e schedule
es for two
o
addition
nal nuclearr power rea
actors, one
e of them probably
p
on
n the Atuch
ha site.
The Ro
osatom Co. said on October 10
0, 2012 tha
at it will "definitely" participate
p
in a tenderr
to build
d Argentina
a's Atucha-3, Kirill Komarov, dep
puty directo
or general for develo
opment and
d
internattional busin
ness at the
e Russian sstate nucle
ear corpora
ation.
ersification
n has strongly reduce
ed the oil de
ependence
e
The country’s policy of enerrgy mix dive
evailed in the 1970’ss, down fro
om 93% to
o 42% in 1
1994 and currently sstanding att
that pre
around 52%.
at the Pro
ovince of F
Formosa th
he constru
uction is p
planned of the Small
In this context, a
ar Nuclearr Reactor CAREM ((Central A
Argentina d
de Elemen
ntos Modu
ulares), an
n
Modula
Argentiinean desiign prototyype reactor proposed
d by techn
nology com
mpany INV
VAP. Such
h
plant iss capable of being u
used as an
n electricityy generator (27MWe)), a researrch reactorr
with up
p to 100MW
Wt or a dessalination p
plant with a
an output of
o up to 8 M
MWe in co--generation
n
mode.
Energyy exchange
e, mainly w
with Brazil,, occurs acccording to
o each cou
untry’s ava
ailability forr
input su
upply.
As repo
orted by the Minister of Defense
e Nilda Ga
arré in June
e 2010, the
ere are alsso plans forr

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the con
nstruction of a nucle
ear-powere
ed submariine using tthe same modular te
echnology,
which could
c
be b
brought intto operatio
on as earlyy as 2015
5 (5 years before the
e Brazilian
n
project)).
Operato
ors from A
Atucha-1 arre trained o
on Eletronuclear’s sim
mulator at Mambucaba - Angra
a
dos Re
eis and tho
ose from Em
mbalse are
e trained on
o Hydro-Q
Quebec’s simulator att Gentille-2
2
nuclearr power sta
ation in Can
nada.
In May, 2013 wass signed th
he agreem
ment betwee
en Argentina (INVAP
P) and Brazil (CNEN))
for the constructtion of the
e research
h reactor RMB (Bra
azilian Mu
ulti-proposa
al reactor).
ngineering for the reactor that will be sim
milar to the
e research
h
INVAP will supply basic en
reactorr OPAL, in Australia.
uary 2014, Argentina
a was cho
osen to be
e the president of th
he Nuclearr Supplierss
In Janu
Group - NSG (N
Nuclear Su
uppliers Group) for the period
d 2014-2015. The N
NSG is an
n
organizzation of 4
48 countrie
es focused
d on contrrolling the spread off nuclear ttechnologyy
through
h trade, thu
us preventing the proliferation o
of nuclear w
weapons.
Japane
ese accident and its conseque
ences are being care
efully exam
mined and compared
d
againstt plant dessigns in Arg
gentina as part of the
e process of continuo
ous improvvement, ass
informe
ed by the n
national reg
gulatory bo
ody Autorid
dad Regula
atoria Nucle
ear Argenttina (ARN),
which is considerring the ado
option of a
any change
e it may deem approp
priate. In viiew of theirr
location
n, Argentin
na’s plants are not su
ubject to th
he events tthat hit Jap
pan, accorrding to the
e
ARN.

Brazill
Counttry

Brasiil

Reactorrs in installed
d
operattion capacity
y (MW)

2

1,9
990

Rea
actors under
construction

capacity under
construction ((MW)

1

1,405

generate
ed energy % of total energy
y
2013 (TWH)
gen
nerated in 2013
3

14..640

2.78

Brazil iss the world
d’s tenth larrgest energ
gy consum
mer and eig
ghth econom
my in terms of Grosss
Domesstic Productt, being the
e second n
not belongin
ng to the OECD,
O
just behind Ch
hina.
Brazil h
has two nuclear powe
er plants in
n operation
n (Angra-1, PWR, 640
0 MW and Angra-2,
PWR, 1
1350 MW) whose ele
ectricity pro
oduction in
n 2012 wass 16.086 T
TWh or 3,2
2% of the
countryy’s electric Power, an
nd one plant under construction
n (Angra-3, PWR, 14
405 MW),
whose constructiion work sstarted in 2010, following extensive negotiations with the
dos Reis to
own hall in
n connectio
on with the soil use liccense and the enviro
onmentalAngra d
social compensa
ation plan, whose in
nvestment amount comes to 317 million reals
(around
d US$175 millions).
ptember 28
8, 2013, it was 13 ye
ears since the Angra
a-2 plant re
eached 100% of its
On Sep
rated p
power. The
e plant’s ele
ectricity pro
oduction in
n that perio
od was mo
ore than 11
15 million
MWh. S
Such amount of elecctric power would be
e enough tthe supplyy the city o
of Rio de
Janeiro
o for nine yyears; Sao Paulo, for six; and B
Brasília, forr more than
n two deca
ades. The
operatio
on is foreseen for 2018.
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Brazil a
also has four research reactors,, two in Sa
ao Paulo Sttate, one in
n Minas Ge
erais State
e
and one in Rio de Janeiro State. The
e largest off them pro
oduces radioisotopes for use in
n
industryy and in m
medicine. A
Among the
e different medical a
applicationss of these elements,
mention
n is made o
of markerss in diagnosstic examin
nations tho
ose for trea
ating tumorrs.
Brazil iss not self-ssufficient in
n radiopharrmaceutica
als, importin
ng part of w
what it nee
eds, mainlyy
molybd
denum-99. The supp
ply is curre
ently unce
ertain, with
h only thre
ee major producers:
p
Canada
a, Netherrlands an
nd South
Africa.
Argentiina can also supply this
materia
al for Braziil, reaching
g as much
as 30%
% of Brazilia
an requirem
ments.
The Brrazilian Mu
ultipurpose
e ReactorRMB, currently in the cconceptual
design phase, willl be locate
ed at Iperó
beside
e
the
Village,,
Aramar
Experim
mental Center, wiill be a
solution
n to this prroblem, according to
CNEN.
Ang
gra 3 –Reacto
or Building S
Status (photo
Elletronuclear)

The co
ountry’s ele
ectricity pro
oduction is primarily supplied
s
by hydropow
wer; such generation
n
accoun
nted for mo
ore than 90
0% of the total
t
in 2012. A strong economiic growth iss expected
d
until 20
030, and accordingly, a large
e increase in electriccity consumption. Besides the
e
constru
uction of po
ower plantts with othe
er fuel sou
urces, plans to diverssify Brazil’ss electricityy
mix (ass per data ffrom the en
nergy research entityy Empresa de Pesquiisa Energética - EPE))
contem
mplate the constructio
on of 4 to 8 nuclear power plants within a time horrizon up to
o
2030, lo
ocated in N
Northeast and Southeast Brazil. Site definitions, rea
actor typess and otherr
matterss are underr study at Eletrobras
E
ear and EP
PE.
Eletronucle
In term
ms of fuel iin Brazil, e
estimates o
of Santa Quitéria
Q
reserves (Ce
eará) come to 142.5
5
thousan
nd tons of uranium. A
Also in ope
eration is th
he Caetité m
mine (Bahia), whose production
n
capacitty is being expanded
d. Prospectting the Brrazilian terrritory is the
e challenge
e yet to be
e
met, bu
ut the prosp
pects are p
promising.
In Sep
ptember 20
010, the Internation
nal Atomicc Energy Agency (IIAEA) app
proved the
e
proposa
al from th
he Radioph
harmaceutticals Divission of Insstituto de Engenharria Nuclearr
(IEN), in Rio de Janeiro, tto study th
he feasibility of an a
alternative,, more cosst-effective
e
d for production of iodine-124
4. Such ra
adioisotope
e has been
n under re
esearch in
n
method
severall countriess for use in
n positron emission ttomograph
hy (PET), cconsidered
d to be the
e
most ad
dvanced im
maging exa
am currentlly available
e.
In the area
a
of sp
pecialized p
personnel training, th
he Universsity of Sao Paulo - U
USP will be
e
creating
g by 2012
2 (classes to start in
n 2013) a nuclear e
engineering
g course in
n the area
a
neighbo
oring the RMB.
R
This is the seco
ond nuclear engineeriing course at a publicc universityy
in Brazzil, the first one wass created a
at the UFR
RJ in 2010
0. Such co
ourses covver nuclearr
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technollogy as a w
whole, and
d not only nuclear en
ngineering. UFRJ’s C
COPPE alsso offers a
graduate course [British terrminology, post-gradu
uate] in nuclear engin
neering. Th
he Federal
Universsity of Pernambuco (UFPE) p
provides a course iin energy studies, w
which also
o
addressses the nuclear part of
o electricitty generation.
Brazil and
a
Argen
ntina in 20
011 decide
ed to expa
and their n
nuclear coo
operation agreementt
signed in 2008 to
o include tthe construction of ttwo researrch reactorrs. These will be the
e
multipu
urpose type
e and used
d for radioissotope prod
duction, fuel and matterial irradia
ation tests,
and neutron resea
arch.
ed the bassic engine
eering pro
oject of th
he Brazilia
an Nuclearr
In Julyy 2012 was initiate
Subma
arine Propu
ulsion - SN
N BR. Thiss basic dessign should
d take thre
ee years, a
after which
h
begins the phase
e of detaile
ed design, together w
with the co
onstruction of the submarine in
n
RJ). The co
ontract is a
about 21 b
billion realss
2016, in the Navyy yard being built in Itaguaí (R
billion dolla
ars). The ccompleting constructiion for the
e experime
ental opera
ation of the
e
(10,2 b
reactorr and its nuclear p
propulsion plant (LA
ABGENE) is estima
ated for 2
2014. The
e
comple
etion of the construction of the fiirst SNBR is planned for 2020.
Brazilia
an governm
ment appro
oved in Aug
gust 2012 a plan to set up a state-owned
d companyy
to oversee production of the country's first n
nuclear su
ubmarine. The comp
pany, Blue
e
Amazon Defense
e Technolo
ogies or Am
mazul, will be in cha
arge of "promoting, d
developing,
absorbing, transfe
erring and maintaining" technolo
ogies need
ded for Bra
azil's nuclea
ar program
m
uclear power-related activities o
of the Brazzilian Navyy, including
g the consstruction off
and nu
Brazil'ss first nucle
ear-powere
ed submariine. Amazu
ul will also help create new com
mpanies in
n
Brazil'ss nuclear sector, offfering them
m technica
al assistan
nce if neccessary. T
The sub iss
currenttly under constructio
c
on in Itagu
uaí, Rio d
de Janeiro
o State, an
nd Amazu
ul is to be
e
headqu
uartered in Brazil's largest city o
of Sao Pau
ulo, also in
n the south
heast. With respect to
o
conseq
quences off nuclear a
accident in Fukushim
ma, after te
echnical re
eviews the Brazilian’ss
Utility, Eletronucle
E
ear that construct and
d operatess Nuclear Power
P
Plan
nts has beg
gun actionss
to reduce any riskks which th
he domesticc nuclear plants
p
could
d be subject to in the
e event of a
severe accident.
he current knowledge
k
e, an event similar to that in Jap
pan could n
not occur in
n
On the basis of th
because off its location, far awayy from the edges of the tectonicc plate und
derlying the
e
Brazil b
Brazilia
an territory;; the South
h Atlantic plates
p
move
e apart from
m each oth
her, whereas Japan’ss
tectonicc plates co
ollide with each othe
er; and a South
S
Atla
antic type earthquake
e
e does nott
cause ttsunamis.

Chile
Chile imports 70
0% of its power con
nsumption,, the grea
ater part b
being produced from
m
hydroca
arbons. Th
he countryy has two
o research reactors but no nu
uclear pow
wer plants.
Studiess have bee
en develop
ped to assess the po
ossibility off building a nuclear generating
g
plant; in addition
n, under ccooperatio
on arrange
ements witth the IAE
EA, self-assessmentt
program
ms are bein
ng conductted as a prreparatory step for ne
ew constructions.
In Febrruary 2011, a nuclear cooperattion agreem
ment was ssigned with
h France, ffocused on
n
nuclearr training ffor Chilean
n scientistss and proffessionals, including design, co
onstruction
n
and op
peration of nuclear po
ower plantss. The agrreement also includes uranium mining forr
supplying French reactors.
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The Minister of Mines
M
and E
Energy, La
aurence Go
olborne, de
eclares tha
at Chile willl double itss
energy requireme
ents over the forthccoming 12 years. Th
he countryy has been
n trying to
o
balance
e its sourcces of ene
ergy, which
h in the 19
990’s, wass based on
n hydro po
ower. Such
h
sourcess need to be
b diversiffied mainly on accoun
nt of the drroughts occcurred in p
past recentt
years ((empty resservoirs) w
which caused instabillity in elecctricity supply. The n
natural gass
solution
n failed to m
meet this n
need, and C
Chile is now
w looking tto nuclear e
energy.
After th
he March accident
a
in Japan, Ch
hile has nott changed its mind on
n nuclear e
energy and
d
understtands, as expressed by its pre
esident - S
Sebastián Piñera
P
thatt nuclear e
energy and
d
earthqu
uakes are not mutually exclusivve. This go
overnmenta
al position can be exxplained byy
the cou
untry’s stro
ong concerrn about energy shortage and by the exp
perience g
gained with
h
the ope
eration of two resea
arch reacto
ors (since the 1970’ss) which a
are used for
f medical
studiess. Such rea
actors resissted the sttrong earth
hquakes th
hat ever hit Chile. Ne
ew nuclearr
energy studies arre going on
n.
Most off Chile’s po
opulation d
does not su
upport this position.

Venez
zuela
Althoug
gh Venezu
uela has no nuclea
ar power p
plants, the
e nuclear field is not
n entirelyy
unknow
wn to it. Th
he Venezuelan Institu
ute for Scie
entific Ressearch (Insstituto Vene
ezolano de
e
Investig
gaciones C
Científicas - IVIC) ope
erated a 3MWt resea
arch reacto
or from 196
64 to 1994
4
for the production
n of radioiso
otopes for industry, m
medicine an
nd agriculture.
In Nove
ember 2010, the coun
ntry’s Natio
onal Assem
mbly ratified
d a cooperration agree
ement with
h
Russia for workin
ng a researrch reactorr and a pow
wer reactorr. The agre
eement con
ntemplatess
opment thrrough train
ning progra
ams in sa
afety, envirronmental protection,
personnel develo
afeguards, but for no
ow the cou
untry show
ws no otherr
regulation, radiatiion protecttion and sa
ar energy.
interestts in nuclea

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B - Europe
E
e

Position of E
European Nucllear Power pla
ant in operatio
on

In the E
European Union as a whole, n
nuclear ene
ergy repressents 30%
% of electriccity supply.
The nu
uclear policcy differs frrom a country to ano
other, and in some (ffor example, Austria,
Ireland, Estonia) there is n
no nuclearr generatin
ng plant in
n operation
n. As a co
omparison,
France has a larrge numbe
er of plants in 19 different site
es. Europ
pe has no significantt
sourcess of uranium and 8
80% the European p
plants’ feed
d material come fro
om Russia,
Kazakh
hstan, Can
nada, Austtralia and Niger. The
e EU impo
orts 40% o
of the nucclear fuel itt
consum
mes and 95
5 percent o
of the uranium require
ed for fuel p
production.
The Eu
uropean Council
C
hass adopted a policy d
directive concerning the mana
agement off
radioacctive waste
e from any source as well as sp
pent fuel, and requestted membe
er states to
o
inform a
about theirr respective
e national programs
p
sset up to deal with the
e issue up to 2015.
Countriess will be re
equired to define wh
hether and
d how theirr
wastes w
will be storred or rep
processed, how mucch will thatt
cost, etc., and the "wait-and--see" postp
ponement policy thatt
has preva
ailed so fa
ar will no lo
onger be acceptable.
a
. Countriess
could uniite to find a joint solution, but this will h
have to be
e
verified and
a
appro
oved by th
he IAEA. Moreover, exporting
g
radioactivve wastess to coun
ntries havving no appropriate
a
e
repositories or to A
African, Pacific, Carib
bbean countries, and
d
to Antarcttica will nott be allowe
ed. (http://e
ec.europa.e
eu).
Europe
e has 196 o
operating n
nuclear rea
actors in 14
4 countriess and manyy of them a
are seeking
g
to exte
end their u
useful livess. After the Fukushima accide
ent, the European U
Union (UE))
through
h several e
entities esta
ablished a safety asssessment p
plan for nuclear powe
er plants in
n
the Eurropean blocc intended to preservve energy ssecurity.
Tests b
began in Ju
une and co
onsist of thrree phasess:
1) Pre
e-assessm
ment by th
he nuclea
ar power plant ope
erator itse
elf answering a EU
U
questio
onnaire;
2) The
e answers a
are checke
ed by the co
ountry’s re
egulatory bo
ody;
3) A re
eview is done by an in
nternationa
al committe
ee of experrts.
The qu
uestions ha
ave to do with: abilitty to resistt such nattural disastters as ea
arthquakes,
tsunam
mis, floods or other extreme n
natural conditions; a
ability to w
withstand man-made
e
events,, whether by terrorrism or ne
eglect (bla
asts, airpla
ane crash
hes, fire); and whatt
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preventtive measu
ures are ta
aken to avo
oid and/or mitigate su
uch eventss. There a
are 19 new
w
reactorrs under co
onstruction in the conttinent.
ORATOM, trade asssociation fo
or the nuclear energyy industry in Europe,
In June 2011, FO
h in the con
ntinent the basis for a secure, competitive
c
e
issued a study report to help establish
w greenhou
use gas-em
mitting ene
ergy mix ovver the com
ming 40 yea
ars. It conccluded thatt
and low
whatevver the sce
enario for achieving the low-e
emissions objective in such time frame,
nuclearr energy sh
hould be in
ncluded in a
all electricitty generation plans.
2012 The European
n Commission post--Fukushima
a report liisted main
n
On Occtober 4, 2
recomm
mendationss for impro
ovement o
of EU nucclear powe
er plant sa
afety, stem
mming from
m
stress tests cond
ducted. In
n its reporrt to the E
European Council and
a
Parliam
ment were
e
arized resu
ults of 18 m
months of comprehe
ensive risk and safetyy assessm
ments at all
summa
nuclearr power un
nits in the EU, and o
outlined pla
ans for folllow-up acttions. Nuclear powerr
plant operators
o
w
will have tto spend a total of between Eur10
E
billio
on and Eu
ur25 billion
n
(curren
ntly $13 billion and $3
32.5 billion)) to make ssafety upgrades reco
ommended by the EU
U
post-Fu
ukushima reactor
r
stre
ess test and peer reviiew processs
The reccommenda
ations are the
t followin
ng:
s with an o
• N
Nuclear sitte seismic analysis should be b
based on earthquake
e
occurrence
e
p
probability of less than once in
n 10,000 yyears, taking into co
onsideration
n the mostt
ssevere earrthquake ovver that pe
eriod.
• T
The same 10,000-yea
ar approacch should b
be taken fo
or severe flo
ooding.
• S
Seismic rresistance should b
be calcula
ated using
g a miniimum pea
ak ground
d
a
acceleratio
on of 0.1 g,
g and plan
nt design m
must be ab
ble to withstand an e
earthquake
e
p
producing tthat accele
eration. Thiis is a reco
ommendation of the IA
AEA.
• E
Equipmentt needed to
o cope witth accidentts should be
b stored in places adequately
a
y
p
protected a
against extternal even
nts.
• O
On-site seiismic instru
umentation
n should be
e installed or
o improve
ed.
• P
Plant desig
gn should give operrators at le
east one hour to resstore safetyy functionss
a
after station blackout and/or ultiimate heat sink.
• E
Emergencyy operating
g procedure
es should ccover all plant states.
• S
Severe acccident man
nagement g
guidelines also should
d cover all plant state
es.
• P
Passive m
measures such as passive autocatalyticc recombiiners (H2) “or otherr
rrelevant altternatives”” should be
e in place tto prevent explosion of hydroge
en or otherr
ccombustiblle gases in
n case of se
evere accid
dents.
• C
Containme
ent filtered vventing sysstems shou
uld be in place.
• A backup emergencyy control rroom shou
uld be avaiilable in ca
ase the main control
rroom beco
omes inhab
bitable due to radiation, fire or exxtreme extternal haza
ards.

Armenia
Country

Armen
nia

Reactors in
opera
ation

1

installe
ed
capacitty (MW)

37
75

Reac
ctors under
con
nstruction

0

capacity und
der
construction (MW)

0

generatted energy % of total energy
y
2013
3 (TWH)
ge
enerated in 2013

2,1
167

29.2

Armeniia is an ex--soviet rep
public with around 3.2
2 million inhabitants. The counttry has one
e
plant in
n operation - Armenia
a 2 (PWR, 375MW)
3
and anotherr one perm
manently clo
osed 1989,
after an
n earthquake.
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In 2013
3 its sole plant in ope
eration prod
duced 2.16
67 TWh of electricity,, which acccounted forr
ntry’s electtricity gene
29.2% of the coun
eration. Arm
menia is pa
articularly d
dependentt on Russia
a
for trad
de and ene
ergy distrib
bution, its only
o
compa
any was bo
ought by R
Russian RA
AO-UES in
n
2005. Natural ga
as is mainlly imported
d from Russsia, but th
he construction of a pipeline to
o
deliver natural gas from Iran
n to Armen
nia was com
mpleted in Decemberr 2008, and
d deliveriess
of gas expanded
e
in April 2010 after the
e completio
on of the Y
Yerevan Th
hermal Pow
wer Plant.
The country has cconducted the same safety testts as the EU nations, although n
not being a
membe
oc.
er of the Blo

Austrria
Country

Reactors
s in
operatio
on

installed
d
capacity
y (MW)

Reac
ctors under
con
nstruction

c
capacity
unde
er
co
onstruction (MW
W)

generated
d energy
2013 (T
TWH)

% of total energy
y
generated in 2013
3

Áustria

0

70
00

0

0

0

0

Austria has a read
dy plant that never operated du
ue to a pop
pulation refferendum w
with narrow
w
decision (50.47%) where it w
was define
ed that the country wo
ould not usse nuclear energy forr
electriccity generation. Accordingly, the
e Zwenten
ndorf plant (BWR-700
0 MW) wass canceled
d
in Nove
ember 1978.
The de
esign and construction compa
anies were
e dissolved
d and the nuclear fuel
f
supplyy
agreem
ments with EXPORT
T (USSR) and the U
U.S. Deparrtment of Energy (D
DOE) were
e
cancele
ed as well as the agre
eement forr reprocesssing of spent fuel with
h French C
COGEMA.
Nuclear P
Power Station Zwentendorf, Áustria (Close
ed)

In Austtria about 60
6 percentt of electriccity producction is from
m domestiic hydropow
wer. It hass
oil and ga
as, but it is well-know
wn that theyy
use nucle
ear electriccity from n
neighboring
g
countries and it is estimated to
o be five to
o
10 perccent of total con
nsumption.
Officially, nothing iss said abou
ut that, butt
the counttry does use nuclearr electricityy
buying it from Germ
many and the Czech
h
Republic. They use
u
cheap nuclearr
night tarifff to pump
p
electricityy or the n
gh in the
e
water to pump-storage hig
e
mountainss during the night and use
expensive
e, peak-lo
oad electrricity from
m
hydropow
wer stations for their
t
own
n
consumpttion or for export
e
to n
neighboring
g
countries.. It is a magic transfer from
m
nuclearr electricityy to ‘green’’ electricityy, according
g to Prof. Helmuth B
Böck, presid
dent of the
e
Austrian Nuclear Society.
Academ
mic training in the n
nuclear arrea in Ausstria is a rather
r
devveloped acctivity, with
h
emphassis on nucclear knowlledge man
nagement p
provided by the Atom
minstitute (A
ATI) which
h
develop
ps research, training and educa
ation progra
ams on its Triga reacctor. The co
ountry also
o
hosts th
he Internattional Atom
mic Energy Agency – IAEA’s he
eadquarterss and unitss dedicated
d
to training and ed
ducation in the fields o
of science and techno
ology.
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Belgiu
um
Country
y

Reactors
s in
operatio
on

Belgium
m

7

installed
capacity ((MW)

6212

Reacttors under
cons
struction

c
capacity unde
er
co
onstruction (MW)

generated
d energy
2013 (T
TWH)

%o
of total energy
gene
erated in 2013

0

0

40,6
631

52,1

Belgium
m has two
o nuclear power sta
ations, Doe
el with 4 p
plants (PW
WR, 2,963 MW) and
d
Tihange
e with 3 units
u
(PWR
R, 3,129 M
MW). The plants havve been op
perating fo
or 28 to 39
9
years a
and are lice
ensed for 4
40 years. T
The Belgia
an Cabinet on July 4,2
2012 voted
d to extend
d
operatio
on of the three old
dest plantss Doel-1 (412-MW),
(
Doel-2(45
54-MW) e Tihange-1
1
(1.009--MW) that have their useful lifetime e
extended for
f more 10
1 years, until 2025
5
(operattion during 50 years)..
40,6 TW
Wh were p
produced b
by nuclear source in 2013, whicch accountted for 52.1 % of the
e
countryy’s electricity generation. At pre
esent, the p
policy to ph
hase out alll reactors up to 2025
5
is being
g severelyy questione
ed. Costs w
will be hug
ge, bringin
ng losses tto security of supply,
depend
dence on internation
nal sources, and inccreased emissions. This dimin
nished the
e
countryy’s compettitiveness, as indica
ated in the
e report - Belgium’ss Energy C
Challengess
Toward
ds 2030, which strong
gly recomm
mends returning to nu
uclear electtricity gene
eration.
Anywayy, the country’s prevvailing deccision todayy is to shu
ut down th
he oldest rreactors byy
2015 and the othe
ers by 2025, subject to the exisstence energy source
es capable of meeting
g
electriccity requirem
ments with
hout imposiing rationin
ng program
ms on the population.
p
,
Operato
ors GDF S
Suez and E
Electrabel jjointly with
h energy-in
ntensive co
onsumers (chemicals
(
gases, plastics, a
and specia
alty metals)) united to
o try to kee
ep power p
plants operational forr
the long
gest period
d possible.. Their plan
ns also contemplate investing in
i the consstruction off
a new nuclear
n
pla
ant followin
ng the Finn
nish model,, in which cconsumerss get togeth
her to build
d
their po
ower plant (Olkiluoto model).
In the research a
area, the g
governmen
nt approved
d a resoluttion in March 2010 authorizing
a
g
Multi-Purpo
ose Hybrid
d Research
h
use of resources of the future researrch reactorr Myrrha (M
or for High-T
Tech Appliications) fo
or developm
ment of inn
novative so
olutions in e
energy and
d
Reacto
nuclearr medicine. The reacttor and acccelerator have been d
designed b
by SCK-CE
EN that hass
awarde
ed a €24 million ($3
32 million) contract ffor front-end engine
eering desiign for the
e
Myrrha accelerato
or-driven research re
eactor to a multinatio
onal consorrtium led b
by Areva in
n
Octobe
er 2013. The
T
otherss are Ita
aly's Ansalldo Nuclea
are and S
Spain's Em
mpresarioss
Agrupa
ados.
That reactor
r
wo
ould be used, for example, in treatting nucle
ear waste
es through
h
transmutation; mo
odifying th
he characte
eristics of semicondu
uctors (dop
ped silicon
n) essential
plications iin electron
nic compon
nents, etc. A large-capacity fa
actory is yyet a long
g
for app
distancce away, b
but a pilot project (att the cost o
of 1 billion
n euros). The tests will take 5
years u
until the sta
art of comm
mercial operation tha
at is planne
ed to be in
n 2023 at the Belgian
n
Nuclear Research
h Center-S
SCK, as pa
art of the M
Myrrha project. It mayy lead to a significantt
on in the a
amount and
d size of permanent storage faccilities for high-level
h
radioactive
e
reductio
wastes.
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The strress test re
esults have
e been satisfactory a
and on No
ovember 8,, 2011 the regulatoryy
body sa
aid that the
e Belgian plants
p
are ssafe and m
may continu
ue in operation.
elgian minister of ene
ergy stated
d that the decision o
on extendin
ng the lifettime of the
e
The Be
countryy’s plants will not be
e taken un
ntil after th
he results of curren
nt stress te
ests for all
nuclearr power pla
ants in Euro
ope are relleased.
ol on 27/02
2/2012 the Forum Nu
ucleaire’s shows
s
that 75 percentt of Belgian
ns would be
b
In a poo
in favour of continued prod
duction of nuclear en
nergy, and
d 40 perce
ent would support th
he
building
g of new p
power plan
nts in orde
er to ensure energy supplies. With the condition
c
o
of
plants safety and
d the prope
er managem
ment of nuclear waste
e are guara
anteed.

Belaru
us
Country
y

Reactors in
operatio
on

Belarus
s

0

installed
capacity (MW)

Reacto
ors under
construction

0

1

ca
apacity underr generated e
energy % of ttotal energy
con
nstruction (MW
W)
2013 (TW
WH)
genera
ated in 2013

1109

0

0

Belaruss's populattion is 9.6 million and
d resides in urban areas. The energy pro
oduction iss
99% frrom fossil fuels. The
e country was part of the Sovviet Union until 1991, when itt
declare
ed its indep
pendence.
Simulatio
on of two un
nits AES-200
06

Image: A
AtomEnergo
oProekt

In 2011
1 Intergove
ernmental agreemen
nt between
n
Russia and Beloru
ussia on N
NPP constrruction wass
signed. Two VVE
ER-type rea
actors, dessign “AES-2006” o
of 1200 MW
W each, att site “Ostro
ovetskaya””
in Grod
dno provincce. Start-u
up of the ffirst unit iss
planned
d for 2018, the second
d – for 202
20.
The firrst safetyy-related cconcrete has been
n
poured for the fou
undation sllab of the 1st reactorr
site in Belarus markking the offficial start o
at the Ostrovets
O
of construcction of the
e country'ss
first NP
PP (07.11.2
2013).
A full construction
n license has
h been isssued for th
he first of two
t
units a
at the Ostro
ovets plantt
in Bela
arus, allowiing the rea
actor and p
plant buildings to be built. Con
ncrete for tthe second
d
unit fou
undation wa
as poured on 25.04.2
2014.

Bulga
aria
Country
y

Bulgaria
a

Reactors in installed
operation
n capacity (M
MW)

2

1.906

Reactors under
construc
ction

capacity under
constrruction (MW)

0

0

generated en
nergy
2013 (TWH
H)

13,313
3

% of total
t
energy
generated in 2013

30.7

Bulgaria has 2 nu
uclear powe
er plants (K
KOZLODUY 5 and 6 – VVER-P
PWR 1000 MW, each))
in com
mmercial op
peration, w
which acco
ounted forr 13.313 T
TWh, apprroximately 30.7%, off
electriccity generattion in 2013.
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The co
onstruction of the two
o plants tha
at were un
nder consttruction (Be
elene 1 an
nd 2 VVER
R
PWR 1000 MW) w
was suspe
ended and there are 4 reactors shut down
n (KOZLOD
DUY 1 to 4
– VVER 440 MW
W) to com
mply with th
he Europe
ean Union energy ag
greement. Bulgaria’ss
ar power plants
p
with
h
government has already exxpressed iinterest in replacing old nuclea
nes, though
h finance iss lacking.
new on
Nuclear Po
ower Plant Kozloduy

Bulgaria’ss NEK - Nationa
al Electricc
Company holds 51% in th
he nuclearr
ant project at Belene
e (2x 1000
0
power pla
MW – VV
VER) and signed a co
ontract with
h
Russia’s Atomstroyyexport fo
or design,
construction and co
ommission
ning of the
e
plant’s units, but the
e price is a
above whatt
d
the countrry accepts to pay, which would
construction
bring
about
contractt
performan
nce delayss. In March
h 2012 the
e
governme
ent decid
ded to use the
e
equipmen
nt that had
d been ma
anufactured
d
for Bele
ene in anotther plant in Central K
Kosloduy (the reactorr No. 7).
In Dece
ember 201
13 Westing
ghouse sig
gned an exxclusive ag
greement with
w Bulga
aria Energyy
Holding
g for the A
AP1000 tecchnology, a
and will prrovide all of
o the plan
nt equipme
ent, design,
enginee
ering and ffuel. The re
eactor is prrojected to be online by 2023.
The ressults of sa
afety stresss tests performed all over Eurrope are u
under revie
ew and the
e
relevan
nt recomme
endations w
will be implemented w
where appropriate.
There is also a research reactor in
n the Bulg
garian Aca
ademy of Sciences in Sofia
operate
ed by The Institute for Nuclear R
Research a
and Nuclea
ar Energy ((INRNE).
Nuclea
ar wastes
Bulgaria has awa
arded the design conttract for a low- and in
ntermediate
e-level storrage facilityy
onsortium fformed by Spanish E
ENRESA, Westingho
ouse Electrric Spain ((WES) and
d
to a co
German DBE Tecchnology. The
T reposittory will be
e built on th
he site of th
he Kozlodu
uy plant.

h Republic
Czech
Countrry

Rep. Che
eca

Reactors in installed
d
operattion capacity
y (MW)

6

376
60

Reacttors under
cons
struction

c
capacity unde
er
co
onstruction (MW)

generate
ed energy
2013 (TWH)

% of total energy
y
generated in 2013
3

0

0

29.005

35.9

blic is rich in mineral coal depo
osits and Europe’s third largest exporter off
The Czzech Repub
electriccity. The co
ountry hass 6 plants (Dukovany
(
y 1 to 4 an
nd Temelin
n 1 and 2, all VVER))
operate
ed by company CEZ, which pro
oduced 29
9.005 TWh in 2013, a
accounting for 35.9%
%
of the ccountry’s electric pow
wer.
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In the Temelin ssite, which was originally desig
gned for 4 reactors and but ffor political
reasonss only 2 w
were built, has now an
a internattional comp
petitive bid
dding proce
ess on the
e
supply of the two
o new reacctors has b
been initiated, with su
uppliers fro
om France
e (AREVA),
apan (Westtinghouse) and Russia (Rosatom) trying to
o sell their products.
U.S./Ja
Temelín n
nuclear powerr plant (foto E
EZ)

The win
nner would
d be announced in
n
2013, bu
ut Areva wa
as disqualiified by bid
d
commisssion and it decided to appeal
against the decission.
So the final
selection
n of the
e winner will be
e
postpone
ed for som
me months. After thiss
big delayy, the comp
pany CEZ decided to
o
cancel the projject beca
ause the
e
governm
ment did no
ot give a guaranteed
g
d
price fo
or energyy that jusstifies the
e
investme
ent amount. The currrent statuss
is the governme
ent takes over the
e
project th
hrough a new
n
state ccompany to
o
ensure e
energy supply in 2020
0.
In addition, an exxtension off the usefu
ul life time has been requested for the 4 reactors off
any nuclear power sta
ation, whicch has been
n in operattion for more than 20 years.
Dukova
This wo
ould enable the facility to generate electricity up to 2025 – 20
028. The exxtension off
u
lifettime is esstimated to
o
plants’ useful
require a significa
ant amoun
nt of workk
and invvestment. The actiivities are
e
planned to start byy 2015 an
nd will also
o
plate powe
er upgrade
e by up to
o
contemp
500 MW(e).
In June 2011 on rrequest of the Czech
h
ment, the
e nuclear station
n
governm
Dukovan
ny went through a safetyy
inspectio
on by the
e IAEA (O
Operational
Safety R
Review Te
eam - OSART) in,
where itt was foun
nd that th
he plant iss
safe, no
oting that some of its safetyy
practicess could be improved ass
recomme
ended by the inspecction team.
NPP Duko
ovany – Czech Republic (Ima
age: Petr Adam
mek)

The Czzech goverrnment decclared thatt will proce
eed with itss plans forr constructtion of new
w
nuclearr plants, so
o that the C
Czech Rep
public will rrely on nucclear energ
gy to generate half off
its elecctricity by around 20
040 – up ffrom abou
ut one-third
d now und
der an ene
ergy policyy
adopted
d by the ccountry’s C
Cabinet ass declared by national utility C
CEZ on No
ovember 8,
2012.
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Dukova
any nuclea
ar power station’s rea
actors will a
also be cap
pable of su
upplying he
eat for theirr
neighbo
orhood, the
e town of Brno, 40 kkm far awa
ay, accordin
ng to the e
environmen
ntal impactt
study submitted
s
tto local au
uthorities b
by the operator. The population
n would be
enefit from
m
carbon emission reduction
r
a heating
and
g cost stab
bility.

Engla
and and N
Northern Ireland (UK)
Country
y

Reactors
s in installed
operatio
on capacity ((MW)

Englan
nd

16

Reacto
ors under
consttruction

ca
apacity underr
con
nstruction (MW
W)

generated energy
2013 (TWH)

% of
o total energy
generated in 2013

0

0

64,13

18,3

9,243

The Un
nited Kingd
dom has 1
16 plants in operatio
on (9243 M
MW installed capacitty) and 29
9
closed for having reached th
he end of useful
u
lifetim
me or obso
olescence. It is Europe’s oldestt
fleet, with
w
closed
d plants that started operation in the 19
950’s and 1960’s. In 2013, the
e
countryy produced
d 64.13 TW
Wh of energ
gy from nucclear sourcce (18.3% o
of the total)).
The Un
nited Kingd
dom has 7
75% of its electric po
ower produ
uced by oil and coal, and as a
means to reduce its greenho
ouse gas e
emissions.
Prroponent

EDF
F Energyn

Type
EPR
R

L
Locality

So
omerset

EPR
R
EDF
F Energyn

EPR
R
EPR
R

S
Suffolk

Site
e

C
Capacity
(MWe
gross)

Start Up

Hinkley Po
oint C-1

1670

2023

Hinkley Po
oint C-2

1670

2024

Sizewelll C-1

1670

?

Sizewelll C-2

1670

?

Wylfa New
wydd 1

1380

2025

Wylfa New
wydd 2

1380

2025

H
Horizon

ABW
WR

H
Horizon

ABW
WR

H
Horizon

ABW
WR

Glouc
cestershire

Oldbury
y B-1

1380

late 2020s

H
Horizon

ABW
WR

Glouc
cestershire

Oldbury
y B-2

1380

late 2020s

NuGenerration (Toshib
ba
+G
GDF Suez)

AP1000
0 x3

C
Cumbria

Moors
side

3400

2024 on

Total planned &
proposed

Wales

11 units

15,600 MWe
so
ource: WNA June
J
- 2014

The Go
overnment launched in July 200
09 its Plan of Transition to a Lo
ow-Carbon Economy.
The Pla
an is focussed in transsforming th
he energy ssector by e
expanding the use of renewable
e
sourcess, besides increasing
g the energ
gy efficienccy of the ccountry’s buildings, homes, and
d
transpo
ort industryy. The currrent UK e
electricity m
mix is dom
minated byy fossil fue
els and so
o
increassing the sha
are of nuclear would help diverssify the UK
K’s fuel seccurity risk.
c
is expected tto realize the
t domesstic goals o
of cutting b
by 34% the
e
Accordingly, the country
e
until 2020, when 40%
% of electrricity consu
umption in the United
d
greenhouse gas emissions
m low-carb
bon source
es, with ren
newable and nuclearr
Kingdom are estimated to come from
apture and
d sequestra
ation technologies.
energy, as well ass carbon ca
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Building
g a new fleet
f
of nucclear powe
er plants is part of tthe carbon
n emission
n reduction
n
policy existing
e
in the counttry and su
uch plants are planned to startt operation
n by 2017,
replacin
ng the olde
est nuclea
ar facilities (the one tthat last sttarted to op
perate dates back to
o
1989) and
a those a
already clo
osed.
Hinkley Point C (illus
stration- WNA
A)

Compa
any Horizo
on Nuclea
ar Power joint ve
enture orig
ginally forrmed by E.
ON UK and RW
WE AG, w
which wass
filing license a
applicationss for the
e
a and Old
dbury sitess
Wylfa Peninsula
s
in O
October 20
012 (mostt
was sold
becausse
politiccal
quesstions
in
n
Germa
any) and the new owner iss
Hitachi.
e, where 2
For the Hinkley Point site
ants alrea
ady exist, EDF hass
old pla
beginniing the wo
ork for an E
EPR 1600 (Hinkley P
Point C), in
n the regio
on of Westt Somersett
and hass placed orders with AREVA for such plan
nts’ heavy componen
nts.
Applica
ations for the three m
main enviro
onmental permits
p
req
quired to o
operate the
e proposed
d
new UK
K nuclear power stattion at Hinkley Point C in Somerset have
e been give
en positive
e
assessment by th
he country’ss Environm
ment Agenccy, EDF ha
as announcced and in Decemberr
2012 th
he British re
egulators approved
a
th
he EPR prroject.
ment decisio
on was takken this prroject in Occtober 2013. Besidess the EDF,
The final investm
nsortium C
China Gene
eral Nuclear Corpora
ation (CGN
N) and China Nation
nal Nuclearr
the con
Corpora
ation (CNNC), will have a combined sshare of 3
30% to 40
0% in the
e businesss
consorttium, and the Frencch state-ow
wned nucle
ear group Areva, witth 10%. T
These two
o
EPRs represent the largesst investment in infrrastructure project in
n England since the
e
1950s.
Um gro
oup formed
d by Spain
n’s Iberdola
a (37.5%), Britain’s Scottish
S
& Southern (25%) and
d
France’s GDF Suez (37.5%
%), set up
p a conso
ortium - Nu
uGeneratio
on Ltd (Nu
uGen) thatt
ed in 2009 a land plott in Sellafie
eld (west England) ass a possible
e site for ne
ew nuclearr
acquire
reactorrs. In this case, the Project invvolves the
e constructtion of a n
nuclear pla
ant with an
n
installed capacity of 3600 M
MW, to help
p achieve th
he goal of changing tthe United Kingdom’ss
w
is sttrongly ba
ased on co
oal. The e
expected is
i the pow
wer supplyy
energy profile, which
ponds to 6%
% of the total in Engla
and (enoug
gh to serve
e five millio
on homes).
corresp
ba Corpora
ation has a
agreed to b
buy a 60 p
per cent sh
hare in the
e
Following news that Toshib
NuGenerattion Limite
ed (NuGe
en) in Mo
oorside prroject, We
estinghousse Electricc
UK’s N
Compa
any has rep
ported thatt it will supply the new
w-build pro
oject with th
hree AP10
000 nuclearr
reactorrs with a co
ombined ccapacity of 3.4 GW. GDF Suezz is also w
working in p
partnership
p
with To
oshiba and NuGen on
n the projecct.

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Reusing plutonium from civvil nuclear facilities is a fundam
mental con
ndition of the
t
carbon
n
reductio
on plan ad
dopted by the U.K. which
w
needs to man
nage 112 ttonnes of material in
n
storage
e (produce
ed locally and from customerss external to the Se
ellafield reprocessing
g
plant). Although reuse
r
throu
ugh the pro
oduction off MOX fuell, so far, iss not so commerciallyy
successful in Britain as in F
France (AR
REVA), the
e produced
d material ccould feed 2 reactorss
for up to 60 yea
ars. On 5/0
07/2011 - Britain’s M
Minister of Energy and
a
Climate Change,

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37

Charless Hendry, states thatt “The U.K
K. government remain
ns absolute
ely committted to new
w
nuclearr power pla
ants; withou
ut them, th
he nation would
w
be da
arker and le
ess prospe
erous”.
“We ne
eed to maiintain publlic confiden
nce based
d on fact a
and scientiffic evidencce and the
e
existen
nce of a strong inde
ependent regulatory
r
body”. He
e believes that nucle
ear energyy
today iss vital to th
he British energy secctor and w
will so rema
ain for man
ny years. T
The United
d
Kingdom should h
have not ju
ust one pla
ant built, but a fleet, and this re
equires tha
at investorss
be give
en assurances in this regard.
The en
ntire processs is part of the cou
untry’s low--carbon po
olicy, incorp
porating an
ny lessonss
from th
he Fukushima accide
ent. On Ju
uly 22, 201
11 the Parrliament ap
pproved th
he national
energy policy and
d listed eig
ght (8) sitess for new nuclear
n
pow
wer plants; also a pla
an was putt
forward
d to expedite such co
onstruction projects.
On 10/17/2011 th
he Secretarry of Energ
gy declared
d that nucle
ear energyy risks are kknown and
d
much ssmaller tha
an the accceleration of climate
e change. U.K. popu
ulation sho
ows a high
h
supportt for nucle
ear energyy, with 61%
% of resp
pondents a
agreeing on new constructionss
mainly as a mea
ans to prevvent climate change and ensu
ure energyy security. A majorityy
e in the UK thinkss the govvernment should in
ncrease th
he use off
(63%) of people
g to the fin
ndings of a recent poll (October 2012).
nuclearr, according
In February 2012
2 The UK and Fran
nce are to sign a lan
ndmark ag
greement in
i Paris to
o
coopera
ate on civill nuclear energy, pavving the wa
ay for the co
onstruction
n of a new generation
n
of power plants in the UK. Deals bettween British and Frrench comp
panies – w
worth more
e
than 50
00 million p
pounds (ab
bout 600 million euro)) – will allow
w work to sstart on new
w facilities,
creating
g more tha
an 1,500 jobs.
The deals would include a £
£100 million contract with a con
nstruction cconsortium to prepare
e
nkley Pointt nuclear site in Somerset for cconstruction
n of two European P
Pressurized
d
the Hin
Water Reactors (EPRs).;
(
a £15 millio
on training
g campus at Bridgew
water in So
omerset to
o
train th
he next ge
eneration of nuclear workers and a de
eal with Rolls
R
Roycce for keyy
compon
nents that could be w
worth poten
ntially up to
o £400 milliion.
In June
e 2013 The
e UK gove
ernment an
nnounced a bid to en
ncourage in
nvestment in nuclearr
power by offering
g 10 billion
n pounds (G
GBP) (15.2
2 billion US
S dollars, 11.6 billion
n euros) off
ear plant att Hinkley P
Point.
guarantees to invvestors in a new nucle
nt poll amo
ong reside
ents found that the FukushimaF
-Daiichi nu
uclear accident had
A recen
virtuallyy no impacct on publicc attitudes tto nuclear power in th
he UK.
Nuclea
ar wastes
nited Kingd
dom reproccesses nucclear waste
es in its rep
processing plants at S
Sellafield.
The Un
This siite compriises of a range of nuclear ffacilities, including rredundant facilities
associa
ated with e
early defen
nce work, as
a well as operating facilities a
associated with the
Magnoxx reprocesssing progrramme, the
e Thermal Oxide Reprocessing
g Plant (Th
horp), the
Sellafie
eld mixed o
oxide (MOX
X) fuel plan
nt and a ran
nge of wasste treatme
ent plants.
At pressent, the co
ountry’s sto
ockpile of Plutonium comes to 82 tons, and
a keeps growing.
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Talks a
are under w
way betwee
en the British governm
ment and G
GE-Hitachii about the possible
use of Fast Bree
eder Prism reactor te
echnology with a vie
ew to reducing the Plutonium
P
stockpile by using
g it as MOxx fuel, from
m 2025 onw
wards.

Finlan
nd
Country

Finland
d

Reactorrs in
operattion

installed
d
capacity
y (MW)

Rea
actors
un
nder
construction

ca
apacity under
con
nstruction (MW))

generated
d energy
2013 (T
TWH)

% of total energy
y
generated in 2013
3

4

2.7
752

1

1.720

22,6
673

33,3

Finland
d has 5.42 million inh
habitants and four pla
ants in ope
eration whicch, togethe
er, accountt
for the production
n of 22.67
7 TWh of e
electricity o
or 33.3% o
of the country’s total electricityy
generated in 2013; in addittion, a nucclear plant project is under wayy, Olkiluoto
o 3 – EPR
R
1600 M
MW. Due tto the exccellent perf
rformance of the 4 o
operating plants, nucclear plantt
availab
bility over th
he past reccent years reached an
n average of 94.65%.

Nuclear Power Plant Olkiluotto
o (simulation w
with 4 reactorrs - AREVA)

There is a small research reactor loccated in Ottaniemi, Esspoo; a TR
RIGA Mark II, built forr
ersity of Te
echnology in
i 1962.
the Hellsinki Unive
The country has rreserves off uranium ((26.000tU), but it hass no uranium
m mine in operation.
In July 2010, the Finnish pa
arliament a
approved tthe countryy’s 6th reacctor and in July 2011
1
the pow
wer plant O
Olkiluoto 2 was
w uprate
ed to 880M
MW.
In 2011
1 Fennovoima annou
unced that it had cho
osen Pyhäjoki, in nortthern Finla
and, as the
e
site for the countrry's sixth nu
uclear pow
wer plant. C
Construction is expectted to startt in 2015.
A decision was based on
n such asspects as environme
ental (sma
aller impaccts on the
e
nment), po
olitical-diplo
omatic in line with the interna
ational commitmentss from the
e
environ

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Kyoto Protocol, and strate
egic aspeccts (lower dependen
nce on otther extern
nal energyy
sourcess, mainly frrom Russia
a, and the long-term sstability of the cost off nuclear energy).
The hig
ghly favorable public opinion wa
as another important driver of th
he decision
n.
Olkiluotto 3 plant ((1,600 MW
W, EPR) is now sched
duled to sta
art operatio
on in August 2016. Itt
will be tthe first pla
ant with the
e EPR reacctor design
n created b
by French A
AREVA.
The Prroject is sshowing a delay of nearly 7
years vvis-à-vis the original plan.
p
The total
t
cost
will be "close" to
o the Eur8
8.5 billion. Several
problem
ms
(constructio
on,
licensing,
subcon
ntracting, e
etc.), arising
g from the fact that
such pllant is the ffirst of a kind of new reactors,
and tha
at qualified
d, experienced labor does not
exist in
n sufficient quantity in either Finland or
the cou
untries invo
olved in th
he project w
would be
at the root of the delays occurring
g so far.
Areva’ss estimate
ed losses up to end
d of this
Projectt come to 2
2.7 billion e
euros.
Nuclea
ar Power Plan
nt Olkiluoto 3 (photo ARE
EVA)

Out of the three companiess that subm
mitted environmentall impact sttudies to th
he national
authoritties for the
e fifth reacttor, Teollissuuden Voiima Oy wa
as chosen for an add
ditional unitt
on the Olkiluoto ssite (Olkilu
uoto unit 4 – with no schedule or definitio
on of techn
nology, butt
eologic stud
dies in prog
gress). Costs have been
b
estima
ated in the
e range of 4 - 6 billion
n
with ge
euros. In December 2011 T
TVO (Teollisuuden Vo
oima Oyj) h
has decide
ed to start the
t bidding
g
and eng
gineering p
phase of th
he company's fourth n
nuclear uniit at Olkiluo
oto, Finland
d.
Fortum
m Companyy (51% ow
wned by the
e Finnish g
governmen
nt) has pla
ans for a new unit on
n
the Lovviisa site, a
and is awaitting possib
ble authorizzations.
The Fin
nnish gove
ernment de
ecided to ttax the pro
ofits of com
mpanies operating nuclear and
d
hydro p
power plants to ensurre operatio
onal compe
etitiveness on the carb
bon marke
et.
In D
December 2013, Fen
nnovoima a
announced
d
plan
ns to build the rea
actor, Han
nhikivi-1- a
Russsian-desig
gn 1,200-M
MW AES-2
2006 PWR,
in northern F
Finland. It is negotiating with
h
e nuclear ccorporation
n Rosatom
m
Russsian state
to take
t
a 34%
% stake in Fennovoim
ma and forr
Rossatom sub
bsidiary Ru
usatom Ovverseas to
o
build the unit. Pyhajoki ssite preparration workk
on the Ha
anhikivi peninsula, northeastt
Finlland, is expected to sstart consttruction byy
2015.
Nuclear Power Plant Loviisa - PWR
R 488 MW, eac
ch (photo Forrtum)

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Accord
ding to a poll, con
nducted in
n
2013, some ttwo thirdss of the
e
residents, 67 pe
er cent of people in
n
Pyhäjo
in
oki,
are
f
favor
off
Fenno
ovoima's n
nuclear po
ower plantt
projectt.

The reactors haave gone thhrough thee
stress test deffined by European
n
Union and the re
esult show
wed that no
o
major change iss needed in Loviisa
a
Olkiluoto plants du
ue of the
e
and O
experience of Fu
ukushima a
accident.
Pyhajoki site simulatio
on, Nuclear Power Plant H
Hanhikivi-1 (R
ROSATOM)

Nuclearr wastes

Finland
d was the
e first cou
untry to g
get its parrliament to
o approve
e, in 2001
1, a deep
p
underground repo
ository for radioactivve waste frrom nuclea
ar power p
plants. In the countryy
low- an
nd interme
ediate-level radioactivve wastess are store
ed in unde
erground re
epositoriess
built at Olkiluoto ((since 1992
2) and Lovviisa (appro
oved in 199
92). Since 1997, in a
accordance
e
e Radiation
n Act, Finland mainta
ains a central interim
m disposal facility located in the
e
with the
area off the Olkiluoto final re
epository, w
whose expa
ansion hass already b
been appro
oved by the
e
Finnish
h parliamen
nt.
For new
w plants storages are
e under disscussion wiith the Possiva, respon
nsible for th
his activity,
better m
manageme
ent of all ne
ew waste a
as determiined by the
e government ensuring that the
e
best so
olutions an
nd econom
mic securitty should be shared
d between
n the nucllear powerr
plants. As Posivva is owne
ed by Teo
ollisuuden Voima Oy, or TVO
O, and Fo
ortum, it iss
develop
ping a fina
al spent fu
uel reposito
ory for the two comp
panies at the
t
Olkiluo
oto nuclearr
power plant. Fen
nnovoima, a newcom
mer to the F
Finnish nucclear indusstry, has no
o operating
g
p
for fina
al spent fue
el storage.
reactorrs and no plan

Franc
ce
Country
y

France

Reactors in
operation
n

58

installed c
capacity Reacttors under
(MW)
cons
struction

63.56
60

1

c
capacity unde
er
co
onstruction (MW
W)

generate
ed energy
2013 ((TWH)

% of total energy
y
generated in 2013
3

1.720

405,989

73,3

The country’s tota
al installed capacity is 123,001 MW and e
electricity production
p
was 550.3
3
TWH. F
France has 58 opera
ating nucle
ear power plants on 19 differe
ent sites, a
and the nett
capacitty is 63560
0 MW. Elevven plants on shutdo
own (usefu
ul lifetime o
over) produ
uced 405.9
9
TWh, w
which repre
esents 73.3
3% of the country’s ttotal generrated electrricity in 2013. EDF iss
the utility that op
perates the
e entire fle
eet. Among these, the Phenixx plant is a research
h
reactorr.

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With th
he population of 64 million,
m
France has ne
early one nuclear po
ower plant per million
n
inhabita
ants and m
more than 1
1,000 MW of installed
d nuclear ccapacity pe
er such same million.
The country is the world’s largest exp
porter of electricity an
nd earned in 2012 m
more than 3
E
in this process.
billion Euros
France produces the cheap
pest energyy across E
Europe, abo
out half of the value of German
n
obs in the nuclear are
ea or 6.1%
% of the cou
untry's man
nufacturing
g
power. Are 220,000 direct jo
he French tterritory. The countryy is the worrld leader in recycling
g
jobs sccattered thrroughout th
25,000 t recycled at la Hagu
ue plant.
F
France’s C
CO2 emisssions from
m
electricity ge
eneration are
a around
d
70 to 80 g per kWh, compared
d
w
with Europe
ean averag
ge of 350g
g
off CO2 per kWh.
T
The French
h AREVA, supplier off
nuclear pro
oducts and
d services,
iss building jointly with
h EDF the
e
F
Flamanville--3 reactor, EPR type,
1720 MW,, located north off
France, in th
he region o
of Manche.
F
T
The otherr equipm
ment and
d
se
ervice su
uppliers w
were also
o
defined
a
and
hire
ed,
and
d
co
onstruction
n started in
n late 2007.

Location M
Map of France´
´s nuclear
installa
ations Source:: WNA

Among
g the 58 pla
ants existin
ng in Francce, 34 are of the 900
0MW-PWR
R class, the
e operation
n
of whicch was declared satisfactory b
by the regu
ulator (ASN) for up to 40 yea
ars’ lifetime
e
(French
h plants ha
ave an estimated ope
erational pe
eriod of 30
0 years), bu
ut each is required to
o
go thro
ough a safe
ety review to validate
e such lifettime licensse. Tricastiin-1 (915-M
MW, PWR))
was the
e first reacttor subjected to revie
ew and auth
horized forr more 10 years.
y
Nuclear plants in
n France d
does not o
operate on
n the basiis of the e
electrical ssystem, ass
e to its ch
haracteristicc of large feeding, b
being forced to follow
w
elsewhere in the world, due
hich complicates maintaining the high perfformance.
load wh
he French grid opera
ator, on acccount of the countrry’s ageing
g
According to the RTE – th
ance is possibly expe
ected to have supplyy problemss
generating fleet, as early ass 2013 Fra
he plants’ u
useful lifetime has no
ot been exxtended. Byy 2022, 22
2
during peak-load times if th
will reach the end off life and the countryy has few options forr electricityy
French reactors w
generation than the extenssion of life
e of these plants. Th
he coming
g on line o
of the new
w
nville-3 EPR
R type, 160
00 MW rea
actor is dee
emed indispensable.
Flaman
nance ope
erations to
o keep th
he fleet in
n order re
equire advvance planning and
d
Mainten
procure
ement. Fo
or example, for the
e planned
d exchang
ges of Frrench plan
nts’ steam
m
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generators, 44 un
nits have a
already be
een purcha
ased at the
e cost of 2 billion dolllars (32 to
o
Areva a
and 12 to W
Westinghou
use). The d
deliveries w
will reach a
as late as 2
2018.
In Novvember 2012, The F
French Prrime Minister Jean-M
Marc Aryau
ult signed license off
onal Therm
safety installation
n for ITER
R- Internatio
monuclear Experime
ental Reactor. It also
o
represe
ents a glob
bal licensing first, bein
ng the firstt fusion devvice in histtory to have
e its safetyy
charactteristics sccrutinized by
b a nationa
al nuclear regulator as
a part of the licensin
ng process.
The wo
ork on ITER
R under co
onstruction in the reg
gion of Cad
darache, so
outheast France, had
d
its costts inflated,, up from EUR 6 biillion to Eu
ur18 billion
n, over the
e past 3 yyears. The
e
internattional finan
ncial crisiss also affeccted the Project,
P
the
e preliminary phase o
of which iss
now sccheduled ffor 2019. Several countries
c
a
are involve
ed in the developme
ent of thiss
project,, including
g the U.S.,, Europe, Russia, C
China, Japa
an and So
outh Korea
a, which iss
aimed at produccing energ
gy from n
nuclear so
ource, butt leaking no radiattion above
e
ound levelss.
backgro
In June
e 2008, the
e French g
governmen
nt declared that an ad
dditional E
EPR 1600 reactor
r
will
be builtt, probablyy on the Pe
enly site (Seine-Maritime) northe
east Francce, where 2 operating
g
reactorrs already e
exist.
Of this same AR
REVA EPR
R reactor m
model, therre exist 4 other units under co
onstruction
n
otto 3 in Finland, F
Flammanville 3 in Frrance and Taishan-1 and -2 in China),
(Olkiluo
howeve
er the President Fra
ancois Hollande's So
ocialist govvernment, tthe new g
governmentt
elected
d in France
e in 2012, wants to implementt its planne
ed partial p
phase out of nuclearr
power, which fore
ecast to cutt nuclear p
power's sha
are from 75
5% to 50% by 2025 and
a replace
e
most of its capaccity with renewable energy.
e
Acccording to a plan of French griid operatorr
RTE th
he countryy will nee
ed to invest Eur15
5 billion ($
$19.2 billion) in the national
transmission netw
work by 20
020 and grid costs co
ould reach Euro 50 biillion by 20
030 withoutt
nuclearr as govern
nment prop
posed.
d in July 20
011 the exxtension off life for ovver ten yea
ars for Fesssenheim-1
1
It was authorized
has been active sincce 1978 m
mill. This is the oldestt operating
g reactor F
Frances. In
n
which h
April 20
013 the sam
me was do
one for Fesssenheim-2
2.
ng decomm
mission the
e plant unttil 2016 Ch
hooz A (310MW, PW
WR), whose
e
France is targetin
energy was provided betwe
een 1967 a
and 1995 fo
or Belgium
m and for th
he countryy itself. The
e
disman
ntling, cleaning and d
demolition of nuclear buildingss occurred before 20
008. Todayy
there are
a 12 expe
erimental rreactors an
nd power being
b
deco
ommissioned. The prrocess hass
been developed a
and studie
ed by EdF--CIDEN an
nd should b
be applied to the enttire French
h
nuclearr fleet when
n the usefu
ul life of the
e plants en
nd.
The Frrench gove
ernment a
announced an investtment plan
n of € 1 billion
b
in re
esearch in
n
nuclearr energy and the devvelopment and deplo
oying a fou
urth genera
ation reacttor that will
be prod
duced by the French Areva a
and Japan's Mitsubisshi and considered to
t have no
o
alternattive to nuclear energyy and that "makes no
o sense "to
o abandon it.
Tests cconducted after the F
Fukushima accident demonstra
d
ated a good
d level of ssecurity forr
the Fre
ench plantss according
g to a report delivered
d by the re
egulator. Th
he safety m
margins forr
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extreme
e events such as earrthquakes, floods, an
nd simultan
neous cooliing and po
ower lossess
had sh
howing no
o major cconcerns, but nonettheless the operato
or EdF su
ubmitted a
supplem
mental plan
n for impro
ovements.

Flammanvile
e - 3 EPR 1600
0MW (photo E
Edf)

In Febrruary 2013
3 the Frencch government passsed a new regulation
n (normativve full text))
that un
nderlies the
e major nu
uclear facilities that considers the lesson
ns of the Fukushima
F
a
acciden
nt for nucle
ear activitie
es.
The AR
REVA issued a stattement sayying it intends to imp
plement “a
a series of initiatives””
aimed a
at reducing
g operating
g costs witth up to EU
UR 1 billion
n in annual savings ttargeted byy
2015. Areva is co
onvinced that
t
the outlook for nu
uclear development rremains strong in the
e
coming
g years, even if exp
pansion off the global installed
d base off nuclear reactors
r
iss
postpon
ned compa
ared with forecasts
f
b
before Fuku
ushima-Da
aiichi. Nuclear power remains a
strategic advantag
ge for its ccountry.
Nuclea
ar wastes
s
France reprocessses all of its spent fuel and u
uses part of the ressulting fuel on otherr
as two underground repositoriies and re
esearch la
aboratoriess
reactorrs; in addiition, it ha
currenttly studying
g even morre effective
e waste sto
orage methods.
g other site
es, Auxon and Pars--lès-Chava
anges in th
he State off Aube are
e currentlyy
Among
conduccting studie
es for a low
w-level wa
aste repository possib
bly expecte
ed to startt activity in
n
2019 (replacing those thatt have rea
ached satu
uration). Such
S
sites are part of the 40
0
ant commun
nities wishing to hostt the waste
e repositorie
es.
applica
Nuclear power pllants in Fra
ance do no
ot operate on the sa
ame basis as in the rest of the
e
hey are ch
haracteristiccally large power suppliers req
quired to fo
ollow load,
world, because th
makes high
h-performa
ance mainttenance a difficult tassk. In addition, some
e problemss
which m
associa
ated with w
workforce sstrikes as w
well as refu
ueling outage difficulties genera
ated lossess
in exce
ess of 1 billion euros tto EdF.

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Germa
any
Counttry

Reactorrs in
operattion

insta
alled
capacitty (MW)

Rea
actors under
construction

capacity under
construction ((MW)

Germa
any

9

12,068

0

0

generate
ed energy % of total energy
y
2013 (TWH)
gen
nerated in 2013
3

92
2.14

15,14

Germany has a to
otal installe
ed capacityy of 161,57
70 MW, with a nuclea
ar generatin
ng capacityy
of 12,0
068 MW frrom 9 autthorized fo
or operatio
on plants ((there are 17 operable plants,
capacitty of 21,36
66 MW bu
ut eight - Kruemme
el, Brunsbu
uettel, Bibllis A and B, Isar 1,
Neckarrwestheim 1 and Phillipsburg 1--have been
n shut dow
wn for politiccal and leg
gal reasonss
in Germ
man). Out of the re
emaining nine
n
plantss, six are among the
e 10 large
est nuclearr
electriccity generattors in 2010. Nuclearr plants pro
oduced 92.14 TWh in 2013, acccounting forr
15.14%
% of the cou
untry’s elecctricity gen
neration.
The co
ost would b
be high to replace the electric p
power gen
nerated from German
n operating
g
nuclearr plants w
with renew
wable ene
ergy, nece
essitating governme
ental subsidies from
m
Europe
e’s biggest economy.
The co
ountry’s ele
ectricity mix is a divversified on
ne, with co
oal represe
enting app
proximatelyy
50%, gas
g 12%, w
wind 6% an
nd other so
ources fill up the pictture, besid
des the nucclear input,
which iis greater tthan 25%. Germanyy used to export more energy than it imp
ported, butt
this piccture has changed aftter the 8 re
eactors we
ere shut do
own. In add
dition, Germ
man is one
e
of the w
world’s larg
gest importters of prim
mary energyy.
It is also unclear how the country w
will fulfill itts commitm
ments to rreduce national CO2
emissions if it turne
ed off all itts reactors.
The Germ
mans heavily subsid
dized solarr
energy and also ma
ade a big b
bet on wind
d
power an
nd in both
h cases an
nd in both
h
cases ccounting o
on the ssupport off
imported
electriccity from
nuclearr
sources in
i France, Czech Re
epublic and
d
Russia (iif there are
e the lackk of sun orr
wind).
Currentlyy they are planning to build a
long tran
nsmission lline from S
Sweden to
o
import ba
ase load ellectricity prroduced byy
nuclear reactors from that country.
Since domestic consumptio
c
on (6,300
0
kWh/ye
ear per ca
apita - ap
pproximate
ely 3 time
es the Bra
azilian consumption) has nott
decreassed, it beccame to be
e a matterr hard to solve. It is also unfairr to consid
der nuclearr
free, when
w
in practice, th
here are outsourcing
o
g of nucle
ear plants. In 2010, following
g
extensiive discusssions, Congress approved a prroposal allo
owing reacctors to op
perate for 8
or 12 m
more years,, depending on the pllant’s age, instead off the planne
ed end of useful
u
life –
schedu
uled for 20
022 – of the
t
existing
g plants. With
W
such proposal, some pla
ants would
d
operate
e for an add
ditional 50 years.
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After th
he Fukush
hima accid
dent, once
e again Ge
ermany’s government change
ed mind to
o
overturrn the 2010 position that favorred operatting life exxtension an
nd all nuclear powerr
plants w
were shut down for 3 months for safety tests. The
e older 8 p
plants will not be putt
back in
nto operattion. The others will be clossed accord
ding to th
he schedu
ule on the
e
spreadssheet.
% of the co
ountry’s ele
ectricity mix were pre
evented fro
om being generated,
Accordingly, 10%
and billlion dollarss’ worth of iinvestmentt was lost.
German
ny's Nuclea
ar Reactors
Plant

Type

Commercial
operation

MWe (net)

Operator

Provisionally
y
scheduled
01
shut-down 200

2010 agreed
shut-down

March 2011
shutdown
& May closure
plan

Biblis-A
Neckarw
westheim-1

PWR

1167

fev/75

RWE

2008

2016

yes

PWR

785

dez/76

EnBW

2009

2017

yes

Brunsbü
üttel

BWR

771

fev/77

Vattenfalll

2009

2018

yes

Biblis-B
Isar-1

PWR

1240

jan/77

RWE

2011

2018

yes

BWR

878

mar/79

E.ON

2011

2019

yes

Unterwes
ser

PWR

1345

set/79

E.ON

2012

2020

yes

Phillipsburg-1

BWR

890

mar/80

EnBW

2012

2026

yes

BWR

1260

mar/84

Vattenfalll

2016

2030

yes

mel
Kruemm
Total shut down (8)
heinfeld
Grafenrh

8336
PWR

1275

jun/82

E.ON

2014

2028

2015

Gundrem
mmingen-B
Gundrem
mmingen-C

BWR

1284

abr/84

RWE

2016

2030

2017

BWR

1288

jan/85

RWE

2016

2030

2021

Grohnde
e

PWR

1360

fev/85

E.ON

2017

2031

2021

Phillipsburg-2
Brokdorff

PWR

1392

abr/85

EnBW

2018

2032

2019

PWR

1370

dez/86

E.ON

2019

2033

2021

Isar-2

PWR

1400

abr/88

E.ON

2020

2034

2022

d
Emsland
Neckarw
westheim-2

PWR

1329

jun/88

RWE

2021

2035

2022

PWR

1305

abr/89

EnBW

2022

2036

2022

Total operating (9)
T
Total
(17)

12,003
20,339 MW
We

Operato
ors which had their plants untimely close
ed by the German g
governmen
nt in March
h
2011 (8,336 MW
We of gene
eration capacity) sta
arkly prote
est the loss of profitt and theirr
heir market.
inabilityy to meet th
According to E.O
ON (Vice-C
Chairman R
Ralf Gueld
dner) the ttotal cost of
o such de
ecision will
come to 33 billion
n euros, no
ot to mention the cossts of new
w transmisssion lines rrequired byy
substitu
ute genera
ating systems and th
he costs off any posssible powe
er rationing
g programss
which will certaiinly impairr the country’s indu
ustry. The
e ensuing increase in carbon
n
emissio
ons (estima
ated, as a minimum, at 70 milliion metric tonnes) will also brin
ng conflictss
with ne
eighboring countries in
i the EU. Importing fossil and//or even nuclear ene
ergy will be
e
inevitab
ble, which undermine
es such pollicy’s credib
bility.
The op
pinion exprressed by E. ON is shared by the Fre
ench Minisster of Ind
dustry, Ericc
Besson
n, who beliieves Germ
many will g
grow heavily dependent on ene
ergy imporrts and will
be a more pollutin
ng countryy, noting tha
n consumers who tod
day alreadyy pay twice
e
at German
the amount charg
ged by elecctricity billss in France
e, will be im
mposed an even heavvier burden
n
on theirr shoulderss.

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Nuclear Powe
er Plant Isar--2, second biiggest nuclearr
generator in 2
2010 - closed
d in 2011

In 14 Ja
anuary 20
014, The German
Supreme Administrrative Co
ourt has
ruled the forced
f
closure of RWE's Biblis
nuclear power plant aftter the
Fukushima
a accident was unlaw
wful. The
utility is now likkely to sue for
ble damages wh
hile the
considerab
decision may
m
set a preceden
nt for the
other shu
utdown reactors. Germany's
reaction to
o the Fuku
ushima acccident in
2011 wass extreme
e and, the
e orders
were execcuted by tthe Germa
an states
which are home to the rreactors w
without con
nsultation or reference to inde
ependent
regula
atory advicce on the sa
afety of the
e plants. W
With the deccision the sstate of He
esse was
told it acted illeg
gally by enforcing the
e decisionss on the Biblis nuclea
ar power plant sited
in the state.
e Supreme Administrrative Courrt in Leipzig is legallyy binding and
a cannott
The rulling by the
be appealed. It ba
acks up a decision m
made last year
y
by the Administra
ative Courtt of Hesse,
which was
w appealed by the federal govvernment.
Compa
anies’ execcutive office
ers are plan
nning to su
ue the gove
ernment ovver what th
hey view ass
confisccation of the
eir revenue
es, inasmu
uch the com
mpetent reg
gulator decclared the plants safe
e
and the
e electricityy from the rreactors no
ow closed h
had already been sold.
After th
he shutdow
wn of the o
old plants, the cost o
of electric p
power in Germany
G
h
has alreadyy
grown 12% and ccarbon emissions mo
ore than 10
0%. Accord
ding to estiimates by Germany’ss
Ministryy for the Environmen
nt and Consservation ittself, even if the perccentage of renewable
e
energy sources d
doubled, itt would still be nece
essary to invest 122
2 billion eu
uros in the
e
o
the fo
orthcoming 10 years, not to men
ntion the in
nvestment in transmisssion lines,
sector over
gas plants to b
back up re
enewable generation
n, and se
everal sub
bsidies forr attracting
g
investo
ors, etc. Acccording to Germany’s Institute for Econom
mic Resea
arch, costs may come
e
to 200 billion Euro
os. In 2012
2 Germanyy had paid tthe Europe
e's highest prices for power.
In addition, a loss is expeccted of 11,000 direct jobs in the German nuclear in
ndustry, ass
reporte
ed by E. ON
N, and a strong cut in
n dividendss.
Policy decisions
d
iin German
ny, while im
mportant, a
are driven b
by national political fo
orces - the
e
real harm to peop
ple or the e
environmen
nt caused b
by the nucllear source
e has been
n extremelyy
low, especially compared with the
e records of other energy sources
s
cu
urrently in
n
widespread use.
oerde Alum
minium, the
e third largest alumin
num produccer in Germ
many, ann
nounced itss
The Vo
bankruptcy on Ma
ay 8, 2012 due to the
e reduction
n in aluminum prices combined with rising
g
ator of the
e gradual process
p
of de-industrrialization,""
producttion costs. This was "an indica
said U
Ulrich Grilllo, presid
dent of G
Germany's trade bo
ody for tthe metall industry,
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47

Wirtsch
haftsvereinigung Meta
alle (WVM
M). "Producction of me
etals, especcially alum
minum, is att
risk in Germany due to hig
gh electricitty prices th
hat are mo
ore compe
etitive internationally,""
said Grrillo.
German
n consumerrs that use more than 20 GWh pe
er year payy 11.95 cen
nts per kWh
h, compared
d
with 6.9
9 cents in F
France, acco
ording to da
ata from EN
NERGY.EU- Novembe
er 2011. Am
mong the 27
7
EU cou
untries’, only Cyprus, Italy, Malta
a and Slova
akia have higher price
es for heavvy users of
electricity. WVM a
asked the German
G
go
overnment to urgently implementt measuress to protect
energy-intensive iindustry fro
om electriccity costs and to encourage businesses
b
to reduce
e

metal emissions
e
of carbon dioxide fro
om their prroduction processes.
p
d
The indusstry should
not suff
ffer, Grillo ssaid, because of "inccreasing prrice of elecctricity, cle
early resultiing system
m
of state
e support fo
or renewab
ble energy,, especiallyy photovoltaic."
Subsidies have encourage
ed energyy companie
es and homeownerrs to add about 25
5
gigawa
atts of solarr capacity, especiallyy in the lastt five yearss. This prod
duced 2.4%
% of powerr
generation in Germany in the
t
12 mon
nths throug
gh February 2012, according
a
t statisticss
to
he Internattional Ene
ergy Agenccy (IEA), w
while the remaining 12 Gwe of nuclearr
from th
capacitty represen
nted 15.3%
%. By far, the majorrity of Germ
man energ
gy comes from fossil
fuels, a
about 71%.. The IEA d
data also sshows that the exportt of Germa
an energy ffell 0.9% in
n
the yea
ar to February 2012, a
and importts rose 7.7%
%.
In June
e 2012 a ssurvey has shown tha
at 77 perce
ent of Germ
mans are more
m
conccerned with
h
keeping
g electricityy affordable than ph
hasing out nuclear en
nergy. The
e survey was
w carried
d
out by polling grroup TNS Emnid on
n behalf off the Initia
ative for a New Soccial Markett
Econom
my, which is
i funded p
primarily byy employerrs in the me
etal industrry.
The subsidies recceived by new wind, biomass a
and photovvoltaic plan
nts average 12 centss
Wh but vary according
g to the technology: o
onshore win
nd plants rreceive the least - 8.9
9
per kW
cents p
per kWh - a
and offsho
ore wind th
he greatestt, 19.4 cen
nts of per kkWh. Germ
man energyy
and en
nvironmentt minister Peter Altmaier admitted tha
at the En
nergiewend
de (energyy
transitio
on in Germ
man langua
age) could eventuallyy cost up to
o 1 trillion E
Euro, with the feed-in
n
tariffs ssupporting renewable
e energy possibly
p
acccounting ffor over tw
wo-thirds o
of the cost.
(NEI- 6 August 20
014)
As Gerrmany hass decided to shut down its nu
uclear pow
wer plants after the Fukushima
F
a
crisis,” due to the
e imminen
nt risk of ts
sunamis in Bavaria””, and as a result, itss burning off
"clean coal"
c
– oth
herwise kno
own as coa
al – rose byy 6,5% in 2
2013, comp
paring with 2012.
e a massive cut in itss exports o
of electricitty to other European
n countries.
That was despite
ggests tha
at by 2020,, Germanyy will have produced an extra 300
3
million
n
One esstimate sug
tons of CO2 as a result of its nuclear cclosure: eq
quivalent to
o almost all the savings that will
de in the 2
27 memberr states ass a result o
of the EU'ss energy e
efficiency d
directive. In
n
be mad
the me
eantime, co
ontradicting
g this so-ccalled safe
ety policy, Germany continues to keep a
very sig
gnificant qu
uantity of nuclear
n
wea
apons in itss territory, mostly ope
erated by N
NATO.
Nuclear wastes

With re
espect to the
t
nuclea
ar wastes manageme
ent policy, Germanyy has 2 fin
nal storage
e
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facilitiess for low- a
and intermediate-leve
el radioactiive wastess: the one a
at Morslebe
en, built byy
the form
mer comm
munist gove
ernment off the late GDR,
G
and the Konra
ad facility llicensed in
n
2002 and finally released in 2007.
erman fede
eral govern
nment and the countrry's 24 fed
deral statess have agre
eed on the
e
The Ge
framew
work for dra
afting a sitte selection
n law for a high-leve
el nuclear w
waste and spent fuel
reposito
ory, German Environment Min
nister Pete
er Altmaier said in a stateme
ent April 9.
Altmaie
er said the
e governm
ment hopess a site sselection la
aw can be
e passed before the
e
German parliame
ent adjourn
ns for its su
ummer reccess in Julyy. The federal government and
d
ates also a
agreed tha
at new tra
ansports off spent nu
uclear fuel can be ssent to the
e
the sta
Gorlebe
en salt min
ne. Gorleb
ben is being used as an interim
m storage site,
s
but th
hat there iss
opposittion to its u
use.

Hunga
ary
Country
y

Hungriia

Reactors
s in
operatio
on

4

installed
Reactorrs under
cap
pacity under generated en
nergy 2013
capacity (MW)
(
constrruction
cons
struction (MW)
(TWH
H)

1,889
9

0

0

14,54
43

% of total energy
y
ge
enerated in 2013

50.7

Hungarry’s 4 nucclear pow
wer plants (Paks 1 to 4 – V
VVER-PWR
R 500 MW
W) whose
e
comme
ercial opera
ation starte
ed between
n 1982 and 1987 ha
ave producced 14.763 TWh, thatt
is, arou
und 50,7%
% of the country’s ele
ectricity gen
neration in
n 2013. Such electric power iss
the cheapest on
ne generatted in Hu
ungary and
d, accordin
ng the go
overnmenta
al sourcess
approximately 73% of the po
opulation ssupports nu
uclear pow
wer.
In 2004
4 the plantss were give
en authorizzation to op
perate for more
m
20 ye
ears, and in 2009 the
e
countryy’s parliame
ent authoriized the go
overnment to start exxpanding exxisting site
e’s capacityy
through
h the consttruction of an addition
nal one or two nuclea
ar units on the same location off
the Pakks power sstation. Stu
udies for d
definition off the type and size o
of the reactor are still
under way.
w
e 2011 – S
State-owne
ed compan
ny MVM has
h plans to
t expand the capaccity of its
In June
Paks nuclear plan
nts and acccordingly increase itss influence
e on the en
nergy markkets of its
B
and
d in Ruman
nia).
vicinity (Balcans- Croatia, Serbia and Bosnia
Since D
December 2012 Hung
gary's Pakss 1 nuclear power pla
ant (VVER
R 500MW) h
has been
granted
d a permit to operate
e for anothe
er 20 yearss after its original
o
lice
ense expired at the
end of 2012 (unttil 2032). In Novemb
ber, 2014 unit 2 hass been gra
anted with more 20
years o
operation, u
until 2034.
Pal Kovvacs – Hungary’s Miinister of N
National De
evelopmen
nt declared
d that for all
a energy
plannin
ng scenario
os studied by the cou
untry, nuclear supplyy is indispe
ensable. The 20302050 energy
e
plan
n recomme
ends a 20 years’ life
etime exten
nsion for the
t
4 unitss of Paks
nuclearr station, w
whose usefful lives would be ovver in the period from
m 2032 to 2037. In
addition
n, the coun
ntry intendss to expand
d by 2,000
0 MW the sstation’s ca
apacity (2 n
new 1000
MW un
nits, each) u
until 2025. The cost is estimated at 10 billion dollars.

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The deccision to exxpand Pakss nuclear
power sstation is to be pub
blished in
September,
012,
witth
the
20
prepara
atory work b
being unde
er way as
authorizzed by the
e Parliament. Test
results on the Hungarian plant have
been satisfactory according
g to the
governm
body,
mental
rregulatory
safety
additional
requiring
g
no
measure
es. There
e is no decision
about n
nuclear wa
astes mana
agement,
and policy in country is “w
wait and
see”.
NPP Pak
ks – Hungary
y

On 16//12/2011 - Prime Miinister Vikttor Orban said the g
goal is to have nucllear powerr
provide
e 60 perce
ent of the ccountry's e
electricity n
needs, com
mpared with around 4
40 percentt
now. Th
he Czech Republic's governme
ent plans to
o at least d
double thatt output over the nextt
50 yearrs.
On 14 Jan 2014,, Hungary’s governm
ment has ssigned an a
agreementt with Russsian state-controllled nuclear energy corporation
c
Rosatom that will see the com
mpany builld two new
w
reactorr units at Hungary's P
Paks nuclea
ar power sttation. The
e new unitss will be fina
anced by a
30-year interstate
e loan provvided by R
Russia. The
e size of th
he loan ha
as yet to be
e finalized,
but will not excee
ed 10 billio
on euros (1
13.6 billion
n US dollarrs). Russia
a would allso provide
e
ew units.
the fuel for the ne

Italy
Counttry

Reacto
ors in
operattion

Italy
y

0

installe
ed
Reacttors under
capacitty (MW) cons
struction

0

0

c
capacity under
co
onstruction (MW
W)

genera
ated
energy 2
2013
(TWH
H)

% off total energy
generated in 2013

0

0

0

In 2010
0, Italy’s ele
ectric powe
er was prim
marily gene
erated from
m fossil – 6
64.8% and renewable
e
fuel 22..2%, and frrom importts - 13%. Ittaly has no
o nuclear po
ower plantss in operattion.
The ph
hase-out off its 4 plan
nts - Caorsso; Enrico Fermi (Triino Vercelllese); Garigliano and
d
Latina – was com
mpleted in JJuly 1990 (2
( by popullar decision
n and 2 forr completio
on of useful
lifetime
e). Italy is tthe only co
ountry in th
he G8 – group of the
e world’s rrichest cou
untries pluss
Russia – that doe
es not operrate nuclea
ar power pllants. Notw
withstanding, around 10% of the
e
med in its te
erritory are
e from nuclear powerr, imported
d mainly fro
om France,
electriccity consum
where 77% are generated
g
by nuclea
ar plants. E
Enrico Ferrmi (Trino Vercellese
e) is underr
decomm
missioning
g.
In 2008
8, the country decide
ed to resu
ume its nucclear program which
h was stop
pped in the
e
1980’s,, ridding ittself of its dependen
nce on oil through a fast devvelopment of nuclearr
energy.

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According to the Minister off Economy and Development, C
Claudio Sca
ajola, the ccost for the
e
Italian economy ffrom the p
phase-out o
of nuclear power was 50 billion
n dollars, a
and all the
e
gal framew
work legal for resu
umption off
leg
nu
uclear energy was b
being adop
pted underr
the
e new nattional enerrgy plan. O
On July 9,
20
009 the S
Senate app
proved a legislative
e
pa
ackage giviing green light to bring nuclearr
en
nergy backk to Italy, itt being rep
ported thatt
in up to six (6) months potential ssites would
d
be
e selected ffor the settting up of n
new plants..
Th
he reactor m
model to b
be adopted
d should be
e
on
ne alreadyy licensed
d in Euro
ope, which
h
wo
ould save licensing time, inasm
much as the
e
pla
an was to build 8 to 10 reactorrs by 2030,
rea
aching a sshare of 25
5 % Italy’ss electricityy
ge
eneration.
At present, th
he cost of electric pow
wer in Italyy
endence on
n gas impo
orts) is 30%
%
(a 60% depe
gher than tthe Europe
ean averag
ge, and 60
0
hig
% highe
er than Fra
ance’s.
Since November
N
gh its pow
wer company ENEL which hold
ds 66% off
2008, Italy - throug
Slovakiia’s SE-SL
LOVENSKE
E ELEKTR
RARNE - iss building Mochovce
M
3 and 4 (VVER-440
(
0
MW ea
ach) plants, which are
e expected
d to be in commercia
c
al operation
n by 2012 and 2013,
respecttively. The planned in
nvestment is 2.77 billlion euros. When in operation, the outputt
from these plants will repressent 22% o
of the total electricity consumed
c
in Slovakia.
Anothe
er Italian n
nuclear bussiness wass the acqu
uisition, through ENEL, of 12..5% of the
e
shares in French
h plant Fla
amanville-3
3 (owned by EdF) w
which is u
under consstruction in
n
Norman
ndy. These
e actions a
are aimed n
not only att the investtment, but also the fo
ormation off
skilled personnel, inasmuch
h as it is more than
n 20 yearss since Italy closed its nuclearr
ne 2011, th
he majorityy of Italian voters passsed a refe
erendum to
o
industriial framework. In Jun
cancel plans for reinstatem
ment of nucclear energ
gy in Italy. Those vo
oting again
nst nuclearr
4% of the voting pop
pulation (57
7% of the eligible
e
pop
pulation), w
which corre
esponds to
o
were 94
53.58 %
%.
The ma
anner in w
which the vvoting quesstionnaire was laid o
out was no
ot specifica
ally againstt
nuclearr energy, b
but an overrall disapprroval of the
e then gove
ernment (S
Silvio Berlu
usconi) and
d
its plan
ns of action
n. Italy is a country prrone to larg
ge magnitu
ude earthquakes and
d this much
h
contribu
uted to the
e population
n’s fear, sttrongly exp
ploited by e
environmen
ntalists. With that, the
e
countryy will keep
p on obtaining nucle
ear genera
ated electricity throu
ugh powerr companyy
ENEL in Slovakia
a, and impo
orts from Frrench EDF
F.
In addition, ARE
EVA and A
ANSALDO NUCLEARE had ssigned an agreemen
nt wherebyy
ANSAL
LDO would
d participatte in the liicensing process for constructiion of ARE
EVA’s new
w
reactorr (EPR) in IItaly, but w
with the Italian ban of nuclear po
ower plantss the agree
ement then
n
prevaile
ed for anyy place in the world
d through tthe joint vventure set up on 10/11/2011.

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ANSAL
LDO is alsso plannin
ng to fabriicate supe
er moduless for Wesstinghouse’’s AP1000
0
destine
ed for the B
British markket.

Nethe
erlands
Country
y

Netherland
ds

Reacto
ors in
opera
ation

installed
capac
city (MW)

Re
eactors under
c
construction

capacity un
nder
construction (MW)

generatted energy
2013
3 (TWH)

% of total ene
ergy
generated in 2013
2

1

4
482

0

0

2..736

2.8

The Ne
etherlands imports more than 2
20% of its e
electricity ((mostly from German
ny). Energyy
consum
mption per capita is 6,500 kWh / year.
The Ne
etherlands has only one nucle
ear plant in
n operation
n (Borssele
e PWR 48
82 MW). In
n
2013, it produced
d 2.736 TW
Wh, or app
proximatelyy 2,8 % off the counttry’s electrricity. Such
h
plant had its usefful lifetime extended by 20 yea
ars in 2006
6, and is pllanned to continue
c
in
n
operatio
on until 2033.
The co
ountry also
o has a re
esearch rea
actor in th
he town off Petten, the HFR - High-Fluxx
Reacto
or which produces 60
0% of requiired mediccal radionucclides in Europe
E
(30%
% of world
d
demand
d). The cou
untry imports more th
han 20% off its electriccity (mostlyy from Gerrmany).
The en
nergy per capita
c
conssumption is 6,500 kW
Wh/year. In
n 2009, De
elta submittted to the
e
cogniza
ant govern
nmental bo
ody the application to
o build the
e new 2500MW nuclear powerr
plant. C
Company ERH - En
nergy Reso
ources Ho
olding acqu
uired by G
German RW
WE, which
h
ow
wns the o
other half of Borsssele, also
o
req
quested authorizatio
on to build
d anotherr
pla
ant in the N
Netherlandss.
The Dutch governmentt has anno
ounced the
e
he licensin
ng processs
forrthcoming start of th
forr Borssele nuclear po
ower station’s second
d
unit. Neither the design
n nor the vvendor hass
en defined
d, but the
e plant’s ccapacity iss
bee
rep
ported to ra
ange from 1000 to 16
600 MW. Itt
is expected tto be in o
operation by
b 2020, in
n
me to re
ealize the
e greenho
ouse gass
tim
red
duction goa
al.
NPP Bo
orssele – Neth
herlands (Imag
ge: EPZ)

MOX w
will be the fu
uel and the
e project’s cost is estimated at 5 to 7 billio
on dollars as
a informed
d
by com
mpany Ene
ergy Resou
urces Holding in Sep
ptember 20
010. In No
ovember 20
010, Dutch
h
compan
ny Delta (holding 5
50% of the existing plant) an
nd EdF siigned a cooperation
c
n
agreem
ment for the
e possible constructio
on of a new
w nuclear power
p
plan
nt in the Ne
etherlands,
on the Z
Zeeland Coast site.
The Ne
etherlands’ only nucle
ear plant ha
ad gone th
hrough the EU stress test after Fukushima
F
a
acciden
nt. In June
e 2011, the
e use of MOX
M
fuel w
was authorrized. In January 20
012, due to
o

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financia
al crisis in Europe an
nd also the
e uncertain
nties on the carbon m
market the
e plant wass
postpon
ned.
According to the governm
ment, the Netherlan
nds will ccontinue its nuclear program
m
mplating the
e constructtion of the n
new nuclea
ar power plant.
contem
In addition, an ag
greement between
b
th
he Netherlands and France co
overs the rrecycling in
n
nts’ spent ffuel. After reprocessin
r
ng, the matterial is shipped backk
France of part of Dutch plan
nds (COVRA Storag
ge Facilityy near Bo
orssele) fo
ollowing sttrict safetyy
to the Netherlan
wn by the IAEA.
standarrds laid dow
In Janu
uary 2012 the Dutch governme
ent announ
nced that a new research reacctor (called
d
Pallas) will be built in the region of the Pette
en reactor to replace
e existing (High-Fluxx
or-HFR) operating sin
nce 1961 a
and is reaching the en
nd of its ecconomic liffe useful. Itt
Reacto
is anticcipated the entry into operation o
of the new reactor in 2022.
orssele nuclear powe
On 1 Ju
ul 2014, Bo
er station has
h begun to use mixxed-oxide (MOX)
(
fuel
elemen
nts fabricated by Fran
nce’s Areva
a.

Norwa
ay
Country
y

Norway

Reacto
ors in
opera
ation

installed
capac
city (MW)

R
Reactors
under
construction

capacity und
der
c
construction (M
MW)

generatted energy
2013
3 (TWH)

% of total energ
gy
g
generated in 20
013

0

0

0

0

0

0

hough Norrway has n
no nuclearr
Norwayy is the sixxth largestt producer of hydropower. Alth
electriccity genera
ation progra
am, the co
ommittee sset up by the Norwe
egian gove
ernment to
o
study sustainable
s
e energy options re
ecommend
ded in its report that nuclearr energy’ss
contribu
ution to a sustainable
s
e energy fu
uture should be recog
gnized.
The country also makes nu
uclear research in its Energy Te
echnology Center wh
here it wass
ear submarrine (it wass an essayy
tested a nuclear ffuel which will be used in Brazzilian nucle
phisticated scientific qualificatio
on flawlesss team involved and had the
e
that required sop
pation of a group of Brazilian Na
avy scientissts from Ce
enter Aram
mar).
particip
e 2013, Thorium fuel was teste
ed in the Halden rese
earch reacttor in Norw
way. It wass
In June
loaded in the lasst week of April, defining the sstart of a physical
p
te
est program
m that willl
simulatte how it op
perates in a power re
eactor.

Poland
Country
y

Poland

Reacto
ors in
opera
ation

installed
capac
city (MW)

R
Reactors
under
construction

capacity und
der
c
construction (M
MW)

generatted energy
2013
3 (TWH)

% of total energ
gy
g
generated in 20
013

0

0

0

0

0

0

The co
ountry has a populatio
on of 38 m
million and an electriccity mix cu
urrently mo
ostly based
d
on coal (94%).To
o reduce itts CO2 em
missions, Poland
P
is now ponderring the po
ossibility off
building
g its first n
nuclear pow
wer plant b
by 2024, a move to starting ch
hanging itss electricityy
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mix. Th
he Polish governme
ent commisssioned itss major po
ower comp
pany (PGE
E - Polska
a
Grupa Energetycczna SA) to
o conduct the countrry’s first tw
wo nuclear power pla
ant projectss
which are
a planne
ed to have
e a 3,000M
MW capacity, with tw
wo or three
e reactors each. It iss
expecte
ed that the first plant will come on
o stream by 2024 an
nd the second in 202
29.
Poland’s Ministryy of Economy said in
n May 2014
4 that Pola
and is plan
nning to ge
enerate 12
2
percentt of its elecctricity from
m nuclear b
by 2030. Th
he final de
esign and licenses are
e expected
d
to be ready in 20
018, allowing constru
uction to sttart in 202
20. Accordiing to Prim
me Ministerr
Tusk, tthe govern
nment belie
eves that nuclear en
nergy is a good alte
ernative fo
or Poland’ss
energy needs, as well as a great business
b
o
opportunity,, with the possibilityy of selling
g
energy to German
ny.
Site in Zarnowiec – P
Poland

The Zarnow
wiec site co
ould be ussed due to
o
th
he availability of infra
astructures already in
n
place. In 1986,
1
Russsia was building 4
W
WWER
rea
actors, 440
0MW, for Poland in
n
Zarnowiec, north off Gdansk, but the
e
project wass dropped in 1989, ffollowing a
re
eferendum strongly influence
ed by the
e
C
Chernobyl
a
accident. T
The reactorrs that had
d
already be
een delive
ered were
e sold to
o
Finland (Lovviisa) and Hungary ((Paks). On
n
th
he basis off studies already cond
ducted, the
e
exxisting site (photo
o) could use the
e
avvailable infrastructu
ures and host the
e
fu
uture plant..
In
n April 2010, a memora
andum off
understtanding w
was signe
ed betwee
en Westin
nghouse and
a
Polan
nd’s Polsska Grupa
a
Energe
etyczna (PG
GE) on a jjoint feasib
bility study for the co
onstruction of a third--generation
n
reactorr (Generatio
on III+) in P
Poland (AP
P1000).
In Julyy 2011, Po
oland’s Pa
arliament passed
p
the last law
w necessary for the start of
constru
uction of the countryy’s first Nuclear pow
wer station
n. The se
elected technology
should belong to one of the
e competitors - AREV
VA, GE Hitachi and Westingho
ouse. On
mber 9, 2011 Polish sstate-owned
d utility PG
GE said it had
h decide
ed not to pa
articipate
Decem
in the Visagina’ss nuclear plant proje
ect in Lith
huania norr contract for electriccity from
Russia's propose
ed Baltic nuclear pow
wer plant in Kaliningrad. In September 2012
2
the
polish p
power com
mpanies Ta
auron and Enea and copper miner KGHM
M signed a letter of
intent S
Septemberr 5 with PG
GE, the cou
untry's large
est utility, tto participa
ate in PGE's project
to build
d 6,000 MW
W of nuclea
ar capacityy by 2030 a
and in Sep
ptember 20
013 PGE ssaid it will
maintaiin equity of
o 70% in PGE
P
EJ, w
with 10% e
each held b
by Enea, T
Tauron and
d KGHM,
and all four partiies have in
nitialed an agreemen
nt accordin
ngly. The Polish govvernment
requestted PGE to
o lead a co
onsortium tto build two
o nuclear p
power plan
nts at separrate sites
but there are doubts about tto the nece
essary finan
ncing. No contract
c
is signed.
On 30 January 2014,
2
The
e Polish go
overnmentt has adop
pted its Po
olish Nuclear Powerr
m (PPEJ),, which is not a binding plan, but rathe
er a "road map". The program
m
Program
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definess, among o
others, the schedule ffor construcction of two
o nuclear power
p
plan
nts of 3,000
0
MW e
each and preparatiion for th
hese inve
estments regulatoryy infrastructure and
d
he implementation off
organizzation. The
e program also includ
des: econo
omic justificcation for th
the con
nstruction of
o nuclear power in Poland an
nd its financing, and ways of de
ealing with
h
spent n
nuclear fue
el and radio
oactive wasste. The lo
ocation of the two units will be sselected byy
the end
d of 2016; construction is expe
ected to start in 2019 and to be comple
eted in late
e
2024. T
The second
d unit shou
uld be comm
missioned by 2035.

Roma
ania
Countrry

Roman
nia

Reactors
s in installed
operatio
on capacity ((MW)

2

1,300

Reacttors under
cons
struction

capacity und
der
c
construction (M
MW)

generatted energy
2013
3 (TWH)

% of total enerrgy
g
generated in 20
013

0

0

10
0.7

19.82

Roman
nia has 2 nuclear power pla
ants (Cern
navoda 1 and 2- P
PHWR 650 MW) in
n
comme
ercial opera
ation with 1
19.82% of electricity generation
n from nucllear reacto
ors in 2013.
These are the onlly CANDU reactors operating
o
in
n Europe. The two pllants are o
operated byy
SNN - Societatea
a Nationala
a Nuclearellectrica. U
Units 3 and 4 (720 MW
We Candu, each) are
e
going through financing pro
oblems and
d beginning of comm
mercial ope
eration are undefined
d
h plants.
for both

NPP Cernavoda – Romania

An agre
eement be
etween six investor co
ompanies - ENEL (9.15%), CEZ
Z (9.15%), GDF Suezz
(9.15%
%), RWE Power (9.15
5%), Iberdrola (6.2%
%), and ArccelorMittal Galati (6.2
2%) - and
d
Roman
nia’s SNN- Societatea
a Nationala
a Nucleare
electrica (5
51%) was ssigned on Novemberr
20, 200
08 for com
mpletion of the reactors at Cernavoda-3 and -4 (PHW
WR Candu
u -750 MW
W
each), o
on the sam
me site of th
he operatin
ng plants 1 and 2.
In 2011, compa
anies Euro
opean Iberrdrola (6.2
2%), RWE
E Power ((9.15%), GDF
G
Suezz
%), CEZ (9
9.15%), ga
ave up pa
articipating in the prroject due to the m
market and
d
(9.15%
econom
mic uncerta
ainties, and
d SNN- So
ocietatea Nationala
N
N
Nuclearelectrica startted to hold
d
84.65%
% of the investmentt. SNN said that China Nu
uclear Pow
wer Engine
eering Co.
(CNPEC, a subsidiary of CG
GNPC) wa
as intereste
ed in invessting in the two new Cernavoda
C
a
units, a
d interest. Bids were
and later a South Korrean conso
ortium also
o expressed
e open until
mid-No
ovember 20
011 to parrtner with SNN,
S
Enel and ArcellorMittal in Energonu
uclear, with
h
the new
w investor taking
t
about 45% of the
t projectt. Apparenttly no bids were receiived.
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In Octo
ober 2012 the goverrnment askked the fo
our major utilities
u
- G
GdF Suez,, Iberdrola,
RWE and
a CEZ - w
which had withdrawn
n from EnerrgoNuclearr SA to recconsider in
nvolvementt
in the C
Cernavoda 3-4 projecct. Due to ffinancing d
difficulties, Romania’ss governme
ent had nott
provide
ed the prom
mised funds, and SNN
N was una
able to cove
er the proje
ect’s costs. The big
g
problem
m faced byy the coun
ntry is the lack of ressources to complete its constru
uctions. Itss
reactorrs are the C
CANDU typ
pe and the design is large-earth
hquake resistant.
The site
e is above
e the area ttheoreticallly hit by the greatest flood of th
he Danube River (perr
a studyy encompa
assing 10,0
000 years), and also much abo
ove the levvel of the Black
B
Sea,
among other safe
ety-related
d aspects. According to the co
ountry’s authorities, itt would be
e
very un
nlikely that something
g similar to Fukushima
a would ha
appen.
The co
ountry produces its own fuel since
s
the 1980’s at the Pitestti Nuclear Fuel Plantt
(FCN).

Russiia
Country
Russia

Reactors
s in installed
operatio
on capacity (M
MW)

33

23,64
43

Reac
ctors under
con
nstruction

capacity under
construction (M
c
MW)

generate
ed energy
2013 (TWH)
(

% of total energy
y
gen
nerated in 2013
3

10

9,285

161..781

17.52

Russia has 33 plants (23,6
643 MW) iin operatio
on (15 of them
t
equip
pped with the RBMK
K
reactorr or LWGR – the sam
me model u
used in Ukrraine’s Che
ernobyl pla
ant)and 1 F
FBR. There
e
are 10 plants under constrruction (1 FBR and 9 VVER - capacity = 9,285 ne
et) and 22
2
planned
d plants wiith a net ca
apacity of 2
24,200 MW
W which ha
ave chosen
n location and
a date off
planned
d operation
n.
There a
are still 24
4 more units (24.180
0MW) plan
nned for th
he future w
without con
nstruction’ss
informa
ation.The p
plants in operation in
n 2013 pro
oduced mo
ore than 16
61 TWh off energy orr
17.52%
% of the co
ountry's energy. The country’s per capita consumpttion is nearly 3 timess
greaterr than Brazzil’s, for a p
population o
of around 1
142 million inhabitantts.
By 203
30, 24 plan
nts should
d end its useful
u
life and manyy of the ne
ew constru
uctions will
replace
e the ones being retire
ed.
Russia also opera
ates a fleett of six larg
ge nuclear--powered icebreakerss and a 62
2,000 tonne
e
cargo sship which are more ccivil than m
military. It iss also completing a floating nucclear powerr
plant w
with two 40 MWe reacctors for use in remote
e regions.
The foccus on nucclear electriccity genera
ation by Russia’s enerrgy policy is aimed att enhancing
g
natural gas exportss to Europe
e – a more profitable business
b
th
han its use for domestiic electricityy
generattion – and th
he replacem
ment of gene
erating fleet, which is nearing the e
end of its usseful life.

Oil and gas sales accounted
d for 68% o
of Russia'ss oil exportss in 2013.
Genera
ally, Russia
an reactorss are licensed for 30
0 years from
m first pow
wer. Nowad
days planss
were a
announced for lifetim
me extensions of twe
elve first-g
generation reactors (Leningrad
d
1&2, Kursk
K
1&2, Kola 1&2,, Bilibino 1
1-4, Novovvoronezh 3
3&4) totalin
ng 5.7 GW
We, and the
e
extensiion period envisaged
d is now 1
15 to 25 yyears, neccessitating major investment in
n
refurbisshing them
m. Three plants with the
t RBMK
K reactor (L
Leningrad 1, 2 and 3)
3 had theirr
lifetime
es extende
ed by 15 years follo
owing changes and improvem
ments to th
he original
design..
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Reacto
ors Unde
er Constrruction In
n Russia
T
Type

Location
n

Reference
R
Unit
Power(MW))

AKADEM
MIK
LOMONOSOV-1

P
PWR

PEVEK

32

35

AKADEM
MIK
LOMONOSOV-2

P
PWR

PEVEK

32

35

BALTIC--1

P
PWR

SOVETSK
K

1109

1
1194

BELOYA
ARSK-4

F
FBR

ZARECHNY
YY

789

8
864

LENINGRAD 2-1

P
PWR

S
SOSNOVYY BOR
B

1085

1
1170

LENINGRAD 2-2

P
PWR

S
SOSNOVYY BOR
B

1085

1
1170

NOVOVO
ORONEZH 2
2-1

P
PWR

NOV
VOVORONEZ
ZHSKIY

1114

1
1199

NOVOVO
ORONEZH 2
2-2

P
PWR

NOV
VOVORONEZ
ZHSKIY

1114

1
1199

ROSTOV
V-3

P
PWR

R
ROSTOV OBL
LAST

1011

1
1100

ROSTOV
V-4

P
PWR

R
ROSTOV OBL
LAST

1011

1
1100

Under Co
onstructtion

10

Name

T
Total

Grross
Elec
ctrical
Capac
city (MW)

In July 2012, the director ge
eneral of R
Rosatom – Russia’s sstate-run nu
uclear com
mpany said
that the
e Russian g
governmen
nt has plan
ns for the construction
n of new nu
uclear capa
acity up to
2020, w
which will correspon
nds to aro
ound 30 G
GW. It willl expect that
t
nuclear energy
represe
ents 25% o
or 30 % of total
t
in the country att this time.
The effficiency of nuclear ellectricity ge
eneration h
has grown strongly over
o
the pa
ast decade
e
(the avvailability riising from 56% to 76%),
7
and the electriicity mix iss trying to follow the
e
growth of consum
mption, whicch has bee
en keeping rather significant levvels.
Russia has been signing a sseries of co
ommercial and coope
eration agre
eements w
with several
es for consstruction off new reacctors, nucle
ear fuel devvelopment and explo
oitation and
d
countrie
researcch in the n
nuclear are
ea in gene
eral, settin
ng up an e
extensive network o
of influence
e
around the world.. According
g to Russia
an governm
ment leaderrs, this sho
ould allow tthe countryy
to be a trading partner in 30%
3
of new
w businesss transactio
ons in the nuclear arrea, and to
o
possibly hold 38%
% of the nuclear reacttors and se
ervices market by 203
30.
On 13/0
06/2013, the
e project off the Baltic nuclear pow
wer plant ttemporarily stops due reduction in
n
consum
mes in the rregion. Reactors of low
w power are
e under consideration to meet electricity net
system of the Kalin
ningrad regio
on, of aboutt eight unitss of 40 MW((e).

The ecconomic-fin
nancial crissis at the end of 2008
8 strongly affected th
he Russian
n economy.
Industrial producttion fell mo
ore than 7%
% and, as a consequ
uence, energy consum
mption wass
pushed down. Nevertheless, g
government leaders explain that nu
uclear planss will just be
e “put off” in
n
time, wh
hich will allo
ow new plan
nts to be connected late
er on, by 20
020. Replaccing older re
eactors with
h
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new one
es remains as part of the goal of a 25% reduction in ca
arbon emisssions up to 2020. On
n
Novemb
ber, 11th 2013 Russia h
has approve
ed a plan to
o construct 21 new nucclear powerr reactors in
n
the coun
ntry by 2030
0. The new units will ha
ave a combined total in
nstalled capa
acity of 25,2
280 MW.
The pla
an, signed b
by Prime Miinister Dmittry Medvede
ev, was inccluded in a “regional an
nd territoria
al
energy planning sccheme” and published o
on the government’s we
ebsite Nove
ember 21.
It includes three de
evelopmentss for the cou
untry’s nucle
ear power ssector:
- Constructiion of five new
n
two-un
nit nuclear p
power plantts, to be ca
alled Kostro
oma, Nizhnyy
Novgorod,, Seversky, South Ural and Tatar;
- Constructiion of replacement cap
pacity at thrree existing nuclear po
ower plants nearing the
e
end of their operational life, Kola, Kursk and Smolensk; and
- Constructtion of a G
Generation IV BN-120
00 sodium-ccooled fastt reactor att Beloyarskk
nuclear po
ower plant.
In Nove
ember 2011, Russia’s re
egulatory bo
ody – Rose
etekhnadzorr awarded th
he license fo
or the Balticc
Nuclearr power plant (two rreactors VV
VER 1200M
MW). Rosa
atom, Russsian state-rrun nuclearr
compan
ny began in February 2
2012 the con
nstruction o
of the in the Kaliningrad
d district, on
n the borderr
with Lith
huania (justt 10 Km farr away). Such project iis viewed a
as a compettitor with the
e Visaginass
nuclear power plant which w
would replacce the elecctric power from Ignalina (Lithuanian RBMK
K
reactor, closed in 2009).
2

NPP Kurs
sk (5 reactors - type LWGR
(1 under c
construction) photo: Atome
energoproekt

Control Ro
oom of Reacto
or Leningrad
(RBMK or LGWR)
L

In view of the findin
ngs of powe
er shortage studies on the Baltic re
egion foreseeing a cap
pacity deficit
of 2,000
0 MW, Russsia has gua
aranteed to private inve
estors the la
arge potential of that p
plant, whose
e
units arre planned to operate
e in 2018 and 2020 respectivelyy. The proj
oject also in
ncludes the
e
transmisssion line tthat will distribute ele
ectric powe
er to neighb
bors (BREL
LL – Belarrus, Russia,
Estonia, Latvia and
d Lithuania)..
Rosatom
m said it is building orr contract to
o more 28 reactors wo
orldwide and in the ne
ext 20 yearss
plans to
o buy equipm
ment and se
ervices for n
nuclear facilities worth more than $
$300 billion
n (238 billion
n
euro).
Iran's re
eactor builtt by Russia
a came into
o commerccial operatio
on in 2013 and a new businesss
agreement with Bangladesh sh
hould be sig
gned by the end of the year.
With resspect to Fu
ukushima, a
although no
ot a membe
er of the Blloc, the cou
untry will do
o the same
e
safety ttests as oth
her EU Na
ations. A prrogram of inspections is underw
way on Russsian powerr
stationss with respect to the possible risks faced by the op
perator in th
he event o
of failure off
emergency water and powerr supply forr coolant syystems. Fo
ollowing these, in mid June 2011
1
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Rosene
ergoatom an
nnounced a RUR 15 billlion ($530 million)
m
safe
ety upgrade
e program fo
or additiona
al
power a
and water su
upply back-up.

Volgodon
nsky NPP (type
e PWR) in Rus
ssia - Photo: En
nergoatom

N
Novovoronezh
h - Russia
3 units in operation, 2 u
under construc
ction,
2 planned e 2 closed

Rosene
ergoatom sp
pent RUR 2.6
2 billion o
on 66 mobille diesel ge
enerator setts, 35 mobile pumping
g
units an
nd 80 other pumps, bessides I&C equipments. Since the F
Fukushima event, Russsia has kept
the consstruction of Leningrad power plant 2 (second phase), co
ontinues with
h constructiion in China
a
(2 units), India (2 units) and signed con
nstruction ccontracts forr 12 new pllants (4 in T
Turkey, 2 in
n
Belarus, 2 in Bang
gladesh, 2 iin Vietnam
m and more 2 in India)), all of them
m already m
meeting the
e
requirem
ments arisin
ng from Fukushima.

Nuclea
ar wastes
Russia reprocesse
es spent nu
uclear fuel at Mayak reprocessin
ng plant on
n the Ural Mountains.
Anotherr Russian novelty is the
e floating nuclear powe
er plant in P
Pevek, loca
ated in the arctic
a
region
n
of Chukkotka, where
e the population favore
ed the proje
ect after dismissing thre
eats from th
he facility to
o
the region’s surrou
unds. A proposal was approved
a
a a public debate
at
d
calle
ed by the authorities of
the Cha
aunski mun
nicipal disttrict, where
e Pevek is located, w
with the atttendance o
of workers,
assemb
blypersons a
and activistss, as inform
med by officcial agency "RIA Newti". The local authoritiess
had set up an exhibition on th
he project in
n the municiipal library tto inform the
e region’s residents
r
on
n
the enviironmental iimpact of th
he plant.
In the decommissio
oning area, Russia (Ro
osatom and Tvel) comp
pleted the firrst decomm
missioning off
a civil fa
acility, and tthe experience acquire
ed will be ussed by the nuclear industry in the future. The
e
work wa
as carried o
out in a uran
nium pellet p
plant that wa
as returned to greenfie
eld status. T
The project’ss
cost wa
as equivale
ent to 21 m
million dolla
ars and, be
ecause of the comple
ex operation
ns involved
d
(disman
ntling equipm
ment items, demolishin
ng structures, removing
g contamina
ated soil, etcc.) the workk
required
d nearly 4 ye
ears.

Slovakia
Countrry

Slovakia

Reacto
ors in
opera
ation

4

installe
ed
capacitty (MW)

1
1.815

Re
eactors under
c
construction

2

capacity un
nder generated energy % of total energy
y
construction ((MW)
2013
3 (TWH)
gen
nerated in 2013
3

880

14
4,42

51.7

ear reactorrs in comm
mercial operration prod
duced 14.411 TWh off electricity,
Slovakiia’s 4 nucle
in 2012
2, which acccounted ffor 53.79%
% of the cou
untry’s ene
ergy generration. The
e two unitss
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under cconstructio
on are Mocchovce-3 a
and -4 (VV
VER 440MW
W each) and were e
expected to
o
come into opera
ation in 20
014 and 2015 resp
pectively, but there are some
e delay in
n
comple
etion. Planss also conttemplate th
he construcction of 2 o
other reacto
ors in the period
p
from
m
2020 to
o 2025.
As a preparatory
p
y step towa
ards accesssion to th
he Europea
an Union, in 2004 the countryy
agreed to the de
ecommissio
oning of itss two olde
est reactorss (Bohunicce V1 unitt 1 and 2),
which took
t
place in 2006 an
nd 2008.
Seeing that the p
per capita energy consumption is 4,550 KWh
K
a yea
ar and as more than
n
50% off the gene
erating cap
pacity com
mes from nuclear
n
sou
urces, fuel supply sttability and
d
securityy are para
amount for the population’s qua
ality of life
e. Russian company TVEL hass
been engaged the
e supply alll nuclear fu
uel require
ements.
Nucle
ear Power
(www.seas.sk/en)

Plant

Mochovce
e

In 20
008, Slova
akia decided that itss
high--level rad
dwastes w
would be
e
repro
ocessed, and
a studiess are underr
way on the siting of a rep
pository forr
lowand
interme
ediate-level
radio
oactive wasste
Slova
akia is pa
art of the NPT since
e
1993
3 and also signed the
e additional
proto
ocol in 19
999. The country iss
also a memb
ber of the NSG S
Suppliers
Group.
Nuclear
work is con
ntinuing on
n
Consstruction w
the M
Mochovce-3 and -4 plants. As iss
the casse across Europe, Slovak plants will go through
t
the stress te
ests called for by the
e
EU.

Slovenia
Country

Slovenia

Reacto
ors in
opera
ation

1

installe
ed
capacitty (MW)

688
8

Reac
ctors under
con
nstruction

0

capacity und
der
construction (M
MW)

0

generatted energy
2013
3 (TWH)

5,0
036

% of total energy
ge
enerated in 201
13

33,6

Slovenia has a p
population of 2 millio
on. Neigh
hbouring C
Croatia hass 4.5 millio
on people.
Together they havve 1 nucle
ear reactor - KRSKO (PWR, 688
8 MW) in o
operation ssince 1981.
In 2013
3, KRSKO produced 5.036 TW
Wh of electricity, supp
plying 33.6
6 % of the Slovenia’ss
electricc grid. The reactor is shared (50
0%) with C
Croatia. Forr Croatia th
his energy was aboutt
15% off total.
KRSKO
O reactor was desig
gned for 40
0 years op
peration, bu
ut a 20 ye
ears life exxtension iss
expecte
ed.

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Slovenia has a 250 kW Triga
T
resea
arch reacttor
operating since 1966 at the Josef Steffan Institute
e.
Nuclear Power
P
Plant KRSKO

Nuclea
ar wastes
In Janu
uary 2010, Slovenia - through itss Agency ffor
za
Radwasste Manag
gement - ARAO (Agencija
(
radioakttivne odpa
adke, in Czech)
C
sele
ected a ssite
(Vrbina)) near the n
nuclear plan
nt, for the construction of
a Low- and Interm
mediate-Levvel Waste rrepository, as
authorizzed by gove
ernmental decree in De
ecember 20
009. The re
epository, co
onsisting off 2 silos, will
have a capacity forr 9,400 cub
bic meters o
of low- and intermediate
e-level radio
oactive matterial, which
h
correspo
onds to half of all wasstes generatted during the
t operatio
on and future decomm
missioning off
the nucllear plant.
The posssibility also exists for the facilitty to be exxpanded to store nucle
ear wastes from otherr
sourcess. The system’s capaccity could b
be increase
ed to cope with the possible
p
gro
owth of the
e
country’’s nuclear program.
Slovenia is to main
ntain its nucclear power program despite the
e
Fukushiima acciden
nt, as decla
ared by th
he Economy Minister Darja Radic in June 2011.
2
In all
energy scenarios for
f the coun
ntry up to 20
030, the nu
uclear option
n is emphassized. The g
government
also an
nnounced th
he likely co
onstruction a second reactor at Krsko withiin the natio
onal energyy
program
m which is p
pending final approval n
no Parliament.

Spain
Country

Spain

Reacto
ors in
opera
ation

7

installe
ed
capacitty (MW)

7,56
67

Reac
ctors under
con
nstruction

0

capacity und
der
construction (M
MW)

0

generatted energy
2013
3 (TWH)

54..31

% of total energy
ge
enerated in 201
13

19.7

has 7 nucllear reacto
ors (6 PWR
R and 1 BW
WR) in op
peration, with a total 7,567 MW
W
Spain h
installed capacityy. In 2013
3, 54.31TW
Wh of elecctricity werre produce
ed, corresp
ponding to
o
19,7% of the cou
untry’s tota
al electricityy generatio
on but the nuclear ’ss installed capacity iss
only 7.3
32% of the
e total, with a load facctor among the highesst.
In Spaiin, nuclear power pla
ants do nott have a lim
mited perio
od of opera
ation. From
m the day a
plant sttarts opera
ation it is grranted perm
mits that arre renewed
d every 10 years with
hout a legal
limit.
ave been shut down:
Three rreactors ha
• Vandellos
V
s 1 in 1990 - on wh
hich the de
ecommissioning work is in an advanced
d
s
stage
• Zorita-Jos
Z
se Cabrerra in 2006
6, whose decommiss
d
sioning ha
as been awarded
a
to
o
W
Westingho
ouse.
• Garona
G
- Spain’s oldest rea
actor (46
66 MW B
BWR) - In October 2012 the
e
S
Spanish
g
governmen
nt has pro
oposed tw
wo new tax
xes on nu
uclear enerrgy and in
n
D
December
r 2012 the operator Nuclenor,, owner off plant has
s been clos
sed for no
o
l
longer
me
eet econom
mic requirrements, a
after the en
nactment of new go
overnmentt
t
taxes
imposed on th
he operato
or.
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In Mayy 2013 , the Spanish Nuclear S
Safety Cou
uncil (CSN)) has apprroved a req
quest from
m
Nuclenor (joint vventure En
ndesa-Iberd
drola), the operator of the Ga
aroña nucllear powerr
plant, to
o delay the
e deadline for filing a license ren
newal dem
mand that w
would have
e extended
d
the ope
erations off Garoña u
until 2019.. With thiss
new dellay, Nuclenor will ha
ave time to
o submit a
renewal license.
In 27 May, 2014 the Garona’s
G
operatorr
Nucleno
or has sub
bmitted a request
r
to renew the
e
operatin
ng licence in Spain
n to the M
Ministry off
Industryy, Energy and
a
Tourism, the com
mpany hass
said in a statemen
nt.
In Nove
ember 201
14 Spain’ss Nuclear Regulatorr
Approve
es Trillo Op
perating Liccence Until 2024
Nuclear P
Power Plant Vandellos 2 – Spain

For political reaso
ons, Spain is planning to have nuclear po
ower plantss closed at the end off
ed capacityy being re
eplaced th
hrough oth
her nuclearr
reactorr lifetime, without their installe
plants.
hstanding, in Decem
mber 2009 a new law
w was approved wh
hich allowss plants to
o
Notwith
operate
e beyond their origina
al 40 yearss’ useful liffe, if the co
ountry’s Nu
uclear Safe
ety Council
declare
es them to
o be safe. An examp
ple of this was the a
authorizatio
on, in June 2010, to
o
extend the lifetime
es of Alma
araz-Trillo p
plants and Vandellos 2, by an additional 10 years.
Nuclearr wastes

ountry has a low- and
d intermed
diate-level repository in operatio
on since 1980’s - “El
The co
Cabril”,, designed
d by Westinghouse Electric Sp
pain (WES
S). The de
ecision on a storage
e
facility ffor high-levvel waste is still on ho
old.
30/Dezzembro 201
11 - The S
Spanish go
overnment has picked
d a site (a
at the city o
of Villar de
e
Canas in Cuencca Province
e) to store
e the country's spent nuclearr fuel and high-level
radioacctive waste
e, marking the end o
of a nearly two-year sselection process
p
tha
at involved
d
14 mun
nicipalities that had vo
olunteered to host su
uch a facility.
The miinistry said
d constructtion of the
e centralize
ed storage
e facility, known by itts Spanish
h
acronym
m ATC (Almacén tem
mporal cen
ntralizado de España
a), is estim
mated to co
ost Eur700
0
million (about $90
08 million) and bring a
an average
e of 300 job
bs to the re
egion.
oject involvves buildin
ng a dry storage
s
faccility for sp
pent fuel an
nd vitrified
d high-level
The pro
waste a
and a tech
hnology ce
enter to su
upport the site, it saiid. The ministry said
d additional
site-spe
ecific envirronmental evaluations
e
s have to b
be perform
med and au
uthorization
ns obtained
d
before constructio
on can begin. The A
ATC is ne
ecessary be
ecause sp
pent fuel po
ools at the
e
countryy's nuclearr reactors a
are filling u
up. Accord
ding to a g
generic dessign of the
e facility —
provide
ed by state
e-owned nu
uclear wasste manage
ement com
mpany Enre
esa and ap
pproved byy
the Nucclear Safetty Council in
i 2006 — the ATC w
would hold an estimatted 6,700 m
mt of spentt
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fue
el, 2,600 ccubic metters of inttermediate-levvel waste and 12 cu
ubic meterrs of high-levvel waste.
In October 2
2012 the Spanish
S
g
governmentt
hass propose
ed two new taxes o
on nuclearr
ene
ergy as part of a draft llaw being
g
pre
esented to
o parliament. The firrst nuclearr
ene
ergy tax iss the prod
duction of radioactive
e
wa
aste resu
ulting from
m nuclea
ar powerr
gen
neration att 2.190 eu
uro (EUR) (2.878 US
S
dolllars) per kilo
k of heavvy metal pro
oduced.
Nuc
clear Power P
Plant Almarazz-Trillo

The second tax is on radioacttive waste
e
storage
e and will replace ccurrent taxxes impose
ed by auto
onomous regions. Itt will bring
g
“cohere
ence and cconsistencyy and unifyy the tax syystem of va
arious autonomous re
egions”, the
e
ministryy said. Spa
ain’s Minisster for Ind
dustry, Mig
guel Sebasstián, called
d for a revview of the
e
safety systems a
at all Spa
anish nuclear powerr plants, tto draw o
on the lesssons from
m
Japane
ese event. Along the same line
e, he declared that ad
dditional asssessmentts covering
g
the seissmic occurrrence and flood riskss have been ordered.
In August 2011
1, Spain’s nuclear regulator (Consejo de Segu
uridad Nucclear-CSN))
unanim
mously app
proved a 10-year lifettime exten
nsion for th
he 2 nucle
ear units o
of the Ascó
ó
nuclearr power pla
ant (up to 2
2021). On Septembe
er 15, the C
CSN inform
med that alll 8 nuclearr
power plants had
d passed the stresss tests proposed by the Europ
pean Union
n and thatt
plants’ safety ma
argins makke them ccapable of resisting accidents beyond th
heir design
n
gly, María T
Teresa Do
ominguez, president of FORO NUCLEAR
R, declared
d
bases. According
uclear powe
er must co
ontinue as part of Sp
pain’s elecctricity mix.. In Novem
mber 2014,
that nu
Almara
az-Trillo wa
as grant witth more 10 year life operation,
o
u
until
2014.
The ne
ew governm
ment elected in Nove
ember 201
11 has alre
eady state
ed that the Spanish
electriccity mix will be one tha
at ensures the reducttion of CO2
2 emission
ns.

Swede
en
Country
y

Sweden
n

Reactors in
operation

10

installed
capacity (MW)

9.3
388

Reactors under
cons
struction

0

capacity und
der
c
construction (M
MW)

0

genera
ated energy
2013 (TWH)

63
3,72

% of total enerrgy
generated in 20
g
013

42,7

Sweden has 10 nuclear re
eactors in operation that produ
uced 63.72
2 TWh or 42.7 % off
13. There
e are 3 cclosed rea
actors, 1 ffor end-of--life (Agessta) and 2
electriccity in 201
(Barseb
bäck) for p
political reasons. The
e capacity increase
i
of the counttry’s existin
ng reactorss
amountted to apprroximately 1150 MW,, practicallly matching
g the capacity of Barssebäck 1-2
2
reactorrs (BWR-60
00MW) and
d 2 (BWR--615 MW), that were premature
ely shut dow
wn in 2004
4
and 2005. With a population
n of about 9 million, this
t
repressents appro
oximately o
one reactorr
per eacch million in
nhabitants.
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Ringhals
s nuclear po
ower plant is
s the largest
power plant in Scandiinavia.

Electriccity production in Sweden iis
domina
ated by two
o generatin
ng sources hydro w
with about 50% of the powe
er
grid’s capacity,
c
an
nd nuclear with 45%.
The exxpansion of such production
n
rates w
was limited
d by laws protecting
g
rivers and
a prohibiting the co
onstruction
n
of new reactors.
In June 2010, country’s authoritiess
officiallyy abolish
hed the legislation
n
banning
g the consstruction o
of new rea
actors, and
d since Ja
anuary 201
11 new re
eactors are
e
allowed
d to be buiilt to replacce the olde
est ones re
eaching en
nd-of-lifetim
me or to increase the
e
countryy’s generatting capacitty and enssure energyy supply se
ecurity.
any wants to buy lan
nd adjacen
nt to the R
Ringhals nu
uclear pow
wer plant to
o
Vattenffall Compa
build another
a
po
ower reacctor, Mats Ladeborn
n, the dirrector of the Swedish powerr
compan
ny's nuclea
ar power de
evelopmen
nt unit, said
d in a June
e 3statemen
nt.
Under Swedish llaw, new reactors ma
ay be builtt to replace
e units that will be pe
ermanentlyy
shut. R
Reactors m
may only be
e built at the
t
sites of the three
e existing n
nuclear po
ower plantss
op
perating in
n Sweden: Ringhals,
Fo
orsmark an
nd Oskarsh
hamn.
By 2025 att least fou
ur reactorss
will reach the end of liife and will
e closed re
esulting in the loss off
be
mo
ore than 22 TWh of steadyy
en
nergy in the country. The
e
Sw
wedish govvernment, through itss
Prrime Min
nister, vo
owed the
e
de
ecision willl be maintained to
o
replace nucllear reacto
ors coming
g
to the end off their useful lives.
Nuclear P
Power Station
n Forsmark

Nuclea
ar wastes
s
With a nuclear generating fleet
f
where
e all reacto
ors have be
een operatting for twe
enty two to
o
forty ye
ears, opera
ation safetyy and waste
e storage p
processes are a consstant conce
ern.
In Jun
ne 2009, the Nucle
ear Fuel and Wastte Manage
ement Co
ompany - SKB, an
n
indepen
ndent com
mpany run b
by the operators of nuclear
n
pow
wer plants in Sweden
n, selected
a site (Ö
Östhamma
ar municipa
ality) near the
t Formark plant to host the co
ountry’s fin
nal storage
e
facility ffor spent fu
uel.
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Östh
hammar – Sweden
n
Selec
cted
site
forr
cons
struction of waste
e
stora
age

Everry year, more
m
than
n
10,0
000 people
e visit the
e
test caverns of Aspo
o
Hard
d Rock lab
boratory, a
mod
del where the spentt
fuel from nuclear powerr
stations can b
be stored.
As general in
nformation
n
policcy, the pop
pulation iss
enco
ouraged tto get to
o
know
w
the
solutionss
prop
posed.
The communitties in the
e
d more than 80% of
area co
ompeted w
with one a
another to host the ffacility, and
o the local
residen
nts favor the repositorry.
The op
peration sta
arting date of the fina
al repositorry will posssibly be in 2023
2
if the
e proposed
d
schedu
ule is mett. Accordin
ng to the spokespe
erson of tthe Nuclea
ar Fuel and Waste
e
Manage
ement Com
mpany (SK
KB), Inger Nordholm, the policyy that has led
l to this position iss
one of complete transparen
ncy with th
he commun
nities, stating what iss meant to
o be done,
why it should
s
be d
done, and how a placce for it willl be found.

Switze
erland
Counttry

Reactors in
opera
ation

installled
capac
city (MW)

Rea
actors under
co
onstruction

capacity under
construction (MW)

generatted energy
2013
3 (TWH)

% of total energ
gy
ge
enerated in 201
13

Switzerlland

5

3.308

0

0

24
4.99

36,4

Switzerrland has 5 operating
g nuclear rreactors (3,352 MW installed ca
apacity) disstributed in
n
PWR and
a
BWR
R type rea
actors, which producced 24.99
9 TWh of electricityy in 2013,
accoun
nting for 36
6,4% of the
e country’ss electric g
grid. With a populatio
on of 7.6 million,
m
thiss
represe
ents approxximately on
ne reactor per each m
million and a half inha
abitants.
These plants werre designed for 50 ye
ears’ opera
ation and ttheir current operatin
ng licensess
are due
e to expire
e between
n 2019 and 2034 wh
hen they will
w reach lifetime lim
mits. Three
e
construcction appliccations for new
n
nuclear plants we
ere under re
eview by Sw
wiss federal authoritiess
when th
he Fukushim
ma accidentt occurred a
and, as a co
onsequence
e the processses were put on hold.

Propossed laws calling for a ban on n
nuclear energy are not
n overly rigid and provide
p
forr
periodicc assessm
ments of the counttry’s energ
gy situatio
on vis-à-vis world ttechnologyy
develop
pment as a means fo
or energy p
policy chang
ges.
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There w
was also h
high support for the ccontinued use
u of nucllear powerr, with 68%
% of people
e
saying that Switze
erland's exxisting reacctors should remain in operation
n as long a
as they are
e
safe (a
according with poolss in Octob
ber 2013)..Nuclear e
energy is an essenttial part off
Switzerrland's ene
ergy mix an
nd more de
ebate is nee
eded abou
ut its plann
ned phase out.
The Urranium for ffuel that su
upplies the
e plants is p
procured o
on world markets, enrrichment iss
provide
ed by a varriety of contractors, an
nd fuel fab
brication is similarly diiverse.

Swis
ss Power Reactors in Ope
eration
Reactor

Bez nau 1
Bez nau 2
sgen
Gös
Müh
hleberg
Leib
bstadt

Operator

Type

MWe net

startt
operatiion

osure
clo
(ap
prox.)

NOK
NOK
KK
KG/Alpiq
BKW
NO
OK/Alpiq

PWR
PWR
PWR
BWR
BWR

365
365
985
372
1165

1969
9
1971
9
1979
1971
4
1984

20
019
20
021
20
029
20
022
20
034

Nuclea
ar wastes
s
Switzerrland has been
b
long looking
l
forr a suitable
e site to build a final rrepository ffor nuclearr
wastes. In the m
meantime, such wasttes are tra
ansported to interim storage ffacilities in
n
Sellafie
eld (Englan
nd) and La Hague (Frrance), butt should re
eturn to Sw
witzerland a
as soon ass
the fina
al repositorry is available. The op
peration sttarting date
e of the wa
aste storage
e facility iss
schedu
uled for 202
24. Every yyear, the five Swiss rreactors prroduce around 75 ton
ns of spentt
fuel wh
hich, at the
e end of their planne
ed lifespan
n, will tota
al 3,000 to 4,300 ton
ns (around
d
7,300 m3), depending on the
e operating
g conditions of each p
plant.
ompany ressponsible ffor nuclearr waste ma
anagementt in genera
al also estimates thatt
The co
low- an
nd intermed
diate-level radioactive
e and waste from me
edical activvities will b
bring this to
o
3
a total of 93,000
0m . The ccosts gene
erated by decommissioning of plants, sttorage and
d
ort, interim storage, a
and deep geological
g
des related
d
transpo
storage off such material, besid
researcch and devvelopment, are alread
dy charged to consum
mers on ele
ectricity billss.
ent which is responssible for all
Produccers of medical wasttes pay a fee to the governme
such se
ervices. C
Considering
g the Fuku
ushima eve
ent, althou
ugh not a member o
of the Bloc,
Switzerrland will d
do the sam
me tests ass other natiions of the
e EU. The conclusion
ns from the
e
prelimin
nary tests are
a that the
e nuclear p
plants have
e high safe
ety levels.

ne
Ukrain
Country
y

Ukrain
ne

Reactors
s in
operatio
on

15

installed
d
capacity
y (MW)

13.10
07

Reacttors under
construction

2

capacity und
der
c
construction (M
MW)

2.000

genera
ated energy
2013 (TWH)

78
8,17

% of total energy
generated in 2
2013

43,6

Ukraine
e has 15 re
eactors in operation with an insstalled cap
pacity of 13
3,880 MW (13 VVER
R
1000MW
W and 2 V
VVER 400 MW) and 4 closed un
nits (Chern
nobyl – 3 RBMK
R
925 MW and 1
RBMK 725 MW).. Zaporozh
he nuclear power sta
ation in we
est Ukraine
e is Europe
e’s largest,
with 6 V
VVER type
e reactors, 950 MW each.
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In 2012
2, Ukrainia
an nuclear power plan
nts producced 84.885 TWh, representing 46.20
4
% off
the country’s ele
ectric pow
wer. With about 45 million pe
eople (201
10 censuss) and the
e
dimenssions of the state of Minas Ge
erais, in Brrazil, it has a reacto
or for everry 3 million
n
people and consu
umes almost double tthe energy per capita
a of Brazilia
ans.
Zaporrizhia Nucle
ear Power Station

Ukraine’s prima
ary energ
gy sourcess
are ccoal, gas and
a
uranium
m, but gass
– as well as oiil – is imp
ported from
m
Russia, which a
also suppliies nuclearr
fuel. Such enerrgy dependence hass
broug
ght politica
al problem
ms for the
e
counttry which would likke to find
d
substtitutes for e
energy supplies.
In
2004
U
Ukraine
c
completed
,
comm
missioned
and
put
into
o
comm
mercial op
peration Unit
U
2 off
Khme
elnitski sttation (10
000MW –
VVER); in additio
on, Rovno’’s Unit 4 (1000MW – VVER) was
w comm
missioned a
and started
d
operatio
on.
Russian company Atomstro
oyexport w
will comple
ete the construction of units 3 and 4 off
Khmeln
nitski powe
er station ((1000MW – VVER, e
each), as a
approved in
n October 2008. The
e
constru
uction had been susp
pended in 1990. Con
nstruction w
work on un
nit 3 is 75%
% complete
e
and pla
ant 4, 28%..
A 20-ye
ear extenssion of the operating licenses ffor Rovno 1&2 was granted byy the State
e
Nuclear Regulato
ory Inspecto
orate of Ukkraine (SNR
RI or SNRC
C) in Dece
ember 2010
0.
According to data
a from the
e World Nuclear Asssociation – WNA the
ere exist 1
13 planned
d
reactorrs in Ukraine, with 9 being inte
ended to replace
r
old
der ones sscheduled to be shutt
down b
by 2035, a
and the otthers are new plantts to meett country’ss future co
onsumption
n
requirements.
In Octo
ober 2012 The Intern
national En
nergy Agen
ncy – IEA released a review of Ukraine’ss
energy policies, w
where theyy say Ukra
aine will n
need betwe
een three gigawatts (GW) and
d
5GW of
o new nucclear capaccity, for wh
hich it has already drrawn up a list of possible sites.
A decission on new
w build is e
expected b
between 20
015 and 20
018 with in
nvestment costs
c
likelyy
to rang
ge from 12 billion US
S dollars (U
USD) (9.2 billion euro
o) to USD 20 billion, the reportt
says. The
T report says
s
nucle
ear energy is “a key p
pillar” of the
e country’ss draft Upda
ate Energyy
Strateg
gy, which details enerrgy policy u
until 2030.
outh Ukraine-1 nucle
ear power plant
p
gets 10-year exxtension to
o
On 16 Decemberr 2013 - So
The State N
Nuclear Re
egulatory Inspectoratte (SNRI) o
of Ukraine
e has appro
oved a 10-2023 T
year exxtension off the operattion license
e for the So
outh Ukrain
ne-1 nuclear power p
plant.
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Ukra
aine's Re
eactors in operration
Ty
ype
V=P
PWR

M
MWe
net

Start Comm
mercial
operatio
on

c
Scheduled close,
likely close

North
hwest:
Khme
elnitski 1
Khme
elnitski 2
Rivne
e/Rovno 1
Rivne
e/Rovno 2
Rivne
e/Rovno 3
Rivne
e/Rovno 4
South
h:

V-320
V-320
V-213
V-213
V-320
V-320

950
950
402
416
950
950

Aug 1988
Aug 2005
Sep 1981
2
jul/82
May 1987
late 200
05

2018, 2032
2035, 2050
2030
2031
2017, 2032
2035, 2050

South
h Ukraine 1

V-302

950

Oct 198
83

2023, 2033

South
h Ukraine 2

V-338

950

Apr 198
85

2015, 2030

South
h Ukraine 3

V-320

950

Dec 1989

2019, 2034

Zaporrozhe 1
Zaporrozhe 2
Zaporrozhe 3
Zaporrozhe 4
Zaporrozhe 5
Zaporrozhe 6

V-320
V-320
V-320
V-320
V-320
V-320

950
950
950
950
950
950

Dec 1985
Feb 1986
mar/87
88
Apr 198
Oct 198
89
Sep 1996

2015, 2030
2016, 2031
2017, 2032
2018, 2033
2019, 2034
2026, 2041

R
Reactor

Total (15)
(

168 MWe ne
et (13,835 MWe
M
gross – Energoattom May 2013)
13,1

mmissioned
d in 1983, had been granted a 30-year op
peration liccense. With
h
The 950 MW, com
ng until D
he unit wiill continue
e generatin
December 2023. It iss currentlyy
this exxtension, th
undergoing pre-startup tests after a 280-day
2
ou
utage durin
ng which re
epairs, reco
onstruction
n
odernization work hass been und
dertaken. A similar exxtension co
ould be gra
anted to the
e
and mo
other tw
wo units at South Ukrraine, until 2015 and 2019, resp
pectively.
ar wastes
s
Nuclea
Ukraine
e does not reprocess its wastess and these
e are stored
d at the pla
ants themsselves.
Cherno
obyl’s 4 rea
actors are being deccommission
ned. Unit 4 which wa
as destroye
ed in 1986
6
by a nu
uclear acccident, with
h explosion
n and relea
ase of rad
dioactivity, is encapsu
ulated in a
sarcoph
hagus, and
d a new pro
otective strructure is b
being built o
on it.
After th
he fall of the Soviet Union, Ukra
aine negotia
ated the re
epatriation of nuclear warheadss
which w
were in its territory a
and their tra
ansformation into nuclear fuel, thereby rid
dding itselff
of the risk
r
of anyy accident with atomic weapons and bein
ng enabled
d to sign th
he Nuclearr
Non-Prroliferation Treaty - NPT.
In 1991
1, Ukraine
e had on itts territory 1,900 strategic nucclear warhe
eads along
g with 176
6
intercon
ntinental b
ballistic misssiles (ICBMs) and 45
5 strategicc bombers. That consstituted the
e
world’s third large
est nuclear arsenal. Ukraine agreed to g
give up tho
ose weapo
ons, in partt
due to commitme
ents to Trea
aty on the Non-Prolife
eration of N
Nuclear Weapons - N
NPT and to
o
espected its territoria
al integrityy and sove
ereignty co
ontained in
n the 1994
4 Budapestt
have re
Memorrandum sig
gned with R
Russia, the United Sta
ates and England.
E
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Other Eu
uropean Countrie
es
c countrie
es (Lithu
uania, Esttonia and
d Latvia))
Baltic
Being ttoo small to
o bear the constructio
on costs off a nuclearr plant, the Baltic countries wish
h
to join into a con
nsortium to
o build a p
plant. Toge
ether, they can also benefit fro
om lines off
credit w
which they are entitle
ed to with tthe Nordic Investmen
nt Bank. Th
he Project could also
o
include
e Poland, but it had de
ecided not participate
e.

Lithua
ania
In Dece
ember 200
09, Lithuania’s last rea
actor (RBM
MK) that wa
as operatin
ng in the co
ountry wass
shut do
own, as pa
art of its EU
U accessio
on commitm
ments. Lith
huania had
d been trying to keep
p
nuclearr plant Ign
nalia 2 (1.3
300-MW RBMK)
R
in o
operation u
up to 2012
2, but wass unable to
o
controvvert the op
pinion of the Europea
an authoritiies. An interim repository will be built on
n
the plan
nt’s own siite (AREVA
A contract tto be paid by the Eurropean Union) to storre low- and
d
interme
ediate-level wastes from plant decommiss
d
sioning. In M
March 2010, an agree
ement wass
signed with Swed
den for con
nstruction of a transm
mission line to carry electric po
ower to the
e
countryy, pending the availab
bility of other nuclear plants.
As a co
onsequencce of the reactor shutd
down, the ccountry’s p
price electrric power ro
ose 31% in
n
2010. A proposal already exxists for a reactor (Visaginas) in Lithuania
a under a consortium
c
m
with E
Estonia. Th
his is cla
assified byy the inte
erested go
overnmentss as an immediate
e
implem
mentation p
project to ensure en
nergy secu
urity and ccut down gas depen
ndence on
n
Russia, besides a
assisting in
n complying
g with Euro
opean goa
als of green
nhouse gas emission
n
reductio
on.
Hitachi-GE as the sup
pplier of the
e new Visag
ginas plantt
On Julyy 14, 2011 Lithuania selected H
equippe
ed with an
n ABWR type reactorr, expected
d to be in operation
o
in 2020. Th
he contractt
should be signed
d in 2011,, with the project’s ccost estim
mated at up
p to 5 billion Euros.
er solution for
f the region’s energ
gy shortage
e is the Ru
ussian consstruction p
proposal forr
Anothe
2 VVER
R with a ccapacity of 1200 MW
W each, loccated in Ka
aliningrad neighborin
ng (10 Km))
Lithuan
nia and Polland. Start of construction is sch
heduled for April 2011 and plan
nt operation
n
for 201
16 and 20
018. Invesstor prese
entation ha
as termed the Proje
ect a bussiness with
h
guaranteed custo
omers.
ns voted against
a
a n
new nuclea
ar plant at the Ignalina nuclearr
On 15 Oct 2012 Lithuanian
ut the cou
untry’s likely new rullers said n
no final de
ecision hass been taken and a
site, bu
second
d referendu
um could be held in tw
wo years. A final inve
estment de
ecision on whether orr
not to g
go ahead w
with the project is expected in 2
2015. Hitacchi has said the new
w unit could
d
be com
mmercially o
operational by 2021 o
or 2022.

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In 2014
4 the Ignalina nuclea
ar power plant‘s (INPP
P) Unit 2 ccommence
es Unit 2 Turbine Hall
equipm
ment disma
antling and
d decontam
mination. T
The projecct must be
e complete
ed in 2021
1
June.

Nuc
clear Power Pla
ant Ignalina-2
equ
uipment dismantling and deco
ontamination

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C-A
Africa / Middle
e East / Africa
ans Co
ountries
s

Construction
n at Barakah 1 in the UAE (P
Photograph co
ourtesy of ENE
EC).

The Afrrican continent has h
huge fossil reserves a
and hydro sources th
hat can be harnessed
d
for elecctricity gen
neration. Still,
S
electrrification and consum
mption are
e at very llow levels,
especia
ally in rural areas, ina
asmuch th
he countries are unab
ble to use their reserrves due to
o
extreme
e droughtss, high oil prices,
p
confflicts and to
o the general shortag
ge of resources.
Besidess presentin
ng high lossses, the e
existing pow
wer transm
mission sysstems are insufficientt
to provvide the co
ountries with the neccessary support for d
domestic e
electricity d
distribution.
There exists
e
an u
urgent neccessity of e
ensuring th
he quality and reliability of elecctric powerr
supply for the peo
oples of tha
at continen
nt.
Nuclear power is under serious consid
deration in
n over 20 ccountries w
which do no
ot currentlyy
have itt. In the M
Middle Easst and Norrth Africa: Gulf
G
statess including
g UAE, Sau
udi Arabia,
Qatar & Kuwait, Yemen, Issrael, Syria
a, Jordan, Egypt, Tunisia, Libyya, Algeria, Morocco,
Sudan. In west, central
c
and
d southern
n Africa: Nigeria, Gha
ana, Senegal, Kenya
a, Uganda,
Namibia
There a
are program
ms in nuclear manpo
ower trainin
ng and in the
t design of small re
eactors (50
0
to 200 MW), led by the United Statess that could
d be the m
most econom
mical optio
on for mostt
countrie
es on the continent
c
w
without reso
ources.
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Egyptt
Egypt h
has not a la
arge quanttity of fuel, and foreca
asts are th
hat oil and gas reservves will lastt
no long
ger than 3 more
m
deca
ades. For th
hese and o
other reaso
ons, Egypt is expecte
ed to sign a
contracct with the 6 foreign consultant firms tha
at joined th
he competitive biddin
ng processs
intende
ed to develop activitie
es that will assist in th
he preparattory phase
e toward the
e country’ss
first nucclear powe
er plant.
It was expected that by 20
012 authorrities had h
had define
ed the type
e and supp
plier of the
e
future rreactor, but the intern
nal conflict had postp
pone the de
ecision. Th
he country is planning
g
to build
d 4 nuclea
ar power plants by 20
025, with the
t
first on
ne coming on stream
m by 2019.
The selected site is El-Daba
aa on the M
Mediterrane
ean coast.
s
biddin
ng processs include ttraining of teams, esspecially in
n
The acctivities covvered by such
activitie
es concern
ning nuclea
ar plant saffety and monitoring, q
quality sysstems, and regulatoryy
framew
work. This should allo
ow the country to risse to interrnational sttandards p
prior to the
e
constru
uction of th
he planned
d plants the
emselves. In addition
n, cooperattion agreem
ments with
h
Russia are under way for future worrk in uraniium prospecting and
d mining, sspecialized
d
personnel training
g in regula
atory matte
ers, and nu
uclear consstruction and operatio
on. One off
the ten
nder’s cond
ditions is th
hat whoevver wins will take the
e responsib
bility of financing the
e
project till its implementation
n.
Egypt has
h
2 rese
earch reacctors dediccated to acctivities foccused on neutron ra
adiography,
neutron
n physics, and
a radioissotope prod
duction.

Ghana
a
Ghana has a reported pop
pulation off about 24
4 million people.
p
It is a Middle Income
e
Econom
my. The ellectrical en
nergy comes from tthe Akosom
mbo Dam that provid
des hydro-electriccity for Gha
ana and itss neighborin
ng countrie
es. Most off this energ
gy (80%) g
goes to the
e
Americcan compan
ny VALCO (Volta Alu
uminium Co
ompany)
The Gh
hana Atomic Energy Commissio
on has said
d nuclear power
p
could provide a
at least 10
0
percentt of the co
ountry’s insstalled capa
acity by 20
020. A memorandum
m of cooperation wass
signed with Rosa
atom (Russsia) for de
evelopmentt of nuclea
ar energy and infrasttructure to
o
supportt these acttivities in th
he West A
African country. A working group will be established
e
d
to studyy potential joint proje
ects and a draft
d
frame
ework agre
eement on areas of co
ooperation
n
will be prepared.
Ghana has no exxisting com
mmercially o
operationa
al nuclear u
units, but since
s
1994
4 has been
n
r
re
eactor know
wn as the Ghana Research Reactor-1, orr
operating a small Chinese research
R-1.
GHARR

Israel
Israel is not a me
ember of tthe IAEA or
o a signattory of the Treaty on
n Non-Proliferation off
Nuclear Weaponss (NPT), bu
ut it has be
een reporte
ed that it d
develops a complete program in
n
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this fielld and posssibly has a strong n
nuclear military capaccity. But any informa
ation in the
e
sensitivve context of nuclearr weapons is very diffficult to verify, given the lack off access to
o
countrie
es’ concrette intelligen
nce data, w
which is alsso not the ffocus of this paper.
ear plant ffor electriciity generattion would have no rroom in Issrael, given
n the small
A nucle
size of its grid (10
0,000 MW)). Notwithsttanding, in March 2010, the govvernment ((minister off
infrastructures) announced that the ccountry willl be develo
oping a civvil program
m, with the
e
ant planne
ed to com
me into operation ovver the ne
ext 15 yea
ars. Israel has been
n
first pla
develop
ping a prog
gram dediccated to the
e sector of renewable
e energy so
ources.
has the Ne
egev Nuclear Researcch Center, 13 km from the city of Dimona
a (KAMAG))
Israel h
and the
e Soreq Nu
uclear Ressearch Cen
nter (MAMA
AG) aboutt 55 km fro
om Tel Avivv, in which
h
sites th
he country’ss two resea
arch reacto
ors are ope
erating.

Jorda
an
In line with its civil nucllear energ
gy program
m, Jordan
n has signed mem
moranda off
understtanding witth reactor suppliers in Canada (AECL), Ja
apan and South
S
Kore
ea (Kepco))
for sele
ecting a co
onstruction site for its nuclear po
ower statio
on. As a re
esult of succh process,
on 09/1
15/09 Tracctebel Eng
gineering (G
GDF Suezz companyy) was cho
osen as a partner in
n
carrying
g out nuclear techno
ology deve
elopment e
efforts and studies on the use of nuclearr
energy for producction of pottable waterr from the ssea.
o oil or gas and depen
nds on poliitically unstable supp
pliers (97% of its fuelss
As it prroduces no
are imp
ported), an
nd given the
e region’s susceptibility to consstant terrorrist attackss, Jordan iss
plannin
ng to have 30% of its energy sup
pplied from
m nuclear p
power up to
o 2030.
Much off this is drivven by the discovery of uranium
m
depositss in its te
erritory (resserves esstimated att
65,000 tonnes)
t
wh
hich the co
ountry is planning
p
to
o
exploit d
despite the strong opp
position of the United
d
States.
dan has signed itss uranium
m
In addition, Jord
w Areva lasting 25
5 years. In Decemberr
mining with
2009, a contract w
was signed with South
h Korea forr
of a 5 MW
Wt researrch reactorr
the construction o
d for both
h radioisottope produ
uction and
d
intended
training of the country’s sscientific a
and skilled
d
een until 20
016.
human rresources. It is forese
Image off first reactor of Jordan (KA
AERI)

The Un
nited States refuses tto permit JJordan to m
mine and e
enrich its ow
wn uranium
m; instead,
any co
ooperation in this are
ea necesssitates nucclear fuel p
purchases on the in
nternational
market for the pu
urpose of preventing,
p
according
g to them, w
weapons p
proliferation
n problemss
and/or other milita
ary intentio
ons.

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The country expe
ects to beg
gin construction of itss first plant in 2014 to
o reach the
e operation
n
of the first
f
reacto
or in 2020 and secon
nd in 2025
5. The supp
plier will be Russia ((Rosatom),
winner of the international ccompetition
n with mode
el AES92 (VVER
(
100
00). The co
ompany will
finance
e 49% of th
he project w
with the re
emainder u
under the re
esponsibility of the g
governmentt
of Jorda
an.
The mo
odel chose
en was AE
ES92 (1000
0MW VVER
R). The sitte will be llocated in Majdal, 40
0
km norrth of Amm
man, with ccooling from
m a sewag
ge treatme
ent station. Contractss are being
g
prepare
ed but have
e not yet been signed
d.
The Fu
ukushima a
accident ha
as brought no changes to the n
nuclear policy of Jord
dan, with 2
power reactors b
being conte
emplated o
over the ne
ext 10 yea
ars. Howevver, in Mayy 2012 the
e
nt voted 3
36 to 27 in favor o
of a reco
ommendatio
on by the
e
lower house of parliamen
mentary Energy & Min
neral Reso
ources Com
mmittee to suspend tthe countryy’s nuclearr
parliam
program
m, including uranium exploratio
on. Howeve
er, JAEC says
s
the mo
otion was qualified in
n
effect to
o endorse its cautious proceediing.

Kenya
a
In earlyy 2011, Ke
enya's National Economic and S
Social Cou
uncil (NESC
C), the govvernment’ss
body ccharged wiith accelerrating the country’s economic growth, rrecommend
ded that a
nuclearr program with all the necesssary elecctricity gen
neration fra
amework should be
e
initiated
d as a mea
ans to meet the growiing domesttic demand
d for electriic power byy 2020.
aitu Murung
gi, set up a committe
ee of 13 sp
pecialists to
o prepare a
The Minister of Energy, Kira
d plan and
d schedule
e, and is looking fo
or sites along Kenya
a’s coastline for the
e
detailed
constru
uction of a nuclear pla
ant, with a
all IAEA req
quirementss for this acctivity to be
e complied
d
with.
Compa
any KenGe
en, the larg
gest electricity produ
ucer, is see
eking partn
ners for a 4,200 MW
W
nuclearr power prroject in an
n attempt to mitigate the proble
ems cause
ed by droug
ghts, when
n
the levvels of resservoirs’ w
water used in hydro power ge
eneration (65% of th
he national
electriccity grid) are severely brought do
own.
Kenya Power has begun re
ecruiting staff to man
nage its planned nuclear enerrgy project.
The co
ompany ha
as called ffor applica
ations for a project feasibility
f
tteam leade
er, internal
auditor, financial accountan
nt, procurement office
er, legal asssistant, au
udit assista
ant and an
n
d to plans tto build a n
nuclear ene
ergy projecct.
ICT offiicer related
Kenay’ss Energy R
Regulatory Commissiion (ERC) estimates that peak power dem
mand in the
e
countryy stands att about 1,2
200 MW against
a
an installed capacity
c
off 1,500 MW
W and it iss
projecte
ed that the
e country w
will require a
at least 1,8
800 MW of power by 2016.
Apart frrom South Africa, Nig
geria is the
e only otherr country in
n sub-Saha
aran Africa
a with planss
to build
d nuclear po
ower plantts to meet a major part of its ele
ectricity dem
mand by 20
015.

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Namib
bia
Half off the country's electrricity is su
upplied by South Afrrica, which
h also face
es internal
problem
ms of energ
gy supply.
Namibia has no nuclear ellectricity generation plants, bu
ut it is Africa’s top producer
p
off
uranium
m and the w
world’s fifth largest. A
According to governm
mental sou
urces, the ccountry will
use su
uch potentiial to deve
elop its nu
uclear indu
ustry and to generatte electriciity through
h
nuclearr power plants inten
nded to co
omplete th
he countryy’s energy mix. The policy on
n
uranium
m and nuclear energyy is focused
d on the en
ntire fuel cyycle.
In November 201
12, the co
onstruction of Swako
op Uranium
m’s Husab Project h
has begun
n
followin
ng the sign
ning in Beijjing (China
a) of the en
ngineering,, procurem
ment and co
onstruction
n
manage
ement (EP
PCM) contrract. Swako
op Uranium
m is an entiity owned by
b China Guangdong
G
g
Nuclear Power C
Company U
Uranium R
Resources Companyy Limited a
and the China-Africa
a
Development Fun
nd.

Nigeriia
Nigeria
a has a tottal capacityy of 2GW (in 2013) and no ccommercia
al nuclear plants, butt
does have
h
a ressearch reacctor that b
began ope
eration in 2004
2
at the Centre ffor Energyy
Researrch and Trraining at A
Ahmadu B
Bello Unive
ersity in Za
aria, in the northern part of the
e
countryy.
According to Nige
eria’s Atom
mic Energy Commission (NAEC
C), Nigeria’ss plans beg
gin to build
d
a nucle
ear power station unttil 2020 forr electricityy generatio
on. To this effect, a program
p
forr
recruitin
ng and tra
aining perso
onnel speccializing in nuclear w
will be launched. The country iss
committted to adhere to all safety
s
Standards esta
ablished byy international oversig
ght bodies.
gust 2011
1, Russia’s
In Aug
intergovvernmenta
al agreeme
ent
decomm
missioning
g of Nigeria
a’s
1,000 m
megawattss of electriccity
to 4,000 megawatts by 2030
0.

om and Nigeria had
h
finalizzed a dra
aft of an
n
Rosato
to cooperate on the desig
gn, constru
uction, ope
eration and
d
first nu
uclear pow
wer plant. N
Nigeria is planning
p
to
o generate
e
through
h nuclear energy
e
by 2020 and gradually increase itt

Saudii Arabia
In 2008, Saudi Arabia sig
gned a co
ooperation agreemen
nt with the United States forr
develop
pment of a civil prog
gram for n
nuclear ele
ectricity ge
eneration. In February 2011, a
similar agreement was signed with Fra
ance, othe
ers with South Korea, the Czech
h Republic,
the UK and with R
Russia. In January 2012
2
Saudii Arabia ha
as added C
China to a g
growing listt
of coun
ntries with w
which it has signed nuclear coo
operation agreementss.
e 2011, Sa
audi Arabia
a confirmed its planss to build 1
16 nuclear power rea
actors overr
In June
the nexxt two deca
ades at an estimated cost of 80 billion dollars.

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These reactors w
will be used in energy generation
n and wate
er desalinattion; the firsst 2 should
d
start operation frrom 2022 onwards, followed by others up to 203
30. The g
governmentt
expectss nuclear energy to reach 20%
% of the domestic consumptio
c
on over th
he next 20
0
years.
i also the
e possibilityy of using small reacctors (reacctors Small) desalinattion of sea
a
There is
water, as the Arrgentine C
CAREM. Several
S
coo
operation agreements were signed with
h
ers of reacttors (GE H
Hitachi Nucclear Energ
gy and To
oshiba / We
estinghousse, AREVA
A
supplie
and Ed
dF) preparin
ng for interrnational competition that will precede the
e start of co
onstruction
n
of a nucclear powe
er plant.
Russian and Sa
audi Arabia
an officialss have ap
pproved th
he draft o
of an agre
eement on
n
coopera
ation in nuclear energ
gy, Rosato
om announced in a sttatement Ju
une 18, 20
014.

South
h Africa
Counttry
South Affrica

insta
alled
Reac
ctors in
capa
acity
operration
(MW
W)
2

1800

Re
eactors
c
capacity und
der
u
under
co
onstruction (M
MW)
cons
struction
0

0

gene
erated
ene
ergy
2013(TWH)

%o
of total energ
gy
g
generated in
2013

13
364

5,7

Africa’s two
o operating
g reactors (Koeberg 1 and 2 - P
PWR 900 MW each), produced
d
South A
12, 923
3 TWH in 2
2011, about 5,19% off the electrical energyy in the cou
untry.
The co
ountry has a reactor design
d
of its
i own, bu
ut due to th
he lack of financing associated
d
with the
e governm
ment’s cutba
ack on pro
oject fundin
ng, the ressponsible ccompany P
PBMR (Pty))
Ltd - which officia
ally belongss à Eskom (Industrial Developm
ment Corp)) and Westtinghouse is in the
e process of
o liquidatio
on. The go
overnment has invested around 1.23 billion
n dollars in
n
this pro
oject, over tthe 11 yea
ars of the co
ompany’s existence.
e
Formerr Minister of Energ
gy - Dipu
uo Peters reiterated
d in 2012
2 the govvernment’ss
commitment
to
nuclearr
renewable
e
energy
and
sources, aimed at electricityy
d
diversificatio
on
and
d
mix
greenhou
use gas red
duction.
According
g
to
e
her,
the
Japanese
e accidentt will bring
g
lessons tthat will be
e used on
n
projects p
planned to come into
o
operation
n by 202
23, seeing
g
that in tthe nuclea
ar industryy
experiencces are exchanged
e
d
among th
he countries, to the
e
benefit off all.
Nuclear P
Power Station Koeberg (Pho
oto by: Ruvan
n Boshoff)

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The co
ountry is p
planning to
o build 9.6
600 MW o
of new nucclear capacity over tthe next 2
decade
es, as part of the plan to double South Africa’s
A
ene
ergy supplyy from 25,0
000 MW to
o
50,000 MW, at a total cost estimated at 89 billio
on Euros. Such plan
n also inclu
udes wind,
coal an
nd solar energy sourcces.
According to the minister, the countryy is not con
ntemplating
g dropping
g plans for expansion
n
of nuclear energyy supply. This
T
contexxt was signed in Octtober 2013
3, a memo
orandum off
etween the
e South A
African com
mpany SE
EBATA (co
ompany en
ngineering,
understtanding be
procure
ement and
d constructtion manag
gement) an
nd Westinghouse for the prep
paration forr
the pote
ential consstruction off AP1000 n
nuclear pow
wer plants in the coun
ntry.
On Se
eptember 22, 2014 South Affrica and Russia signed a sstrategic p
partnership
p
agreem
ment on nuclear energ
gy collaboration, acccording to R
Russian state nuclea
ar companyy
Rosato
om, but an official in the South African nu
uclear prog
gram emph
hasized that Russian
n
technollogy was only one of the op
ptions bein
ng conside
ered. The agreemen
nt lays the
e
foundattion for larg
ge scale nuclear pow
wer plant procuremen
nt and deve
elopment program
p
byy
South A
Africa base
ed on the cconstructio
on in South
h Africa of Russian V
VVER reacctors with a
total insstalled cap
pacity of up
p to 9.6 GW
W (up to eig
ght nuclearr Units.

Turke
ey
Presen
ntly, Turkeyy is the 17th largest e
economy in
n the world and imporrts most of its energy.
In 2011
1 produced
d 228 TWh of electricity (therma
al capacity w
with fossil fuel - 64% -fossil fuel
and 36
6% renewa
able), to se
erve a popu
ulation of 7
72 million inhabitantss. The intro
oduction off
nuclearr energy in Turkey da
ates back to
o the earlyy 70s.

Site
e Akkuyu – Tu
urkey – pre co
onstruction a
activities

Along this
t
same context, in March 2
2008 Turke
ey launche
ed an international competitive
c
e
bidding
g process fo
or a 4,000 MW nucle
ear power p
plant to be built by 20
015, with th
he possible
e

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resump
ption of th
he Akkuyo project suspended in 2000. In Septem
mber 2009
9, Turkey’ss
ambasssador to th
he IAEA - A
Ahmet Erta
ay, informe
ed that 5 V
VVER type reactors w
will be builtt
by Russsia on the
e Mediterra
anean Coa
ast Akkuyo site, with a capacityy for 5,000
0 MW, and
d
that an
nother 10,0
000 MW p
project is under
u
studyy (SINOP)), on a sep
parate site
e yet to be
e
licensed.
Re
eactor / NP
PP

Ak
kkuyu 1
Ak
kkuyu 2
Ak
kkuyu 3
Ak
kkuyu 4
Sin
nop 1
Sin
nop 2
Sin
nop 3
Sin
nop 4

Tipo

M
MWe

Con
nstruction
n starts Operation
O
b
begins

VVER
R-1200

1200

VVER
R-1200

1200

2021

VVER
R-1200

1200

2022

VVER
R-1200

1200

2023

Atm
mea1

1150

Atm
mea1

1150

2024

Atm
mea1

1150

?

Atm
mea1

1150

?

January 20
016

2017

Planned or
o proposed Reactors
s in Turkey

2021

2023

(Source: WNA)
W

In late 2010, the agreemen
nts signed between T
Turkey and Russia were
w
ratifie
ed by theirr
respecttive parliam
ments and criteria we
ere defined
d for sales o
of nuclear energy ge
enerated byy
Turkey’s companyy TETAS, which will buy 70% o
of the total produced by
b the two first plantss
(1200 MW
M each).
According to the terms of the 2010 contract, Atomenerg
goproekt JJSC, a subsidiary off
om Corporation will fully construct and o
operate (fo
or 60 yearrs) four 1.200 MWe
e
Rosato
PWR ((VVER/491
1) units wiith total ca
apacity 4.8
800MWe, in Günlar--Akkuyu (B
Büyükeceli,
Mersin Province) on Turkeyy's southeastern Mediiterranean coast.
2 the US$2
20bn consttruction contract of T
Turkey's firsst nuclear power plan
nt, Akkuyu,
In 2012
was aw
warded to Rosatom a
and Atomsstroyexport. They fore
ecast the ffirst plant w
would startt
operatio
on in 2019
9.

The m
main role of
o nuclea
ar energy in Turkeyy is strate
egic, redu
ucing dep
pendence
e
on gass from Ru
ussia and
d Iran. Th
he second
d plant, scheduled
d to start o
operating
g
in 202
23, will be
e located in Sinop.
In 2013
3 - Following a bilate
eral meetin
ng between
n Turkey and
a
Japan, MHI and Areva are
e
set to w
win an orde
er to build a second n
nuclear pow
wer plant in Turkey. Preferred negotiation
n
n
rights ccould be aw
warded to tthe Mitsubishi-Areva consortium
m after the two leaders agree to
o
coopera
ate on the
e Sinop Prroject, loccated on th
he Black S
Sea coast tthat would consist in
n
four units and havve an insta
alled capaccity of abou
ut 4.5 GW.

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Constru
uction sho
ould start in 2017 an
nd the firstt unit shou
uld be com
mmissioned in 2023.
Turkey has reach
hed the fin
nal phase o
of talks, se
electing the
e Japanesse-French consortium
c
m
Mitsubiishi Heavy Industries-GDF Suezz. The cost will be 22
2 billion dollars.
The Fu
ukushima a
accident h
has brough
ht no chan
nges to the
e country’ss nuclear policy but
Turkish
h citizens rraise conce
erns over tthe safety conditions of the Akkkuyu project and the
environ
nmental co
onsequence
es. The co
ountry will do the same tests as
a EU nations, even
though it is not a member off the Bloc.

United
d Arab E
Emirates
Country

United Ara
ab
Emirates

Reactors
s in
operatio
on

0

installed
d
capacity
y (MW)

0

Re
eactors under
construction

capacity under
u
construction
n (MW)

gene
erated energy
20
012 (TWH)

% of total ene
ergy
generated in 2
2012

3

4035

0

0

8, after a large studyy, the gove
ernment de
ecided that to meet tthe growth
h in energyy
In 2008
consum
mption in th
he region, the counttry needs tto double the available capaciity and the
e
best so
ource to me
eet this nee
ed would b
be nuclear e
energy.
Cooperration agre
eements have been signed witth several countries to supporrt a civilian
n
nuclearr energy prrogram see
eking to ha
ave in operration by 2020 three nuclear po
ower plantss
of 1,500 MW each
h.

Barakah1 a
and 2 - Unde
er constructtion

South K
Korea won
n the intern
national bid
dding for th
he construcction of the
e Arab Em
mirates’ firstt
nuclearr power sta
ation (4 AP
PR-1400 re
eactors). T
The other competitor
c
rs were AR
REVA (with
h
the EPR reactor)) and GE H
Hitachi (AB
BWR). The
e contract signed on Decembe
er 27, 2010
0
by the
e Korea Electric
E
Po
ower Corp
poration (Kepco) and Emirattes Nuclear Energyy

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Corpora
ation (ENE
EC) comess to 40 billlion dollarss and conttemplates tthe constru
uction of 4
nuclearr units by 2
2020, intended to sup
pply 25% off country’s electricity..
The site selected for first nu
uclear pow
wer plant iss Barakah o
or Braka, n
near Doha
a (capital off
om Abu Dhabi and m
may consisst of up to 4 reactors. The workk
Qatar) and 240 kkm away fro
uly 2012, itt being exp
pected thatt commerccial operatio
on of the first unit will
was initiated in Ju
by 2017. Korean co
ompany D
Doosan Heavy Indu
ustries will supply the heavyy
start b
compon
nents. In JJuly 2010, the regula
atory body granted th
he licensess for site preparation
p
n
and sta
art of fabriccation of several com
mponents ((thus enabling the Ko
orean Doosan Heavyy
Industries to starrt working). The seco
ond unit sttarted consstruction in
n May 2013, and the
e
er 2014.
third in Septembe
d unit is scheduled
s
to be commissione
ed in 2019
9 and a ffourth in 2
2020. The
e
A third
constru
uction application for Barakah-3
3 and -4 w
was filled a
also. Safety concrete
e has been
n
poured for the rea
actor conta
ainment building of Un
nit 3 in Sep
ptember, 2014.
In addition, activvities are u
under wayy for an in
nternationa
al competittive biddin
ng processs
ed to procu
ure nuclear fuel for the
e future pla
ant.
intende
Emirate
es Nuclearr Energy C
Corp. annou
unced August 15, 2012 that it h
has contraccts with sixx
compan
nies worth $3 billion for natural uranium, concentrattes, converrsion and e
enrichmentt
service
es that will supply itts planned
d four Barrakah nuclear units for up to 15 years.
Australia has sign
ned a nucle
ear co-operation agre
eement autthorizing urranium exp
ports to the
e
United Arab Emirates, whe
ere constru
uction starrted recenttly on the first of fou
ur planned
d
nuclearr power rea
actors.
On 21 April 2014
4, The Emirates Nucle
ear Energyy Corporattion (ENEC
C) has cele
ebrated the
e
inaugurration of itss Simulatorr Training C
Center (ST
TC) at Bara
akah site in
n the Weste
ern Region
n
of Abu Dhabi. The new sim
mulators, wh
hich are am
mong the w
world’s mo
ost advancced nuclearr
training
g devices a
and the firrst of their kind in th
he Middle East, will ccomplement ENEC’ss
compre
ehensive trraining pro
ogram and help ENEC to prepa
are its scholarships sstudents to
o
attain R
Reactor Op
perator (RO
O) and Sen
nior Reacto
or Operato
or (SRO) ce
ertificationss. They will
also pro
ovide contiinuous training for EN
NEC’s workking SROss.

Construction co
ontinues at the site of the UAE
E’s first nuclear-power plant a
at Barakah-1 in
n the Western Region.
R
hoto courtesy E
Emirates Nuclea
ar Energy Corp
poration
Ph

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D-A
Asia

Position off Asian Nuclea
ar Power plantt in operation

The Assia-Pacific region
r
is strongly dep
pendent on
n fossil fue
els for electtricity gene
eration with
h
around 60% of electricity ge
eneration in
n China, Ja
apan, Soutth Korea and India co
oming from
m
such so
ources. A change in
n the region
n’s genera
ation mix iss expected, with nucle
ear energyy
gaining
g greater p
prominence. Given the fast g
growth sho
own by Ch
hina, the number off
reactorrs in the region is like
ely to doub
ble by 2020
0. Today, sseven coun
ntries rely on nuclearr
energy, a number expected
d to reach 21 by 202
20. Until Ma
ay 2013 th
here were 46 nuclearr
reactorrs under co
onstruction in Asia.
There a
are 700 miillion peoplle in India and just ovver 600 million in China who lack sourcess
of enerrgy such ass electricityy or gas an
nd rely on wood,
w
charrcoal or dung. About 85% of the
e
Indian rural
r
popullation depe
end on trad
ditional com
mbustible, more dang
gerous than
n they mayy
seem. Its steam contains h
harmful pa
articles tha
at can prejudice the health of those who
o
breathe
e them, with
w harmfu
ul micro-org
ganisms up
p to 3,000 per cubic meter, mo
ore heavilyy
contam
minated tha
an those co
oming from
m the polllution of ro
oad or indu
ustry. The UN warnss
that Ind
dia should strive to le
eave these antiquated
d fuels, rep
placing them
m with elecctric or gass
stoves, thereby re
emarkably improving the standa
ard of living
g of the pea
asants.

China
a
Country
y

China

Reactors in
n installed
operation capacity (MW
W)

23

18,998

Reactors under
construc
ction

capa
acity under
construction (MW)

generated energy
2013 (GWH)

26

25,756

110.71
10

%o
of total energy
gen
nerated in 2013
3

2.11

greatest co
onsumer o
of energy (5
5,245 TWh
h in 2013),, according
g
China iis today the world’s g
to the Internatio
onal Atomiic Energy Agency. China’s d
demand fo
or commo
odities and
d
productts is so biig that it h
has a huge
e impact o
on the glob
bal markett. The country has a
limited supply of oil and ga
as, but is rrich in coall, and the domestic cconsumptio
on of such
h
fuel lea
ads to a he
eavy enviro
onmental p
pressure ass to gas em
missions. B
Besides the
e problemss

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with em
missions of
o pollutantts into the environm
ment, the water
w
supp
ply is preca
arious and
d
regiona
al disparitie
es lead to in
nternal ten
nsions.
At pressent, 83% China’s electricity ge
eneration ccome from
m coal-fired plants, whereas the
e
world’s equivalent is 36%. T
The govern
nment’s pla
ans are to lo
ower such coal dependence
eration, thus cutting back as emissions cau
used by the
e fossil fue
els.
in electtricity gene
The Be
eijing Municcipal Enviro
onmental P
Protection Bureau ha
as decided to ban coa
al sale and
d
use in Beijing's six main disstricts (Don
ngcheng, X
Xicheng, C
Chaoyang, Haidian, F
Fengtai and
d
Shijingsshan) by th
he end of 2
2020 to cutt air pollutio
on (China)..
will be closed by this date and re
eplaced byy
Coal-firred power plants and other coall facilities w
gas and
d electricityy for heatin
ng, cooking
g and othe
er uses. Other pollutin
ng fuels, su
uch as fuel
oil, petrroleum cokke, combusstible wastte and som
me biomasss fuel will be
b also ban
nned. Coal
accoun
nted for mo
ore than 25
5% of Beijin
ng's energyy consump
ption in 201
12 and sho
ould drop to
o
less tha
an 10% by 2017.
In Marcch 2014, B
Beijing ann
nounced a strategic plan aimed
d at cutting CO2 em
missions byy
20Mt by 2018 and reducing
g air polluta
ants emisssions by 25
5% below 2
2012 levels by 2017.
Beijing also has e
established
d an Emission Trading
g Scheme..

Unit 4 at China's Qiinshan Phase II commerciall operation

As far as nuclea
ar energy is concern
ned, the ccountry ha
as, up to S
Septemberr 2014, 22
2
n (17,998 MW) an
nd the C
Chinese g
governmentt
nuclearr power plants in operation
contem
mplates the construction of 200 GW over the next 20
0 years. Acccording to
o the IAEA,
27 plan
nts are now
w under co
onstruction
n (with a to
otal capaciity of 26,75
56 MW) and 16 new
w
reactorrs have bee
en approve
ed for start of construction.
All large vendors have already submiitted offerss to the Ch
hinese government, in as much
h
as this is, today, tthe world’ss biggest nuclear
n
pow
wer business. To AREVA alone
e China will
pay 12 billion dollars for 2 already contracted EP
PRs.
energy is associated
a
nd for enerrgy and the
e
China’ss option forr nuclear e
with the high deman
government’s stra
ategy to su
ubstantiallyy diversify its energyy mix to pre
event brea
akdowns in
n
apita consu
umption is around half of that prrevailing in
n Brazil, butt
supply. The counttry’s per ca
pulation is nearly
n
7 tim
mes as high.
the pop
et such ne
eeds, last year China
a produced 87.400T
TWh of ele
ectricity from nuclear,
To mee
which m
means aro
ound 1.85%
% of the ccountry’s electric pow
wer. The co
ountry is p
planning to
o
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reach 35
3 GW of installed nu
uclear capa
acity by 20
015, 58 GW
W by 2020 and 70 GW
W by 2025.
Given such capa
acity, China should ccome to 5
5% of elecctricity generation fro
om nuclearr
power by
b 2030.
e internatio
onal cooperration in nu
uclear pow
wer, nuclea
ar fuels and
d
CNNC carries outt extensive
nuclear
ttechnologyy
application
ns
and
hass
established
nce
and
d
scien
technologyy exchan
nges and
d
economic and tradin
ng relationss
ntries and
d
with overr 40 coun
regions
including
Russia,
France, G
Germany, tthe United
d
Kingdom, the Unite
ed States,
Canada, JJapan, South Korea,
Mongolia,
Pakistan,
Kazakhsta
an, Jorda
an, Niger,
Algeria, Na
amibia and
d Australia,
etc.
AP100
00 Image

Atomsttroyexport has confirm
med a dea
al with Chiina’s Jiang
gsu Nuclea
ar Power Corporation
C
n
(JNPC)) for the
e construcction of Tianwan’ss power station rreactors 3 and 4.
e work wass started a
at Zhejiang for Sanme
en nuclearr power sta
ation’s Unitt
In Apriil 2009, the
(PWR 1000 MW
W), the wo
orld’s first AP1000 reactor, w
whose vessel was installed in
n
Septem
mber 2011 (manufacctured by Korea’s
K
Do
oosan Hea
avy Industrries & Con
nstruction).
The design estimates a 60 yyears’ usefful life for ssuch plant, whose com
mmercial o
operation iss
expecte
ed for 201
13. When completed
d, Sanmen
n will hostt 6 AP100
00 reactorss, with the
e
second
d unit sched
duled to co
ome into op
peration byy 2015.
In Aprill 2009, the
e work wass started at Zhejiang for Sanme
en nuclearr power sta
ation’s Unitt
(PWR 1000 MW
W), the wo
orld’s first AP1000 reactor, w
whose vessel was installed in
n
mber 2011 (manufacctured by Korea’s
K
Do
oosan Hea
avy Industrries & Con
nstruction).
Septem
The design estimates a 60 yyears’ usefful life for ssuch plant, whose com
mmercial o
operation iss
expecte
ed for Deccember, 20
015. When
n complete
ed, Sanmen will hostt 6 AP1000
0 reactors,
with the second unit sched
duled to co
ome into o
operation b
by Septem
mber 2017.. The firstt
AP1000
0 unit at S
Sanmen, which was sscheduled to connecct to the grrid in 2013, has been
n
delayed
d by 24 mo
onths.

All of th
his ambitio
ous processs is heating up the C
Chinese nu
uclear indusstry, with companies
c
fast-pacced diversification to
o cope with
h the goverrnment’s sttrategy to attain self--sufficiencyy
as quicckly as possible. T
Today, Chiina’s Nuclear Powe
er Institute - NPIC has 6,000
0
professsionals on its workforrce, and many
m
more in other Chinese
C
ressearch institutions. A
lot of mechanical
m
engineering compan
nies are ch
hanging th
heir business focus to
o meet the
e
countryy’s new nee
eds.

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In this context, itt is expectted that C
China will a
annually consume a
around 25,0
000 metricc
tonnes of uranium
m as early as 2020, a
according to
t Cao Shudong, devvelopment director off
China N
National Nu
uclear Corp.

Location off Nuclear Powe
er plant in China

Anothe
er Chinese proposal (from large
e COSCO shipping company) is to have
e containerr
ships powered
p
byy nuclear re
eactors as a means tto reduce w
world greenhouse em
missions byy
4%.

NPP Yangjjiang

Taishan 1 –EPR 16
600 under con
nstruction

Nuclearr wastes

In line w
with China’s nuclear waste policcy that con
ntemplates spent-fuell reprocesssing, a pilott
plant fo
or 50 metrric tons a year,
y
in the Gansu P
Province, w
was tested
d in 2006. Spent fuel
from Da
aya Bay nuclear pow
wer plant w
was hauled to such pilot plant in
n 2004, but it has nott
as separa
been rreported w
whether the
e plutonium
m contentt in that m
material wa
ated in the
e
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reproce
essing ope
eration. Ch
hina National Nuclea
ar Corp - CNNC is planning to have a
reproce
essing unit in commercial opera
ation by 202
25.
In Janu
uary 2011,, China an
nnounced a technolo
ogy advancce in nucle
ear fuel reprocessing
g
that will allow full reuse of th
he plutonium and spe
ent fuel from
m its plantss, making tthe countryy
self-suffficient in n
nuclear fue
el. Reproce
essing tecchnologies are not ussually sharred among
g
countrie
es.
Qinsha
am 3, a Ca
andu type reactor (P
PHWR) no
ormally fue
elled with n
natural ura
anium, hass
been using
u
reprrocessed ffuel since March 20
010. Such
h test indicates thatt China iss
beginniing to find a use for iits stockpile
e of reproccessed ura
anium (Rep
pU) and is concerned
d
about u
uranium su
upply for itss uranium ffor its plantts.
China'ss Tianwan unit 1 is n
now operating on an extended 18-month ffuel cycle after being
g
loaded with modified TVS-2
2M fuel, Ru
ussian fuell supplier T
TVEL has announced
d. The fuel
is currrently used
d in Russsia's Balakkovo and Rostov p
power plan
nts, and iit received
d
regulato
ory approvval for use
e in Chinesse plants following tthe successsful comp
pletion of a
pilot study using six TVS-2
2M assem
mblies at T
Tianwan 1. Tianwan 2 is also due to be
e
convertted to use
e the fuel. TVS-2M ffuel for usse at Tianw
wan units 3 and 4, still underr
constru
uction, will be manufa
actured at C
China's Yib
bin fuel pla
ant using te
echnology ttransferred
d
from TV
VEL.
In this context, China’s e
experimenttal (20 MW
We, fast-n
neutron) re
eactor - C
CEFR wass
conneccted to the
e grid in JJuly 2011, near Be
eijing. FBR
R reactors produce much lesss
radiatio
on as a by--product. T
The reactorr was built by China’ss Institute o
of Atomic Energy
E
with
h
the aid off the Russian govern
nment overr
a decade. Now theyy can movve on to a
al model planned
p
to operate byy
commercia
2017.
On May 21, 2014
4 the firstt localized
d
nerator for the AP100
00 unit also
o
steam gen
passed te
esting, it said. Snp
ptc said in
n
February that China
a can build its own
n
of
the
n
versions
third--generation
ouse AP1000 reacttor design
n
Westingho
and has the desig
gn capabiliity for the
e
P1000.
localization of the AP
Chinese Experimental
E
Reactor - CEFR
(photo : C
China Institute
e of Atomic En
nergy)

On Aug
gust 20th, 2014 the project ow
wner China
a National Nuclear C
Corporation
n said thatt
Fuqing--1 nuclearr power rea
actor (PWR 1000 MW – Chine
ese type CPR1000)
C
in China'ss
Fujian province
p
w
was conneccted to the national po
ower grid ffor the firstt time. Thiss is the firstt
unit am
mong 4 thatt are underr constructiion in the ssame site to
o be conne
ected.
China o
ordered an
n extensive
e safety in
nspection p
program fo
or its plantts in respo
onse to the
e
Fukush
hima accident. Appro
oval of new
w reactor projects iss condition
ned on the
e results off
such sa
afety tests.. Densely populated
p
a
areas and locations m
more prone
e to geolog
gic hazardss
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are being ruled o
out as sitess for new p
plants, whicch formerlyy were no cause for concern in
n
China.
Tests performed
p
on operatiing nuclea
ar plants ha
ave found no safety problems and, up to
o
Octobe
er, will be a
applied to plants und
der constru
uction. The
e entire sa
afety system is underr
review, and no ne
ew license
es will be re
eleased un
ntil this is over,
o
Li Ga
anjie, the M
Minister forr
the Envvironment informed.
i
It is like
ely that Ch
hina’s ambiition to exp
port the se
econd-gene
eration CPR
R1000 rea
actor model
has be
een aband
doned, beccause, despite its lower costt, it would
d face som
me markett
problem
ms for failin
ng to meett the more up-to-date
e safety sta
andards. A few projeccts may be
e
delayed
d, but Chin
na is still co
ommitted to
o the 58 nu
uclear GW
W planned fo
or 2020, acccording to
o
Xu Yum
ming, Secre
etary Gene
eral of Chin
na’s Nuclea
ar Energy A
Association
n (May 201
11).
has successsfully man
nufactured its first dom
mestically-made AP1000 reacto
or pressure
e
China h
vessel, destined ffor the Sanmen-2 nu
uclear unit,, State Nucclear Powe
er Technollogy Corp.,
or SNP
PTC, said in a June 10, 2014 statementt. The vessel for Sanmen-2 allso passed
d
testing on June 8
8, 2014, m
marking a breakthrou
ugh in the localizatio
on of third--generation
n
nuclearr technolog
gy, SNPTC
C said.

India
Counttry

India
a

Reacttors in
operration

21

insta
alled
capa
acity (MW)

5308

Reactors
under
construction

6

capacity un
nder
construction (MW)
(

3907

gene
erated
energy 2013
(TW
WH)

30.3
3

%o
of total energy
gen
nerated in 2013

3,53

India fa
aces the e
extraordina
ary challen
nges of a huge and growing population
p
, a rapidlyy
develop
ping econo
omy and sp
prawling ou
utdated inffrastructure
e. In July and
a Augustt 2012, two
o
enormo
ous outage
es affected
d more tha
an 600 million people
e. About 45
50 millionss of people
e
(40% o
of inhabitan
nts) have no access to
o electricall energy.
In India
a, around 4
40% of the
e populatio
on (450 million people) has no access to electricity.
The co
ountry mee
ets most of its electrricity needss with coa
al (68%), h
hydro (15%
%) and gass
(8%), b
but to meet the huge
e energy ne
eeds of a country wiith over 1.15 billion p
people and
d
whose consumption is onlyy 4% of energy per ccapita in th
he United S
States or 25%
2
of perr
capita cconsumptio
on in Brazil much mo
ore is necesssary.
India has 21 nucllear reacto
ors in operation (5,30
08 MW) wh
hich, in 2013, producced around
d
3.53% of the cou
untry’s ele
ectricity, orr 30.3 TWh
h. At present there exist 6 pla
ants underr
uction (390
07MW), and
d an additional ten 700 MW PH
HWRs and ten 1000 MW LWRss
constru
are officially planned and expected to
o start consstruction b
by 2015. Th
he countryy’s installed
d
capacitty is estima
ated to rea
ach 10,080
0 MW by 2
2017, at the
e completio
on of all co
onstruction
n
projectss. The wo
orld nuclea
ar supplierss market e
expects tha
at 25 new reactors ((around 20
0
GW) will
w be orde
ered up to 2020. Indiia has a cconsiderablle quantityy of thorium
m (290,000
0
tons). A
According to India's p
power minister Mr Su
ushilkumarr Shinde th
he Countryy has planss
to build
d nuclear po
ower gene
eration capa
acity of 63 GW during
g the next 20 year.

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13 Jan 2014 (Nu
ucNet)- Ind
dia’s prime minister M
Manmohan
n Singh has laid the foundation
n
stone for
f a new n
nuclear po
ower plant near Gora
akhpur villa
age, 200 km east of the capital
New De
elhi, the Nuclear Pow
wer Compa
any
of India
a Limited (NPCIL) h
has said in
n a
stateme
ent. The n
new station, known as
Gorakh
hpur
Haryana
A
Anu
Vidyut
Pariyojna (GHAV
VP), will co
onsist of fo
our
egawatt (M
MW) units. They will be
700-me
pressurissed
indigen
nously
d
designed
heavy water reactors (PHWR) using
as fuel. Co
onstruction
n of
natural uranium a
onsist of two stages with
w
the stattion will co
the re
eactors b
being buillt in pairs,
the Nu
uclear Pow
wer Corpora
ation of India
Limited
d (NPCIL) ssaid. The laying of tthe
foundattion stone marks the
e start of the
t
first ph
hase of co
onstruction
n. Pouring of
first con
ncrete for tthe first unit is expectted
to be in June 20
015 and fo
or the seco
ond
unit sixx months la
ater. The ttwo units w
will
be com
mmissioned in 2020
0 and 20
021
respecttively.
India
a Nuclear map
p –WNA

NPCIL plans to build two other 700 MW PHW
WR units a
at Chutka in Madhyya Pradesh
h
provincce, central India. Sixx 1,000 MW
W light-watter reactorrs (LWRs) will be bu
uilt at Mithi
Virdi in
n Gujarat p
province, about
a
600 kilometres north of M
Mumbai ass well as a
another sixx
1,000 MW LWR
Rs in Kovvvada, And
dhra Prad
desh proviince, abou
ut 400 km
m East off
Hydera
abad.
Infrastrructure, ge
eneration, transmission and diistribution requireme
ents are exxpected to
o
necesssitate gove
ernmental spending of 150 biillion dolla
ars, accord
ding to a consultantt
KPMG.. India de
evelops its own program of nucclear electricity gene
eration with
h emphasiss
on PHW
WR reactors (18 unitts), mostly with 220 M
MW capaccity. It also has 2 BW
WR reactorss
(150 MW each), 2 PWR and
d 1 FBR.
India iss not a sign
natory to th
he NPT – N
Nuclear No
on-Prolifera
ation Treatty, and on account off
its nucllear weapo
ons progra
am, it had been facin
ng problem
ms of nucle
ear fuel supply for itss
plants. In Septem
mber 2014
4 the coun
ntry began
n arrangem
ments to re
eceive ura
anium from
m
Australia.
gency estim
mates that nuclear po
ower that to
oday is thrree percentt
The Intternational Energy Ag
of India
a's electriciity will gro
ow to 12 pe
ercent in 2
2030 and 2
25 percent by 2050. India
I
planss
to inve
est 96 billion dollarss in nucle
ear power plants byy 2040 with six pla
ants underr
constru
uction and 57 planned
d or propossed.
Since 2008, sup
pply of se
ensitive ma
aterial to India hass been released. A
Accordingly,
Americcan compan
nies are au
uthorized to
o supply In
ndia with nuclear matterial, equipment and
d
technollogy.
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International isola
ation due to non-parrticipation in the NPT
T led India
a to develo
op its own
n
technollogy and internally trrain its specialists. Today,
T
the
e country iss prepare to provide
e
labor to
o a numbe
er of compa
anies world
dwide, and
d its industtry is expa
anding and setting up
p
joint ve
entures for internation
nal supply o
of nuclear componen
nts and serrvices, besides Indian
n
technollogy reacto
ors.
In Septtember 200
09 the cou
untry annou
unced its intention to
o become a
an exporte
er of powerr
reactorrs of its ow
wn design - Advance
ed Heavy Water
W
Rea
actor (AHW
WR), fuelle
ed with low
w
enrichm
ment uraniu
um, and co
ompeting w
with other suppliers.
s
IIndia is a h
huge marke
et not to be
e
neglectted, it also being expected that the countrry will beco
ome a large
e buyer of ttechnologyy
and fue
el. Uranium
m consump
ption tendss to be sig
gnificant, sseeing thatt the counttry importss
70% off its energyy needs, which
w
is eq
qual to imp
porting 90%
% of the country’s
c
d
demand forr
fuel.
Confirm
ming this p
position, in
n August 2
2010 NPCIL - Nuclear Power Corporatio
on of India
a
Limited
d signed co
ontracts forr importing
g uranium ffrom the fo
ollowing companies: A
Areva (300
0
MT of uranium cconcentrate); Russia
a’s Tvel C
Corporation (58 MT of enriche
ed uranium
m
dioxide
e (pellets) and
a 2,000 MT of natu
ural uranium oxide (p
pellets); an
nd Kazakhsstan’s NAC
C
Kazatomprom (21
100 MT nattural uraniu
um mineral.
overnment is also devveloping a 7,000 ton nuclear-po
owered submarine prroject, builtt
The go
in India
a and bassed on Russian Akula I model (planned
d to be 5 units). In July 2011,
Russia, supplier of 70% of war equipment to India, ann
nounced itt will delive
er the firstt
submarrine to India by December 2011
1.
Under India’s waste manag
gement sysstem, the ttreatment is done on the plantss’ own site
e
waste repro
ocessing ssystem, currently in an advancced stage,, can veryy
and a nuclear w
help in mitig
gating the country’s e
energy sho
ortage prob
blem.
much h
PHWR plants’ fuel is repro
ocessed att the Bhab
bha Atomicc Research Centre ((BARC) in
n
Tromba
ay, Tarapu
ur and Kalp
pakkam to
o extract th
he plutoniu
um used in
n “FAST B
BREEDER””
reactorrs. The cou
untry storag
ges the ma
aterial resulting from o
other plants’ fuel reprrocessing.
with South
In Augu
ust 2011, the civil nu
uclear coo
operation agreement
a
h Korea was
w signed,
which a
allows Kore
ean compa
anies to pa
articipate in
n India’s nu
uclear proje
ects. This is
i the ninth
h
agreem
ment signe
ed by India
a with oth
her countriies, after the NSG - Nuclearr Supplierss
Group’ss agreeme
ents were relaxed. The other agreeme
ents were signed with France,
U.S.A., Russia, C
Canada, Mo
ongolia, Ka
azakhstan, Argentina and Namibia.
India ha
as a solid program o
of nuclear p
power plant constructtion and se
eeks to stre
engthen itss
nuclearr electricityy generatin
ng system
m with the addition o
of 470 GW
W by 2050
0 (39 more
e
plants projected).
p
. The gove
ernment pro
oposes bu
uilding addiitional nuclear capaccity to cope
e
with the
e constant,, severe rationing Ind
dia has bee
en going through.
ential for e
electric pow
wer genera
ation in the
e
According to the authoritiess, use of ccoal is esse
onsumption is rising 6% a yea
ar, although 40% of household
ds have no
o
countryy, where co
access to this con
nvenience.

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The go
overnment reserved tthe right to
o maintain the nuclea
ar option, guaranteei
g
ing it to be
e
the besst energy ssource, mainly with re
espect to th
he reductio
on of greenhouse gass emissionss
- GHG. In Augusst/11, Prim
me Minister Manmoh
han Singh reaffirmed
d his administration’ss
committment to th
he expanssion of nuclear electtricity gene
eration as a means to realize
e
countryy’s desired growth and developm
ment witho
out the prod
duction of G
GHG.
The accident in Japan
n
ubts for the
e
has rraised dou
inhab
bitants and broughtt
prote
ests on nu
uclear sitess
supposedly more prone
e
to
earthquakkes
and
d
floods. The authoritiess
have promised
d to review
w
e projectts’ safetyy
these
aspects and mechanismss
for rresponse to severe
e
accid
dents, and apply the
e
state
best,
e-of-the-artt
intern
national
safetyy
criterria.
Kudankulam
m NPP -Two re
eactors (2x950 M
MW -VVER) - In
ndia. Reactor 1 connected to
the grid in
n October, 2013
3 (photo: Atom
mstroyexport)

Iran
Countrry

Reactorrs in
operatiion

Iran

1

installed
d
capacity
y (MW)

915

Reacttors under
cons
struction

c
capacity unde
er
co
onstruction (MW
W)

generated
d energy
2013 ((TWH)

0

0

3,8
89

% of total energ
gy
generated in 201
13

1,5

Iran’s Nuclear
N
Prrogram dattes from th
he late 195
50s. By the
e 1960s, th
he United States
S
had
d
supplie
ed the Iranians with a small re
esearch rea
actor, and signed an
n agreeme
ent in 1957
7
pledgin
ng to provid
de Iran nu
uclear devicces, equip
pment and training sp
pecialists. Before the
e
Islamicc Revolution
n (1979) it was forese
een 23 rea
actors for electricity prroduction.
Iran ha
as a plantt in opera
ation (Bush
hehr, PWR
R 1000 M
MW) conne
ected to th
he grid on
n
Septem
mber 4, 2011, and ha
as produce
ed in 2012
2 1,33 TW
Wh from n
nuclear power. Some
e
70% off its electriccity was fro
om gas and
d 25.5% fro
om oil, botth of which it has in abundance
a
.
The per capita co
onsumption
n was of ab
bout 2000 kkWh/yr.
The construction work by a German consortium
(Siemens//KWU) starrted in 197
c
75 and wass
d in 1980, after the Islamic Revvolution (1979) when
n Germanyy joined the
e American
n
stopped
embarg
go and bro
oke the co
ontracts in force at th
hat time. The
T
constru
uction wass resumed,
after ye
ears of sto
oppage, with
w
the aid
d of Russia and the
e approval from the IAEA, and
d
comple
eted after sseveral de
elays caused by a n
number of reasons. Plant operration, fuel
supply and waste
e storage w
will be hand
dled by Russsia over th
he next 3 yyears.
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N
NPP Bushehr, Iran (photo : A
Atomenergoproekt)

As informed by th
he governm
ment, the ccountry inte
ends to buiild 5 additio
onal nuclear reactorss
ply around
d 10% of the country’s electricity requirrements, thus
t
coping with the
e
to supp
rationin
ng problem
ms have be
een going on in the region. The two firstt would be 360 MWe
e
LWR in
n Darkhovvin/ Darkho
oveyn (rive
er Karun - Khuzesta
an provin
nce and an
nother one
e
would b
be in the sa
ame site off Bushehr.
Iran’s p
president said on Julyy 03, 2013 that prelim
minary talks for Russiia to help build
b
a new
w
Iranian nuclear power
p
plant had been complete
ed, and th
he project jjust neede
ed Russian
n
Preside
ent Vladimiir Putin’s approval to go ahead.
ear program, uranium
m is processsed and a
according to
o the IAEA
A, has been
n
Under Iran’s nucle
ed to less than 5%. Iran has faced pro
oblems with
h the interrnational ccommunity,
enriche
which a
alleges the
e country’ss enrichme
ent processs is associated with w
war plans and that itt
has alre
eady sufficcient materrial for the cconstructio
on of an ato
omic bomb
b. The coun
ntry deniess
such in
ntentions, in
nasmuch a
as nuclear weapon fa
abrication requires an
n enrichme
ent level off
around 90%, and
d that all of its ura
anium is destined
d
fo
or future e
electricity g
generation.
Anywayy, accordin
ng to the WNA - World
W
Nucclear Asso
ociation, Ira
an’s know
wn uranium
m
mineral resourcess are not siignificant.
The Intternational Atomic En
nergy Agen
ncy is prop
posing an a
agreementt whereby Iran would
d
send approximate
ely 75 % o
of its stockkpile of aro
ound 1.5 to
ons of low enrichment uranium
m
(LEU) for converrsion abro
oad (proba
ably in Russia) and transformation into fuel for a
researcch reactor in
i Teheran
n.
According to the latest IAEA
A report, presented
p
in Februaryy 2013, Ira
an currentlyy producess
uranium
m enriched
d to 3.5% or 20% in tw
wo complexx, Fordo an
nd Natanz..
Currenttly a reacttor of 360
0 MW with
h Iranian technologyy is under construction. It wass
designe
ed by Iranian expertts and nucclear fuel iss also manufactured
d in the co
ountry. The
e
date fo
oreseen for commisssioning is 2017.
2
Thiss nuclear rreactor (IR
R-360) wass designed
d
based o
on the 1st unit PWR NPP "Bezznau" (Swittzerland). A
Also underr constructiion nuclearr
heavy w
water reacttor of 40 M
MW.

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Sites witth nuclear acttivities in Iran

There have
h
been
n reports th
hat the country planned to havve 20 GW
W nuclear ccapacity byy
2020, b
but today confirmed Iran planss to build four new units, with
h the participation off
Russia. Russia an
nd Iran alre
eady has a preliminary to the co
onstruction
n of two mo
ore units att
the sam
me site of the Busheh
hr nuclear p
power plan
nt agreeme
ent.

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Japan
n
Counttry

Japan

Reacto
ors in
operation

48

installe
ed
Reacttors under
capacitty (MW)
cons
struction

42.38
88

2

capacity und
der
c
construction (M
MW)

1325

generate
ed energy % o
of total energy
2013 (TWH)
gen
nerated in 2013
3

13,95

1,7

The country as a whole dep
pends on exxternal sou
urces of priimary enerrgy by 96%
%.
Japan has 50 re
eactors (44
4,114 MW)) in operatting condittion. Of the
ese only tw
wo energyy
produce
ed in 2012
2. Were prroduced 17
7,350 TWh
h in 2012, w
which reprresented 2.1%
2
of the
e
countryy's energy. There are
e 2 power p
plants unde
er construcction (Shim
mane Ohma
a 3 and 1 ABWR 1300 MW
W each) and
a
nine reactors permanent
p
tly shut. T
There are plans forr
extensiions of life and powerr.
In Mayy 2012 all 50
5 Japane
ese nuclea
ar power pllants were
e off. In Se
eptember o
only 2 (Ohi
reactorrs 3 and 4)) had returrned to ope
eration and
d were gen
nerating po
ower to the
e grid. The
e
other re
eactors will be restarted only a
after comp
pletion and approval of Stress Tests. It iss
also ne
ecessary to return the reactor to ope
eration an approval given byy the local
governments.
The shutdown of nuclear reactors in Japan led to
o a strong rise in oil imports to ffeed its oil-fired po
ower plantss, necessary to fill the
e gap of low
wer electriccity supplie
ed by nucle
ear energy.
This ma
ay also help explain why the co
ountry is no
ow running
g a trade deficit for th
he first time
e
over the past five
e years. Th
his energe
etic conditio
on just getts worse th
he high levvel of debt,
will most likely lea
ad to a restart of nuclear reacto
ors. In fact, the new Prime
P
Minisster Shinzo
o
Abe ha
as already sspoken a lo
ot about this subject.
The Fu
ukushima--Daiichi ac
ccident

At 14h:46 min of March 11, 2011, loca
al time, norrtheast Jap
pan was hitt by an earrthquake off
9.0 deg
grees on th
he Richterr scale. The epicente
er was veryy near the
e coastline and a few
w
kilometters below the earth’ss crust. It was
w the larg
gest earthq
quake everr recorded to have hitt
a highly industria
alized, den
nsely populated area
a. Even forr a high earthquake risk-prone
e
countryy whose cu
ulture and technologyy have ada
apted to make such rrisk accepttable, such
h
event, on a prob
bability sca
ale of 1 in every 1,0
000 years, the disasster exceed
ded all the
e
responsse capacityy develope
ed by Japan over cen
nturies.

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Most b
buildings a
and all industrial facilities with risks of e
explosion and releasse of toxicc
productts to the e
environmen
nt, such a
as oil refine
eries, fuel storage areas,
a
therrmal powerr
plants, and chem
mical facilities locate
ed in the affected region collapsed im
mmediately,
causing
g thousand
ds of deatths and en
nvironmenttal damage
e yet to be entirely quantified.
Roads and powerr transmisssion lines w
were also d
damaged o
on several sscale degre
ees.
The 14
4 nuclear power unitss in the affe
ected regio
on’s three nuclear po
ower station
ns resisted
d
the titanic forces released b
by nature. A
All of them
m were auto
omatically sshut down and put in
n
safe co
ool-down m
mode with d
diesel-gene
erators, afte
er the loss of all external powerr supply.
The tsu
unami thatt followed tthe event broke dow
wn the entire emerge
ency diesell generatorr
system
m intended to cool do
own the 4 reactors of the Fukkushima-D
Daiichi nucllear powerr
station,, leading th
hem to a major
m
nucle
ear accide
ent status w
with total lo
oss of the 4 reactorss
involved, due to reactor
r
corre melt-dow
wn, with re
elease of rradioactivity to the en
nvironmentt
after hyydrogen exxplosions, but withou
ut nuclear a
accident victims. The
ere were 4 deaths forr
other re
easons tha
an the accid
dent or nucclear radiattion.
The ne
eed for rem
moving the population
ns near the
e plant area
a became imperious and a full-scale nucclear emerg
gency plan
n
was mob
bilized at a time the
e
country was
w
devasstated and
d
more than 18,000 died as a
conseque
ence
o
of
the
e
earthquakke, tsuna
ami, fires,
and ind
dustrial e
explosions,
besides tthe more tthan 5,000
0
missing
personss.
There
e
existed
no
inffrastructure
e
available for the work off
emergenccy
teams;
notwithsta
anding, tha
anks to the
e
population
n’s
prep
paredness,
the autho
orities, little
e by little,
are domin
nating the ssituation.
NPP Fuku
ushima-Daiich
hi after the firs
st wave tsuna
ami

International aid through a network of countriies coordin
nated by the IAEA has given
n
specialized assisttance for rradiation re
elease eve
ents and, in the mea
antime, all learn from
m
the eve
ent. In add
dition to the
e losses off human livves, Japan will be faccing econo
omic lossess
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from industry’s inactivity cau
used by brreakdownss, unavailab
bility of infrrastructures or powerr
failuress triggered by the disa
aster.
On Jun
ne 20, 20
011 Japan
nese goverrnment thrrough the Minister of Industrry, Kaieda,
decided
d that, exccept for Fu
ukushima’ss 6 units and Hamao
oca’s 2 uniits, all nuclear powerr
plants a
are safe to continue o
operating in
n the country. Safety measuress for severe
e accidentss
are being implem
mented all o
over the co
ountry, at a time Jap
pan cannott afford to do withoutt
this ene
ergy.
The de
ecisions to be taken b
by Japan o
on continuing the use
e of nuclea
ar energy will
w have to
o
take intto considerration the lack of ava
ailable enerrgy optionss and the ccost of such
h decisionss
for a population
p
already e
extremely disturbed. The Min
nistry of E
Economy, T
Trade and
d
Industryy estimated that repllacing nucllear energyy with another therm
mal source would costt
the govvernment 3 trillion ye
ens or 37 b
billion dolla
ars a year (around 0.7% of the
e Japanese
e
GDP). The best e
energy mixx for Japan is still under discu
ussion and no decisio
on has yett
been ta
aken. Anyyway, the country is enforcing all agree
ements sig
gned in line with the
e
ongoing
g nuclear export
e
policcy, even th
hough this h
has been on
o hold inte
ernally.
The government is
i trying to develop a long-term energy miix program. The decission on the
e
countryy’s 2030 e
energy mixx will be ta
aken by September among three scenarios where
e
nuclearr shares va
ary from ze
ero to betw
ween 20% and 25%. There are calculation
ns where a
plan to generate 20% of Ja
apan’s pow
wer by onsh
hore wind farms
f
in 20
030 would require an
n
area co
omparable to that off Kyushu IIsland (one
e of Japan
n’s four main islandss, which iss
42,191 square kilometers o
or 16,032 ssquare miles). Japan
n’s high po
opulation d
density can
n
lead to
o a not-in-m
my-backya
ard reaction from ressidents, which mightt not just be againstt
nuclearr power but might opp
pose any p
power proje
ect.
T
To make up for itts lack off
a
available nuclear g
generation,
Japan was forced to import fuel
fo
or therma
al power generation
n
such as oil, gas, and
d coal, with
h
a
additional expenses of aboutt
4
4,3 trillion yen (55 billion US
S
dollars, 42 b
billion euro
o) a year.
T
The greenh
house gas d
dischargess
w
will increa
ase by a
about 1.2
2
gigatones a year ass a directt
re
esult of the
e shutdow
wn of manyy
o
of Japan’s n
nuclear uniits.
NPP Fuku
ushima-Daiich
hi Sept. 2013 ((photo Kyodo News)

Anotherr consequence was th
hat governm
ment has assked house
eholds and businessess for powerr
savings of 15 perrcent in the
e area servved by Kan
nsai Electriic Power C
Company (K
Kepco) that
operates 11 reactors - Ohi (fou
ur units), Miihama (3) and Takaham
ma (4). Acco
ording to a g
government
stateme
ent cuts of 5
5-10 percentt have also been reque
ested in othe
er parts of w
western Jap
pan.

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The go
overnment is conducting outrea
ach work in the affe
ected area
as to dispe
el people’ss
misinforrmation and
d sense of insecurity p
prevailing in this proce
ess. Fukushima accident was an
n
extreme
ely serious event, but one that ha
as not produced a sing
gle fatality. According to radiation
n
specialissts, the emissions from
m the eventt have not rreached leve
els capable
e of causing
g irreparable
e
damage
e to the en
nvironment or health of the population (evven for the
e workers involved in
n
emergency procedures).
The com
mpany operrating the nu
uclear powe
er station – Tepco exam
mined 3700
0 workers; o
out of these,
127 recceived some
e dose of rradiation, but none of them is in risk of an immediate disease on
n
accountt of radiation
n. In 20 or 30
3 years, th
he possibilityy exists (up
p to 5%) for them to de
evelop some
e
illness iff they contin
nue to expo
ose themselvves to radia
ation due to accumulate
ed doses.
As 2013
3 drew to a close, Jap
pan once ag
gain found iitself withou
ut nuclear p
power as itss entire fleet
remaine
ed shut dow
wn pending
g regulatoryy reviews. Nevertheles
N
ss, Kansai'ss Ohi 3 and
d 4 were in
n
operatio
on until ente
ering sched
duled outages in Septe
ember. By tthe end of tthe year, 16
6 Japanese
e
units ha
ad applied fo
or permissio
on to restartt under new
w Nuclear Re
egulatory Au
uthority regulations.
Japan’ss Electric Po
ower Develo
opment Com
mpany Limited (J-Powe
er) has ann
nounced tha
at it plans to
o
resume the constru
uction of itss Ohma nucclear powerr plant in Aomori prefe
ecture, north
hern Japan.
Work on
n the Ohma
a nuclear power
p
plant,, which J-Power said was
w around
d 40 percen
nt complete,
was susp
pended folllowing the
e
Great Easst Japan Ea
arthquake off
11 March 2011 that resulted in
n
acccident
at
the
nucclear
Fukushima
a-Daiichi. N
Nowadays a
civil engiineering company iss
excavating
g earth to b
build canalss
for
sea
awater
intake
and
d
discharge systems, and vendorr
Hitachi-GE
E Nuclear Energy
E
Ltd.
is assem
mbling “sm
mall” plant
equipment at a worksshop on the
e
n
plant site in the town of Ohma in
Aomori prrefecture. T
There are a
workforce now of a
about 1,000
0
people.
Nuclear P
Power Plant S
Sendai 1 and
d2

Kyushu EPC hopess it can resstart its two Sendai unitts around July and two
o of its Gen
nkai units byy
Januaryy 2014, Kyu
ushu said A
April 2. Kanssai EPC ho
opes restart Takaham
ma-3 and -4
4 in Octoberr
2013. F
From the new
w reference
e scenario ccomes six reactors restart by end 2013, 16 other
o
reactorr
restart by
b the end of
o 2014 with
h 7 months o
of operation
n on average
e generating
g 73 TWh o
of electricity.
After a long processs Sendai n
nuclear pow
wer plant units 1 and 2 have draft approval to
o restart and
d
e final stage
es in Japan'ss new licenssing regime
e could be ccompleted in
n
generatte electricityy again. The
Octoberr.
Japan’ss nine utilitie
es with atom
mic plants re
eported com
mbined lossses of 1.59 trillion yen ($16 billion))
in the fisscal year 2
2012 ended March 31, 2013. Onlyy Hokuriku Electric
E
Pow
wer Co. possted a profit,
ending the year 1
100 million yen ahead, and only two reacctors are ccurrently running, both
h
belongin
ng to Kansa
ai Electric Power Co.
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Nuclea
ar Waste
Japan reprocessses its nucclear wasttes in reprocessing plants loccated in F
France (La
a
Hague)) and in th
he United Kingdom, but it is building
b
its own commercial reprocessing
g
plant in
n Rokkasho
o-mura, in Honshu Issland. The plant’s tesst run was started on March 31,
2006 and comme
ercial opera
ation was p
planned forr 2009, but was delayyed.
Activitie
es include reprocessing of 800 tons of sp
pent uraniu
um and the
e production of 4 tonss
of pluto
onium whiich, combiined with uranium w
will be con
nverted intto MOX fu
uel for the
e
countryy’s nuclear power pla
ants. Such fuel has already
a
bee
en tested a
and approvved for use
e
in Japa
anese nucle
ear power plants.
In Mayy 2009, the
e first MO
OX shipmen
nt from the Melox fu
uel fabrica
ation plant in France
e
arrived in Japan tto feed Genkai-3 plan
nt, which started com
mmercial op
peration in Novemberr
2009. B
By Januaryy 2011 therre existed a
already 4 p
plants using
g this fuel.
About 5%
5 of the content off MOX fue
el is plutonium recove
ered from fuel alread
dy burnt in
n
nuclearr generatin
ng reactorss. Recycling
g this mate
erial is the method to
o increase the energyy
it can produce by 12%, while unfiissioned u
uranium is also recovered an
nd reused,
increassing the a
available e
energy avvailable byy 22%. Such proce
ess also allows
a
the
e
separattion of the most radio
oactive nucclear fission productss, thereby rreducing th
he volumess
of dang
gerous wasstes by 60%
%.
Japan imports
i
mo
ore than 90
0% of its en
nergy requirements. It
I has no uranium in iits territory.
Today, its major energy so
ource is plutonium
p
ffrom the rreprocessin
ng of nuclear plants’
wastes that the co
ountry has stockpiled
d since 199
99.
Such tyype of recyycling consstitutes the
e basis of the nuclea
ar fuel cyccle in Japa
an, a policyy
that allo
ows the co
ountry to ob
btain maxim
mum beneffit from ura
anium impo
orts.
In July 2010, Jap
panese com
mpanies To
okyo Electtric Power, Chubu Ellectric Pow
wer, Kansai
Electricc Power, To
oshiba, Mittsubishi He
eavy Indusstries, and Hitachi info
ormed thatt they were
e
plannin
ng to set up a n
new busin
ness organization (Internation
(
nal Nuclea
ar Energyy
Development of JJapan) to export nucclear powe
er projects to emergin
ng countrie
es, but the
e
Fukush
hima accide
ent is likelyy to change
e this prosp
pect.

khstan
Kazak
Coun
ntry

Kazakh
hstan

Reacto
ors in installed
opera
ation capacitty (MW)

0

0

Reacttors under c
capacity underr
generated energy
cons
struction
co
onstruction (MW
W)
2013 (TW
WH)

0

0

0

% of total energy
generated in 2013

0

hstan has n
no nuclear power gen
nerating plants, but o
only one re
esearch rea
actor at the
e
Kazakh
Institute
e of Nuclear Physicss, near Alm
maty. Due
e to its larg
ge uranium
m productio
on capacityy
(world'ss largest producer
p
o
of uranium ore and it has around 15 pe
ercent of tthe world’ss
uranium
m resource
es) Kazakhstan holds a great we
eight in the
e nuclear in
ndustry.
The co
ountry is ccapable of converting
g high enrriched (HE
EU) into lo
ow enriche
ed uranium
m
(LEU) iin its Ulba plant (Ulba
a Metallurg
gical Plant in Ust-Kam
menogorskk), as it did
d in Augustt
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2011 when
w
33 kg
g of HEU were convverted into
o LEU, as reported by
b the U.S
S. National
Nuclear Security Administra
ation - NNS
SA) which is coopera
ating with K
Kazakhstan
n to modifyy
the rese
earch reacctor and ren
nder it capable of using LEU fue
el.
er of Industtry and New
w Technologies Asse
et Isekeshe
ev confirmed that, although the
e
Ministe
constru
uction of a nuclear po
ower plant isn’t very m
much on th
he agenda, it is seen as a long-term ob
bjective an
nd that no d
decisions h
have yet been made on the typ
pe of reacttor, the site
e
or the timing
t
of th
he project.
Kazakh
hstan is th
he only co
ountry in C
Central Asiia that hass made a firm comm
mitment to
o
develop
ping nuclea
ar energy. It is also likely to ho
ost an inte
ernational lo
ow-enriche
ed uranium
m
bank, cconstruction
n of which could begiin in 2015.
A Russsian-supplie
ed BN-350
0 fast reacto
or operated
d at Aktau on the Casspian Sea coast from
m
1972 to
o 1999. A project to build
b
smaller Russian
n-designed
d nuclear rreactors at Aktau hass
been u
under conssideration for severa
al years, and
a
feasibility studiess and envvironmental
reviewss have be
een carried
d out. Pla
ans for nu
uclear plan
nts includiing large light-waterr
reactorrs for the southern
s
re
egion, smaller units in
n western parts and smaller co
ogeneration
n
units in
n regional cities have
e been under discusssion for several yea
ars. In 2010 a trio off
Japane
ese compa
anies signe
ed a memo
orandum o
of understa
anding on a feasibilityy study forr
the con
nstruction o
of a nuclea
ar plant, witth Lake Ba
alkash in ea
astern Kazzakhstan m
mooted as a
likely lo
ocation for a plant bassed on advvanced boiling water reactor tecchnology.
In 30 M
May, 2014 ((NucNet)- Russia an
nd Kazakhsstan have ssigned an a
agreementt that could
d
lead to them coo
operating o
on the consstruction o
of a nuclea
ar power sttation in Kazakhstan,
,
uclear corporation Ro
osatom hass said. Rossatom also
o said the agreement
a
Russia’s state nu
signed by Rosa
atom chieff executive
e officer Sergei Kiiriyenko a
and Nation
nal Atomicc
any of Kazzakhstan (K
Kazatomprrom) presid
dent Vladimir Schko
olnik, coverrs possible
e
Compa
coopera
ation in de
esign, consstruction, commission
ning, opera
ation and decommiss
d
sioning of a
nuclearr power sta
ation using reactors w
with an insttalled capa
acity of 300
0 megawattts to 1,200
0
MW. The two cou
untries also intend to
o cooperate on nucle
ear fuel supply to the
e proposed
d
facility with the p
possibility o
of fabricatin
ng the fuel, or its co
omponents,, in Kazakhstan. The
e
location
n for the ccountry’s ffirst nuclea
ar power station is near the city of Ku
urchatov in
n
eastern
n Kazakhsttan.

Pakisttan
Coun
ntry

Pakista
an

Reacttors in installe
ed capacity Re
eactors under
capacity un
nder
opera
ation (MW)
c
construction
construction (MW)

3

7
725

2

630

gen
nerated
enerrgy 2012
(T
TWH)

5,2
271

%o
of total energy
gen
nerated in 2012

5.34

Electriccity generrated in Pakistan is abou
ut ~62% from fossil fuel and
a
~33%
%
from hyydroelectricc power fo
or the for th
he remaind
der Pakista
an has thrree operating nuclearr
power plants (Chasnupp 1 and
a 2, PW
WR 300 MW
W each and
d Kanupp, PHWR - 125 MW) in
n
the Pun
njabe regio
on. There are
a two rea
actors unde
er construcction (Chassnupp 3 an
nd 4, PWR,
315 MW
W each one).
o
The new units are scheduled to b
begin com
mmercial op
peration in
n
Decem
mber 2016 and
a Octobe
er 2017 resspectively.
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In 2012
2, 5.271 TW
Wh of electtricity from nuclear so
ource were
e generated
d, about 5.34% of the
e
countryy’s total in the period
d. The cou
untry signe
ed a contra
act with China (Chin
na National
Nuclear Corporation - CNNC
C) for the ffifth unit att Chasnupp
p not yet in
n constructiion.
In Augu
ust 2013 a new contract was signed,
s
now
w for the K
Karachi Co
oastal Nuclear Powerr
Projectt in Pakisttan which comprising two AC
CP1000 un
nits. The o
order markks the firstt
foreign purchase of the Ch
hinese reacctor design
n. The forreseen cosst is aboutt 9,5 billion
n
dollars and constrruction cou
uld begging
g in 2015.

The co
ountry is not a sig
gnatory to
o the NP
PT and co
onducts a nuclear weaponss
program indepe
endent of the civil electricity generatio
on progra
am, which uses the
e
countrry’s source
es of natu
ural uraniu
um.
The existing
e
co
onflict with
h India, w
which hass
nuclea
ar weaponss itself, ho
olds the en
ntire region
n
in perm
manent ten
nsion, with a high riskk of nuclearr
conflicct, accordin
ng to interrnational a
analysts. In
n
July 2011
2
the country was
w
reporrted to be
e
seekin
ng to incrrease its arsenal of
o nuclearr
weapo
ons with more air-to-a
air and surface-to-airr
missile
es, in line
e with its plan for strategic-nuclea
ar- weapon
ns parity with otherr countriess
holding
g nuclear weapons
w
in
n the region
n.
NPP Chas
snupp - Pakis
stan (photo Ro
osatom)

Pakista
an's power stations have
h
a com
mbined cap
pacity of ab
bout 20,00
00 megawatts, which
h
should be enoug
gh to cove
er the cou
untry's elecctricity nee
eds. Howe
ever, the companiess
a unable to run the
em at full ccapacity be
ecause of a financial
managing power stations are
who have n
not paid the
eir bills in years.
y
Therre is also a
deficit ccaused by public secctor users w
gas pip
peline from
m Iran, whicch is poten
ntially capa
able of plug
gging the ssupply gap, has been
n
comple
eted on the Iranian sid
de of the border, but not on the Pakistani sside.

Nucle
ear Reac
ctors Undercons
struction
n, Planned and/o
or propo
osed
R
Reactors
Chash
hma 3
Chash
hma 4
Chash
hma 5
Kara
achi Coas
stal
1& 2

structio
Cons
Mwe gro
oss
n start

Type
CN
NP-300
CN
NP-300
PWR

340
340
1000(?
?)

mai/11
m
Dec/11

AC
CP1000

1100x
x2

late
e 2014

Total

P
PL.G – Strattegic Planning Managem
ment

Planne
ed
commerrcial
Operatiion
Dec/16
6
Oct/16
6

5

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In June
e 2010 an agreementt with Chin
na was ann
nounced th
hat will allow the consstruction off
two new
w reactorss for 340 MW
M each.T
The cost iss estimate
ed at 2.4 billion
b
dolla
ars and the
e
project will strateg
gically help
p Pakistan in reducing
g its chroniic shortage
e of electricc power.
Nuclear wastes a
are treated and stored
d at the nuclear powe
er plants th
hemselves.. There are
e
or construcction of a re
epository fo
or long-term
m storage of nuclear wastes.
plans fo

South
h Korea
Counttry

South Ko
orea

Reacttors in
operration

23
3

installed
capacity (MW)

20
0.700

Reactors
under
co
onstruction

capacity und
der
c
construction (M
MW)

5

6,370

generate
ed energy % o
of total energy
2013 (TWH)
gen
nerated in 2013
3

132,47

27,6

South K
Korea is A
Asia’s fourth
h largest e
economy, b
but has no
o energy so
ources in itts territory,
importin
ng around 97% of its needs, inccluding all the
t oil and uranium itt uses. The
e country iss
making
g efforts to
o reduce itss depende
ence on fo
ossil fuels and thus diversify
d
th
he national
electriccity mix. At present, ccoal is the ccountry’s to
op electricity generatiing source, supplying
g
42% off Korea’s p
power grid
d. The per capita ele
ectricity con
nsumption is about 3 times ass
high ass that of Bra
azil.
South K
Korea has 23 reactorrs in opera
ation (20,70
00 MW insstalled capa
acity). In 2
2013, these
e
nuclearr power plants
p
prod
duced 132
2.47 TWh, accountin
ng for aro
ound 27.6 % of the
e
countryy’s electriciity consum
mption. Five
e plant pro
ojects are under wayy, that coulld reach to
o
30 GW
W by 2015
5, it being noted tthat appro
oximately 6,320 MW
W relate to ongoing
g
constru
uction and an addition
nal 3,000 M
MW will enssue from ssigned conttracts nearring start off
construction. The
T
latest plants to come into
o
mercial ope
eration we
ere Shin-Ko
ori 2 (PWR
R
comm
- 997
7 MW) and Shin-Wolssong-1 with
h a Korean
n
desig
gn (Improvved Korea
an Standarrd Nuclearr
Plantt - OPR 10
000). Up to
o 2024, acccording to
o
the Korean governmentt, eight new
n
plantss
shou
uld be builtt in additio
on to those
e currentlyy
unde
er construcction.
The countryy’s energyy
policyy favors nuclear in
nitiatives, ttaking into
o
consideration the safetyy and re
eliability off
gy supply, inasmuch as South Korea hass
energ
no en
nergy sourrces in its te
erritory.
Shin-Kori 1 and 2 - Pho
oto: KHNP (Korea Hidro and Nuclear Powe
er)

Althoug
gh it has no uranium or enrichm
ment facilitty in its terrritory, Korrea is enga
aged in the
e
producttion of its own nucclear fuel and
a
also undertakess nuclear waste ma
anagementt
activitie
es with loca
ally developed techno
ology.
Korea p
participatess in researrch work on
n several a
advanced rreactor mo
odels (modular, ITER,
fast bre
eeder, high
h-temperatu
ure reactorrs).
The go
overnment seeks to win
w 20% o
of world’s rreactor sup
pply marke
et up to 20
030. It hass
also an
nnounced plans
p
to tra
ain 2,800 n
new nuclea
ar engineerrs in order to ensure ttechnologyy
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self-suffficiency an
nd meet in
ndustry’s demand forr skilled ma
anpower. T
The countrry has also
o
competted interna
ationally in offering nu
uclear servvices and sstudies, an
nd in December 2009
9
upply of 4 1400MW
was the winner in the Ara
ab Emirate
es’ bidding
g process for the su
W
reactorrs, a 40 billion dollars business.
After Korea
K
obta
ained the first nuclear plant order ou
utside of its territorry, Korean
n
inhabita
ants’ perce
eption of nuclear ene
ergy has im
mproved siignificantlyy, as indica
ated by the
e
latest opinion
o
survveys (88.4 % favor th
he development of nu
uclear indusstry).
So far no decission has b
been taken on wha
at to do w
with the country’s
c
sspent fuel.
ovided con
nsultation a
and negotia
ations are conducted
d
Reproccessing is a possible option, pro
with the United States, in line with the existing cooperration agre
eement be
etween the
e
countrie
es.
Developing a ne
ew technolo
ogy called
d “pyroproccessing” th
hat genera
ates no plutonium in
n
repro
ocessing, is under study and w
will likely be
e
the solution fo
or reuse o
of nuclearr fuel. The
e
decission should
d be taken
n soon, ina
asmuch ass
the country’s spent-fuel stockpiling capacityy
will b
be used up
p by 2016.
Soutth Korea’ss demand
d for elecctricity hass
been
n growing 4
4% per ye
ear for a de
ecade, and
d
techn
nology exxport planss are in place thatt
conte
emplate sales of up
p to 80 re
eactors byy
2030
0. Such goal app
pears to h
have been
n
facilitated by reactor sales to the Arab
b
Emirrates.
NPP Shin
n-Wolsong 1 and 2 - Image AIEA

Despite
e the fall in
n Korean p
public satissfaction wiith nuclearr energy du
ue to the Fukushima
F
a
acciden
nt, the fore
ecasts on new reacto
ors indicatte 9 units a
against the
e previouss projection
n
20. The
e country iss planning to go on w
with its nucclear expan
nsion, and even such
h old plantss
as Korii 1 (1978) keep gene
erating elecctricity. In JJuly 2011, an interna
ational com
mmission off
nuclearr experts ffrom the IAEA visite
ed Korea to assesss good pra
actices devveloped in
n
Korea. Recomme
endations for improvvements w
were made in the light of the Fukushima
F
a
a no non
n-conforma
ances were
e found tha
at might co
ompromise the safe o
operation off
event, and
the plan
nts.
In Aug
gust 2011, the presssure vesse
el of Shin
n-Kori nuclear powerr plant’s unit
u
4 wass
installed in its fin
nal positio
on. This iss the seco
ond PR-14
400 under construction (Kepco
o
design reactor, ssupplied by
b Doosan
n Heavy In
ndustries), and com
mmercial op
peration iss
schedu
uled for Sep
ptember 20
014.
In 2014
4 South Korea
K
has approved a plan to
o build two
o nuclear power pla
ants, worth
h
US$7bn, only two
o weeks a
after the co
ountry ann
nounced itss intention
n to cut the
e share off
nuclearr in total po
ower supply to 29% b
by 2035 (in
nstead of 41% by 203
30). The tw
wo reactorss
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would have
h
a capacity of 1
1,400 MW each and should be
e complete
ed by late 2
2020, at a
cost of Won 7,600
0bn (US$7
7bn).

an
Taiwa
Country
y

Reactors in
i
installed ca
apacity
operation
n (MW)

Taiwan
n

6

Reac
ctors under
con
nstruction

capacity un
nder
construction (MW)

generrated energy
2013 (TWH)

% of total ene
ergy
generated in 2
2013

2

2.600

3
39,82

19.1

4.980
0

Taiwan
n has 6 pla
ants in operation (2 P
PWR and 4 BWR) an
nd another 2 under co
onstruction
n
(PHWR
R 1300 MW
W). Accord
ding to IAE
EA, electriccity producction in 20
013 was 38.82 TWh,
accoun
nting for 19,1% of the country’s electricity.
Chinshan plants 1 and 2 (BWR 636
6 MW eacch) started
d operation
n in 1978 and 1979
9
respecttively. Kuo
osheng 1 and 2 (BWR
R 985 MW
W each). Ma
aanshan plants
p
are P
PWRs with
h
951 MW
W each.
The go
overnment of Taiwan set up a committtee to
establissh a multti-discipline
e mechanism of nu
uclear
safety reviews a
and emerg
gency pre
eparednesss and
responsse at nucle
ear powerr plants. In the light o
of the
Fukush
hima even
nts, the g
governmen
nt is espe
ecially
concern
ned aboutt nuclear plants
p
on tthe coastliine of
China, which are very close
e to Taiwan
n, and on which
they ha
ave no jurissdiction.
L
Location of N
NPP in Taiwan
n

The Ch
hinese also
o do not tru
ust the saffety of operation and stores of w
waste in T
Taiwan. A
proposa
al and the invitation were mad
de so that the
t two co
ountries wo
ork togethe
er on this
issue.
Taiwan
n national power utility Taipow
wer has ccompleted pre-opera
ational tessts at its
Lungme
en-1 nucle
ear power plant but the plantt is not exxpected to
o enter com
mmercial
operatio
on before 2017
2
at the
e earliest.
Taiwanese Plants In Operation:
Un
nits

type

MWe gros
ss

Ch
hinshan 1
Ch
hinshan 2
Ku
uosheng 1
Ku
uosheng 2
Maanshan 1
Maanshan 2

BWR
BWR
BWR
BWR
PWR
PWR

636
636
985
985
951
951
4927 MWe
e net

To
otal (6)

P
PL.G – Strattegic Planning Managem
ment

MWe net
60
04
60
04
94
48
94
48
90
00
92
23

Starrt up*
1978
1979
1981
1983
1984
1985

Licensed to
2018
2019
2021
2023
2024
2025

Wo
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101

Constru
uction of ttwo 1,350 MW Adva
anced Boiling Water Reactors (ABWRs) started in
n
Lungme
en in 1999
9: the two reactors
r
we
ere expected to be co
ommission
ned in 2006
6 and 2007
7
but com
mmercial operations w
were delayyed due to political, le
egal and regulatory prroblems.
ment announced the decision tto halt the remaining
g
In Aprill 2014 the Taiwanesse governm
constru
uction of the
t
Lungm
men powerr plant. Th
he first rea
actor will be sealed
d after the
e
comple
etion of saffety checkss, and consstruction off the secon
nd reactor will be halted. A final
decision may be ssubject to a national referendum
r
m

Vietna
am
Country
y

Vietnam
m

Reactors in installed
operation
n capacity (M
MW)

0

Reactorrs under
constrruction

c
capacity unde
er
co
onstruction (MW
W)

generate
ed energy
2013 ((TWH)

% of total energy
y
ge
enerated in 2013

0

0

0

0

0

Over th
he past 20
0 years, energy prod
duction in Vietnam increased more than
n 10 times,
growing
g at an avverage rate
e of 13% / year, from
m 12 TWh
h in 1994 tto about 13
30 TWh in
n
2013. Meanwhile
e, energy consumptiion per capita increa
ased, reaching 1,445
5 kWh/cap,
i.e. 8 tiimes the a
average vo
olume of 1994 (175 kWh). As a result th
he Vietnam
mese prime
e
ministe
er said, in May
M 2010, tthe intentio
on of building eight re
eactors.
Vie
etnam - Plan
nned and Prroposed Nuc
clear Powerr Reactors to 2030
Location

Plant (province)
(

Ty
ype

MWe nominal

Start
construction

Operation

Phuoc Dinh
D

Ninh
h Thuan 1-1

V
VVER-1000/428

1060

2017 or 2018
8

2023

Phuoc Dinh
D

Ninh
h Thuan 1-2

V
VVER-1000/428

1060

2018 or 2019
9

2024

Phuoc Dinh
D

Ninh
h Thuan 1-3

VVER-1000

1000

?

Phuoc Dinh
D

Ninh
h Thuan 1-4

VVER-1000

1000

?

Vinh Hai
H

Ninh
h Thuan 2-1

apanese Gen III
Ja
or Atmea1

850-1150

Dec 2015, dela yed

2024?

Vinh Hai
H

Ninh
h Thuan 2-2

apanese Gen III
Ja
or Atmea1

850-1150

ed
2016, delaye

2025?

Vinh Hai
H

Ninh
h Thuan 2-3

apanese Gen III
Ja
or Atmea1

850-1150

?

Vinh Hai
H

Ninh
h Thuan 2-4

apanese Gen III
Ja
or Atmea1

850-1150

?

Centrral

APR-1400?

1350

2028

Centrral

APR-1400?

1350

2029

Total planned (4)
Total proposed by
2030
0

4000
6700

Plant 1 (Ninh Thu
uan Nuclea
ar Power P
Plant 1, wiith two rea
actors) will be located
d in Phuocc
Dinh Commune, Ninh Phuo
oc district, and
a Plant 2 (Ninh Th
huan Plant 2, with two reactors))
in Vinh Hai Comm
mune, Ninh
h Hai districct. In all Pla
ants the ca
apacity cou
uld be expa
anded for 4
reactorrs. According to the
e Director of the Viietnam Ag
gency for Nuclear S
Safety and
d
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Radiation, Plant 1 - with 20
000 MW ccapacity - w
will be bassed on Ru
ussian tech
hnology. In
n
addition
n, memora
anda have
e already been signed on trraining forr the coun
ntry’s new
w
specialists. The cconstruction
n is schedu
uled to starrt by 2018.
Centrall 2 (Ninh T
Thuan Plan
nt 2, with tw
wo reactorss) will be in
nstalled in Vinh Hai Commune
C
,
Ninh Hai district, however th
here is no signed contract. The
ere is an ag
greement w
with Japan
n
for its construction; with e
expected operation in 2024. The Conssortium 'In
nternational
Nuclear Energy Developme
ent of Jap
pan Co.' (JJINED) will be the m
main supp
plier in thiss
project..
In 2012
2 Korea an
nd Vietnam
m signed an
n agreement for the p
preparation
n of feasibiility studiess
for con
nstruction o
of the Cen
ntral Third in the cou
untry with two more reactors Model and
d
Korean
n design.
The IAEA has reported that Vietnam is well pre
epared to sstart developing a nu
uclear fleett
and tha
at the agen
ncy will su
upport the ccountry’s e
efforts to w
work out sa
afety and e
emergencyy
responsse procedures. At p
present, a team of more than
n 800 perssons are working in
n
Vietnam
mese energ
gy, radiology and nucclear safetyy institutess.
In spite
e of delayss and cut-b
backs on projects,
p
au
uthorities h
have announced thatt plans will
proceed
d to build
d at least 4 reactorrs. All larg
ge supplie
ers (Chinesse, Korean, French,
Russian, Japanesse and American) are
e actively w
working to cclose dealss on these projects.
Japan, through Ja
apan Atom
mic Power Company (JAPC), siigned a co
ontract with
h Electricityy
of Vietn
nam (EVN
N) on 09/28
8/2011 forr a feasibillity study o
on the con
nstruction of the firstt
nuclearr power pla
ant. In Julyy 2013 the parties agreed to "acccelerate ccooperation
n to specifyy
the projject," which
h would be
e a major step
s
toward
ds a contract.

A
Asia
– Others
Bangla
adesh
Bangla
adesh sign
ned an agre
eement witth Russia o
on Novemb
ber 1, 2011
1 for the co
onstruction
n
of two 1,000 MW
W nuclear power plantts in the R
Rooppur reg
gion, north
hwest of Ba
angladesh..
The agreement also include
es supply of
o fuel and manageme
ent of plant’s waste (spent fuel))
which will
w be take
en back to Russia.
R
The co
ountry’s reccent growth
h and limitted availab
bility of ene
ergy (existing gas reserves are
e
nearly o
over) have
e led the go
overnmentt to close tthis 3 billion dollar bu
usiness deal. In 2007
7
the cou
untry was g
given IAEA
A’s approva
al for its nucclear project.
In Septtember 2011, the Miinistry of Foreign
F
Afffairs of Bangladesh, Dipu Moni, informed
d
that the country should have its firrst plant o
operable b
by 2022 o
or 2023. B
Bangladesh
h
proceed
ds with itss nuclear p
program w
with the aim
m of ensurring adequate electricity supplyy
after 20
020.

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The go
overnment is conducting a de
etailed stu
udy on the
e regulatorry framew
work of the
e
countryy’s nuclear program, and has he
eld talks w
with the IAE
EA and inde
ependent consultants
c
s
in this cconnection
n. Bangladesh also p
plans to sig
gn international agree
ements co
oncerning a
civil nucclear powe
er program.
In 29 JJuly 2013 Rosatom said it pla
ans to laun
nch pre-construction work for installing
i
a
2,000 MW
M nuclea
ar power plant at Roo
oppur in Pabna (Ban
ngladesh) in early August 2013.
The Ru
ussian com
mpany will b
build, operrate and prrovide fuel to the projject. Atomsstroyexportt
will starrt a series of tests un
nder a US$
$46m contrract, while the Bangla
adesh Atom
mic Energyy
Commiission (BAE
EC) will alsso conduct tests on th
heir own.
The tessts will include feasibility evalua
ation, enviro
onment im
mpact assesssment, de
evelopmentt
and en
ngineering survey, d
development of the comprehe
ensive prog
gram of engineering
e
g
survey,, anthropog
genic cond
ditions at th
he project a
area and site, and en
ngineering and hydro-meteorrological su
urvey.
In April 2014 the tthird contra
act with Ro
osatom which foresee
es the crea
ation of a database
d
off
constru
uction on tthe site off the nuclear plant and the organizatio
o
on of the ssite to the
e
placem
ment of the first concre
ete constru
uction of the reactors was signe
ed in 2020.
The Ind
donesia, M
Malaysia an
nd Philippines are in the proce
ess of revivving their o
old nuclearr
power programs.
p
Indone
esia
Indone
esia, althou
ugh consid
dering itselff prepared, is focuse
ed on first getting
g
its population
n
familiarrized with nuclear
n
en
nergy, leavving to the future anyy plan to build a nucllear powerr
plant, a
according to
o the Minisster of Ressearch and Technolog
gy, Syamsa
a Ardisasm
mita.
The Ja
apan Atomiic Energy Agency ha
as reached
d an agree
ement with Indonesia
a’s national
Atomic Energy A
Agency to o
offer Indon
nesia techn
nical help on the con
nstruction of multiple
e
high-temperature gas-cooled reactors, or HTGRss, JAEA sa
aid August 5, 2014.
The Ind
donesian a
agency pu
ublished pla
ans in Jun
ne for the constructio
on of two 1,000-MW
W
LWRs on
o two of three candiidate island
ds — Java, Madura a
and Bali — starting in
n 2027, and
d
for two 1,000-MW
W LWRs in Sumatra b
beginning 2
2031, according to JA
AEA.
The Ind
donesian a
also plans tto begin op
perating byy 2020 a demonstrat
d
tion HTGR that has a
generating capaccity of 3 MW
W to 10 MW, JAEA ssaid. It cou
uld take fo
our years to
o constructt
the un
nit. Initial cooperatio
on will invvolve the exchange of inform
mation on the High-Temperature Eng
gineering T
Test Reacto
or, or HTTR
R, at Oarai, near the vvillage of T
Tokai.
Malays
sia
Malays
sia has the
e green ligh
ht from its p
population, in supporrt for the co
onstruction
n of nuclearr
power plants. Th
he countryy is in the
e process reconstru
ucting the necessaryy technical
knowledge throug
gh technica
al visits and training programs on nuclearr power pla
ant design,
constru
uction and operation. Relevant studies forr selection of a suitable site ha
ave alreadyy
been co
ommission
ned by the government. The country is strrongly depe
endent on gas (64%))
and coa
al (25%) an
nd intends to diversiffy its electriicity mix.
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Philipp
pines
In the
e case of the Philip
ppines, early on, a
group of expertss from the IAEA wass invited to
o
organize a multti-disciplina
ary and in
ndependentt
processs to deterrmine if itss old nucle
ear Bataan
n
Nuclea
ar Power Plant
P
(read
dy, but nevver put into
o
operattion) can be safely started, as
a a local
alterna
ative for en
nergy gene
eration. At present, a
contra
act with K
Korean com
mpany Ke
epco is in
n
operattion for the conduct o
of such stud
dies.
Philippin
nes - Bataan N
Nuclear Power Plant -photo IAEA
Ready – has never ope
erate

Thailan
nd
The Ru
ussian statte-owned R
Rosatom a
and the Insstitute of N
Nuclear Tecchnology of
o Thailand
d
signed during the
e 58th Con
nference off the IAEA
A in Septem
mber 2014
4, a memorrandum on
n
the use
e of atom
mic energyy for peacceful purpo
oses. The parties a
also plan tto develop
p
coopera
ation in the
e field of fu
undamenta
al and appllied studiess, radioisotopes, nucclear safetyy
and nu
uclear wasste treatm
ment, educcation and preparatio
on of scie
entific and
d technical
personnel service
es.

E-A
Austra
alia
Australia is the wo
orld’s ninth
h-largest en
nergy producer and e
enjoys the benefit of a
abundant
and divverse energ
gy resources. The A
Australian continent
c
iss rich in ura
anium, atte
ending for
about 4
40% of all e
economica
al reserves in world.
Australia has no commerciial nuclearr plants, but the Ausstralian Nu
uclear Scie
ence and
Techno
ology Organization do
o operate the Opal re
esearch rea
actor near S
Sydney.
Popula
ation: 23.6
6 Million;
GDP G
Growth Ratte: 3.6%/ye
ear;
CO2 Em
missions: 15.3 tCO2
2/capita
Energy
y independ
dence: 100
0%; Total Consump
ption/GDP:: 88 (2005=
=100)
Howeve
er, due to political an
nd other constraints the industtry has nott expanded
d enough
and Au
ustralia currrently supp
plies less th
han 20 perrcent of the
e uranium the
t world n
needs.
Despite
e its uraniu
um producction, Austrralia will no
ot develop nuclear p
power in th
he middle
term. T
The countryy has an ovvercapacityy in genera
ation, expeccted to lastt until 2023
3-2024.
The Op
pen Pool A
Australian Light-wate
er Reactorr (OPAL) iss a multipurpose insstallation,
particullarly oriented towardss radioisoto
ope producction.
It is on
ne of the most pow
werful and complex research reactors in
n the world and it
represe
ent the larg
gest cash ssale exportt of a turnke
ey state-off-the-art tecchnology p
plant ever
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made by
b an Arg
gentine com
mpany. It will supplyy radioisottopes to A
Australia a
and other
cou
untries, and it will offfer silicon
irra
adiation sservices to the
miccroelectron
nic industryy.
Re
ecently Ausstralia has signed a
nucclear co-op
peration ag
greement
autthorizing u
uranium exxports to
the
e United Arab E
Emirates,
where consttruction sta
arted on
the
e first of fo
our planned
d nuclear
pow
wer reacto
ors. The Australia’s
A
fore
eign minisstry said that the
agrreement, w
which still needs to
be approved
d by pa
arliament,
covvers conditions for ssupply of
nuclearr material; componen
nts related to nuclearr technolog
gy and asssociated eq
quipment
for use in a dome
estic powerr industry.
OPAL Re
eactor Buildin
ng (photo Luc
cas Heiths – A
Australia Fron
nt View)

Anothe
er importan
nt agreem
ment was the one ssigned by BHP Billiton Comp
pany, an
Australia-based m
mining, to sell
s its Yee
elirrie uranium deposiit (resource
es of appro
oximately
139 milllion pound
ds of U3O8
8) to Canad
dian uraniu
um produce
er CAMECO Corpora
ation. The
depositt will cost to CAMEC
CO 430 million US dollars
d
(343 million e
euro). As u
usual the
agreem
ment is pe
ending rele
evant app
provals fro
om the Au
ustralian F
Foreign Invvestment
Review
w Board and the go
overnment of Western Australiia. Yeelirriie is reputtedly the
world’s la
argest sediimentary deposit
d
of
its kind.
Australia
a's Uranium
m – (WNA August 201
14)
Australia's uranium
m has be
een mined
d
since 195
54, and fou
ur mines arre currentlyy
operating
g. More are
e planned. Australia'ss
known uranium
u
resources are the
e
world's la
argest - 31%
% of the wo
orld total.
In 2012
2 Australia
a producced 8,244
4
tonnes o
of U3O8 (e
equivalent to 6,991
1
tons of na
atural uran
nium). It is the world'ss
third-rankking
p
producer,
behind
d
Kazakhsttan and Ca
anada.

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V–C
Commercial A
Agreem
ments and
a
Nu
uclear C
Cooperration
Countriies and go
overnmentss associate accordin
ng to their needs and strategie
es, alwayss
seeking
g higher prrofits and/o
or security ffor their en
nergy supplly.
Report of the Unitted Nationss Agency ffor Trade a
and Develo
opment (UN
NCTAD) co
onfirms the
e
growing
g trend of multination
nal lean on
n some 3,2
200 interna
ational inve
estment ag
greementss
exist. W
While not exhausting
e
g the subje
ect, the folllowing are
e some pu
ublicly know
wn signed
d
agreem
ments.

U
United S
States and Othe
ers:
United
d States – Arab E
Emirates
The Un
nited State
es and the
e Arab Em
mirates havve signed an agreem
ment for ciivil nuclearr
coopera
ation whereby the Emirates undertake not to prromote a uranium e
enrichmentt
program
m of its ow
wn or to reprocess ura
anium.

United
d States – China
The U
United Sta
ates (EXE
ELON Co
ompany) and Chin
na (CNNC
C) have ssigned an
n
agreem
ment for civil nuclear coo
operation
n, whereb
by seniorr instructtors from
m
Excelo
on will tra
ain approxximately 200
2 Chinese management and nuclear plantt
operattion perssonnel in
n the be
est practtices devveloped by the A
American
n
compa
any.
d States – Czech Republic
United
ptember 2011, th
he United
d States through its Depa
artment o
of Energyy
In Sep
(DoE), America
an universities an
nd the Czzech Rep
public (se
everal un
niversitiess
esearch ccenters) h
have sign
ned a coo
operation
n agreements for research,
and re
contem
mplating the excchange of
o experiiences and
a
profe
essional staff forr
genera
ation IV m
molten sa
alt-cooled power re
eactors.
United
d States – France
e
1 - AR
REVA and NORTHRO
OP GRUM
MMAN havve signed an
a agreem
ment for se
etting up a
compan
ny - Areva
a Newport News LLC
C – to fabriccate heavyy compone
ents (reacto
or vessels,
cover, ssteam gen
nerator and
d pressurizzer) for the French EP
PR reactorr in the United Statess
planned
d to start o
operation b
by 2011. A
AREVA exp
pects to bu
uild up to 7 reactors in the U.S.
over th
he next ye
ears and such strattegy is me
eant to co
ope with a possible
e industrial
bottlene
eck for he
eavy comp
ponents, given
g
the reduced n
number off heavy co
omponentss
manufa
acturers aro
ound the w
world.

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2- ARE
EVA also a
applied to the U.S. regulatory body – N
NRC for a license to
o build and
d
uranium e
operate
e a gas centrifuge
c
enrichmentt plant (E
Eagle Rockk) near Id
daho Falls.
According to the ccompany, this
t
is abou
ut a multi-b
billionaire in
nvestment.
t major ssupplier of engineerin
ng and con
nstruction services,
s
a
and fuel forr
3- Arevva will be the
TVA’s Bellesourcce-1 plant located in the American sta
ate of Alab
bama. THE contractt
amountt is one (1) billion do
ollars and ccovers, am
mong other activities, the nuclea
ar island, a
control room, digital instrum
mentation, trraining sim
mulator and
d the fuel.

United
d States – Italy
The Un
nited State
es and Italy signed in Septemb
ber 2010, an agreem
ment for ciivil nuclearr
coopera
ation, with a 5 years’ duration (up
( to 2015
by Italy ope
ens the doo
ors to U.S.
5), whereb
supplie
ers of nucle
ear technology and se
ervices.

United
d States – Japan
Westing
ghouse E
Electric Co
ompany and Toshib
ba Corporration havve announ
nced the
formatio
on of BWR
RPLUS, a new
n
joint m
marketing o
organization
n for opera
ating nucle
ear power
plants in North A
America that will leve
erage the synergies between Westingho
ouse and
Toshiba
a.

United
d States – Kuwait
In June
e 2010 the
e United Sttates and Kuwait signed an ag
greement fo
or coopera
ation in the
e
area off nuclear ssafeguardss and othe
er non-proliferation to
opics. The agreemen
nt includess
activitie
es related to legisla
ation, regu
ulation, hu
uman reso
ources devvelopmentt, radiation
n
protection, waste managem
ment, reacto
or operatio
on among o
others, butt no plans for nuclearr
power plant
p
consttruction.

United
d States – Persia
an Gulf Countries
s
Americcan compan
nies Lightb
bridge and Exelon Ge
eneration h
have signe
ed an agree
ement with
h
the Gulf Coopera
ation Coun
ncil (Bahrain, Kuwait,, Oman, Q
Qatar, Saud
di Arabia a
and United
d
E
fo
or a feasib
bility and siiting study on a nuclear power station forr electricityy
Arab Emirates)
generation and w
water desaliination in th
he region.

United
d States – South Africa
In Septtember 200
09 the U.S
S. secretaryy of energyy Steven C
Chu and So
outh Africa
a’s ministerr
of enerrgy signed
d a bilaterral coopera
ation agreement for nuclear e
energy ressearch and
d
develop
pment, witth emphassis on advvanced re
eactor tech
hnology an
nd nuclearr systems.
According to the American officer, the
e agreeme
ent reiterate
es its gove
ernment po
osition thatt
has a majo
or role in the world’s energy future, ma
ainly with respect to
o
nuclearr energy h
climate
e change ch
hallenges.

United
d States – Vietna
am
A US--Vietnam agreement on ccivil nucle
ear coope
eration came into
o force in
n
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September 201
14. The a
agreemen
nt sets the
e terms fo
or nuclea
ar trade, exchange
e
e
earch an
nd techno
ology bettween the
e two countries a
and was signed
s
in
n
in rese
March
h 2010, as a memorand
m
dum of understanding. T
This will increase
e
coope
eration with the U
United States and will give to Viietnam a
access to
o
nuclea
ar fuel. It is expectted in the
e future co
onstructio
on of the ffirst powe
er reactorr
in Viettnam.
United
d States – Ukrain
ne
e 2014 - U
Ukraine’s sstate nucle
ear operattor Energo
oatom and Holtec In
nternational
In june
(Americcan Co.) have signed
d an agreement for th
he construcction of a ccentralised
d repositoryy
for spent nuclear fuel at the
e Chernobyyl nuclear p
power statiion. Completion of th
he facility iss
uled for the
e end of 2017.
2
The
e facility w
will hold up
p to 17,000
0 spent nuclear fuel
schedu
elemen
nts from thrree nuclea
ar power sttations: Khmelnitski, Rovno and
d South Ukkraine. The
e
Khmeln
nitski nucle
ear station
n has two commerciially opera
ational reacctors and two underr
constru
uction. Rovno has four reactors and South Ukkraine thre
ee. Ukrain
ne’s fourth
h
comme
ercial nucle
ear station
n, the six--unit Zaporozhye, ha
as its own
n spent fu
uel storage
e
facility, commissio
oned in 2001.

Russ
sia and Others::
Russiia-Argenttina
The prresidents of Russia and Argentina sig
gned on 1
12 July 20
014 agree
ements forr
coopera
ation in peaceful
p
usse of nucclear energ
gy and an
nnounced the signin
ng of veryy
importa
ant agreem
ments in th
he nuclear area for power ge
eneration. She said it was an
n
"excelle
ent working
g meeting"". Putin de
escribed ass "strategicc" relationsship between the two
o
countrie
es and thanked "the o
opportunityy to discuss the strate
egy of mutual interesst"

Russiia - Austrralia
In Nove
ember 201
10, Australia’s prime minister Ju
ulia Gillard
d and Russsian presid
dent Dmitryy
Medved
dev signed
d an agreem
ment to supply of ura
anium for R
Russian rea
actors.

Russia – Bulg
garia
Bulgaria’s NEK - National E
Electric Com
mpany and
d Russia’s Atomstroyexport havve signed a
contracct for desig
gn, constru
uction and commissiioning of B
Belene nucclear powe
er station’ss
units (2
2x 1000 MW
W – VVER). Subconttractor ‘CAR
RSIB’ (Are
eva NP-Sie
emens Consortium forr
Belene) will supply electricc systemss and instrrumentatio
on and control (I&C systems).
Bulgaria also maintains a ccontract (in
n the amou
unt of 2.6 million eurros) for site
e selection
n
and de
esign of a near-surfface nation
nal storage
e facility ffor low- an
nd interme
ediate-level
radioacctive waste
es in the co
ountry.

Russiia – China
Russia
a and Ch
hina have
e signed a cooperration agrreement ffor constrruction off
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800-M
MW demo
onstration
n fast breeder rreactors, which a
also inclu
udes the
e
constrruction off Beloyarssk-4 reacctors in Russia
R
and
d Tianwa
an units 3 and 4 in
n
China. Previou
us agreem
ments co
ontemplatted the cconstruction of Tiianwan 1
modules o
of a uran
nium enriichment plant
p
and
d an experimental
and 2, three m
actor - CE
EFR
fast brreeder rea
Russia – Egyp
pt
Sergei Kiriyenko, director ge
eneral of R
ROSATOM
M said that the nuclea
ar energy cooperation
c
n
agreem
ment, signe
ed with Egypt is focu
used mainlly on uranium prospecting and
d mining in
n
that cou
untry. Othe
er work gro
oups will be
e set up forr the construction of n
nuclear pow
wer plants,
and tra
aining of sp
pecialized p
personnel in nuclear operation and regula
atory activiities will be
e
provide
ed. Egypt has
h 2 resea
arch reacto
ors.

Russia – India
India ha
as signed a contract with TVEL
L, Russian manufactu
urer of nucllear fuel. T
The fuel will
go to a number off Indian nuclear powe
er plants, th
his being th
he first sup
pply contra
act after the
e
lifting o
of the banss imposed by the Nu
uclear Supplier Group (NSG) w
which preva
ailed up to
o
2008. A
Also, anoth
her signed agreemen
nt providess for the su
upply of 4 a
additional reactors in
n
the Kud
dankulam area, whe
ere an insta
alled plantt already exists.
e
The agreemen
nt expandss
the exiisting coop
peration in
n the area
a of fuels,, and nucclear techn
nology, services and
d
researcch.

Russiia – Iran
Atomen
nergoproekkt (NIAEP), a subsidiary of the Russian State Comp
pany Atomsstroiexport
and Pro
oduction and Development of N
Nuclear Energy Comp
pany of Ira
an (NPPD) signed an
agreem
ment in Moscow (on 11.11.2014
4) for the cconstructio
on of two n
new reacto
ors nuclear
power plant in Bu
uchehr, witth the posssibility of constructing
c
g two othe
er reactors in sites to
be deffine in futu
ure. In Se
eptember 2013, Iran
n and Ru
ussia had signed a series off
coopera
ation agre
eements th
hat will allow both countries to establish a new
w strategic
partnerrship.

Russia – Italy
y
An agrreement ha
as been signed
s
for Italian parrticipation in the con
nstruction o
of Russian
n
technollogy 3rd ge
eneration n
nuclear rea
actors and in the stud
dy, design and constrruction of a
prototype 4th gen
neration rea
actor. Such
h deal will h
help Italy trrain specia
alized manp
power.

Russiia – Japa
an
Toshiba
a and Tech
hnabexporrt – Tenex has
h signed
d a comme
ercial coope
eration agrreement forr
fabricattion and su
upply of pro
oducts and
d services rrelating to tthe nuclea
ar fuel cycle
e, including
g
uranium
m enrichment. One of the agrreement’s major objjectives is to ensure
e a stable,
secure supply off nuclear p
products and service
es. In the wake
w
of th
his deal, a long-term
m
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supply agreemen
nt was sign
ned whereb
by compan
ny Chubu Electric
E
will receive n
nuclear fuel
for 10 yyears. At p
present, Te
enex supplies around
d 15% of Ja
apan’s dem
mand for nuclear
n
fuel
and the
e agreemen
nt just sign
ned is expe
ected to inccrease this business.

Russia – Jord
dan
Russia and Jord
dan have signed an
n intergove
ernmental agreemen
nt, with a 10 years’
duration, for coop
peration in the peace
eful use of nuclear en
nergy, cove
ering a wid
de range off
activitie
es, such as
a engine
eering and
d construcction, fabrication of componen
nts, safetyy
studiess, radiation protection
n and contrrol, desalination, uran
nium mining, servicess, research
h
among others.

Russiia – Netherlands
Russian Rosatom
m and Dutch Royal Ph
hilips Electtronics sign
ned in June
e 2011 an agreementt
under which
w
imag
ging medica
al equipme
ent for canccer diagnosis will be manufactu
ured.

Russia – Nige
eria
Russian governm
ment-owne
ed Rosato
om have signed a memorrandum o
on nuclearr
ation with Nigeria’s regulator to promote
e the peacceful use of nuclearr energy in
n
coopera
Nigeria
a.

Russiia – Oma
an
Russia and Oma
an have sig
gned an in
ntergovernmental agreement fo
or coopera
ation in the
e
peacefu
ul use off nuclear energy with
w
emph
hasis on infrastructures, rese
earch and
d
develop
pment, as well as co
onstruction and opera
ation of nu
uclear powe
er plants. Agreement
A
t
related work will be
b under th
he responssibility of Ru
ussian statte-owned R
ROSATOM
M.

udi Arabiian
Russian - Sau
Russian and Sa
audi Arabia
an officialss have ap
pproved th
he draft o
of an agre
eement on
n
ation in nuclear energ
gy, Rosato
om announced in a sttatement Ju
une 18, 20
014. Atomicc
coopera
and Re
enewable E
Energy is developing
g and impllementing Saudi Ara
abia's nucle
ear energyy
develop
pment prog
gram. The country iss considering constru
uction of as many ass 16 powerr
reactorrs as part o
of the progrram, Saudii officials have said.

Russia – Slov
vakia
Russian compan
ny TVEL h
has signed
d a long-te
erm nuclea
ar fuel supply contrract with a
compan
ny Slovensské Elektrá
árne, plantt owner an
nd operato
or, to supply fuel for Mochovce
e
units 3 and 4 (VV
VER-440). Contract a
activities co
overing 5 re
eloads and
d associate
ed servicess
anned to sstart by 20
012, when the plantss are sche
eduled to come
c
into operation.
are pla
Italian E
ENEL is the owner’s majority pa
artner.

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Russia South Africa
eptember 22, 2014 South Affrica and Russia signed a sstrategic p
partnership
p
On Se
agreem
ment on nuclear energ
gy collaboration, acccording to R
Russian state nuclea
ar companyy
Rosato
om, but an official in the South African nu
uclear prog
gram emph
hasized that Russian
n
technollogy was only one of the op
ptions bein
ng conside
ered. The agreemen
nt lays the
e
foundattion for larg
ge scale nuclear pow
wer plant procuremen
nt and deve
elopment program
p
byy
South A
Africa base
ed on the cconstructio
on in South
h Africa of Russian V
VVER reacctors with a
total insstalled cap
pacity of up
p to 9.6 GW
W (up to eig
ght nuclearr Units).

Russia – UAE (Emirattes)
The ag
greement with
w
Russia is to sh
hare techn
nology, equipment a
and nuclea
ar material.
Under tthe agreem
ment Russia will lega
ally be able
e to supply uranium a
as well as cconversion
n
and en
nrichment sservices to
o the UAE. The agre
eement allo
ows coope
eration in a
all fields off
nuclearr power, from ura
anium min
ning, fuel fabrication, equipm
ment and research,
constru
uction of nu
uclear power plants – the whole
e cycle of civil nuclearr power”.

Russia – Thaiiland
The Ru
ussian statte-owned R
Rosatom a
and the Insstitute of N
Nuclear Tecchnology of
o Thailand
d
signed during the
e 58th Con
nference off the IAEA
A in Septem
mber 2014
4, a memorrandum on
n
the use
e of atom
mic energyy for peacceful purpo
oses. The parties a
also plan tto develop
p
coopera
ation in the
e field of fu
undamenta
al and appllied studiess, radioisotopes, nucclear safetyy
on of scie
and nu
uclear wasste treatm
ment, educcation and preparatio
entific and
d technical
personnel service
es.

Russia – Turk
key
Russia (Russian Technical Superviso
ory Authority - Rostecchnadzor) and Turke
ey (Turkish
h
Atomic Energy A
Agency -TA
AEK) have
e signed a coopera
ation agree
ement con
ntemplating
g
transfer of know-h
how and in
nformation in nuclear licensing, radiation p
protection a
and qualityy
manage
ement.

nam
Russiia – Vietn
n intergove
ernmental agreemen
nt was sig
gned with Russia, for
f nuclearr
In Mayy 2010 an
coopera
ation in arreas such as siting, design, cconstruction
n and ope
eration of power
p
and
d
researcch nuclea
ar reactorrs, water desalination plantts, and elementarry particle
e
accelerrators. Other areas covered inccluded fuel supply and wastes – Russia w
will manage
e
wastes and decom
mmissionin
ng.

Russia – UAE (Emirattes)
The ag
greement with
w
Russia is to sh
hare techn
nology, equipment a
and nuclea
ar material.
Under tthe agreem
ment Russia will lega
ally be able
e to supply uranium a
as well as cconversion
n
and en
nrichment sservices to
o the UAE. The agre
eement allo
ows coope
eration in a
all fields off
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nuclearr power, from ura
anium min
ning, fuel fabrication, equipm
ment and research,
constru
uction of nu
uclear power plants – the whole
e cycle of civil nuclearr power”.

Russia – Ukra
aine
1- Russsia and Ukraine sign
ned an inte
ergovernm
mental agre
eement inte
ended to rresume the
e
construction o
of Ukraine’ss two reacctors at Kh
hmelnitsky. The agree
ement wass signed in
n
Kievv by the minister
m
off energy a
and fuel, Y
Yuri Boyko and the
e director general off
Russsia’s Rosatom, Serrgei Kiriyenko and iincludes financing, d
design, co
onstruction,
com
mmissioning
g, servicess and supply for Khme
elnitsky sta
ation’s units 3 and 4.
2- Russsian TVEL
L and Ukra
ainian Nucle
ear Fuel ha
ave signed
d an agreement for co
onstruction
n
of a plant to m
manufacturre nuclear fuel assem
mblies for VVER-1000
V
0 reactors in Ukraine
e
(TV
VEL will asssist in proje
ect financin
ng).

ed Kingd
dom
Russiia – Unite
Throug
gh directorr Sergei K
Kiriyenko, Rosatom signed a nuclear energy cooperation
c
n
agreem
ment with B
British comp
pany Rolls-Royce.

Russiia – Unite
ed States
s
Russia’s nuclearr fuel pro
oducer TE
ENEX-Tech
hsnabexpo
ort has announced the U.S.
Departm
ment of C
Commerce’s approva
al of the d
deal to sup
pply enrich
hed uraniu
um for the
e
Conste
ellation Ene
ergy Nuclea
ar Group, in the perio
od 2015 - 2025. Thiss is Tenex’s sixth fuel
supply agreement on the Am
merican nu
uclear electtricity gene
eration marrket. The others
o
were
e
with Exelon
E
and
d Fuelco (that reprresents Pa
acific Ene
ergy Fuelss, Union Electric
E
orr
Ameren
nUE) and L
Luminant.

Kaza
akhstan
n and otthers
Kazakh
hstan has no nuclear power plant, but it is the world’s largesst uranium
m producer,
ahead of Canada
a and Austtralia, since
e Decembe
er 2009. K
Kazatompro
om - nation
nal nuclearr
ation has 2
21 mines in
n operation
n in Kazakkhstan and will be strrategically involved in
n
corpora
the con
nstruction o
of nuclear power pla
ants in Chiina as a m
means to d
diversify itss business,
currenttly dominatted by mining.
greement signed witth China Guangdon
G
g Nuclearr Power G
Group (CG
GNPG) and
d
The ag
China N
National N
Nuclear Corrp (CNNC)), will set u
up a company with Kazatompro
K
om holding
g
51%, which
w
will b
build plantss in China and develop uranium
m mines o
on Kazakhsstan’s Irko
ol
depositt in the Kyzylordinska
aya region
n, whose annual prod
duction cap
pacity is esstimated att
750 ton
ns of U3O
O8; on Sem
mizbay dep
posits in A
Akmolinskayya (annual productio
on capacityy
estimatted at 500
0 tons of U3O8) and on Zhalp
pak deposits, annual productio
on capacityy
estimatted at 750
0 tons of U3O8. The agreements conte
emplate th
he supply of natural
uranium
m to China for 10 yea
ars.
ments have also been signed witth Canada (companyy Cameco) for accesss
Similarly, agreem
6 conversion techno
ology (uranium hexa
afluoride) through a legal entity, ULBA
A
to UF6
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Converrsion LLP, to be built in Kazakkhstan by Canada and
a
expectted to prod
duce up to
o
12,000 metric ton
ns of UF6.
With Frrance (AREVA) the ssigned agrreements will
w allow n
nuclear fue
el productio
on (nuclearr
fuel asssemblies) iin the same plant of U
ULBA, with
h the fabriccation of up
p to 1,200 metric
m
tonss
of fuel rods and assembliess, with eng
gineering a
and techno
ology deve
eloped by AREVA.
A
In
n
addition
n, a coope
eration agrreement h
has also be
een signed
d with Bellgium for experience
e
e
exchan
nge in the cconduct of a civil nucllear progra
am.
A supp
ply agreem
ment was signed in M
March 2010
0 where Ja
apan expects to ensure steadyy
supply of nuclear fuel for its nuclear plants. Unde
er another agreement in Septem
mber 2010,
es signed a memorandum o
of understa
anding witth Kazakh
h
three JJapanese companie
Nationa
al Nuclear Centre, fo
or a feasib
bility study on the construction of Kazakh
hstan’s firstt
nuclearr plant.

Cana
ada and Others
Canad
da – India
a
Canada
a, through
h companyy CAMEC
CO has se
et up a b
business O
Office in tthe city off
Hydera
abad, for tthe purposse of sup
pporting an
nd developing the company’ss businesss
opportu
unities on the Indian
n nuclear ffuel markett and reprresent the company before the
e
Indian government. Canad
da and Ind
dia have co
oncluded a
administrattive arrang
gements to
o
ment the n
nuclear co
ooperation agreeme
ent the tw
wo countrie
es signed in 2010,
implem
Canadiian Prime Minister S
Stephen H
Harper said
d in a sta
atement on
n his officiial website
e
Novem
mber 6, follo
owing talks in New De
elhi with Indian Prime
e Minister Manmohan
M
n Singh.
uclear coo
operation a
agreementt will allow
w Canadia
an firms to
o export a
and importt
The nu
controllled nuclear material equipment
e
t and techn
nology to and
a from In
ndia to facillities underr
safegua
ards applie
ed by the IAEA. - “India represents a huge business oppo
ortunity forr
Camecco and the entire Can
nadian nucclear energ
gy industryy,” Cameco
o Presidentt and CEO
O
Tim Gittzel said in
n Cameco’s stateme
ent. “The a
ability to su
upply Cana
adian uranium to thiss
rapidly expanding
g market w
will mean m
more jobs, more inve
estment and more de
evelopmentt
e
Ind
dia to meet its growing
g electricityy needs wiith a clean,
here in Canada. It will also enable
gy source,”” he said.
carbon--free energ

Canad
da – Vietnam
Vietnam
mese company Atom
mic Energyy Institute h
has signed
d an agree
ement with
h Canadian
n
NWT U
Uranium C
Corporation
n – Toronto intende
ed to asse
ess the re
egion’s physical and
d
econom
mic potentia
al in uraniu
um ore dep
posits, and assist in developing
d
the countrry’s nuclearr
industryy.

Canad
da – Aus
stralia
Australia-based m
mining com
mpany BHP
P Billiton ha
as signed a
an agreeme
ent to sell iits Yeelirrie
e
uranium
m depositt in Wesstern Austtralia to Canadian uranium producerr Cameco
o
Corpora
ation. It is one of Au
ustralia’s la
argest unde
eveloped u
uranium de
eposits. Th
he estimate
e
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indicate
es that Yee
elirrie hostss measure
ed and indicated mine
eral resourrces of app
proximatelyy
139 milllion pound
ds of U3O8.

Canad
da – Unitted Arab Emirates
Canada
a has sign
ned a nucle
ear cooperration agre
eement witth the Unitted Arab E
Emirates to
o
provide
e equipmen
nt, services and uran
nium, the Canadian Ministry off Foreign A
Affairs hass
announ
nced. Canada’s fore
eign minister John Baird said
d that the
e agreeme
ent “allowss
Canadiian compa
anies to offfer the fulll range off their equ
uipment, se
ervices an
nd uranium
m
supply to the UAE
E’s civilian nuclear ma
arket”.

Chin
na and o
others
China
a – Argen
ntina
1 - Sig
gned in June 2012 agreement
a
between China (Prime Ministter Wen Jiiabao) and
d
Argentiina (Presid
dent Cristtina Kirchn
ner) includ
ding exten
nsive coop
peration o
on nuclearr
energy.
2 - In S
September 2012 the Argentine
A
P
Planning Minister
M
De Vido signe
ed a new ccooperation
n
agreem
ment which
h aims to transfer technologyy to deve
eloping rea
actors with
h enriched
d
uranium
m for use in
n nuclear p
power plantts near the
e country.
3- Chin
na and Arg
gentina sig
gned agree
ements Ju
uly 18, 201
14 relating to constru
uction of a
PHWR unit in Arg
gentina. Ch
hina Nation
nal Nuclea
ar Corp., orr CNNC, will
w be resp
ponsible forr
assistin
ng Nucleoe
electrica by
b providin
ng Chinesse goods and servicces under long-term
m
financin
ng.

China
a – Belgiu
um
The priime ministe
ers of Belg
gium (Yvess Leterme) and China
a (Wen Jia
abao) have
e signed an
n
ment defining details for the co
onstruction
n of a pilo
ot plant forr productio
on of MOX
X
agreem
(mixed uranium o
oxide and p
plutonium ffuel) to be used on Chinese
C
plants. The agreementt
also co
ontemplatess technolog
gy transferr, technicall assistance and participation in
n Belgium’ss
MYRRH
HA Projectt (Multipurp
pose Hybrid
d Research
h Reactor ffor High-te
ech Applica
ations).

China
a – Canad
da
1- Agre
eement for development of adva
anced fuel design sig
gned betwe
een Atomicc Energy off
Canada
a Ltd (AECL), Third
d Qinshan Nuclear Power
P
Com
mpany (TQ
QNPC), Ch
hina North
h
Nuclear Fuel Corrporation a
and Nuclea
ar Power In
nstitute of China for use of the spent fuel
ANDU rea
actors in Ca
anada and
d in China. The agree
ement also
o
from China’s reacctors on CA
es the use o
of thorium as a fuel.
include
2- CAM
MECO (Canadian ura
anium giant) has sign
ned a supp
ply agreem
ment with C
Chinnuclearr
energy Industry C
Corporation
n (CNEIC) for around
d 10 tonne
es of uraniu
um concen
ntrate up to
o
2020. T
The compa
any is also negotiating
g a long-du
uration agrreement wiith China Guangdong
G
g
Nuclear Power (C
CGNP)
3- CAM
MECO sign
ned a long
g-duration supply agreement w
with China Guangdon
ng Nuclearr
Power Holding C
Co (CGNP
PC). The deal
d
will e
ensure sup
pply for the Chinese
e companyy
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whose nuclear fle
eet is growiing at a ste
eady pace.

China
a – Franc
ce
1- Agre
eement bettween ARE
EVA (45%) and Chin
na Guando
ong Nuclea
ar Power C
Company –

CGNPC
C (55%) fo
or setting u
up a joint vventure inte
ended to ccompete an
nywhere in
n the world
d
for nucclear consstruction projects by offering French (E
EPR) and Chinese ((CPR1000))
reactorr models.
2- Another agree
ement has to do with
h UraMin, a compan
ny owned by AREVA
A to which
h
Chinese investorss would alllocate cap
pital, ensurring an inte
erest of 49
9% in the company’ss
hinese acccess to Ura
aMin produ
uced uranium. In thiis process,
equity, and subsequent Ch
n will hold a captive
e market in
n China, w
where as France, guaranteed return on
n
UraMin
investm
ments.
hird agree
ement, in N
November 2010, concerns a contract fo
or 3.5 billion dollarss
3- A th
coverin
ng a 10 ye
ears’ supply of 20,00
00 metric tonnes of uranium ffor China Guandong
g
Nuclear Power Co
ompany.
er the fourrth agreement, AREV
VA and Chiina Nationa
al Nuclear Corp.- CN
NNC set up
p
4- Unde
a joint venture (C
CAST) for p
production and marketing of zirrconium tubes for fab
brication off
as early as 2012.
fuel asssemblies a
5- The fifth agreement dealss with indu
ustrial coop
peration in the field off spent-fue
el treatmentt
and reccycling.

a – Italia
China
During a visit by Italian Prime Ministe
er Matteo Renzi to C
China in 12
2-13 June, 2014 two
o
ments were
e signed:
agreem
1- China Gene
eral Nuclea
ar Power G
Group, or C
CGN, and Sogin –a italian nucclear-waste
e
prrocessing company have sign
ned a mem
morandum
m of underrstanding o
on nuclearr
waste mana
agement. The two
o groups will
w seek to strengtthen cooperation on
n
en
nvironmenttal remedia
ation of nu
uclear faciliities and sa
afe manag
gement of radioactive
e
ntal decon
waste. CGN
N and Sogiin could co
ooperate iin related environme
e
ntamination
n
nd radioacctive waste managem
ment work in Europe, Italy and China, parrticularly in
n
an
th
he decomm
missioning o
of nuclear ffacilities an
nd the man
nagement o
of radioactive waste.
2- China Natio
onal Nuclear Corp., or CNNC,, and Italia
an electriccity group Enel have
e
emorandum
m of underrstanding tto strength
hen nuclear power co
ooperation,
signed a me
he Chinese
e companyy said in a statementt June 13, 2014. The
e two com
mpanies will
th
be
egin cooperation on
n nuclear plant con
nstruction, plant ope
eration, fu
uel supply,
en
nvironmenttal remedia
ation of nu
uclear faciliities and nuclear wasste management, the
e
sttatement sa
aid. CNNC
C is one of the three m
major nuclear power companies in China.
En
nel is the ssecond-larg
gest utility in Europe by market capitalization.

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China
a – Pakisttan
Signed in Augustt 2013 con
ntract for supplying tw
wo new fo
or the Kara
achi Coasttal Nuclearr
Power Project in Pakistan
P
w
which comp
prising two ACP1000 units

China
a – Roma
ania
mber 2013 - Romania
a’s Nuclearrelectrica a
and China General Nuclear
N
Power Group
p
Decem
signed an agreem
ment in No
ovember th
hat could lead to the
e constructtion of two
o additional
Candu units at the
e Cernavoda plant, a
although no
o details on
n the agree
ement were
e provided

China
a – Saudi Arabia
eal, signed on 15 Jan
nuary 2012
2, sets a le
egal framew
work that sstrengthenss scientific,
The de
technollogical and
d economicc cooperation betwee
en Riyadh a
and Beijing
g, accordin
ng to a jointt
stateme
ent. It callss for coope
eration in a
areas such as the ma
aintenance
e and deve
elopment off
nuclearr power plants and research reactors,
r
m
manufactur
ring and su
upply of nuclear fuel
elemen
nts.

China
a – South
h Africa
arch 2009, China and
d South Afrrica signed
d a coopera
ation agree
ement conccerning the
e
1-In Ma
develop
pment of high temp
perature re
eactors, fo
or which both coun
ntries have
e research
h
projectss in progre
ess. Particcipants in the agreem
ment inclu
ude South Africa’s P
Pebble Bed
d
Modula
ar Reactor Ltd (PBMR
R), Tsinghu
ua Universsity’s Institu
ute of Nucllear and New Energyy
Techno
ology (INET
T), and China’s Technology Com
mpany Chinergy Ltd.
2- Chin
na and South Africa have sign
ned an inte
ergovernme
ental frame
ework agre
eement on
n
Novem
mber 7Th, 2
2014 to dee
epen nucle
ear cooperration that paves the way for po
ossible use
e
of Chin
nese nucle
ear techno
ology in South Africa
a. In this new agre
eement the
e countriess
initiate the prepa
aratory pha
ase for a p
possible utiilization of Chinese nuclear
n
tecchnology in
n
South A
Africa.

China
a – Taiwa
an
A coop
peration ag
greement h
has been ssigned for exchange of nuclear experience in such
h
areas as
a radiatio
on monitorring, emerg
gency responses an
nd operatio
on of nucllear powerr
plants. Since Taiw
wan holds no membe
ership in th
he UNO, inspections by the IAE
EA are veryy
limited.

Fran
nce and others
Franc
ce – Braz
zil
1- Fran
nce, throug
gh AREVA
A, has signe
ed with Brrazil a mem
morandum of understanding on
n
industriial coopera
ation aimed at expan
nding Brazzil’s fleet off nuclear power
p
plan
nts and the
e
fabricattion of nuclear fuel fo
or new plan
nts to be bu
uilt.
The foccus will be
e on the nuclear pro
ogram’s ma
ajor compo
onents, succh as adm
ministrative,
legal, and
a
contra
actual fram
mework; te
echnical e
excellence;; and fina
ancial and economicc
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aspectss, besidess information exchan
nge on th
he nuclearr fuel cycle; procure
ement and
d
supplie
er managem
ment; nucle
ear power plant construction, co
ommissioning and op
peration.
2- Fren
nch group GDF Suezz and Brazzilian comp
panies Elettrobras and
d Eletronu
uclear have
e
signed an agreem
ment for co
ooperation in the nuclear area. S
Such coop
peration "prrotocol” will
of informattion and exxperience"" in the nu
uclear field.
be bassically focused on "exchange o
According to Sue
ez, efforts will also b
be centered
d on such issues as nuclear p
power plantt
operatio
on, techno
ology, owne
ership arra
angementss, constructtion site se
election pro
ocess, and
d
develop
pment of human reso
ources.

Franc
ce – Chile
e
In Febrruary 2011 a nuclearr cooperatio
on agreem
ment was siigned betw
ween Chile (Comision
n
Chilena
a de Energ
gía Nuclearr - CCHEN
N) and Fran
nce (Comm
missariat à l'énergie atomique
a
et
aux én
nergies alte
ernatives - CEA) focu
used on nuclear training for Chilean
C
scie
entists and
d
professsionals including design, constru
uction and operation of nuclear power plants.

Franc
ce – Cong
go
A France, through AREVA, has signe
ed an agre
eement with Congo ffor uranium
m mining in
n
that cou
untry.

Franc
ce – Czec
ch Repub
blica
A
and
d several Czech ccompanies signed in Prague
e
1- The French supplier Areva
peration ag
greement as part o
of the qualification o
of the French supplier for the
e
coop
consstruction off future EPR reactors, including reactor Czzech Teme
elin planned
d-3 and -4.
The Czech com
mpanies a
are ABB, Abegu,
A
Spo
ol Arako, B
Baest Mach
hines and Structures,
Exco
a Blansko
on Steel, I & C Energo, Kralovopolska RIA, Man
ndik, Metra
o, Modranyy
Enerrgy, Schne
eider Electtric CZ, Sigma Grou
up, and Vitkovice M
Machinery G
Group and
d
ZVV
VZ Engineering.
2- Czecch power utility (CEZ
Z) and AR
REVA signed a majo
or 15-year uranium e
enrichmentt
services contra
act for the T
Temelin nu
uclear power plant (units 1 and 2).

Franc
ce – India
a
A France, throug
gh AREVA,, signed w
with India - Nuclear P
Power Corrporation of
o India Ltd
d
(NPCIL
L) a long-duration contract for supply
s
of n
nuclear fue
el destined
d for plantss operating
g
under IAEA’s control. The agreemen
nt also inccludes the
e possibilityy of develloping and
d
supplying India w
with new EP
PR reactorss and the a
associated fuel.
posal to su
upply 2 EPR 1600M
MW reacto
ors for the
e Jaitapur site in the
e State off
A prop
Mahara
ashtra, sou
uth of Mum
mbai, was submitted to
o the NPCIL in July 2009,
2
the ccoming into
o
operatio
on of the u
units being planned fo
or 2017 and
d 2018, resspectively.
allel, AREV
VA has sttarted stra
ategic nego
otiations o
on two dea
als: one with
w
Indian
n
In para
compan
ny Bharat Forge to ccreate a join
nt venture for a forge
ed parts ma
anufacturin
ng plant in
n
India; a
and the otther, with engineerin
ng compan
ny TCE Co
onsulting E
Engineers Limited, a
subsidiary of Tata
a Sons Ltd., for supply of genera
al engineering services in India.
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Franc
ce – Japa
an
1- ARE
EVA has ssigned an agreemen
nt to supp
ply mixed o
oxide fuel – MOX ((uranium +
Plutonium) for Jap
panese Sh
himane plan
nt owned b
by company Chugoku
u Electric Power
P
Co.
2- Mitsubishi Nucclear Fuel Co and AREVA esta
ablished a company in the United Statess
N
Fuel) to prod
duce fuel fo
or advance
ed advancced pressurized wate
er reactors,
(U.S. Nuclear
which M
Mitsubishi Heavy Ind
dustries is planning to
o supply fo
or the U.S.. market th
his decade.
The new company will be lo
ocated in AREVA’s pla
ant in Rich
hland, Washington Sta
ate.
m
3-Frencch and Japanese companiess have signed agrreements that will see them
ating on the rehab
coopera
bilitation o
of the Fukkushima n
nuclear sitte and the start off
comme
ercial opera
ations at th
he Rokkash
ho used fue
el reprocesssing facilitty.

Franc
ce – Kuwa
ait
Kuwait’’s sovereig
gn wealth fund
f
and F
France’s governmentt will invesst in AREV
VA’s capital
increasse. The Ku
uwait Invesstment Autthority (KIA
A) offered 600 millio
on euros fo
or 4.8% off
AREVA
A’s shares and the French econ
nomy minisster said th
hat France
e will offer 3
300 million
n
euros.

Franc
ce – Moro
occo
gned a cooperation
c
n agreement with Morocco contemplating civil
France has sig
pment of n
nuclear ene
ergy for pea
aceful purp
poses. Morrocco has no energy sources in
n
develop
its territtory other tthan uraniu
um ore min
nerals.

Franc
ce – Poland
In Octtober, 201
12 French
h compan
nies Areva
a and ED
DF have signed a tripartite
e
memorrandum of understan
nding with Polish ene
ergy engineering com
mpany Ene
ergoprojektt
as part of efforts tto develop Poland’s ccivilian nucclear powerr program.

Franc
ce – Russ
sia
In June
e 2010 com
mpanies Ed
dF and Ro
osatom signed an agreement fo
or coopera
ation in fuel
researcch and devvelopment, and nucle
ear power plant construction an
nd operatio
on, besidess
personnel training
g and exch
hange of exxperiences.

Franc
ce – Spain
AREVA
A signed a
an agreement to take
e effect in 2010 to ssupply nucclear fuel for
f Spain’ss
Trillo nuclear pow
wer plant llocated in the State of Guadallajara. Th
he agreeme
ent, with 6
years’ d
duration, covers a nu
umber of diffferent servvices.

Franc
ce – UAE
The Em
mirates Nu
uclear Enerrgy Corporration (ENEC) has a
awarded a contract w
worth more
e
than 40
00 million euros
e
(490
0 million US dollars) to Areva, to supply enriched u
uranium forr
the firstt power sta
ation underr constructiion in the United
U
Arab
b Emiratess (UAE).
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Europ
pe – Bulg
garia
Westing
ghouse Eu
urope (now
w owned byy Japanese
e Toshiba) and Bulga
aria’s Enerrgy Holding
g
EAD (B
BEH) have
e signed an
n agreeme
ent for civill nuclear ccooperation
n, including
g technical
supportt for plants in operation, life
etime extension, insstrumentatio
on and control and
d
decomm
missioning
g.

Swed
den – Ara
ab Emira
ates
Swedissh company Alfa Lava
al has been awarded
d a contracct to supplyy heat exch
hangers forr
Arab Emirates’ nu
uclear pow
wer plant at Brakka. Th
he contracct amount iss 9.5 millio
on dollars.

Jorda
an - Argentina
Argentiina and Jorrdan have signed an intergoverrnmental ag
greement for
f coopera
ation in the
e
peacefu
ul use of nuclear en
nergy, covvering rese
earch activvities and nuclear ap
pplications,
producttion of radiioisotopes,, mineral e
exploration,, construction and op
peration of power and
d
researcch reactorss, fabricatio
on of components and
d processin
ng of nucle
ear wastes.

Jorda
an – Japa
an
Japan and Jorda
an have ssigned a ccooperatio
on agreem
ment with a 5 yearss’ duration,
by Japan w
will provide Jordan witth support in develop
ping the pe
eaceful use
e of nuclearr
whereb
energy. Technolo
ogy, training
g programs and infra
astructuress are amon
ng the majo
or points off
the agrreement.

Jorda
an – Soutth Korea
a
A conssortium led
d by South Korea thrrough the Korea Ato
omic Energ
gy Researcch Institute
e
(KAERI), has bee
en awarde
ed a contra
act to build
d a 5 MW research reactor in Jordan. A
radioiso
otope plantt and anne
exes will be
e set up in connection
n with the contract
c
ovver the nextt
five yea
ars.

Jorda
an – Turk
key
A nucle
ear cooperation agre
eement ha
as been siigned Jord
dan and T
Turkey covering such
h
areas a
as nuclearr power pla
ant operation, servicces, fuel su
upply, uran
nium explo
oration and
d
radiatio
on protectio
on. Jordan has signed
d a similar agreemen
nt with 11 o
other nation
ns.

Jorda
an – Unitted Kingdom
Britain’ss foreign ssecretary D
David Milib
band has signed
s
a nuclear
n
coo
operation agreementt
with Jordan (Na
asser Jud
deh). Dura
ante the event, the
e secretary comme
ended the
e
arent positiion of Jord
dan with resspect to nu
uclear energy and re
eiterated hiss country’ss
transpa
committment to the developm
ment of civvil nuclear p
programs in Arab cou
untries.

Argen
ntina – Brasil
On Jan
nuary31, 2
2011 Argen
ntina and Brazil, thro
ough its re
egulatory a
agencies C
CNEA and
d
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CNEN signed co
ooperation agreement for the developm
ment of multipurpose
e research
h
reactorrs RA-10 an
nd RMB.

Argen
ntina – Ca
anada
1-Argen
ntina and Canada have sig
gned an agreementt for expanding th
he existing
g
ation arran
coopera
ngements concernin
ng the CANDU-6 rea
actor and developm
ment of the
e
Advancced Candu Reactor (A
ACR-1000). A simila
ar agreeme
ent exists w
with China.
2- Contracts have
e been sig
gned betwe
een Nucleo
oelectrica a
and SNC-L
Lavalin forr extending
g
Embalsse plant’s u
useful life by 30 yearrs. Techno
ology transfer, industrrial development and
d
plant’s power upg
grade are a
also contem
mplated.

Argen
ntina – Sa
audi Arabia
Argentina, through
h its Ministter Julio de
e Vido, and
d Saudi Arrabia have signed a ccooperation
n
ment for the
e constructiion and operation of rresearch and electricity generation nuclearr
agreem
reactorss. The agre
eement contemplatess such activvities as sa
afety, respo
onse to em
mergencies,
waste m
management and trea
atment, and
d use of nu
uclear techn
nology in in
ndustry, me
edicine and
d
agriculture.

Argen
ntina – So
outh Korrea
Argentiina, throug
gh its Minister Juliio de Vid
do, signed
d on Septtember 16
6, 2010 a
memorrandum of cooperatio
c
on with Sou
uth Korea (Minister off Economy Choi Kyou
ung-hwan),
aimed at
a new nucclear projeccts and exttending the
e existing p
plants’ lifetime.

Argen
ntina - Tu
urkey
Argentiina’s National Atomicc Energy Commission
n - CNEA a
and Turkeyy’s counterp
part TAEK,
signed an agreem
ment (January 2011) ffor nuclearr cooperation. TAEK’s interest is domesticc
producttion of ra
adioisotope
es and th
he Argentiinean dessigned nucclear pow
wer reactorr
(CAREM).

Brazill – Europ
pean Un
nion
The Brrazilian go
overnment closed a
an agreem
ment with the Europ
pean Atom
mic Energyy
Commu
unity (EUR
RATOM) fo
or research in the a
area of nuclear fusio
on which will
w include
e
exchan
nge of scie
entific and technical information
n, exchang
ge of scien
ntists and engineers,
organizzation of se
eminars an
nd conduct of studies and projeccts.

Brazill – Germ
many
The Ge
erman Bun
ndestag - C
Chamber of
o Deputiess of Germa
any, decide
ed on 06.11.2014, byy
the con
ntinuation o
of the coop
peration ag
greement w
with Brazil in the are
ea of nucle
ear energy.
The ag
greement, ssigned in 1975,
1
is au
utomaticallyy renewed every five
e years if n
none of the
e
countrie
es involved
d is oppossed positio
on at least one year prior to th
he date of renovation
n
(2015).

South
h Korea – Czech Republiic
South Korea’s ccompany D
Doosan He
eavy Indu
ustries & C
Constructio
on has infformed an
n
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agreem
ment has be
een signed
d to buy Czzech heavyy equipmen
nt manufaccturer SKODA Power,
a deal which
w
will give
g
it the rights on Skoda’s
S
ste
eam turbine
e technolog
gy. The ag
greement iss
estimatted at 45
50 million euros an
nd will en
nable Doo
osan to e
expand itss businesss
opportu
unities and thereby be
ecome a fu
ull-fledged power plan
nt equipme
ent supplier.

South
h Korea – Egypt
Egypt has forma
ally requessted assisttance from
m South K
Korea to trrain technicians and
d
enginee
ers in the
e nuclear area, acccording to
o the Interrnational C
Cooperatio
on Agencyy
(KOICA
A), and activities are expected tto begin stiill this yearr. This agency is expe
erienced in
n
techniccal training activities, having already worrked jointlyy with the IAEA in trraining 400
0
nuclearr engineerss from Viettnam, Indon
nesia and Nigeria.

Japan
n – Italy
y
Westing
ghouse ha
as agreed to buy Ma
angiarotti, an Italian pressure vessel ma
anufacturerr
that ma
akes dozen
ns of key ccomponentts for the ccompany's AP1000 re
eactor. The
e purchase
e
will allo
ow Westing
ghouse to expand
e
into
o the oil an
nd gas businesses. (2
2014, July)

Japan
n – Polan
nd
An agreement ha
as been sig
gned betw
ween comp
panies GE Hitachi Nu
uclear Ene
ergy (GEH))
and En
nergoprojekkt Warszaw
wa, S.A. (E
EW) to join
ntly assesss the possib
bility of a p
partnership
p
in deve
elopment o
of new nu
uclear pow
wer plants, including the proviision of en
ngineering,
constru
uction and erection se
ervices.

Austra
alia – UA
AE
Australia has sign
ned a nucle
ear co-operation agre
eement autthorizing urranium exp
ports to the
e
United Arab Emirates, wherre construcction started
d recently on the seccond of four planned
nuclearr power rea
actors. UAE
E to becom
me Australia's first Mid
ddle Easte
ern export m
market for
uranium
m and is “a
a step forwa
ard” for the
e UAE’s pla
ans for a do
omestic nu
uclear enerrgy .

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VI – Some Nucleaar Appllication
ns
The nuclear field offers a nu
umber of ap
pplicationss, and just a few are m
mentioned below.
In the medical field, th
he highlights are cconvention
nal radiolo
ogy, mam
mmography,
mography, panoramicc dental rad
diography, digital ang
giography, PET exam
m
computterized tom
(Positro
on Emissio
on Tomogra
aphy), etc.
a radioiso
uticals, wh
hich is a co
ompound containing
c
otope in itss
The usse of radiopharmaceu
structurre and can
n be used in
i both dia
agnosis and
d therapy, warrants special
s
atte
ention. The
e
world’s most exte
ensively ussed radionu
uclide is T
Technetium
m-99, in aro
ound 75% of medical
ations, totalling 50 million proced
dures a yea
ar.
applica
Techne
etium-99m is producced by de
ecay of Mo
olybdenum
m-99. The current prroblems in
n
supply of this ra
adionuclide
e arise fro
om its short useful lifetime, jjust 6 hours, which
h
necesssitates its g
generation near the ce
enter of usse; and also
o from con
nstraints in the supplyy
chain, w
where prod
duction rea
actors around the worrld are old facilities (frrom 40 to 5
53 years off
age), and few.
nt advance
e has been
n made jointly with th
he IAEA in
n
Also in the mediccal field, an importan
e
of n
neutralizing
g one of the worstt vectors of
o disease
e
African countriess, to the effect
transmission.
bjective he
ere was co
ombating the Tsetse fly (transmission ve
ector of the sleeping
g
The ob
sicknesss in hum
mans). The
e technique used in
n the proccess is the
e insect ssterilization
n
techniq
que – SIT, a nuclear technologyy by which
h laboratoryy-sterilized
d male inse
ects are lett
loose in thousan
nds over in
nfested willd areas. W
When sterrilized males breed with fertile
e
ea, these fa
ail to lay eg
ggs, thus ccontributing
g to eradica
ate the targ
get harmful
femaless of the are
speciess. The proccess is wid
dely used against other parasitte insects infesting ffarm crops,
and rep
presents a means to interfere in
n natural se
election thrrough insecct birth con
ntrol.
ations, with
h X-ray insspection of welds be
eing one off
Industrry also has a varietyy of applica
the most applied techniquess. Other usses are the
e irradiation of plasticc materialss (syringes,
gloves, etc.) in th
he pharmaceutical industry for sterilizatio
on, and irra
adiation of plastics to
o
he automottive industrry (fenderss).
increasse their harrdness in th
Around
d one fifth o
of the world
d’s populattion, especcially in Afrrica and Assia, has no
o access to
o
potable
e water, an
nd water cle
eaning an
nd sea watter desalin
nation in su
uch areas is a matterr
of susta
ainability fo
or society. Desalinatiion is enerrgy intensivve and in general
g
use
es fossil orr
nuclearr energy ssources. In
n this case
e, the use nuclear energy
e
offe
ers the advvantage off
avoidin
ng the pollu
utants arisin
ng from oth
her sources.
Ionizing
g radiation is used in
n preserva
ation and restoratio
on of art w
works to exterminate
e
e
such plagues as termites. IIn Brazil, th
he IPEN has
h alreadyy treated p
paintings, xxylographs,
papers and sund
dry pieces infested b
by fungi, bacteria,
b
te
ermites an
nd plant bo
orers. Thiss
technollogy does not
n genera
ate toxic or radioactive
e wastes.
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Archae
eology and
d history u
use irradiatted materia
al (carbon 14) for dating of piecces.
In the a
area of fue
els, beside
es, of coursse, electriciity generattion in plants like thosse in Angra
a
dos Re
eis, Brazil, nuclear energy is used in ship and submarine
e propulsio
on. In thiss
connecction, it is w
worth menttioning the plutonium
m-powered space prob
bes Voyag
ger I and II,
launche
ed in the decade
d
of 1970
1
to rem
main in acttivity for 5 years. Tod
day their syystems are
e
still worrking and transmitting
t
g informatio
on to contrrol centers on earth.

T
TRIGA CNEN
N/CDTN - Be
elo Horizonte
e

uta CNEN/IEN
N Rio de Jan
neiro
Argonau

Food llosses afte
er harvestt or slaug
ghtering as a result of insecct or micrroorganism
m
infestattion is estim
mated to be
e of the ord
der of 25%
% to 50% off everything
g that is prroduced.
Pro
oduct

Irradiated
d Food and Label for the pro
ocess

Without Ionization

With Ionizatio
on

Garrlic
4 months
10 months
1 year
3 year
ricee
15 days
45 days
bannana
1 month
6 month
potaato
2 months
6 months
onioon
6 months
2 years
flouur
5 days
30 days
fish
7 days
31 days
chikken
5 days
18 days
veggetables
7 days
21 days
manngo
1 year
3 year
cornn
3 days
21 days
straawberry
7 days
21 days
pappaya
1 year
3 year
wheeat
Increase (Ave
erage) in lifetime of irradiatted foods

In agric
culture its main use is in food iirradiation, especiallyy fruits and vegetables as a wayy
to keep
p them as recommen
nded by the
e WHO - W
World Healtth Organizzation processes varyy
by type
e of food, but the go
oals are to
o delay the
e ripening ffruits incre
easing their shelf-life,
elimina
ation of various insectts and micrroorganism
ms that cau
use spoilag
ge of; destrroy harmful
bacteria
a and fung
gi, while avo
oiding or re
educing rissks for dise
eases and food
f
poisoning.
The tecchnique iss also used
d in the co
onservation of fertilizzers (peat)) and redu
ucing post-harvestt or post-ha
arvest due
e to infestattion by inse
ects or miccroorganism
ms making
g better the
e
indicato
or of loss in agricultu
ure which is estimated to be around
a
25%
% to 50% of what iss
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produce
ed. Nowad
days, more
e than 50 ccountries ((including B
Brazil regu
ulations in tthis regard
d
since 2
2001) appro
oved the irrradiation p
process for about 60 ffood products.
The ma
ain difficultyy of the pro
ocess is the negative
e marketing
g of irradiatted productts because
e
they ne
eed to havve a warn
ning label on the pa
ackaging to
o inform the consum
mer, which
h
inhibits the purchase becau
use people
e think the food is contaminated
d, when they actuallyy
do no
ot becom
me radioacctive
through
h the u
use of the
techniq
que. Secon
nd difficultty is
investm
ment for an irradia
ation
facility
is
which
high
(approxximately U..S. $ 4 million).
There are few facilities that
e this servvice in Brrazil,
provide
and th
he knowledge of the
techniq
que among
g small farm
mers
is still low. As there are few
gistics costt for
facilitiess, the log
these p
products iss higher, w
which
impactss the final price of go
oods.
The te
echnique is used iin a
limited range of products.
Some Details
D
of G
Gamma Ray
sterilizatio
on
Steriliza
ation by gamma rays
having been don
ne in Braziil for
many
years
and
s
some
examplles are exxecuted byy the
compan
ny whose a
activities are CBE Em
mbrarad ste
erilization:






M
Medical Products and hospital ph
harmacistss, veterinaryy
la
ab accessories, packa
aging,
co
osmetics,
fo
ood,
m
medicinal he
erbs,
an
nimal nutrittion,
de
ental impla
ants,

11- Room p
protected by concrete
e walls 2m in width to prevent th
he escape of
o gamma rays
22- Productts already p
packaged are
a driven by a belt to
o sealed so
ources of cobalt
c
60 w
without
human ccontact.
33- The sea
aled cobalt 60 source
e emits elecctromagnetic waves sshort (gamma rays in
n contact
with miccroorganism
ms, causess unrest an
nd destructtion of DNA
A strands, killing them
m

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Productts already ttreated are
e routed to their final d
destination
n without th
he need forr
quaranttine.
Main C
Countries an
nd its research reacto
ors that supply radioisotopes (fe
ew and old
d ones)
• Canada – NRU, opera
ating since 1957, arou
und 50% off world pro
oduction;
• Netherlandss - HFR at P
Petten– 19
961, 25 % ((shut down
n);
• So
outh Africa
a - Safari att Pelindaba
a, 1965, 10
0 %;
• Be
elgium - BR
R2 at Mol – 1961, 9%
%;
• Frrance - Osiris at Saclay – 1965,, 5%.
South A
Africa’s rea
actor (Safa
ari) was con
nverted in 2009 to usse low-enrichment ura
anium onlyy
(less th
han the usu
ual 20% of such type of reactor), in an atte
empt to red
duce the costs of thiss
activity.
Brazil iis not self--sufficient in radioiso
otope prod
duction for nuclear m
medicine - and everyy
year im
mports US
S$ 32 million worth of molyb
bdenum 99, from which
w
the radiophar-maceuttical used in exams is obtained. With the
e outage o
of the Can
nadian reacctor, Brazil
has me
et part of itss demand by
b purchasiing the radio
oisotopes it needs.

Molybdenum (99 Mo) Produce
ers’ reacttors in th
he World
Country

Rea
actor
Na
ame

Ag
ge
in
yea
ars

Scheduled
shu
utdown

supplied
demand

Canad
da
Belgiu
um
South Africa
Netherlands
France
e
Argen
ntina
Austra
alia

NRU
U
55
out/16
40
BR2
2
51
Safa
ari-1
47
HFR
R
51
2
2018
90 a 95%
Osirris
46
20
015(?)
RA-3
3
45
OPA
AL
5
Previsã
ão de crise mundial de abastecime
ento a partir de 2015, co
om impacto
diretto no Brasil em 2016

The tecchnetium-9
99 (99mTc) is the mo
ost widely used radio
opharmace
euticals in the world.
More th
han 80% o
of nuclear medicine
m
p
procedures in the worrld, mainly in scintigra
aphy using
g
99m
Tc is obtaine
ed from the
e molybde
enum-99 (9
99Mo). This radioiso
otope has more than
n
90% o
of their prroduction done by only sevven reacto
ors worldw
wide. In a
addition to
o
concen
ntrating the
e supply of
o the prod
duct, six of
o these reactors
r
arre over 45
5 years off
operatio
on, which means it will no longer opera
ate in a vvery short time, being the onlyy
exceptiion is the A
Australian Opal
O
reacto
or, installed
d just five yyears ago.
A solution to the p
problem wo
ould be the
e Brazilian
n Multipurpose Reac
ctor – RMB
B, which iss
being im
mplemente
ed (basic design
d
and conceptua
al stage) in
n Iperó - SP
P, at a projjected costt
of 950 million dolllars (set to
o be in ope
eration in 2
2019). Its iimplementa
ation could
d meet thiss
d and thatt of other industries in Brazil’ss industria
al needs, seeing tha
at, besidess
demand
radioiso
otope prod
duction, esssential for diagnosis
d
a
and therap
py of variou
us diseasess, the RMB
B
would be used in
n irradiatio
on tests off materials and fuelss and in re
esearch wiith neutron
n
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beams.. This proje
ect would ccontribute to the development o
of a scientific and tecchnological
framew
work essential to supp
port the exxpansion of the Braziilian nuclea
ar program
m, including
g
agricultture, food p
preservatio
on, materia
als science, energy an
nd the environment.
On 14//12/12 wass signed th
he declarattion of pub
blic utility la
and in Iperró that will house the
e
RMB w
which is p
part of the strategic goal of th
he Ministryy of Scien
nce Techn
nology and
d
Innovattion (MCTI) and is a
aligned witth the policcies established in tthe Brazilia
an Nuclearr
Program
m (BNP). T
The area ceded
c
by th
he state go
overnmentt, 800 thou
usand squa
are meters,
adds up
p to 1.2 miillion squarre meters donated
d
byy the Navy,, totaling tw
wo million ssquare feett
will occcupy the RM
MB. Of thiss total, 600
0 thousand square me
eters consiist of prese
erved area..
According to Proff. José Augusto Perrrotta – Asssistant to the
t Preside
ent, Nation
nal Nuclearr
Energyy Commisssion – CNEN, the re
eactor is iintended to
o give the
e country a strategicc
infrastructure to ssupport devvelopment of autonom
mous nucle
ear sector activities, particularlyy
self-suffficiency in the production of rad
dioisotopess for use in
n nuclear medicine.
m
T
The projectt
is unde
ergoing pu
ublic hearin
ng by IBA
AMA (Octo
ober 2013). The site is located
d in Iperó,
beside the Navy’ss Aramar Experimen
ntal Centerr that includes the prropulsion reactor and
d
all fuel cycle plan
nts being developed
d
by the Bra
azilian Navyy. These in
nitiatives a
are likely to
o
opment of a nuclear technology
t
y hub in the
e region. G
Given that all nuclearr
lead to the develo
erconnecte
ed, a resea
arch reacto
or will help in activitie
es relating to uranium
m
technollogy is inte
enrichm
ment and n
nuclear fue
el productio
on, by mea
ans of irrad
diation testing the fue
el itself and
d
rods, pressure
p
ve
essel wallss, etc. In a
addition, it can be used in stu
udies of me
etal alloys,
magnettic compon
nents, etc.

IEA--R1m -CNEN/IIPEN -São Pau
ulo- Brazil

IPEN
N/MB-01 - São
o Paulo - Brazil

At pressent, Brazill has only four resea
arch reactors and four cyclotrons in operation. The
e
researcch reactorss are In São Paulo (at IPEN Æ
ÆIEA-R1 a
and MB-01
1), Rio de Janeiro(att
IENÆA
Argonauta), Belo Ho
orizonte (a
at CDTNÆ
ÆIPR-1), n
noting tha
at the pro
oduction off
radioacctive eleme
ents is a monopoly of the fe
ederal gove
ernment, a
according to Brazil’ss
constitu
ution. The
e Energy and Nucclear Ressearch Insstitute - IPEN pro
oduces 21
1
radioiso
otopes and
d 15 types of lyophilizzed reagen
nts (for labe
eling with T
Tc-99m).
In Augu
ust 2010, tthe preside
ent of CNE
EN and the
e Secretarriat for Stra
ategic Mattters, underr
the Pre
esident of the Repub
blic’s Office
e (SAE/PR
R), signed a memorandum of ccooperation
n
for rese
earch and study on the
t method
d of separrating natural isotope
es of molyb
bdenum byy
means of ultra sh
hort pulse laser. Thiss constitute
es an impo
ortant towa
ard the loca
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molybd
denum pro
oduction an
nd, conseq
quently, th
he use of radioisotopes for diagnosis in
n
nuclearr medicine..
In Sep
ptember 20
010, the Internation
nal Atomicc Energy Agency (IIAEA) app
proved the
e
proposa
al from the Radioph
harmaceutiicals Divission of the
e Nuclear Engineerin
ng Institute
e
(IEN), in Rio de Janeiro, tto study th
he feasibiliity of an a
alternative, more cosst effective
e
method
d of iodine--124 produ
uction. Thiss radioisoto
ope has be
een researrched in a number off
countrie
es for use in positron
n emission tomograp
phy (PET), which is considered
c
a state-of-the-art imaging te
echnique.

Reactor O
OPAL, in Austra
alia
Reference
e for RMB

Image - Prof.. José Augusto
o Perrota

24 over fluo
orine-18 – the most e
extensivelyy used radio
oisotope in
n
The advantage off iodine-12
onger half--life, 4.2 da
ays. For co
omparison, that of flu
uorine-18 iss
PET exxaminations – is its lo
less than two ho
ours. This means tha
at the use of iodine--124 can help
h
democratize the
e
access to PET, in that it allows the e
examinatio
on to be co
onducted a
at sites more distantt
p
his radioiso
otope’s lo
onger half--life, the logistics off
from production
centers. Due to th
distribu
ution is also
o significan
ntly facilitatted.

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VII – Envirronme
ent and
d Sociiety
It is bew
wildering th
hat in this ttwenty-first century, 2
20% of the
e world’s po
opulation, around 1.4
4
billion persons,
p
a
are still living withoutt access to
o electricitty. Anotherr billion livve with low
w
quality power supply and/o
or with no assured power
p
supply. Almosst half of tthe world’ss
billion indivviduals) iss still depe
endent on biomass (vegetable
e coal) forr
populattion (2.7 b
cooking
g or heatin
ng. The UN
NO initiative
e to supplyy quality electricity fo
or all people by 2030
0
(the so
o-called Su
ustainable Energy forr All) is ind
dispensablle for achie
eving the millennium
m
goal off eradicatin
ng extreme
e poverty, set by UN
NO itself, w
which will not
n be feassible if thiss
issue re
emains unssolved.
Energyy is the keyy to the plan
net and to mankind’s way of living. It assu
ures jobs, ssafety, food
d
producttion, transportation a
and everything else. In the lacck of it, the
e world’s e
economies,
countrie
es, ecosysstems, etc., do not work.
w
Despite masssive gains in global access to
o
electriccity over the last two decades, governme
ents and de
evelopmen
nt organiza
ations mustt
continu
ue to investt in electriffication to a
achieve critical health
h, environm
mental, and
d livelihood
d
outcom
mes. The problems in
n developin
ng countrie
es may see
em intracta
able: unsa
afe drinking
g
water, subpar san
nitation sysstems, limited accesss to electriicity, low agricultural
a
yields due
e
entally unssustainable
e use of re
esources, and
a so on. For betterr
to poorr irrigation, environme
solve th
hese quesstions we ccan try to u
use more
nuclearr energy that is the mostt mature
technollogy, lowesst carbon-e
emitting te
echnology
availab
ble, being capable o
of generating large
quantitiies of ene
ergy to su
upply the needs of
societyy in quality, quantity and reliabilitty.
Nuclear energy is by far th
he largest clean-air
energy source a
and the only
o
one that can
e large am
mounts of electricity arround the
produce
clock. In 2013, m
more than
n 63% of the nonpollutan
nt energyy generate
ed in the
e United
States came from
m nuclear power,
p
with
h a share
of onlyy 19,3% of the ttotal of e
electricity
generated in the countryy. In gene
eral, the
a a rate of
o 90% of
nuclearr industry operates at
its capa
acity, regarrdless of th
he season.
ocial, and e
environmental risks o
of unabated
d climate cchange are
e immense.
The economic, so
hreaten to roll back tthe fruits o
of decadess of growth
h and deve
elopment, undermine
e
They th
prosperity, and jjeopardize countriess’ ability to
o achieve even the
e most ba
asic socio-econom
mic develo
opment go
oals in the
e future, in
ncluding th
he eradica
ation of po
overty and
d
continu
ued econom
mic growth
h. These rrisks affectt all develo
oped and developing
g countriess
alike.
hift in posiition of se
everal environmental leaders on
o the nucclear issue
e, such ass
The sh
activist Patrick Moore
M
and Stephen Tindale (e
ex-Greenp
peace), James Lovelock (Gaia
a
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theory), Hugh Mo
ontefiore (Friends off the Earth
h), Stewartt Brand (W
Whole Eartth Catalog))
shatterss the mytth associa
ated with tthis subjecct, which is now ad
ddressed in a more
e
techniccal, less do
ogmatic ma
anner. The environme
entalists’ op
pposition to
o nuclear e
energy hass
led to a billion exxtra tons off carbon diioxide - CO
O2 directly pumped to
t the atmo
osphere, in
n
as mucch as the energy ne
ew nuclearr plants we
ere preven
nted from generating
g
has been
n
supplie
ed by fossil--fueled pla
ants.
ecurity and wealth facctor for cou
untries and
d nuclear e
energy is a
Energyy independence is se
source of large, o
operating on the bassis of the systems, producing
p
locally em
mission-free
e
greenhouse energ
gy to meett all those cconditions.
winning the
e fight aga
ainst clima
ate change
e if countrries fail on
n
There is no prosspect of w
on or if countries do not succe
eed in raising the livin
ng standarrds of theirr
povertyy eradicatio
people.. Addressin
ng climate change re
equires dee
ep emissio
on reductio
ons of all g
greenhouse
e
gases (GHGs), in
ncluding th
he deep de
ecarbonizin
ng of enerrgy system
ms. To be ssuccessful,
this tra
ansition mu
ust ensure that socio
o-economicc developm
ment needs are met within the
e
constra
aints of verry low emisssions. En
nergy indep
pendence is a factor of safety and
a wealth
h
for countries; in this connecction, nucle
ear energyy, locally prroduced, frree from g
greenhouse
e
gas em
missions, b
being a la
arge size ssource and
d operatin
ng at the ssystems’ b
basis, is a
candida
ate for mee
eting such requirements.
The avvailability a
and accesssibility of energy, e
especially electric power, havve become
e
indispe
ensable forr modern society’s working cconditions. Energy ssupply seccurity is a
concern
n for all governments, as it facilitattes essen
ntial services for p
production,
commu
unication an
nd commerce.
Energyy supply ssecurity is intrinsically related to geopo
olitical prefferences, ttechnologyy
strategies selecte
ed and the
e social po
olicy orienttations deffined by th
he several countries.
Combin
ning the co
onditions asssociated w
with borderrs, neighbo
orhood, con
ntinental lo
ocation and
d
domesttic resourcces leads tto the wide
e diversity of undersstanding off the energ
gy securityy
and susstainabilityy concept.
orld's energ
gy policy needs a sig
gnificant revvision for rreasons tha
at range frrom energyy
The wo
securityy to bala
ance of payments and each countrry’s enviro
onmental concerns.
Environ
nmental dissasters enssuing from
m the pursu
uit of fossil fuels whattever the cost
c
bring a
cost tha
at today so
ociety will n
not and can
nnot afford any longe
er.
It is im
mportant to increase security whenever
w
p
possible, and nuclear plants arre updated
d
constan
ntly to do jjust that. T
There was never eve
en a death
h due to op
peration off the whole
e
cycle o
of nuclear power in tthe USA. T
The nuclea
ar power in
ndustry ha
as literally one of the
e
best sa
afety ratingss in compa
arison to an
ny other ind
dustry worrldwide.
Per kW
Wh produce
ed, fewer p
people died
d in the life cycle of nuclear pow
wer than the life cycle
e
of solar energy, and
a
both a
are very sm
maller than
n accidentss in generration of en
nergy from
m
uels; even in hydroelectric pow
wer plants deaths cou
unt rises much
m
when
n the damss
fossil fu
break.
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Why pe
eople are rreluctant to
o get on
the pla
ane due to fear fo
or their
safety while driiving carss every
day? T
The probab
bility of dyiing in a
car is 4 times gre
eater than dying in
a plane
e. All of thiss has relattion with
the perrception off risk, and we, as
humanss, are veryy bad at estimating
the dan
ngers in ou
ur everydayy lives.
Public safety
s
should be the number
but cann
one concern,
c
not be
dogmattic. When you put u
up wind
farms and
a
solar plants the
ey need
gas in p
parallel to replace
r
the
e lack of
energy production
n when the
ere is no
uts more ca
arbon into the atmosphere and generatess more losss
wind orr sun. This system pu
of life than a nucllear powerr plant prod
ducing the same ene
ergy. Safetyy of the pu
ublic needss
he numberr one conce
ern, but it ccan't be do
ogmatic. W
When you p
put up wind
d and solarr
to be th
farms tthey need accompan
nying gas plants to replace th
he slack to
o the grid when theyy
aren't p
producing. That syste
em puts mo
ore carbon into the attmosphere
e and generates more
e
loss of life than a nuclear pla
ant produccing the sam
me power.
uclear proje
ect alwayss raises questions on
n the assocciated riskss
The implementatiion of a nu
outine cond
ditions and
d/or in casse of accid
dent; waste
e
such as of radiattion release under ro
al and the
e issue of nuclear w
weapons p
proliferation. Such cconcerns necessitate
n
e
disposa
appropriate treatm
ment and society
s
as a whole ne
eeds to be informed in a clear and
a simple
e
languag
ge so thatt decisionss are not ta
aken out o
of sync witth the will of the pop
pulation, orr
under the effect of emotio
on. Avoidin
ng conflictss is possible only w
when communication
n
e
manner.
reachess all in a timely and effective
The ch
hallenges associate
ed with developing and carrrying out an effecttive publicc
consulttation cam
mpaign iss compou
unded by the dep
pth of public
p
misstrust and
d
misund
derstanding
gs concern
ning radiatiion, nuclea
ar power plants
p
and uranium mining.
m
An
n
effectivve public co
onsultation
n is require
ed to gain public accceptance of any nucle
ear activityy
since u
uranium min
ning until d
decommisssioning of th
he plant.
Nuclear companie
es in the U
United States and Eu
urope are being inclu
uded in su
ustainabilityy
indexess of stock exchangess such as New York (Dow Jon
nes Sustain
nability Wo
orld Index DJSI W
World). Succh indicato
or represen
nts a top internation
nal standarrd and anyy companyy
listed o
on a stockk exchange
e seeks to
o be includ
ded in the sustainab
bility index due to itss
credibillity and im
mpartiality. Germany’s EOn an
nd RWE, S
Spain’s En
ndesa and Iberdrola,
ntergy and
d Pacific G
Gas & Elecctric, Italy’s ENEL and
a
Finland
d’s Fortum
m
United States’ En
uclear com
mpanies inccluded in 2009.
were nu

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Th
he heating
g up of th
he nuclearr
industry’s la
abor Markket attractss
more univerrsity stude
ents to thiss
technology and creates a
ccircle,
with
more
e
virrtuous
un
niversities setting up courses in
n
this area. T
This is the strategyy
efended byy the IAEA
A in recentt
de
co
onferencess
on
nuclearr
de
evelopmen
nt, where
e special
em
mphasis iss placed o
on training
g
an
nd apprenticeship. A
At present,
there is a shortage of skilled
d
labor in almost all activities,
uclear, whicch requiress
mainly in nu
g
much qualification. Preparing
ainers is also a go
oal of the
e
tra
IA
AEA which has offere
ed coursess
fo
or trainers, and more
e than 700
0
sp
pecialists
have
alreadyy
atttended.
The U
United Sta
ates (DoE)) have in
nvested 17 million in fellow
wships for universityy
researcchers, for the specific purpo
ose of de
eveloping-n
next generration pow
wer reactorr
technollogy, thus seeking to
o maintain a lead in this field. In addition
n, the Idah
ho National
Laboratory (INL) is investing 50 milllion in the
e construcction of a center de
edicated to
o
researcch and education in the nucle
ear area, w
which is pa
art of the program tto upgrade
e
laborato
ory infrastrructures.
The Fu
ukushima a
accident is expected tto somehow
w delay thiis entire wo
orldwide prrocess, butt
should not cance
el it. The next-gener
n
ation of nu
uclear ene
ergy is an essential part of the
e
solution
n to protectt future gen
nerations.

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VIII – Fuell
Uraniu
um
Uranium
m, a metal found in ro
ock formattions in the
e earth’s crrust, is extrracted from
m the ore,
purified
d and concentrated in the form of a ye
ellow salt known as "yellowca
ake", raw
materia
al in the fue
el cycle for production
n the energ
gy generate
ed in a nucclear reacto
or.
The main
n use of uranium in the
civilian ssector is to fuel n
nuclear
power pllants. On
ne kilogra
am of
uranium-2
235
can
n
theore
etically
produce
abou
ut 20 terajoules of
ules), asssuming
energy ((2×1013 jou
complete fission; ass much ene
ergy as
1500 tons
s of coal.
Yellowcake production and Uranium
m ore otos
INB pho

Uranium
m is abun
ndant in nature
n
and
d there exxist techno
ologies cap
pable of e
extracting
materia
al sufficien
nt to meett up to 60
0 times the
e consumption need
ds. Mines produce
around 60,000 to
onnes a year, but parrt of the market is su
upplied by secondaryy sources
such ass the dism
mantling of nuclear weapons. The major u
use of the metal is in
n nuclear
electriccity generattion.
Mining and uraniium concentrate (U3
3O8) produ
uction consstitute the first step of the fuel
c
g ore extra
action from
m nature (iincluding the phasess of prospecting and
d
cycle, comprising
explora
ation) and beneficiatio
on for tran
nsforming it into “yellowcake”, o
or U3O8. It should be
e
noted that this oxxide servess all nuclea
ar reactor te
echnologie
es, being currently co
onsidered a
“commodity”.
For eacch MW insstalled in a light-wate
er technology reactor “(LWR)”, ttypically 17
78 kg/yearr
of U3O
O8 are conssumed.
The wo
orld’s uranium resources can b
be divided into: reassonably assured and estimated
d
addition
nal resourcces. A “low
w-, interme
ediate- and
d high-cost” classifica
ation applie
es to those
e
with exxploitation ccosts: belo
ow 40 dolla
ars/kgU, be
etween 40 and 80 do
ollars/kgU, and above
e
an 80 d
dollars/kgU
U, respectivvely.
In addition, the costs assocciated with the resou
urce’s classsification a
are naturallly continge
e
od involve
ed. Around 60% of the world’ss uranium production
n
nt on tthe producction metho
comes from mine
es in Kaza
akhstan (3
36.5%), Ca
anada (15%
%) and Au
ustralia (12
2%). Such
h
producttion level had been declining since the 1990’s du
ue to the falling pricces on the
e
internattional marrket. Production has recentlyy resumed
d growth a
and todayy it meetss
approximately 67% of the en
nergy gene
eration nee
eds.
The alrready identtified uranium source
es are sufficient to supply 60 to 100 yearss’ operation
n
of the existing p
plants arou
und the wo
orld and a
also to cop
pe with the greater expansion
n
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scenariios projectted for 203
35 by the IAEA. Kazzakhstan, h
having incrreased its production
n
dramattically, beca
ame the w
world’s grea
atest uranium produccer at the end of 200
09, when itt
reached
d the markk of 14,000 tons a yea
ar.
n from mines (ton
nnes U) - WNA
Production
Country

2005

2006

2007

200
08

2009

2010

2
2011

2012

2013

4357

5279

6637

852
21

14020

17803

19
9451

21317

22451

Canada

11628

9862

9476

900
00

10173

9783

9
9145

8999

9331

Australia

9516

7593

8611

843
30

7982

5900

5
5983

6991

6350

Niger (est)

3093

3434

3153

303
32

3243

4198

4
4351

4667

4518

Namibia

3147

3067

2879

436
66

4626

4496

3
3258

4495

4323

Russia

3431

3262

3413

352
21

3564

3562

2
2993

2872

3135

n
Uzbekistan

2300

2260

2320

233
38

2429

2400

2
2500

2400

2400

USA

1039

1672

1654

143
30

1453

1660

1537

1596

1792

China (est))

750

750

712

769

750

827

8
885

1500

1500

104

670

8
846

1101

1132

Kazakhsta
an

Malawi
st)
Ukraine (es

800

800

846

800

840

850

8
890

960

922

South Afric
ca

674

534

539

655

563

583

5
582

465

531

India (est)

230

177

270

271

290

400

4
400

385

385

Brazil

110

190

299

330

345

148

2
265

231

231

public
Czech Rep

408

359

306

263

258

254

2
229

228

215

Romania (e
est)

90

90

77

77
7

75

77

77

90

77

Germany

94

65

41

0

0

8

51

50

45

est)
Pakistan (e

45

45

45

45
5

50

45

45

45

27

France

7

5

4

5

8

7

6

3

5

d
total world

41 719

39 444

41 282

43 764
7

50 772

53 671

53
3 493

58 394

59,37

tonnes U3O8

49 199

46 516

48 683

51 611
6

59 875

63 295

63
3 084

68 864

70,015

65%

63%

64%

68%
%

78%

78%

8
85%

86%

92%

percentage
e of world demand*

World p
production continuing
g to grow in 2013, w
with Kazakkhstan bein
ng again tthe biggestt
er. In 2013
produce
3 the grea
atest produ
ucing comp
panies werre Kazatom
mprom (Ka
azakhstan);
Camecco (Canada
a), Rio Tin
nto (Austra
alia),
NA- 2012 - world's ura
anium mine
e productio
on
Areva (France) and Atom
mredmetzo
oloto WN
g companie
es (82%)
8 largestt-producing
(Russia
a). They a
all have b
business in
n all
contine
ents.
Company
tonnes U
%
According
to
KazAtomP
Prom
(Kazakkhstan’s
state-own
ned
miining
compan
ny) as the nucclear indu
ustry
develop
ps and u
uranium supply on the
the
second
dary
marrket
dim
minishes,
possibility arises of a nucle
ear fuel de
eficit
herefore, th
he compan
ny is
on the market. Th
d through a producction
getting prepared
ade planne
ed to
increasse and capacity upgra
meet th
he peak off the demand forecasst for
2016. The
T investm
ments are of the orde
er of
20 million dollars.
P
PL.G – Strattegic Planning Managem
ment

K
KazAtomP
Prom

8863

15

Areva
a
Camec
co
Rio Tinto
BHP Billiiton

8641
8437
7629
5435
3386

15
14
13
9
6

Paladin
Navoi
Otherr
Total

3056
2400
10548
58394

5
4
18
100

ARMZ - Uranium One

Wo
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134

Known Reco
overable Resou
urces of Uraniu
um 2013 - Sou
urce : WNA

Known Recoverable Reesources of Urranium 2013
perceentage of world
Country
tonnees U
1,7006,100
29%
Australia
Kazakhstan

6779,300

12%

Russian Fed
d

5005,900

9%

Canada

4993,900

8%

Niger

4004,900

7%

Namibia

3882,800

6%

South Africaa

3338,100

6%

Brazil

2776,100

5%

USA

2007,400

4%

China

1999,100

4%

Mongolia

1441,500

2%

Ukraine
Uzbekistan

117,700
911,300

2%
2%

Botswana

688,800

1%

Tanzania

588,500

1%

Jordan

333,800

1%

1991,500

3%

Other
World total

5,9002,500

In contra
ast, Canad
da and Ausstralia have
e cut back
their pro
oductions, w
whereas R
Russia and
Uzbekisstan have kept
k
theirs at steady levels.
Uranium
m is mined
d in 20 ccountries, 7 of them
m
(Australia, Canada
a, Kazakhsstan, Namiibia, Niger,
Russia and Uzbe
ekistan) acccounting ffor 90% off
duction.
the prod
At prese
ent around 68 thousa
and tons arre used perr
year. Th
his amountt is sufficient to feed the currentt
conventtional reacctors for 80
0 years. T
Taking into
o
consideration the geologic bases
b
kno
own so far,
prices a
are expecte
ed to incre
ease if add
ditional fuel
is requirred for morre reactorss.
The 20
008-2010 g
global fina
ancial crisis had an
n
impact on uran
nium prod
duction, causing
c
a
productiion cutbacck in some mines. Th
he uranium
m
price dropped strongly due
e to the decline in
n
demand
d. By 2013 the price drop
d
was still sharp.

actors as falling
f
price
es, inflation
n associate
ed with risiing costs o
of productio
on, smallerr
Such fa
growth of mines’ developm
ment and p
production, and more
e recently the accide
ent that hitt
nuclearr plants in Japan, havve compelled some u
uranium prroducing co
ompanies to put theirr
plants on downtiime. Still, the comin
ng into op
peration off new plan
nts that are nearing
g
comple
etion of co
onstruction
n, and the
e possible
e recoveryy of the g
global eco
onomy are
e
expecte
ed, in the medium te
erm, to inccrease the demand fo
or uranium
m on the in
nternational
market.
According to con
nsultant U
UxC, Asia should lea
ad such capacity inccrease and
d overtake
e
North A
America, ccurrently th
he greatesst consum
mer. The w
world consumption of
o U3O8 iss
expecte
ed to grow
w from 44.4 thousand tons to 110 thousand
d tons by 2
2030. A su
urvey of the
e
deman
nd for the n
next 20 years indicattes a critica
al need forr
a prod
duction incrrease, inassmuch the leading m
mines, overr
the passt year, prod
duced only 4
43.8 thousa
and tons of tthe ore.
In Brazzil, state-ow
wned Indússtrias Nucle
eares do B
Brasil (INB))
estimattes that the reserves off the Santa Quitéria mine come to
o
142.5 thousand
t
to
ons of uran
nium. The mine’s full production
n
capacitty of 1.5 tho
ousand tonss of uranium
m concentra
ate per yearr
will be reached in 2015, and the investm
ment neede
ed to renderr
the projject feasible
e are of the order of US
S$ 35 million
n.
Nuclear fuel pellets

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135

Currently, besides Brazil, onlyy ten counttries in the world hold
d uranium e
enrichment technology:
German
ny, China, U
United State
es, France, Holland, India, Iran, Ja
apan, Pakisstan and the
e UK. None
e
of these
e countries sell or tra
ansfer that knowledge or technology. The ta
able below shows the
e
expecte
ed uranium needs conssidering the
e reactors in
n operation,, under con
nstruction, p
planned and
d
propose
ed by each country ass compiled by the Worrld Nuclear Association
n - WNA until Octoberr
2013.
WNA- August 20014
Counntry

NUCLE
EAR ELECTRICITY
GENERATION

REACTORS OPERAB
BLE

REACTTORS UNDER
CONS
STRUCTION

O ORDER or PLANNED
ON

PROPOSED

ago/14

a
ago/14

ago/14

ago/14

URANIUM
REQUIRED

billion kW
Wh
5.7
2.2
0
0
40.6

%e
4.4
29.2
0
0
52.0

No.
3
1
0
0
7

MWe
M
1
1627
376
0
0
5
5943

No.
1
0
0
2
0

MWe
27
0
0
2400
0

No.
0
1
2
0
0

MWe
0
1060
2000
0
0

No.
3

MWe
1600

0
2
0

0
2400
0

tonnes U
213
87
0
0
1017

Brazil

13.8

2.8

2

1
1901

1

1405

0

0

4

4000

325

Bulgaria

13.3

30.7

2

1
1906

0

0

1

950

0

0

321

Canada
Chile
China
Czech Reppublic
Egypt
Finland
France
Germany
Hungary
India
Indonesia
Iran
Israel
Italy
Japan

94.3
0
104.8
29.0
0
22.7
405.9
92.1
14.5
30.0
0
3.9
0
0
13.9

16.0
0
2.1
35.9
0
33.3
73.3
15.4
50.7
3.4
0
1.5
0
0
1.7

19
0
20
6
0
4
58
9
4
21
0
1
0
0
48

13553
0
17055
3
3766
0
2
2741
6
63130
12003
1
1889
5
5302
0
915
0
0
4
42569

0
0
29
0
0
1
1
0
0
6
0
0
0
0
3

0
0
33035
0
0
1700
1720
0
0
4300
0
0
0
0
3036

2
0
59
2
1
0
1
0
2
22
1
1
0
0
9

1500
0
63735
2400
1000
0
1720
0
2400
21300
30
1000
0
0
12947

3
4
118
1
1
2
1
0
0
35
4
1
1
0
3

3800
4400
122000
1200
1000
2700
1100
0
0
40000
4000
300
1200
0
4145

1784
0
6296
563
0
480
9927
1889
357
913
0
174
0
0
2119

Jordan

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1000

Kazakhstan

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

600

2

600

0

Korea DPR
R (North)
Korea RO (South)
Lithuania
Malaysia

0
132.5
0
0

0
27.6
0
0

0
23
0
0

0
20656
0
0

0
5
0
0

0
6870
0
0

0
6
1
0

0
8730
1350
0

1
0
0
2

950
0
0
2000

0
5022
0
0

Mexico

11.4

4.6

2

1
1600

0

0

0

0

2

2000

277

Netherlands
Pakistan
Poland

2.7
4.4

2.8
4.4

1
3

485
725

0
2

0
680

0
0

0
0

1
2

1000
2000

103
99

0

0

0

0

0

0

6

6000

0

0

0

Romania

10.7

19.8

2

1
1310

0

0

2

1440

1

655

179

Russia
Saudi Arabbia
Slovakia
Slovenia
South Africca
Spain
Sweden
Switzerlandd
Thailand
Turkey

161.8
0
14.6
5.0
13.6
54.3
63.7
25.0
0
0

17.5
0
51.7
33.6
5.7
19.7
42.7
36.4
0
0

33
0
4
1
2
7
10
5
0
0

24253
0
1
1816
696
1
1830
7
7002
9
9508
3
3252
0
0

10
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

9160
0
942
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

31
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4

32780
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4800

18
16
1
1
6
0
0
3
5
4

16000
17000
1200
1000
9600
0
0
4000
5000
4500

5456
0
392
137
305
1274
1516
521
0
0

Ukraine

78.2

43.6

15

13168

0

0

2

1900

11

12000

2359

0

0

0

0

2

2800

2

2800

10

14400

0

United Kinggdom

64.1

18.3

16

10038

0

0

4

6680

7

8920

1738

USA
Vietnam
World

790.2
0
2359

19.4
0

100
0
435

999361
0
3775,303

5
0
72

6018
0
76,793

5
4
174

6063
4000
190,185

17
6
299

26000
6700
329,37

18816
0
65,908

Argentina
Armenia
Bangladessh
Belarus
Belgium

UAE

P
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ment

0

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136

Uranium
m Demand

In June
e 2014, 43
37 comme
ercial nucle
ear reactorrs with a g
generating capacity of
o 373,000
0
MWe n
needed abo
out 66,000 tons of ura
anium.
In 2035
5, the Worrld Nuclearr Associatio
on estimattes that ura
anium dem
mand will b
be from 97
7
645 ton
ns of uraniu
um (to gen
nerating 54
40,000 Mwe
e, the case
e of low de
emand), an
nd 136,385
5
tons of uranium (tto generate
e 746,000 MWe, the high case demand). East Asia, especiallyy
hest growtth, with the
e impleme
entation be
etween 100
0,000 and
d
China, must havve the high
0 MWe byy 2035.
150,000

Thoriu
um
Thorium
m has a grreat potential as an alternative
a
ffuel to uranium. Acco
ording to th
he directorr
of the Institute
I
off Nuclear Science
S
at the Unive
ersity of Syydney, Rezza Hashem
mi-Nezhad,
thorium
m presents advantages vis-à-viis uranium
m because in the ope
eration of a plant, itt
generates no plu
utonium or other matterials thatt could be diverted tto nuclear weapons,
osing no rissks of proliferation. Seeing
S
that thorium ussually is no
ot a fissile material, itt
thus po
cannot be used in
n neutron flux therma
al reactorss, but it abssorbs neuttrons and transforms
t
s
into a g
good fuel (u
uranium 23
33).
The accelerator-d
driven nuclear reactor- ADS, ye
et to be ope
erational, ccould use thorium
t
ass
a fuel a
and incinerrate its ow
wn waste an
nd also tha
at of other uranium-ffueled nucllear powerr
plants.
Thorium
m is 4 time
es as abundant in natture as ura
anium, and
d the known
n deposits (mainly in
n
Australia, India, U
USA, Brazill, etc.) coulld supply e
energy for tthousands of years.
India has a thoriu
um-based nuclear
n
pro
ogram, butt the proce
ess does n
not use purre thorium.
India expects to have a pro
ototype tho
orium plant in operattion by the
e end of th
he decade.
nha, directo
or of the B
Bhabha Ato
omic Rese
earch Centtre in Mum
mbai, India,
Ratan Kumar Sin
ormed that its staff is finalizing
g the consttruction sitte for a 30
00MW thorium-fueled
d
has info
power plant using
g an Advanced Heavvy Water R
Reactor – A
AHWR, wh
hose flexibility allowss
uel combina
ations as plutonium-t
p
horium or u
uranium–th
horium (low
w enrichme
ent).
such fu
Countriies with strrong and g
growing de
emand for e
energy, such as Chin
na and India, are the
e
stronge
est candid
dates for the
t
develo
opment off Thorium technolog
gy. India, with vastt
reserve
es of this o
ore, wants 25% of itts energy production
p
in the next decade will come
e
from th
horium (tod
day is 3%
%) while C
China makkes its firsst powered
d thorium reactor to
o
become
e operation
nal in 2015
5. in March
h 2014, Ch
hina annou
unced thatt it is accelerating itss
researcch on the so-called
s
m
molten salt rreactors that can use
e thorium. If successfu
ul, it would
create a cheaperr, more eff
fficient and
d safer form
m of nucle
ear power,, with nucllear waste
e
which are
a smallerr than uran
nium based
d on today'ss technolog
gy.
Plutonium-free ge
eneration can be a competitivveness facctor, depen
nding on w
what each
h
countryy wishes in
n its nuclea
ar program
m. Thorium
m’s lagging developm
ment over decades
d
iss
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137

probably due to its unfitne
ess to mee
et military ambitionss. The gen
nerated nu
uclides are
e
gamma
a radioactivve, traceable and easily detecctable, which would hinder the
eir misuse
e
(unlawfful actions)).
Plutonium

e metal wh
hose isotop
pe, plutoniu
um-239, iss one of the three
e
It is a radioactive actinide
primaryy fissile isotopes (uranium-233
3 and uranium-235 arre the other two); plutonium-241 is a
also highlyy fissile.
Fission
n of a killogram off plutonium
m-239 can
n produce
e an explosion equ
uivalent to
o
21,000 tons of T
TNT (88,00
00 GJ). It is this en
nergy that makes p
plutonium-2
239 useful
in nucle
ear weapon
ns and rea
actors.
Plutonium-239 is the most important issotope of p
plutonium, with a halff-life of 24,,100 years.
It can ssustain a n
nuclear chain reactio
on, leading
g to applica
ations in nuclear
n
rea
actors and
d
nuclearr weaponss. Pu-239 is synthessized by irradiating u
uranium-23
38 with neu
utrons in a
nuclearr reactor, then recove
ered via nu
uclear reprrocessing o
of the fuel.. It is a fisssile isotope
e
which is the seco
ond most used nuclea
ar fuel in nuclear reacctors after U-235, and the mostt
uel in the fisssion portio
on of nucle
ear weapon
ns.
used fu
Plutonium can forrm alloys a
and interme
ediate compounds with most oth
her metals:








Plutonium-ga
allium (Pu--Ga) - Its main
m
use iss in pits of implosion nuclear we
eapons
Plutonium-aluminium is
i an altern
native to the Pu-Ga alloy can be
e also used
d as a
com
mponent off nuclear fu
uel.
Plutonium-ga
allium-cob
balt alloy (P
PuCoGa5) is an unco
onventionall supercond
ductor,
sho
owing supe
erconductivvity at speccial conditio
ons
Plutonium-zirconium a
alloy can be
e used as nuclear
n
fue
el.
Plutonium-ce
erium and plutonium
m-cerium-c
cobalt alloys are use
ed as nucle
ear fuels.
Plutonium-urranium, wiith about 15–30 mol.%
% plutonium
m, can be used as a nuclear
fuell for fast brreeder reacctors.
Plutonium-urranium-tita
anium and
d plutonium
m-uranium
m-zirconiu
um were invvestigated
for use as nucclear fuels.
Plu
utonium-uranium-m
molybdenum has the best corrosion resistance, form
ming a
prottective film
m of oxides,, but titaniu
um and zircconium are
e preferred for physicss reasons.
Tho
orium-uran
nium-pluto
onium wass investigated as a nu
uclear fuel for fast bre
eeder
reacctors.

uel
MOX fu

Mixed oxide fuel,, commonly referred to as MOX
X fuel, is n
nuclear fue
el that contains more
e
than on
ne oxide off fissile ma
aterial, usu
ually consissting of plutonium blended
b
wiith natural
uranium
m, reprocesssed uranium, or dep
pleted uran
nium.
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MOX fu
uel is an a
alternative to
t the low--enriched u
uranium (LE
EU) fuel ussed in the light waterr
reactorrs that pred
dominate n
nuclear po
ower generration. Fo
or example, a mixtu
ure of 7%
%
plutoniu
um and 93% natural uranium re
eacts similarly, althou
ugh not ide
entically, to
o LEU fuel.
Althoug
gh MOX fuel can be u
used in the
ermal reacttors to provvide energy, efficient burning off
plutoniu
um in MOX
X can only be achieve
ed in fast re
eactors.
One atttraction of MOX fuel is
i that it is a way of utilizing
u
surrplus weapo
ons-grade plutonium,
an alternative to storage off surplus p
plutonium, w
which wou
uld need to
o be securred againstt
the riskk of theft fo
or use in nu
uclear wea
apons. On the
t other h
hand, some
e studies warned
w
thatt
normalizing the global com
mmercial use of MO
OX fuel a
and the asssociated expansion
n
of nucle
ear reproce
essing will increase, rather than reduce, the risk of nuclear prroliferation,
by enco
ouraging in
ncreased sseparation of plutoniu
um from sp
pent fuel in
n the civil n
nuclear fuel
cycle
About 40
4 reactorrs in Europ
pe – in Belgium, Swiitzerland, G
Germany, the Netherlands and
d
France – are licensed to usse MOX fue
el, and mo
ore than 30
0 are doing
g so. In Ja
apan aboutt
10 reacctors are liccensed to u
use it and several
s
havve done so
o.
In Russsia, there a
are no com
mmercial re
eactors using MOX fu
uel but the BN-800 B
Beloyarsk-4
4
fast ne
eutron reacctor, wherre fuel load
ding was ccompleted in July 20
014 and ccommercial
operatio
on is due within
w
montths, will usse MOX fue
el.
A comm
mercial MO
OX fuel fab
brication fa
acility was establishe
ed at Zhele
eznogorsk,, Russia in
n
2014.

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IX – Spent Fuel, Radiatio
R
on, Wa
aste and Rep
process
sing
All hum
man activiity produc
ces waste.. No techn
nology is a
absolutely
y safe or free from
environ
nmental im
mpacts.

Spentt Fuel
Conven
ntional wa
aste is what is left ove
er - in solid
d, semi-solid and/or liiquid state - from anyy
activitie
es or proce
esses of a
an industria
al, medical, commerccial, agricu
ultural or otther origin,
includin
ng slurries and ashess from pollu
ution contro
ol or water treatment systems.
According to the IAEA, the annual disscharge off spent fue
el from all electricity generation
n
reactorrs is 10,500
0 tons (of h
heavy meta
al).
Some countries
c
vview spentt fuel as a material tto be store
ed in final repositorie
es for high
h
level ra
adioactive w
waste. Oth
her countries conside
er this matterial an en
nergy reso
ource to be
e
reproce
essed and reused.
Thus,
there
exist tw
wo waste
e
manage
ement
strategiess
being
g
currently implemented in the world.
The first involve
es reproccessing orr
storage
e for future
e reprocesssing, so ass
to extract the fuel (ura
anium and
d
um) still e
existing in the spentt
plutoniu
materia
al. This will produce
e the MOX
X
fuel (mixed urranium oxide
o
and
d
n
Plutonium) that will be used on
gned plantts. Around
d
specificcally desig
33% of the world’s
w
sspent fuel
b
repro
ocessed.
discharrges have been
Reproces
ssing Plant - Sellafield - C
Cumbria – United Kingdom
m

Under the second strategyy, the used
d fuel is co
onsidered waste and
d prelimina
arily stored
d
until itss final disp
posal. The 50 years’ experiencce with han
ndling this material has
h proven
n
safe an
nd efficientt in both technologiess that have
e been use
ed so far - Wet and D
Dry storage
e
technollogies. In both case
es, the sp
pent fuel iss first stored in the
e reactor’ss pool and
d
subseq
quently in in
nterim repo
ositories that can be llocated in tthe nuclear power pla
ant itself.
Today, the counttries reproccessing nu
uclear fuel are China
a, France, India, Japa
an, Russia
a
e United K
Kingdom. T
Those that store for possible
p
fu
uture reprocessing arre Canada,
and the
Finland
d and Swed
den.
nited Statess have yet to fully deffine the tecchnology to
o be used. Most othe
er countriess
The Un
have not
n even d
defined the
e strategy and are sstoring their used fuel used pe
ending the
e
further developme
ent of the ttechnologie
es associa
ated with bo
oth strateg
gies. In 2006, around
d
ns of MOxx were use
ed on two BWR reacctors and o
on 30 PWR
R reactors in several
180 ton
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countrie
es (Belgium
m, France, Switzerlan
nd, Germa
any, etc.). A
An expande
ed use is e
expected in
n
Japan and
a India from
f
2010 onwards.

N
Nuclear Fuel cy
ycle

Program
ms for spe
ent-fuel fina
al storage facilities are under way
w in seve
eral placess, but none
e
should be comm
mercially operable prrior to 202
20. The fa
act that no
n final repository iss
currenttly in operration does not mea
an a solution for w
waste treattment has not been
n
conceivved. The treatment
t
technologyy involving
g final disp
posal conssists of iso
olating the
e
materia
al through shielding and vitrifiication and
d subsequ
uently storing it in sstable rockk
cavitiess, where th
he material will be contained un
ntil its radio
oactivity de
ecays down
n to a level
that brings no harrm to huma
an species or the envvironment.
evelopmen
nt of innovvative solu
utions such
h as the Myrrha prroject (Multi-Purpose
e
The de
Hybrid Research Reactor fo
or High-Tecch Applica
ations) in B
Belgium offe
ers other p
possibilitiess
e treatmentt such as trransmutation. Although a large
e capacity p
plant is still
for nucclear waste
w off, a pilot projecct (at a cosst of 1 billio
on euros) iss expected
d to be com
mmissioned
d
a long way
at the Belgian Nu
uclear Ressearch Cen
nter - SCK
K by 2019, as part o
of the Myrrrha project.
o commerrcial operattion, but iss
The faccility is to be tested for 5 yearrs prior to the start of
expecte
ed to proviide a signifficant redu
uction in the quantity and size o
of the repo
ositories forr
high acctivity waste
es.

Radia
ation
Radioa
activity is a natural ph
henomenon
n and natu
ural source
es of radiattion are fea
atures of th
he
environ
nment. Radiation and radioacttive substa
ances havve many beneficial
b
a
application
ns,
ranging
g from pow
wer generattion to usess in medicine, industrry and agriculture.
In our p
planet therre exists a natural bacckground rradiation th
hat all of uss are exposed to eve
ery
day. Th
he human being
b
is ad
dapted to ssuch sources. The su
un, granite rocks, mon
nazite sand
ds
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and oth
her naturally radioacttive materia
als found in
n the air, in
n the sea a
and on land are part of
such ra
adiation. B
Background
d radiation varies a lot accord
ding to the regions o
of the worlld,
depend
ding on succh factors a
as rock com
mposition in the envirronment, a
altitude, etcc.
As with many things in nature, radiation ca
an be good or bad, dep
pending on the amountt.

Only 15
5% of emission
ns come from mankind activ
vities (Medicin
ne and nuclearr industry)

The rad
diation riskks to worke
ers and the
e public and
d to the en
nvironmentt that may arise from
m
these a
applicationss have to b
be assessed
d and, if ne
ecessary, ccontrolled.
Activitie
es such as the mediccal uses of radiation, the operattion of nucclear installlations, the
e
producttion, transp
port and use of radio
oactive matterial, and the manag
gement of radioactive
e
waste m
must there
efore be subject to sta
andards off safety.

Types off Radiatio
on

Cara
acteristics
s and risks
s

ALFA

Does not penetratte the skin, only
o
dangerou
us if ingested
d

BETA

w
/ alum
minum, etc.. - Little dange
er
can be blocked by wooden

GAMA Ray

dangerouss for people - must be isollated

Raio X

dangerouss for people - must be isollated

COSMIC Rad
diation
NEUTRONS

es from space
e very dange rous. Our pro
otection is th
he
Particle
atmosph
here
produced
d by nuclear fission,
f
can ca
ause harm to
o human beings must be iso
olated

The rad
diation pro
oduced by a nuclear reactor is similar to n
natural rad
diation, butt at a more
e
intense
e level, and
d for this reason, the rreactor hass the protective mech
hanisms ne
ecessary to
o
isolate radiation from the
e environment and
d individua
als. More than 85
5% of the
e
radiatio
on doses re
eceived by mankind come
c
from nature.
As the senses off human b
beings are unable to detect rad
diation, dettection devvices are
needed
d for measuring such releases, whether th
hey occur from
f
natural sources or result
from acccidents. Every
E
day each inha
abitant on the planett receives a radioacttive dose
that varies accord
ding to the
e location and/or activity. Routine medica
al procedures used
by sociiety add exxtra radiatiion doses to the hum
man body. The table gives exa
amples of
radioacctive dose by
b medicall procedure
e performe
ed.
The SI unit for ra
adiation exp
posure is tthe Sievertt (Sv) and its multiple
es, the milli Sievert –
mSv (1 mSv = 0.0
001 Sv) and the micro
o Sievert - Sv = 0.00
00001 Sv)..
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This iss the inte
ernational unit thatt
Meedical Proceddure
definess the stan
ndards forr radiation
n
protection, taking
g into acccount the
e Dental raddiography
erent typess Mamograpphy
biologiccal effects of the diffe
of radia
ation.
Brain Scann
oses are ccumulative when the
e Breast Scaan
The do
Gastrintesstinal X-Ray
source is constan
nt:

Dosee in mSv
0
0,005
2
0,,8 a 5
6 a 18
14 

Sv/h = 1 milliontth of the Sievert per h
hour of exp
posure (0.000001 Sv/h)
Anothe
er unit used
d is the Rem
m, which iss equal to 0
0.01 Sv.
Compa
ared with otther eventss that affecct the healtth of individ
duals, radio
oactivity is one of the
e
most extensively studied su
ubjects and also one
e that has been masstered by science.
s
In
n
c
prrotection sttandards are
a establisshed in line
e with the recommen
ndations off
every country,
the ICR
RP - Intern
national Co
ommission on Radiological Pro
otection, which
w
deterrmines thatt
any exp
posure sho
ould be ass low as re
easonably achievable
a
e - ALARA. The world
d’s highestt
authoritty on effe
ects of rad
diation on human health is th
he UNSCE
EAR - UN
N Scientificc
Commiittee on the
e Effects o
of Atomic Radiation, a United Nations’ body dedica
ated to the
e
subjectt.

Measu
ured averaage dose of
o radiatio
on  

Sv/h

Averag
ge individual from bacckground radiation
r
Averag
ge individual from bacckground radiation
r
fo
or Americanos
Averag
ge individual from bacckground radiation
r
fo
or Australiaans
Averag
ge dose in Fukushimaa on 25/05/22011
Averag
ge dose in Tokyo
T
on 25/05/2011
2

0,230
0
0
0,340
0
0,170
1
1,600
0
0,062

The pu
ublic’s lackk of knowle
edge on th
his subjectt and the large number of me
easurementt
units giive rise to m
much confu
usion and disinforma
ation, often purposeful, and can cause fearr
and anxxiety in layy people.
Radioacctive conta
amination is the prese
dioactive m
material in any place where it iss
ence of rad
not dessired, there
efore, a rad
dioactive m
material witthout any contention
c
C
up
p
control. Cleaning
radioacctive waste
e usually m
means scrubbing witth soap an
nd water, p
pails and brushes, a
messy process that is d
dangerous for those
e exposed
d to dustt and con
ntaminated
d
water.
wastew
Almost everything
g in the w
world norma
ally emits radiation. The radioa
activity of a radiation
n
emitting
g material needs to be measurred in orde
er to define
e the prote
ection crite
eria. In thiss
case, p
physics deffines the Becquerel (Bq), the un
nit representing the n
number of d
decays perr
second
d in the matterial considered.

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Radiation exposu
ure is cumu
ulative; it ca
an be mea
asured in Sv/h, varie
es a lot, and is known
n
in mostt cases. Be
elow are a few examp
ples of radiiation dose
e per hour of
o exposurre in Sv/h:
uarapari, E
Espírito San
nto, a dose
e of 200mS
Sv/year is n
normal due
e
In Brazzil, in the locality of Gu
azite sandss on beach
to mona
hes.

From EPA – Radiations: Riisks and Realitties

Acciden
ntal radiattion dosess pose varying effeccts on the
e human being, givven that th
he
exposu
ure is highe
er or more concentratted.
• Biological
B
e
effects
will not be feltt until after an acute e
exposure o
of 250 mSvv.
• Temporary
T
y effects su
uch as nausea, vomitt and diarrh
hea appear with an a
acute dose of
1000 mSv..
of 4,000 mSv the human b
• With
W
acute
e doses o
being is severely afffected, an
nd
a
approxima
tely 50% will
w eventua
ally die in a short time
espan (abo
out 1 month
h)
• A
Acute dose
es of 7,000
0 mSv are llethal for 100% of the
e individualls.

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If the ra
adiation comes from external
e
so
ources, the
e skin and ttissues nea
ar the bodyy’s surface
are the least affeccted. Organ
ns deep in the body a
are affected only by penetrate-g
p
gamma and
d
neutron
n radiation..
Still, if ingested, inhaled or
o introducced into th
he body th
hrough wo
ounds, the
e radioactivve
materia
al can be ttaken to th
he vicinity of critical organs and irradiate
e them in such
s
intern
nal
position
n. The amount of radiation recceived from
m an exterrnal source
e can be controlled
c
b
by
simply keeping th
he source a
away.
ation dosess per year of continuo
ous exposu
ure:
Examples of radia
Yearly Ra
adioactive Dose
D
Maximu
um feasible dose
d
for any
y human work
Accepta
able dose to
o live near to
o NPP
Accepta
able dose to
o live close to
o the Coal Plant
P
Dose to
o sleep next to someone
e else (8 hou
ur/day)
Yearly dose
d
from co
osmic radiattion
Yearly dose
d
due to radiation fro
om the Earth
h
Yearly dose
d
of radia
ation in the human
h
body
y
Yearly dose
d
of radia
ation by atm
mospheric so
ources
Yearly average
a
Dos
sefor Americ
cans
Average
e dose on fliights from New
N
York to Tokyo
T
Yearly Average
A
dos
se limit for nuclear
n
work
kers
Dose off backgroun
nd radiation in parts of Irran, India and Europe
Radiatio
on dose by smoking
s
30 cigarettes per
p day

mSv/year
1
0
0,0001 to 0,01
0,0003
3
0,02
0,24
0,28
0,4
2
6,2
9
20
50
0
60 to160

Once th
he materia
al has been
n inhaled a
and/or inge
ested, it continues to irradiate th
he body un
ntil
it is elim
minated na
aturally by tthe organissm. Some radionuclid
des remain
n in the bod
dy for a lon
ng
period o
of time- mo
onths or evven years. The biolog
gical effects of ingestted radioacctive materrial
are identical to those producced by exte
ernal radiation, since contamina
ation emitss radiation.
mitting alph
ha and betta radiation
n allows the
ese radiatio
on
The internal locattion of the material em
ns and tisssues, which
h would not normally occur due to their low
w capacity of
to affecct the organ
penetra
ation.
Radiation Facts

Even iff you lived next door to a nuclea
ar power p
plant, you’d
d still get le
ess radiatio
on each ye
ear
ou’d get in jjust one flig
ght from New York to
o Los Ange
eles.
than yo
About 85 percent of the ra
adiation hu
umans rece
eive come
es from na
atural sourcces such a
as
e
our fo
ood. The rremainder of our annual radiatio
on
cosmicc rays from space, granite and even
dose comes from
m artificial ssources su
uch as medical x-rayys. Less th
han 0.1 percent come
es
from the nuclear iindustry.
Potass
sium Iodin
ne – A prottective me
easure nott a magic p
pill

One of the protecctive measu
ures that communitie
es around n
nuclear pow
wer plants might use in
diological emergency
e
ne, often ju
ust
the casse of a rad
is potassium iodine. But potasssium iodin
called b
by its chem
mical symbo
ol, KI, is no
ot an “anti radiation”
r
p
pill.
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Ra
adioactiivity in some
s
ma
aterials natural or
o not
Fonte
e: WNA

1 adult human being (65 Bq/kg)

4.500 Bq

1 kg coffee

1.000 Bq

1 kg superph
hosphate fe
ertilizer
T
The
air of a house
h
100 m

2

5.000 Bq

in Australia (randon
n)

2

T
The
air of a house
h
100 m inEuropa
a (radon)

3.000 Bq
até 30.000 Bq

1 smoke det ector (with
h americium
m)

30.000 Bq

R
Radioisotope
es for medic
cal diagnosiis

B
70 milhões Bq

S ources of Radioisotope
R
es medical therapies
t

100Trrilhões Bq (10
00 TBq)

1 kg of nucle
ear waste (v
vitrified) hig
gh activity with
w
50 yearr old

10 Triilhões Bq (= 10
1 TBq)

1
1light
exit sig
gnal (1970))

1 Trrilhões Bq (1
1 TBq)

1 kg de uran
nium

25 milhões Bq
B

1 kg of uraniium ore (Canada, 15%)

25 milhões Bq
B

1 kg uranium
m ore (Austrrália, 0.3%)

500.000 Bq

1 kgof low activity nuclear waste

1 milhão Bq
q

1 kg of coal ash
a

2.000 Bq

Potassium iodide
e is a saltt, similar to
t table salt. Potasssium iodid
de, if taken
n within th
he
appropriate time and at the
e appropria
ate dosage
e prevents the thyroid gland fro
om taking in
radioacctive iodine
e. This can
n help to re
educe the risk from tthyroid dise
ease, inclu
uding canccer
as a result of a se
evere reacctor acciden
nt. KI doessn’t protectt the thyroid
d gland fro
om any oth
her
ent nor does it pro
otect the thyroid
t
or the whole body frrom extern
nal
radioacctive eleme
exposu
ure to radia
ation.

Nucle
ear and Radioact
R
tive Was
stes
Above--ground nu
uclear testss by the Soviet
S
Unio
on and the United Sttates in the
e 1950s an
nd
early 19
960s and b
by France into the 19
970s and 1
1980s spre
ead a signifficant amount of fallo
out
from urranium dau
ughter isoto
opes aroun
nd the world.
Nuclear waste m
manageme
ent begins at the d
design pha
ase and continues
c
during th
he
operatio
on of any facility pla
anned to use radioacctive materrial, and ta
akes into cconsideratio
on
it.
the nee
ed to limit, as much
h as possib
ble, the w
waste volum
me and the
e activity producing
p
Waste identificatiion, selecttion, treatm
ment, packkaging, transportation
n, interim storage an
nd
final sto
orage are part of the
e managem
ment proce
ess, noting that each item mustt be properly
treated. Safety co
onditions, radiation p
protection, traceabilitty and volu
ume reducction are th
he
of nuclear w
waste mana
agement.
basis o

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All radioactive w
wastes gen
nerated in nuclear power plants are to be stored in a safe
e
manner and isola
ated from the public a
and the en
nvironment. Wastes are
a classified as high
h
activity (spent fu
uel assemblies); inte
ermediate activity wastes
w
(purification rresins and
d
and low acctivity wastes (consum
mables an
nd discarda
able materrial used in
n
processs fluids); a
operatio
on and ma
aintenance activities)..
evel wastess are stored
d, for the entire
e
usefu
ul life of the
e plant, in p
pools located inside
High-le
or outside the plant’s b
building. In
ntermediate
e-level
b stored in approp
priately dessigned
wastes are to be
gs beside the plant, for the entire useful life of
building
the pla
ant. Low--level wasstes are also storred in
building
gs located near the p
plant.
i
ma
arket there
e are comp
panies that have
In the internal
develop
ped techno
ologies tha
at are alre
eady licenssed for
use in the nuclea
ar fuel for storage an
nd also ussed for
ortation.
transpo
Drry storage Ex
xample ( Holttec International Co)

CNEN - Nationall Nuclear Energy Co
ommission, responsible for implementing
g Brazil’s
radioacctive waste
ng projectss:
e policy, is currently
c
developing the followin
Repository
y for Low-- and Interrmediate - Level Was
stes
•R
Pu
urpose: To
o conceive, design, liccense, builld, and com
mmission a National Repositoryy
for Low- and
d Intermediate- Level Wastes.
Development of Con
ntainers fo
or Spent F
Fuel Transportation and Stora
age
•D
Pu
urpose: To
o define, d
develop, b
build and q
qualify a ttransportattion container and a
sto
orage conttainer for spent-fuel frrom nuclea
ar power pllants.

active wasttes in liquid
d, gas or solid
s
form are generrated in diffferent pha
ases of the
e
Radioa
fuel cyccle, showin
ng a wide range of to
oxicity. The
e appropria
ate treatme
ent, condittioning and
d
storage
e is conting
gent on the
e material’ss level of acctivity (low,, intermediate or high
h).
Low- a
and interm
mediate-leve
el radioacttive waste
es from nu
uclear pow
wer plants consist in
n
general of materials used in cleaning operattions, repla
acement parts,
p
cloth
hing, shoe
e
covers,, and glove
es used insside reactor buildings, impuritiess, filters, ettc.

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Final Storage for lo
ow and interm
mediate levels in World

Such m
materials a
are packed into meta
al containerrs, tested and qualifiied by the regulatoryy
body, a
and transfferred to a
an interim storage fa
acility, norrmally on the plant site. Such
h
storage
e facility is permanently co
ontrolled a
and monittored by radiation protection
n
techniccians and n
nuclear safe
ety speciallists.
s
a
assembliess, which arre considerred high-le
evel waste, they are p
placed in a
As to spent-fuel
pool insside the pla
ants or in a long-term
m intermediate storag
ge facility, in complian
nce with all
internattionally reccognized sa
afety requirements.
he fuel cyccle is close
ed, through
h reprocesssing, wate
er-cooled reactors
r
wiill continue
e
Until th
producing high-level wastess that must be manag
ged and sto
ored for a lo
ong time span.
In as m
much as such wastes are of a m
much smaller magnitu
ude than th
he wastes ffrom fossil-fueled power pla
ants, e.g. based on coal, and
d since nu
uclear pow
wer plants in general
provide
e ample sp
pace for w
waste stora
age during
g the plan
nt’s useful lifetime, there is no
o
urgencyy in implem
menting a final
f
solutio
on for waste condition
ning.
This makes it possible to ccarefully de
evelop plan
ns and pollicies for closing
c
of the
t
nuclearr
fuel cyccle, including final w
waste dispo
osal. Deve
elopment o
of nuclear energy pre
esupposess
nuclearr industry’ss commitme
ent to wastte manage
ement.
In mosst countrie
es reposito
ories or att least sto
orage facilities for lo
ow-level w
wastes and
d
interme
ediate-level wastes arre operatin
ng.

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Wastte managem
ment for us
sed fuel an
nd HLW from nuclear power rea
actors - WN
NA Sept 201
14
Countrry

P
Policy

Facilities and
a
progre
ess towards final repo
ositories
Central wa
aste storage att Dessel

Belgium

Reprocessiing

Unde
erground laborratory established 1984 at Mol
M
Con
nstruction of re
epository to be
egin about 203
35
Nuclear Waste Manag
gement Organ
nisation set up 2002

Ca
anada

Direct dispo
osal

Deep geological reposittory confirmed
d as policy, retrievable
Reposito
ory site search
h from 2009, planned for use
e 2025
Central used fuel storage at
a LanZhou

China

Reprocessiing

Repos
sitory site sele
ection to be co
ompleted by 20
020
oratory from 20
020, disposal from 2050
Underground research labo
m start 1983, tw
wo used fuel sttorages in ope
eration
Program
Posiva Oy set
s up 1995 to implement de
eep geological disposal

Fin
nland

Direct dispo
osal
Undergrou
und research la
aboratory Onkalo under cons
struction
Repositorry planned from
m this, near Ollkiluoto, open in
i 2020
Underground rock laboratories
l
in
n clay and gran
nite

Fra
ance

Reprocessiing

amentary confi rmation in 200
06 of deep geo
ological dispo
osal, containerrs to
Parlia
be retrievable and policy "rreversible"
Bure clay
c deposit is
s likely reposittory site to be licensed
l
2015
5, operating 20
025

Gerrmany

In
ndia

Reprocessing
R
g but
moving to diirect
disposall
Reprocessiing

Repository
y planning startted 1973
Used fuel
f
storage att Ahaus and Gorleben salt do
ome
Geological re
epository may be operationa
al at Gorleben after 2025
Rese
earch on deep
p geological diisposal for HLW
Undergrou
und laboratory
y at Mizunami in
i granite since 1996
• Used fuel and HLW storrage facility att Rokkasho sin
nce 1995

Ja
apan

Reprocessiing

• Used fuel storage
s
underr construction at
a Mutsu, start up 2013
NUMO
O set up 2000, site selection
n for deep geo
ological reposiitory under way to
2025, operation from 2035,, retrievable

Geolog
gical dispo
osal

gical dispossal, consistting of deep undergro
ound waste
e repositories, is often regarded
d
Geolog
as the safest and
d most seccure solutio
on to this lasting cha
allenge. 25
5 of the 43
3 countriess
who will ultimately have to deal with tthis challenge have determined
d geological disposal
as the answer and have som
me form off geologica
al disposal plan in pla
ace, albeit at differentt
emented in
n
stages of progress. Deep disposal rroutes are currently being actiively imple
a, France, Finland an
nd Sweden
n.
Canada
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According to N
Nuclear Energy Inssider in 2013 the global market fo
or nuclearr
decomm
missioning
g, waste tre
eatment an
nd disposal valued att over £250
0billion and
d the issue
e
of ultim
mate dispossal is a clear priorityy for the in
nternationa
al nuclear industry. This
T
is nott
likely to
o change, w
with new n
nuclear pow
wer spend set to rea
ach £600billlion over the
t next 20
0
years th
he amountt of radioacctive waste
e can only increase.
The principle of g
geological disposal iis to isolatte the wasste deep in
nside a su
uitable rockk
on to ensu
ure that no significantt or harmfu
ul quantitiess of radioa
activity ever reach the
e
formatio
surface
e environm
ment. Geolo
ogical disp
posal is a multi-barrie
er approacch, based on placing
g
packag
ged wastess in engin
neered tun
nnels at a depth o
of between
n 200m and 1000m
m
underground, to protect th
hem from disruption
n by man--made or natural evvents (e.g.
flooding
g, coastal erosion, earthquakkes or terrrorist actio
on) which primarily affect the
e
surface
e.
Waste
e managem
ment for used fuel and HLW
H
from nuclear powe
er reactors - WNA Septt 2014
Country
y

Po
olicy

Fac
cilities and progress
p
to
owards finall repositorie
es
Undergrou
und laboratory in
i granite or gne
eiss in Krasnoy
yarsk region fro
om 2015,
may evolve intto repository
Siites for final rep
pository under in
nvestigation on
n Kola peninsula
a

Russia

R
Reprocessing

Pool storage for use
ed VVER-1000 fuel at Zhelezno
ogorsk since 1985
orage for used RBMK and othe
er fuel at Zhelez
znogorsk from 2012
2
Dry sto
Various interim storage
e facilities in operation

h Korea
South

D
Direct
disposall,
wa
ants to chang
ge

am confirmed 1998,
1
KRWM se
eet up 2009
Waste progra

D
Direct
disposal

Central i nterim storage at Villar de Canas from 2016 (volunteered lo
ocation)

Centrall interim storage
e planned from 2016
ENRESA es
stablished 1984
4, its plan acce
epted 1999

Sp
pain

R
Research
on de
eep geological disposal,
d
decis
sion after 2010
eration since 19
985
Centtral used fuel sttorage facility – CLAB – in ope
Swe
eden

Underground res
search laborato
ory at Aspo for HLW
H
repository
y

D
Direct
disposal

O
Osthammar
site selected for repository (voluntteered location))
Central intterim storage fo
or HLW and use
ed fuel at ZZL Wurenlingen
W
sin
nce 2001
Switz erland

R
Reprocessing

Sma
aller used fuel storage
s
at Bezn
nau
Undergroun
nd research lab
boratory for high
h-level waste repository at Grim
msel since
198
83
Deep reposi tory by 2020, containers
c
to be
e retrievable
Low-level waste
w
repository
y in operation since 1959
HLW from reprrocessing is vitrrified and stored
d at Sellafield

K
United Kingdom

R
Reprocessing
R
Repository
loca
ation to be on ba
asis of commun
nity agreement
New NDA su
ubsidiary to pro
ogress geologic
cal disposal
DoE resp
ponsible for use
ed fuel from 199
98, accumulated
d $32 billion wa
aste fund

US
SA

Direct disposal
D
but reconsiderin
ng

Considera
able research an
nd developmen
nt on repository
y in welded tuffs at Yucca
Mountain, Nevada
The 2002 Congress decision that geolo
ogical repositorry be at Yucca Mountain
M
wa
as countered po
olitically in 2009
9
Central in
nterim storage for used fuel no
ow likely

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X- Prrolifera
ation an
nd Risk
ks for S
Safety - NPT
nt of nucclear weap
pons is a historica
al watersh
hed. It trransformed
d
The developmen
ave an existential dim
mension to
o relations between the
t
world'ss
internattional polittics and ga
great powers.
of weapons-grade plutonium w
were built up by both the
t Soviet Union and
d
Large sstockpiles o
the Uniited Statess during the Cold Wa
ar. The U.S
S. reactorss at Hanforrd and the Savannah
h
River S
Site in Sou
uth Carolina produced 103 tonss, and an estimated 170 tons of military-grade plutonium
p
w
was producced in USS
SR.
of the elem
ment is still produced as a by-product of tthe nuclearr
Each yyear aboutt 20 tons o
power industry. A
As much as
a 1000 tons of pluttonium may be in sto
orage with more than
n
200 ton
ns of that either inside or extrracted from
m nuclear w
weapons. SIPRI estimated the
e
world plutonium
p
sstockpile ass about 500 tons, divided equally between
n weapon a
and civilian
n
stocks. Since the
e end of the
e Cold Wa
ar these sto
ockpiles ha
ave becom
me a focus of nuclearr
prolifera
ation concerns.

Nuclea
ar Forces
s 2010 –1
14
Cou
untry*
U
USA
Ru
ussia
U
UK
Fra
ance
Ch
hina
Ín
ndia
Pak
kistan
Is
srael

2010
9600
12 000
0
225
300
240
60–80
0
70–90
0
80

2011
2
8
8500
11
1 000
225
300
240
80
0–100
90
0–110
80

2012
8000
10 000
225
300
240
80–100
90–110
80

2013
7700
8500
225
300
250
90–110
0
100–12
20
80

2
2014
7
7300
8
8000
225
300
250
90
0–110
10
00–120
80

To
otal

22.600
0

20
0.530

19.000

17.270
0

16
6.300

Source: SIPRI Yea
arbook 201
14
* Bassed on public informattion about plutonium production
n activities in North K
Korea. It is
estim
ea has pro
mated that North Kore
oduced 6-8 nuclear w
weapons.
uclear Non
n-Proliferatiion Treaty - NPT, co
oncluded att internatio
onal level, recognizess
The Nu
all involved Partie
es’ right to develop an
nd use nucclear energy for peace
eful purposses.
The 18
89 signato
ories to the
e landmarrk 1970 arms contro
ol treaty – which iss aimed att
preventting the prroliferation of nuclea
ar weaponss and urge
es those ccountries w
with atomicc
warhea
ads to relin
nquish them
m – get to
ogether eve
ery five ye
ears to asssess compliance with
h
the term
ms of the p
pact and th
he progresss made to
oward achie
eving its goals. The last review
w
confere
ence on the
e NPT wass in May 20
010 and the
e next will be held in April 2012 in Vienna..
More th
han two decades
d
affter the Co
old War en
nded, the world's co
ombined in
nventory off
nuclearr warheadss remains at a very high
h
level: more than
n 16,000. O
Of these, some 4,300
0

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warhea
ads are considered o
operationall, of which about 1,8
800 US and Russian warheadss
are on high alert, ready for u
use on sho
ort notice.

Nuclear Forc
ces - 2014
4
Countrry
USA
Russia
a
UK
France
e
China
India
Pakista
an
Israel
North K
Korea
To
otal

Operattional
weapo
ons*
210
00
160
00
160
290

Others
s
Weapon
ns
5200
6400
65
10
250
90–110
0
100–120
0
80

4.15
50

12.200

Total - 2014
73
300
80
000
2
225
3
300
2
250
90–
–110
100
0–120
8
80
6
6–8
16..350

Year of 1sst nuclearr
Te
est
19
945
19
949
19
952
19
960
19
964
19
974
19
998
..
20
006

Fonte: SIPRI Yearrbook 2014

* 'Operrational We
eapons are
e the weapons deployyed on misssiles or allo
ocated on bases with
h
perational forces.
f
op
All data are estimates (January 2
2014).
Despite
e significa
ant reductiions in U
US, Russia
an, French
h and Brritish nucle
ear forcess
comparred with Co
old War levvels, all the
e nuclear w
weapon sta
ates continu
ue to mode
ernize theirr
remaining nuclea
ar forces a
and appea
ar committe
ed to retaining nucle
ear weapo
ons for the
e
indefiniite future.
he next thirty years, the Unite
ed States plans
p
to spend apprroximately $1 trillion
Over th
maintaiining the ccurrent arssenal, buying replacement sysstems, and
d upgradin
ng existing
nuclearr bombs an
nd warhead
ds.
er of nucle
ear weapo
ons in each
h country'ss possession is a cllosely held
d
The exxact numbe
nationa
al secret. Despite this
t
limitattion, howe
ever, publiicly available inform
mation and
d
occasio
onal leaks make it po
ossible to make
m
best estimates about the ssize and co
omposition
n
of the n
national nuclear weap
pon stockp
piles:
Today, the mainte
enance and protectio
on of the American
A
nuclear arse
enal is a trrillion-dollarr
concern
n, while an
n incredible degree of both U..S. and glo
obal diplom
macy is de
edicated to
o
preventting new ccountries from
f
going
g nuclear. The mere
e fact thatt the human race iss
capable
e of wiping
g itself out w
within minu
utes is a re
ecent development in world histo
ory.
eration asssociated wiith the use
e of nuclea
ar energy e
essentially may come
e
The risk of prolife
wo specificc nuclear a
activities: e
enrichmentt of uraniu
um and re
eprocessing of spentt
from tw
nuclearr fuel. The
ese activitie
es require vvery compllex and exp
pensive tecchnologiess.

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Treaty for the Prrohibition o
of Nuclear weapons - NWFZs (nuclear weapons
w
F
Free zone))
have already bee
,
en establish
hed in Latin America and the C
Caribbean ((Treaty of Tlatelolco)
T
the So
outh Paciffic(Treaty of Raroto
onga), Southeast A
Asia (Bang
gkok Trea
aty), Africa
a
(Pelindaba Treatyy) and Ce
entral Asia
a (Treaty a Nuclear-W
Weapon-F
Free Zone in Central
NWFZs arre of particcular releva
ance to the
e examina
ation of the
e
Asia) . These established N
al obligation
ns to be included in tthe verifica
ation regime to be imp
plemented in a future
e
materia
Middle East NWF
FZ.
uclear and radiation industry’s supply cha
ain can be
e
Nuclear fuel and materials on the nu
hey must be protectted againstt
n fabricatio
on of nucle
ear weapons; for thiss reason th
used in
theft, ssabotage o
or acciden
nt. As a cconsequencce, all use
e of nucle
ear materia
al requiress
precauttions and safeguard
ds. This allso appliess to handling facilities (for exxample, an
n
externa
al event – a
an explosio
on – near a
an isotope separation
n plant can impair its ffunctioning
g
for deccades and
d damage
e the pub
blic’s trustt, creating
g huge prroblems fo
or general
accepta
ance of thiss industry).
The tre
eaty is con
nsidered un
nequal eve
en by sign
natory coun
ntries, as is the case
e of Brazil,
becausse it perpettuates the division intto declared
d nuclear p
powers (nuclear-weap
pon states))
and the
e remaining
g countriess (non-nucclear-weapon states).. Additiona
ally, the gre
eat powerss
prioritizze the non--proliferatio
on agenda
a — and exxercise strrong pressure on the
e countries’
right to develop th
he peacefu
ul use of n
nuclear ene
ergy. Still, little is required of th
he declared
d
nuclearr powers in
n connectio
on with disa
armament.
he past reccent years, the greatt powers achieved
a
no
othing con
ncrete to th
he effect off
Over th
cutting back and destroy the
eir nuclearr arsenals. On the contrary, in m
many casess what hass
been se
een is an effort
e
to modernize th
hem and d
develop strrategies wh
here they reserve
r
the
e
right to use nucle
ear weapon
ns against their enem
mies. That iis the case
e of the United Statess
with its nonprolife
eration strategy — a corollary
c
that holds th
he United S
States has the right to
o
use nucclear weap
pons againsst terrorist groups and countriess that supp
port them.
The consequence
e is a clima
ate of deep
p insecurityy and disq
quiet in the internation
nal setting,
generating the ne
ecessity of dissuasion
n strategiess for those countries tthat feel th
hreatened.
ample of this was presented in 2011 att a semina
ar on the NPT held in Rio de
e
An exa
Janeiro
o. The posiition of Ind
dia, defended by its a
ambassado
or to Brazil - B.S. Pra
akash, wass
clear an
nd emphattic in affirm
ming that his country refuses
r
to participate
e in the NP
PT because
e
India considers
c
it discrim
minatory and
a
unfairr. He defended th
hat India, since itss
indepen
ndence in 1948, hass clearly afffirmed, tha
at given itss dimensions, being one-fifth off
the wo
orld’s popu
ulation, can
nnot forgo
o any sourrce of ene
ergy, techn
nology, or means off
dissuassion that o
other counttries similarr to India have
h
and will
w not relinquish. In his
h view, an
n
internattional convvention sh
hould be created
c
to ban the u
use of nucclear weap
pons. Such
h
proposa
al has bee
en defende
ed by seve
eral develo
oping coun
ntries as a means to
o make the
e
use of such
s
weap
pons a crim
me against humanity, but it is rejected by developed
d
c
countries.
Anothe
er point addressed during the seminar debates, was the
e U.S. proposal forr
“multila
aterization of the u
uranium enrichment cycle”. This
T
is ab
bout settin
ng up an
n
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internattional mecchanism (similar to a bank) to enrich uranium for ssignatory ccountries off
the treaty. Under such pro
oposal, the
e intereste
ed country would ha
and over itts uranium
m
reserve
es to the ba
ank, which
h would authorize ano
other “accrredited” co
ountry (one of the five
e
nuclearr powers) to
t carry ou
ut the enricchment. Su
ubsequentlly, the uran
nium would
d be taken
n
back to
o the coun
ntry of orig
gin, in sm
mall quantitties, on th
he argume
ent of prevventing the
e
possibility that a sufficient quantity of enriched uranium might exisst for produ
uction of a
nuclearr weapon.
In the vview of co
ountries tha
at hold resserves and
d technology, such p
proposal w
would allow
w
much m
meddling in
n such a sttrategic ressource. Th
he world de
emand for sources o
of energy iss
great a
and has exxpanded with
w the dile
emmas ariising from global warming, which causess
nuclearr energy to
o be both a matter of commercial competition and a safety the
eme. In thiss
respectt, besides national ssecurity ma
atters, the interest in
n maintain
ning the monopoly off
fissile m
material tra
ade seeks tto avoid the
e possibilitty that othe
er countriess might parrticipate on
n
such m
markets. The great powers have exercised strong pre
essure on d
developing
g countries,
such a
as Brazil, to have the
em sign additional
a
p
protocols intended to
o further e
expand the
e
restrictiions on devvelopmentt of nuclearr energy, a
and on the production
n and mana
agement off
fissile m
materials.
Brazil h
has refused to sign ssuch additiional proto
ocol and evven preven
nted IAEA inspectorss
from pe
erforming inspectionss on a parrt of the prrogram deemed to b
be a scienttific secret.
Moreovver, Brazil in assocciation with
h Argentina has an oversightt agency tthat jointlyy
controlss the prod
duction of fissile material, the ABACC (Brazilian-A
Argentine A
Agency forr
Accoun
nting and C
Control of Nuclear Materials),
M
es the pea
aceful use of nuclearr
and verifie
materia
als produce
ed by both countries.
muel Pinheiro Guimarrães, forme
er ministerr of the Seccretariat fo
or Strategicc
According to Sam
dent, Brazil’s acquiesscence to signing an
n Additional
Matterss, under the Office off the Presid
Protoco
ol to the S
Safeguardss Agreeme
ent, an insstrument o
of the Non
n-Proliferattion Treatyy
(NPT), would ena
able inspecctors from tthe Interna
ational Atom
mic Energyy Agency (IIAEA), with
h
no prior notice, to
o inspect an
ny industryy they migh
ht considerr of interesst besides tthe nuclearr
facilitiess.
acentrifuge
e plants an
nd the nucle
ear powere
ed submarrine, providing accesss
This inccludes ultra
to any machine, its parts and method
ds of fabriccation; thatt is, accesss to any p
place in the
e
Brazilia
an territory,, for inspecction, includ
ding civil and military research institutions
i
s. Since the
e
inspecttors are formally officcers of the
e IAEA, bu
ut in fact highly qualiffied techniicians, and
d
often national citizzens from developed
d countriess, naturally imbued w
with the "jusstice" of an
n
existing
g nuclear o
oligopoly n
not only m
military, butt also civil, they are
e always p
prepared to
o
collabo
orate not only with th
he IAEA, w
which they do as a m
matter of p
professiona
al duty, butt
also witth the auth
horities and
d companie
es in their ccountries of
o origin.

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A posittive point to
o be considered is th
he program
m Megaton
ns to Mega
awatts (M2
2M) which,
up to D
December 2013, elim
minated the
e equivalen
nt of a 20,0
000 nuclea
ar warhead
ds, through
h
recyclin
ng of 500 m
million tonss (MT) of h
highly enricched uraniu
um (90%) w
which wass converted
d
into fuel for nuclear electricityy
generattion plants..
During the 20 yea
ars since th
he program
m
began, the Russia
ans have d
dismantled
d
han 20 tho
ousands off weapons,
more th
and gen
nerated hu
undreds of millions off
pounds of natura
al uranium equivalentt
orm of 4%
% LEU (Low
w-Enriched
d
in the fo
Uranium
m), which has
h been d
delivered to
o
electric utilities, mostly
m
in the USA, forr
use in commerciial nuclear reactors.
U deliveriess
For sevveral yearss, the LEU
have be
een equiva
alent to app
proximatelyy
24 millio
on pounds of mined u
uranium. 

Inside th
hese cylinde
ers lies uran
nium that wa
as once partt of a Soviet nuclear weapon. 

Therefo
ore the gen
neration off energy fro
om nuclearr power in program M
M2Mcontrib
buted more
e
than an
ny other po
olicy for th
he reductio
on of nucle
ear weapon
ns on the planet. Th
he program
m
ended in 2013. It will have a pressure over the in
nternationa
al uranium ssupply.

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XI – Decom
mmiss
sioning
Every p
power plan
nt, whateve
er its fuel, iis designed
d for a spe
ecific usefu
ul lifetime, after
a
which
h
it will be
e no longer economiccal to operate it.
g is used tto describe
e all admin
nistrative a
and techniccal actionss
The terrm decommissioning
associa
ated with tthe end of the operrating life of a nucle
ear facility and its ssubsequentt
disman
ntling to fa
acilitate th
he approp
priate removal of re
egulatory controls ((“permit to
o
decomm
mission”).
These actions in
nvolve deccontaminatiion of stru
uctures an
nd compon
nents, dism
mantling off
nents, dem
molition of buildings, remediatio
on of any ssoil contam
mination an
nd removal
compon
of resulting waste
es.
ercial powe
er reactorss, 46 experrimental orr prototype
e reactors, more than
n
Over 100 comme
eactors and
d a numbe
er of fuel cyycle facilities have be
een retired
d
100 mines, 250 rresearch re
peration. Some of the
ese have been fully dismantled.
from op
er world the
ere exist a
around 560
0 nuclear electricity
e
g
generation
n plants wh
hich are orr
All ove
eration. Ou
ut of these
e, 133 are in perman
nently shutt down sta
atus and att
have been in ope
oning.
some sstage of decommissio

Rea
actors clo
osed prem
maturely by political decisio
on or con
nsideratio
on (27)
Country
y

Reacttors

Type

Armenia
a

Metsamor 1
Kozlod
duy 1-2
Kozlod
duy 3-4
Super Phenix
Greifsw
wald 1-4
Muelhe
eim-Kaerlich
Rheinssberg
Caorso
o
Latina
Trino
Fukush
hima Daiichi 5
Fukush
hima Daiichi 6
Ignalin
na 1
Ignalin
na 2
Bohun
nice 1
Bohun
nice 2
Barseb
back 1
Barseb
back 2
Cherno
obyl 1
Cherno
obyl 2
Cherno
obyl 3
Shoreh
ham

VVER-4
440/V270
VVER-4
440/V230
VVER-4
440/V230
FNR
VVER-4
440/V230
PWR
VVER-7
70/V210
BWR
GCR
PWR
BWR
BWR
RBMK LWGR
L
RBMK LWGR
L
VVER-4
440/V230
VVER-4
440/V230
BWR
BWR
RBMK LWGR
L
RBMK LWGR
L
RBMK LWGR
L
BWR

Bulga
aria
France
Germa
any

Italy
y
Japa
an
Lithua
ania
Slova
akia
Swed
den
Ukraiine
USA

P
PL.G – Strattegic Planning Managem
ment

MW
We net each
376
6
408
8
408
8
1200
0
408
8
1219
9
62
2
860
0
153
3
260
0
760
0
1067
7
1185
5
1185
5
408
8
408
8
600
0
600
0
740
0
925
5
925
5
820
0

Years operrating
each
13
27, 28
24, 26
12
10, 12, 15, 16
2
24
4
12
24
4
25
33
32
21
22
28
28
24
4
28
19
12
19

S
Shut
down

3

1989
dez/02
dez/06
1999
1990
1988
1990
1986
1987
1987
2011
2011
2005
2009
dez/06
dez/08
nov/99
mai/05
dez/97
1991
dez/00
1989

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Around
d 10% of th
hese shut down plan
nts have already bee
en complete
ely decommissioned,
includin
ng 8 reacto
ors of more
e than 100
0 MWe eacch. A large
e number of
o other fa
acilities and
d
plants for uraniu
um extracction and enrichme
ent, fuel fabrication,
f
, research
h facilities,
reproce
essing, and
d laboratories have been shut down
d
and d
decommisssioned.
The tab
ble below shows the
e reactors shut dow
wn for political reason
ding to the
e
ns. Accord
WNA, they have
e been orr will be decommisssioned. Here
H
we a
are not lissting eightt
(Kruem
mmel, Brunssbuettel, B
Biblis A and
d B, Isar 1,, Neckarwe
estheim 1 and
a Phillipsburg 1) in
n
Germany because they can still work ssometimess.
According to the WNA - Wo
orld Nuclear Associa
ation, the fo
ollowing re
eactors havve been orr
decommisssioned due
e to accide
ents that so
omehow im
mpaired them:
will be d
Reatores feechados apóss donos sofrid
dos em algum
m acidente (111)
Country

Reator

Greifswald 5
Gundremmingenn A
Fukushima Daiicchi 1
Fukushima Daiicchi 2
Japão
Fukushima Daiicchi 3
Fukushima Daiicchi 4
Eslovaquia Bohunice A1
Espanha
Vandellos 1
Suiça
St Lucens
Ucrania
Chernobyl 4
EUA
Three Mile Islandd 2
Alemanha

Tipo
VVER-440//V213
BWR
BWR
BWR
BWR
BWR
WR
Prot GCHW
GCR
WR
Exp GCHW
RBMK LWG
GR
PWR

MWe liq.
408
237
439
760
760
760
93
480
8
925
880

anos em operação
0,5
10
40
37
35
32
4
18
3
2
1

Fechameent
o
nov/899
jan/777
mar/11
mar/11
mar/11
mar/11
1977
mid 19990
1966
abr/866
mar/799

Motivo do fecchamento
Derretimento Parcial do núcleo
Erro de operaação no desligamennto
Derretimento do núcleo por perda de refrigeração
Derretimento do núcleo por perda de refrigeração
Derretimento do núcleo por perda de refrigeração
m hydrogen explosioon
Damage from
Core damagee from fuelling error
Incendio na Tuurbina
Derretimento do núcleo
Incendio e Deerretimento do núcleeo
Derretimento Parcial do núcleo

There exist otherr 97 reacttors in the world tha
at will be d
decommisssioned as they have
e
reached
d the end o
of their ope
erational liffe.
Details for the deccommissio
oning of the
e central Fu
ukushima Daiishi
In Dece
ember 201
11 the com
mpany Tepco (Tokyo Electric Power
P
Co.) said it pla
ans to startt
decomm
missions reactors 1-4
4 of Centrral Fukushiima Daiish
hi removing
g spent fue
el from the
e
reactorr number 4.
4 The deco
ommission
ning progra
am should last betwe
een 30 and
d 40 years.
The rem
moval of sp
pent fuel from reactorrs 1-3 shou
uld begin in
n Decembe
er 2013.
There w
will also be
e 2014, the
e constructtion of a w
wall along tthe coast in
n front of tthe NPP to
o
contain
n any possiible leak off contamina
ated groun
nd water intto the sea.
The acttivities werre divided into 3 stage
es:
1. One.
O
By 2
2013 - Research an
nd develop
pment to d
deal with tthe fragme
ents of the
e
d
damaged
rreactors ass well as tre
eatment an
nd disposa
al of nuclea
ar waste ariising.
2. In
I the 10 yyears follow
wing the th
hree buildings will be
e decontam
minated an
nd repaired
d
t reactorr containme
the
ents of rea
actors. Will begin the w
work of dissmantling
3. . In 40 years should b
be finished
d dismantlin
ng and disp
posal of wa
aste.
On December 26
6, 2011 th
hree Japan
nese vendo
ors reactors (Hitashii-Ge; Mitissubishi and
d
a) have joined the
e Japanesse govern
nment and
d Tepco in the p
process off
Toshiba
decomm
missioning
g this plant. They will split costs and research activitie
es.
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XII – Conclusions
s
Three a
and a half yyears on, iit is clear th
hat the use
e of nuclea
ar power wiill continue
e to grow in
n
the com
ming deca
ades, altho
ough growtth will be slower tha
an was an
nticipated before the
e
acciden
nt. Many ccountries w
with existin
ng nuclearr power prrograms plan to exp
pand them.
Many n
new countrries, both developed
d and deve
eloping, pla
an to intro
oduce nucle
ear power.
The facctors contributing to this grow
wing interest include increasing
g global d
demand forr
energy, as well as concernss about clim
mate change, volatile
e fossil fue
el prices, an
nd securityy
e difficult fo
or the worrld to achie
eve the tw
win goals o
of ensuring
g
of enerrgy supplyy. It will be
sustain
nable energ
gy suppliess and curbing greenho
ouse gases without n
nuclear pow
wer.
In add
dition to commercia
al nuclearr power plants, th
here are about 24
40 research
h
reactorrs operating
g, in 56 countries, with more un
nder constrruction. Th
hese have many
m
usess
includin
ng researcch and the production
n of mediccal and ind
dustrial isotopes, as well as forr
training
g.
The use of reacto
ors for marrine propulsion is mostly confine
ed to the major
m
navie
es where itt
ayed an im
mportant rolle for five d
decades, providing
p
p
power
for ssubmariness and large
e
has pla
surface
e vessels. About 150
0 ships are
e propelled by some 180 nucle
ear reactorss and overr
13,000 reactor-ye
ears of exp
perience ha
as been gained with m
marine reacctors. Russsia and the
e
ave decom
mmissioned
d many of th
heir nuclea
ar submarin
nes from th
he Cold Wa
ar era.
USA ha
Russia also opera
ates a flee
et of six larrge nuclearr-powered icebreakers and a 6
62,000 tonss
cargo sship which are more ccivil than m
military. It iss also completing a floating nucclear powerr
plant w
with two 40 MWe reacctors for use in remote
e regions.
AEA helps countries that opt for nuclea
ar power tto use it safely
s
and
d securely.
The IA
Countriies that havve decided
d to phase out nuclea
ar power will have to deal
d
with isssues such
h
as plan
nt decomm
missioning, remediatio
on, and w
waste mana
agement fo
or decadess to come.
The IAE
EA also asssists in the
ese areas.
The ecconomic grrowth, prossperity and
d increasin
ng populatiion will ne
ecessarily lead to the
e
growth of energyy consumption over tthe next decades. In
n an intervview on No
ovember 9,
IEA executive dirrector Mariia van der Hoeven ssaid that co
ountries sh
hould be h
honest with
h
their citizens on the impacct that deciisions for a
abandonin
ng nuclear energy wiill bring on
n
ecurity, if im
mports will happen, from wherre, from which sourcce, for how
w
energy supply se
ed, etc. Acccording to her, these
e issues invvolve limite
ed solution
n
long, how will be transmitte
optionss.
he rate of expansion of nuclearr
According to the IAEA Direcctor Generral, Yukiya Amano, th
n could dim
minish as a consequ
uence of F
Fukushima, but nucle
ear energyy
plant cconstruction
eep growin
ng. Accord
ding to UN
NO, 2012 was the In
nternationa
al Year forr
generation will ke
nable Energy for All, a
and no sou
urce should
d be disreg
garded.
Sustain

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The ma
ain conseq
quence fro
om the shu
utdown of operationa
al plants in
n some countries, ass
Germany, will be the loss off billion dolllars’ worth
h in investm
ment alread
dy made, in
nstability in
n
energy production
n and distrribution sysstems, loss of competitivenesss for industtry and the
e
econom
my, loss of jobs, and the
t increassed cost off energy forr the popullation.
The au
uthorities’ alleged
a
decclaration th
hat they are concern
ned about safety is u
unfounded.
Not a single dea
ath has occcurred fro
om radiatio
on exposurre at Fuku
ushima, wh
hereas the
e
g earthqua
ake and tssunami (le
eading to the
t
accide
ent) caused
d more th
han 20,000
0
ensuing
deaths in the region. Accord
ding to the Japanese governme
ent, only 8 persons ou
ut of a staff
ff
of 3,700 were exposed to radiation, but
b no majo
or damage
e to their he
ealth is exxpected (up
p
o likely dam
mage in the future).
to 1% of
Expand
ding electriicity supplyy and simu
ultaneouslyy reducing tthe effectss of climate
e change iss
the cha
allenge facced by ene
ergy policyy planners. Replacing
g 137 nuclear reacto
ors that will
reach tthe end off their usefful lifetimess over the
e next 20 yyears by either
e
new nuclear orr
differen
nt energy ssources, iss the issue
e that will require ve
ery significant investm
ment of all
countrie
es concern
ned. Geop
political facctors involvving energ
gy supply ccannot be neglected
d
either, and in ma
any cases, nuclear e
energy is the
t
sole op
ption that affords each countryy
greaterr security of
o supply, less depe
endence on fuel imp
ports, and smaller exxposure to
o
the vola
atility of oil prices.
If nucle
ear energyy is to be
e part of tthe future, the indusstry must overcome the greatt
challen
nges rangin
ng from diffficulties in the supplyy of materia
als such ass large forg
gings to the
e
anpower in nuclear en
ngineering and other related dissciplines, b
besides the
e
lack of skilled ma
ageing of difficult to replace specialistss.
developing new nucle
ear plants has been
n growing a
around the
e world. In
n
The intterest in d
addition
n to those
e countriess that currrently run nuclear p
power plan
nts, 65 otthers have
e
expresssed interesst in nuclear electricity generattion, mainly if one ta
akes into a
account the
e
amountt of electriccity that can be generrated witho
out more po
ollutant em
missions an
nd in a veryy
limited physical space. Th
he use of nuclear e
energy for hydrogen
n productio
on, electricc
transpo
ort systemss, desalina
ation or otther nontra
aditional ap
pplicationss will bring additional
demand
ds to bea
ar on the design off advanced reactorss, which will
w be sm
maller, lesss
expenssive, more ssimplified a
and planne
ed to run on
n more effiicient therm
modynamicc cycles.
The new nuclea
ar subsecto
or, decom
mmissioning
g and wastte manage
ement, is also
a
on the
e
of an impre
essive “gro
owth” agen
nda throug
gh a numb
ber of drivers: the dismantling,
edge o
treatme
ent, transpo
ort, and sto
orage of m
material from
m a growin
ng eet of rretired plan
nts; a more
e
progresssive drive to minimizze low, me
edium, and
d high levell waste in tthe rst pla
ace (in line
e
with the
e waste hie
erarchy); a
and an incrreasing de
emand for improveme
ent to state
e-of-the artt
operatio
ons and risk mana
agement, leading e
even to the “decom
mmissionin
ng” of old
d
decomm
missioning
g sites.
The technical wo
orkforce, w
with accum
mulated knowledge and
a
experiience, is companies
c

most im
mportant assset, especcially in the
e nuclear area.
a
Todayy, there exists a one--generation
n
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gap in terms of nuclear edu
ucation which the ind
dustry is ch
hallenged tto overcom
me. Several
countrie
es are see
eking to traiin new eng
gineers and
d technicians, as indicated by th
he initiative
e
of the U
U.S. Deparrtment of E
Energy - Do
oE, which h
has set up a universitty program
m in nuclearr
energy where, am
mong otherr actions, students
s
arre offered sscholarship
ps and fellowships off
150 thousa
and dollarss. THE NR
RC – Nucclear Regulatory Com
mmission a
also has a
up to 1
similar program.
ns which ccreated an
n
Some proposals such as from the European Safety Orrganization
e to provide specific training asssociated w
with their needs in the
e fields of safety and
d
institute
radiolog
gy are actions to diminish futture proble
ems. Worlld prosperrity in a carbon free
e
econom
my necessitates a sh
hift in usual sources of
o energy, and certainly there e
exist manyy
ways to
o that end, but nuclea
ar are the m
most promiising option
n.
n free sou
urces shou
uld not be
e viewed a
as competting with o
one another, but ass
Carbon
partnerrs in facing the challenge to provvide the wo
orld with cllean and abundant en
nergy.

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XIII – Majorr Sourc
ces of Informa
I
ation
ƒ
ƒ

IAEA 20
014, Counttry Nuclearr Power Pro
ofiles
Nuclearr Technology Review 2014 (NTR
R 2014)
http://ww
ww.iaea.org//Publications//Reports/inde
ex.html#ntr

ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ

Nucnett - several
Nucleon
nics Week e NuclearF
Fuel - several
IAEA PR
RIS - http:///www.iaea.orgg/programmes//a2/index.htmll
WNA – World Nucclear Assocciation - htttp://www.worlld-nuclear.org//

ƒ
ƒ

NRC- N
Nuclear Reg
gulatory Co
ommission – USA

ƒ

INB – IIndústrias N
Nucleares do
d Brasil – http://www.innb.gov.br
Empressa de Pesquisa Energética –EPE
E – http://www
ww.epe.com.brr
IAEA Pu
ublications - http://www..iaea.org/Publlications/Bookllets/NuclearPoower/np08.pdff
NRU: htttp://www.nruccanada.ca/en/h
/home/projectre
restart/statusup
pdates/nrustattusupdate25.a
aspx
Bélgica - http://www
w.ce2030.be/p
public/documeents_publ/CE20
030%20Report
rt_FINAL.pdf
WNN htttp://www.worrld-nuclear.orgg
WNN h
http://www
w.world-nuclear.org/in
nfo/Curren
nt-and-Futu
ure-Genera
ation/Thoriu
um/
DOE: h
http://www.e
eia.gov/forrecasts/ieo//pdf/0484(2
2013).pdf
TNP : hhttp://www.un.org/events/npt2005/npttreatty.html
European Nuclearr Safety Tra
aining and Tutoring IInstitute : www.enstti.oorg
Energy - Electriccity and N
Nuclear Po
ower Estim
mates for the Perriod up to
o 2030 -

ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ

http://ww
ww.nrc.gov/reaactors/new-reaactors/col/new
w-reactor-map
p.html

http://bipa
artisanpolicy.o
org/library/repo
ort/task-force-a
americas-futurre-energy-jobss
ƒ

Nuclearr Energy – Technolog
gy Roadma
ap - http://ww
ww.iea.org/papers/2010/nucle
ear_roadmap.pdf
Deploye
ed warheads – SIPRII Year Bookk 2014

ƒ

www.nea
ea.fr/html/rwm
m/wpdd

ƒ

WWW.w
word-nuclear.o
org/how/deccomissioning.html
http://ww
ww.friendsjo
ournal.org/earthquake-tsu
unami-and-nu
uclear-powerr-

ƒ

ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ

Exelon Corp http:///www.exeloncorp.com/poweerplants/peachhbottom/Pagess/profile.aspx
Radiatio
on : http://m
microsievert.ne
et/
Radiatio
on risk and
d realities - http://www.eepa.gov/rpdweeb00/docs/4022-k-07-006.pdff
WNA - Nuclear Ra
adiation an
nd Health E
Effects - httpp://world-nucleear.org/info/innf05.html
WNA - Environme
ent, Health and Safetyy in Electricity Genera
ation - http:///www.worldnuclear.orrg/info/defaultt.aspx?id=158
882&terms=Se
evere%20Accid
dents%20in%20the%20Ene
ergy%20Sector

ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ

http://w
www.fas.org//programs/sssp/nukes/nuuclearweapoons/nukestattus.html
http://boos.sagepub.ccom/contennt/66/4/77.fuull.pdf
Š––’ǣȀȀ‹‹˜‡•–‘”‹–‡‡ŽǤ…‘Ȁ—…ŽŽ‡ƒ”Ǧ‡‡”‰››Ǧ‹–‡ŽȀ–Š‡Ǧ‡‡†Ǧ‘ˆǦ–Š‡Ǧ
‡‰ƒ–‘•Ǧ–‘
‘Ǧ‡‰ƒ™ƒ–––•Ǧ
’”‘‰”ƒ
ǦʹȀ͓•––Šƒ•ŠǤ† ˆǤ†’—ˆ
INVAP -http://www
w.invap.net/
/nuclear/carrem/desc_tec.html
http://ec..europa.eu/energy/nuclea
ar/safety/doc//swd_2012_0
0287_en.pdff
http://ww
ww.world-nucclear.org/info//Nuclear-Fue
el-Cycle/Nucllear-Wastes//Decommissioning-Nuclea
arFacilitiess/
http://w
www.csmonittor.com/Env
vironment/En
nergy-Voices
s/2014/0328
8/Thorium-a
a-safer-nucle
ear-power

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